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[perl5.git] / perly.y
1 /*    perly.y
2  *
3  *    Copyright (c) 1991-2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 Larry Wall
4  *    Copyright (c) 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 by Larry Wall and others
5  *
6  *    You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
7  *    License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
8  *
9  */
10
11 /*
12  * 'I see,' laughed Strider.  'I look foul and feel fair.  Is that it?
13  *  All that is gold does not glitter, not all those who wander are lost.'
14  *
15  *     [p.171 of _The Lord of the Rings_, I/x: "Strider"]
16  */
17
18 /*
19  * This file holds the grammar for the Perl language. If edited, you need
20  * to run regen_perly.pl, which re-creates the files perly.h, perly.tab
21  * and perly.act which are derived from this.
22  *
23  * Note that these derived files are included and compiled twice; once
24  * from perly.c, and once from madly.c. The second time, a number of MAD
25  * macros are defined, which compile in extra code that allows the parse
26  * tree to be accurately dumped. In particular:
27  *
28  * MAD            defined if compiling madly.c
29  * DO_MAD(A)      expands to A  under madly.c, to null otherwise
30  * IF_MAD(a,b)    expands to A under madly.c, to B otherwise
31  * TOKEN_GETMAD() expands to token_getmad() under madly.c, to null otherwise
32  * TOKEN_FREE()   similarly
33  * OP_GETMAD()    similarly
34  * IVAL(i)        expands to (i)->tk_lval.ival or (i)
35  * PVAL(p)        expands to (p)->tk_lval.pval or (p)
36  *
37  * The main job of of this grammar is to call the various newFOO()
38  * functions in op.c to build a syntax tree of OP structs.
39  * It relies on the lexer in toke.c to do the tokenizing.
40  *
41  * Note: due to the way that the cleanup code works WRT to freeing ops on
42  * the parse stack, it is dangerous to assign to the $n variables within
43  * an action.
44  */
45
46 /*  Make the parser re-entrant. */
47
48 %pure_parser
49
50 /* FIXME for MAD - is the new mintro on while and until important?  */
51
52 %start grammar
53
54 %union {
55     I32 ival; /* __DEFAULT__ (marker for regen_perly.pl;
56                                 must always be 1st union member) */
57     char *pval;
58     OP *opval;
59     GV *gvval;
60 #ifdef PERL_IN_MADLY_C
61     TOKEN* p_tkval;
62     TOKEN* i_tkval;
63 #else
64     char *p_tkval;
65     I32 i_tkval;
66 #endif
67 #ifdef PERL_MAD
68     TOKEN* tkval;
69 #endif
70 }
71
72 %token <ival> GRAMPROG GRAMEXPR GRAMBLOCK GRAMBARESTMT GRAMFULLSTMT GRAMSTMTSEQ
73
74 %token <i_tkval> '{' '}' '[' ']' '-' '+' '$' '@' '%' '*' '&' ';' '=' '.'
75
76 %token <opval> WORD METHOD FUNCMETH THING PMFUNC PRIVATEREF QWLIST
77 %token <opval> FUNC0OP FUNC0SUB UNIOPSUB LSTOPSUB
78 %token <opval> PLUGEXPR PLUGSTMT
79 %token <p_tkval> LABEL
80 %token <i_tkval> FORMAT SUB ANONSUB PACKAGE USE
81 %token <i_tkval> WHILE UNTIL IF UNLESS ELSE ELSIF CONTINUE FOR
82 %token <i_tkval> GIVEN WHEN DEFAULT
83 %token <i_tkval> LOOPEX DOTDOT YADAYADA
84 %token <i_tkval> FUNC0 FUNC1 FUNC UNIOP LSTOP
85 %token <i_tkval> RELOP EQOP MULOP ADDOP
86 %token <i_tkval> DOLSHARP DO HASHBRACK NOAMP
87 %token <i_tkval> LOCAL MY REQUIRE
88 %token <i_tkval> COLONATTR FORMLBRACK FORMRBRACK
89
90 %type <ival> grammar remember mremember
91 %type <ival>  startsub startanonsub startformsub
92 /* FIXME for MAD - are these two ival? */
93 %type <ival> mintro
94
95 %type <opval> stmtseq fullstmt labfullstmt barestmt block mblock else
96 %type <opval> expr term subscripted scalar ary hsh arylen star amper sideff
97 %type <opval> sliceme kvslice gelem
98 %type <opval> listexpr nexpr texpr iexpr mexpr mnexpr miexpr
99 %type <opval> optlistexpr optexpr indirob listop method
100 %type <opval> formname subname proto optsubbody cont my_scalar formblock
101 %type <opval> subattrlist myattrlist myattrterm myterm
102 %type <opval> realsubbody subsignature termbinop termunop anonymous termdo
103 %type <opval> formstmtseq formline formarg
104
105 %nonassoc <i_tkval> PREC_LOW
106 %nonassoc LOOPEX
107
108 %left <i_tkval> OROP DOROP
109 %left <i_tkval> ANDOP
110 %right <i_tkval> NOTOP
111 %nonassoc LSTOP LSTOPSUB
112 %left <i_tkval> ','
113 %right <i_tkval> ASSIGNOP
114 %right <i_tkval> '?' ':'
115 %nonassoc DOTDOT YADAYADA
116 %left <i_tkval> OROR DORDOR
117 %left <i_tkval> ANDAND
118 %left <i_tkval> BITOROP
119 %left <i_tkval> BITANDOP
120 %nonassoc EQOP
121 %nonassoc RELOP
122 %nonassoc UNIOP UNIOPSUB
123 %nonassoc REQUIRE
124 %left <i_tkval> SHIFTOP
125 %left ADDOP
126 %left MULOP
127 %left <i_tkval> MATCHOP
128 %right <i_tkval> '!' '~' UMINUS REFGEN
129 %right <i_tkval> POWOP
130 %nonassoc <i_tkval> PREINC PREDEC POSTINC POSTDEC POSTJOIN
131 %left <i_tkval> ARROW
132 %nonassoc <i_tkval> ')'
133 %left <i_tkval> '('
134 %left '[' '{'
135
136 %token <i_tkval> PEG
137
138 %% /* RULES */
139
140 /* Top-level choice of what kind of thing yyparse was called to parse */
141 grammar :       GRAMPROG
142                         {
143                           PL_parser->expect = XSTATE;
144                         }
145                 remember stmtseq
146                         {
147                           newPROG(block_end($3,$4));
148                           $$ = 0;
149                         }
150         |       GRAMEXPR
151                         {
152                           parser->expect = XTERM;
153                         }
154                 optexpr
155                         {
156                           PL_eval_root = $3;
157                           $$ = 0;
158                         }
159         |       GRAMBLOCK
160                         {
161                           parser->expect = XBLOCK;
162                         }
163                 block
164                         {
165                           PL_pad_reset_pending = TRUE;
166                           PL_eval_root = $3;
167                           $$ = 0;
168                           yyunlex();
169                           parser->yychar = YYEOF;
170                         }
171         |       GRAMBARESTMT
172                         {
173                           parser->expect = XSTATE;
174                         }
175                 barestmt
176                         {
177                           PL_pad_reset_pending = TRUE;
178                           PL_eval_root = $3;
179                           $$ = 0;
180                           yyunlex();
181                           parser->yychar = YYEOF;
182                         }
183         |       GRAMFULLSTMT
184                         {
185                           parser->expect = XSTATE;
186                         }
187                 fullstmt
188                         {
189                           PL_pad_reset_pending = TRUE;
190                           PL_eval_root = $3;
191                           $$ = 0;
192                           yyunlex();
193                           parser->yychar = YYEOF;
194                         }
195         |       GRAMSTMTSEQ
196                         {
197                           parser->expect = XSTATE;
198                         }
199                 stmtseq
200                         {
201                           PL_eval_root = $3;
202                           $$ = 0;
203                         }
204         ;
205
206 /* An ordinary block */
207 block   :       '{' remember stmtseq '}'
208                         { if (PL_parser->copline > (line_t)IVAL($1))
209                               PL_parser->copline = (line_t)IVAL($1);
210                           $$ = block_end($2, $3);
211                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'{');
212                           TOKEN_GETMAD($4,$$,'}');
213                         }
214         ;
215
216 /* format body */
217 formblock:      '=' remember ';' FORMRBRACK formstmtseq ';' '.'
218                         { if (PL_parser->copline > (line_t)IVAL($1))
219                               PL_parser->copline = (line_t)IVAL($1);
220                           $$ = block_end($2, $5);
221                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'{');
222                           TOKEN_GETMAD($7,$$,'}');
223                         }
224         ;
225
226 remember:       /* NULL */      /* start a full lexical scope */
227                         { $$ = block_start(TRUE); }
228         ;
229
230 mblock  :       '{' mremember stmtseq '}'
231                         { if (PL_parser->copline > (line_t)IVAL($1))
232                               PL_parser->copline = (line_t)IVAL($1);
233                           $$ = block_end($2, $3);
234                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'{');
235                           TOKEN_GETMAD($4,$$,'}');
236                         }
237         ;
238
239 mremember:      /* NULL */      /* start a partial lexical scope */
240                         { $$ = block_start(FALSE); }
241         ;
242
243 /* A sequence of statements in the program */
244 stmtseq :       /* NULL */
245                         { $$ = (OP*)NULL; }
246         |       stmtseq fullstmt
247                         {   $$ = op_append_list(OP_LINESEQ, $1, $2);
248                             PL_pad_reset_pending = TRUE;
249                             if ($1 && $2)
250                                 PL_hints |= HINT_BLOCK_SCOPE;
251                         }
252         ;
253
254 /* A sequence of format lines */
255 formstmtseq:    /* NULL */
256                         { $$ = (OP*)NULL; }
257         |       formstmtseq formline
258                         {   $$ = op_append_list(OP_LINESEQ, $1, $2);
259                             PL_pad_reset_pending = TRUE;
260                             if ($1 && $2)
261                                 PL_hints |= HINT_BLOCK_SCOPE;
262                         }
263         ;
264
265 /* A statement in the program, including optional labels */
266 fullstmt:       barestmt
267                         {
268                           if($1) {
269                               $$ = newSTATEOP(0, NULL, $1);
270                           } else {
271                               $$ = IF_MAD(newOP(OP_NULL, 0), NULL);
272                           }
273                         }
274         |       labfullstmt
275                         { $$ = $1; }
276         ;
277
278 labfullstmt:    LABEL barestmt
279                         {
280                           $$ = newSTATEOP(SVf_UTF8
281                                            * PVAL($1)[strlen(PVAL($1))+1],
282                                           PVAL($1), $2);
283                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,
284                               $2 ? cLISTOPx($$)->op_first : $$, 'L');
285                         }
286         |       LABEL labfullstmt
287                         {
288                           $$ = newSTATEOP(SVf_UTF8
289                                            * PVAL($1)[strlen(PVAL($1))+1],
290                                           PVAL($1), $2);
291                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1, cLISTOPx($$)->op_first, 'L');
292                         }
293         ;
294
295 /* A bare statement, lacking label and other aspects of state op */
296 barestmt:       PLUGSTMT
297                         { $$ = $1; }
298         |       PEG
299                         {
300                           $$ = newOP(OP_NULL,0);
301                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'p');
302                         }
303         |       FORMAT startformsub formname formblock
304                         {
305                           CV *fmtcv = PL_compcv;
306 #ifdef MAD
307                           $$ = newFORM($2, $3, $4);
308                           prepend_madprops($1->tk_mad, $$, 'F');
309                           $1->tk_mad = 0;
310                           token_free($1);
311 #else
312                           newFORM($2, $3, $4);
313                           $$ = (OP*)NULL;
314 #endif
315                           if (CvOUTSIDE(fmtcv) && !CvEVAL(CvOUTSIDE(fmtcv))) {
316                               SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void(fmtcv);
317                               pad_add_anon(fmtcv, OP_NULL);
318                           }
319                         }
320         |       SUB subname startsub
321                         {
322                           if ($2->op_type == OP_CONST) {
323                             const char *const name =
324                                 SvPV_nolen_const(((SVOP*)$2)->op_sv);
325                             if (strEQ(name, "BEGIN") || strEQ(name, "END")
326                               || strEQ(name, "INIT") || strEQ(name, "CHECK")
327                               || strEQ(name, "UNITCHECK"))
328                               CvSPECIAL_on(PL_compcv);
329                           }
330                           else
331                           /* State subs inside anonymous subs need to be
332                              clonable themselves. */
333                           if (CvANON(CvOUTSIDE(PL_compcv))
334                            || CvCLONE(CvOUTSIDE(PL_compcv))
335                            || !PadnameIsSTATE(PadlistNAMESARRAY(CvPADLIST(
336                                                 CvOUTSIDE(PL_compcv)
337                                              ))[$2->op_targ]))
338                               CvCLONE_on(PL_compcv);
339                           PL_parser->in_my = 0;
340                           PL_parser->in_my_stash = NULL;
341                         }
342                 proto subattrlist optsubbody
343                         {
344                           SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void(PL_compcv);
345 #ifdef MAD
346                           {
347                               OP* o = newSVOP(OP_ANONCODE, 0,
348                                 (SV*)(
349 #endif
350                           $2->op_type == OP_CONST
351                               ? newATTRSUB($3, $2, $5, $6, $7)
352                               : newMYSUB($3, $2, $5, $6, $7)
353 #ifdef MAD
354                                 ));
355                               $$ = newOP(OP_NULL,0);
356                               op_getmad(o,$$,'&');
357                               op_getmad($2,$$,'n');
358                               op_getmad($5,$$,'s');
359                               op_getmad($6,$$,'a');
360                               token_getmad($1,$$,'d');
361                               append_madprops($7->op_madprop, $$, 0);
362                               $7->op_madprop = 0;
363                           }
364 #else
365                           ;
366                           $$ = (OP*)NULL;
367 #endif
368                           intro_my();
369                         }
370         |       PACKAGE WORD WORD ';'
371                         {
372 #ifdef MAD
373                           $$ = package($3);
374                           token_getmad($1,$$,'o');
375                           if ($2)
376                               package_version($2);
377                           token_getmad($4,$$,';');
378 #else
379                           package($3);
380                           if ($2)
381                               package_version($2);
382                           $$ = (OP*)NULL;
383 #endif
384                         }
385         |       USE startsub
386                         { CvSPECIAL_on(PL_compcv); /* It's a BEGIN {} */ }
387                 WORD WORD optlistexpr ';'
388                         {
389                           SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void(PL_compcv);
390 #ifdef MAD
391                           $$ = utilize(IVAL($1), $2, $4, $5, $6);
392                           token_getmad($1,$$,'o');
393                           token_getmad($7,$$,';');
394                           if (PL_parser->rsfp_filters &&
395                                       AvFILLp(PL_parser->rsfp_filters) >= 0)
396                               append_madprops(newMADPROP('!', MAD_NULL, NULL, 0), $$, 0);
397 #else
398                           utilize(IVAL($1), $2, $4, $5, $6);
399                           $$ = (OP*)NULL;
400 #endif
401                         }
402         |       IF '(' remember mexpr ')' mblock else
403                         {
404                           $$ = block_end($3,
405                               newCONDOP(0, $4, op_scope($6), $7));
406                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'I');
407                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'(');
408                           TOKEN_GETMAD($5,$$,')');
409                           PL_parser->copline = (line_t)IVAL($1);
410                         }
411         |       UNLESS '(' remember miexpr ')' mblock else
412                         {
413                           $$ = block_end($3,
414                               newCONDOP(0, $4, op_scope($6), $7));
415                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'I');
416                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'(');
417                           TOKEN_GETMAD($5,$$,')');
418                           PL_parser->copline = (line_t)IVAL($1);
419                         }
420         |       GIVEN '(' remember mexpr ')' mblock
421                         {
422                           const PADOFFSET offset = pad_findmy_pvs("$_", 0);
423                           $$ = block_end($3,
424                                   newGIVENOP($4, op_scope($6),
425                                     offset == NOT_IN_PAD
426                                     || PAD_COMPNAME_FLAGS_isOUR(offset)
427                                       ? 0
428                                       : offset));
429                           PL_parser->copline = (line_t)IVAL($1);
430                         }
431         |       WHEN '(' remember mexpr ')' mblock
432                         { $$ = block_end($3, newWHENOP($4, op_scope($6))); }
433         |       DEFAULT block
434                         { $$ = newWHENOP(0, op_scope($2)); }
435         |       WHILE '(' remember texpr ')' mintro mblock cont
436                         {
437                           $$ = block_end($3,
438                                   newWHILEOP(0, 1, (LOOP*)(OP*)NULL,
439                                       $4, $7, $8, $6));
440                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'W');
441                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'(');
442                           TOKEN_GETMAD($5,$$,')');
443                           PL_parser->copline = (line_t)IVAL($1);
444                         }
445         |       UNTIL '(' remember iexpr ')' mintro mblock cont
446                         {
447                           $$ = block_end($3,
448                                   newWHILEOP(0, 1, (LOOP*)(OP*)NULL,
449                                       $4, $7, $8, $6));
450                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'W');
451                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'(');
452                           TOKEN_GETMAD($5,$$,')');
453                           PL_parser->copline = (line_t)IVAL($1);
454                         }
455         |       FOR '(' remember mnexpr ';' texpr ';' mintro mnexpr ')'
456                 mblock
457                         {
458                           OP *initop = IF_MAD($4 ? $4 : newOP(OP_NULL, 0), $4);
459                           OP *forop = newWHILEOP(0, 1, (LOOP*)(OP*)NULL,
460                                       scalar($6), $11, $9, $8);
461                           if (initop) {
462                               forop = op_prepend_elem(OP_LINESEQ, initop,
463                                   op_append_elem(OP_LINESEQ,
464                                       newOP(OP_UNSTACK, OPf_SPECIAL),
465                                       forop));
466                           }
467                           DO_MAD({ forop = newUNOP(OP_NULL, 0, forop); })
468                           $$ = block_end($3, forop);
469                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'3');
470                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'(');
471                           TOKEN_GETMAD($5,$$,'1');
472                           TOKEN_GETMAD($7,$$,'2');
473                           TOKEN_GETMAD($10,$$,')');
474                           PL_parser->copline = (line_t)IVAL($1);
475                         }
476         |       FOR MY remember my_scalar '(' mexpr ')' mblock cont
477                         {
478                           $$ = block_end($3, newFOROP(0, $4, $6, $8, $9));
479                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'W');
480                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'d');
481                           TOKEN_GETMAD($5,$$,'(');
482                           TOKEN_GETMAD($7,$$,')');
483                           PL_parser->copline = (line_t)IVAL($1);
484                         }
485         |       FOR scalar '(' remember mexpr ')' mblock cont
486                         {
487                           $$ = block_end($4, newFOROP(0,
488                                       op_lvalue($2, OP_ENTERLOOP), $5, $7, $8));
489                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'W');
490                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,'(');
491                           TOKEN_GETMAD($6,$$,')');
492                           PL_parser->copline = (line_t)IVAL($1);
493                         }
494         |       FOR '(' remember mexpr ')' mblock cont
495                         {
496                           $$ = block_end($3,
497                                   newFOROP(0, (OP*)NULL, $4, $6, $7));
498                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'W');
499                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'(');
500                           TOKEN_GETMAD($5,$$,')');
501                           PL_parser->copline = (line_t)IVAL($1);
502                         }
503         |       block cont
504                         {
505                           /* a block is a loop that happens once */
506                           $$ = newWHILEOP(0, 1, (LOOP*)(OP*)NULL,
507                                   (OP*)NULL, $1, $2, 0);
508                         }
509         |       PACKAGE WORD WORD '{' remember
510                         {
511                           package($3);
512                           if ($2) {
513                               package_version($2);
514                           }
515                         }
516                 stmtseq '}'
517                         {
518                           /* a block is a loop that happens once */
519                           $$ = newWHILEOP(0, 1, (LOOP*)(OP*)NULL,
520                                   (OP*)NULL, block_end($5, $7), (OP*)NULL, 0);
521                           TOKEN_GETMAD($4,$$,'{');
522                           TOKEN_GETMAD($8,$$,'}');
523                           if (PL_parser->copline > (line_t)IVAL($4))
524                               PL_parser->copline = (line_t)IVAL($4);
525                         }
526         |       sideff ';'
527                         {
528                           PL_parser->expect = XSTATE;
529                           $$ = $1;
530                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,';');
531                         }
532         |       ';'
533                         {
534                           PL_parser->expect = XSTATE;
535                           $$ = IF_MAD(newOP(OP_NULL, 0), (OP*)NULL);
536                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,';');
537                           PL_parser->copline = NOLINE;
538                         }
539         ;
540
541 /* Format line */
542 formline:       THING formarg
543                         { OP *list;
544                           if ($2) {
545                               OP *term = $2;
546                               DO_MAD(term = newUNOP(OP_NULL, 0, term));
547                               list = op_append_elem(OP_LIST, $1, term);
548                           }
549                           else {
550 #ifdef MAD
551                               OP *op = newNULLLIST();
552                               list = op_append_elem(OP_LIST, $1, op);
553 #else
554                               list = $1;
555 #endif
556                           }
557                           if (PL_parser->copline == NOLINE)
558                                PL_parser->copline = CopLINE(PL_curcop)-1;
559                           else PL_parser->copline--;
560                           $$ = newSTATEOP(0, NULL,
561                                           convert(OP_FORMLINE, 0, list));
562                         }
563         ;
564
565 formarg :       /* NULL */
566                         { $$ = NULL; }
567         |       FORMLBRACK stmtseq FORMRBRACK
568                         { $$ = op_unscope($2); }
569         ;
570
571 /* An expression which may have a side-effect */
572 sideff  :       error
573                         { $$ = (OP*)NULL; }
574         |       expr
575                         { $$ = $1; }
576         |       expr IF expr
577                         { $$ = newLOGOP(OP_AND, 0, $3, $1);
578                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'i');
579                         }
580         |       expr UNLESS expr
581                         { $$ = newLOGOP(OP_OR, 0, $3, $1);
582                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'i');
583                         }
584         |       expr WHILE expr
585                         { $$ = newLOOPOP(OPf_PARENS, 1, scalar($3), $1);
586                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'w');
587                         }
588         |       expr UNTIL iexpr
589                         { $$ = newLOOPOP(OPf_PARENS, 1, $3, $1);
590                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'w');
591                         }
592         |       expr FOR expr
593                         { $$ = newFOROP(0, (OP*)NULL, $3, $1, (OP*)NULL);
594                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'w');
595                           PL_parser->copline = (line_t)IVAL($2);
596                         }
597         |       expr WHEN expr
598                         { $$ = newWHENOP($3, op_scope($1)); }
599         ;
600
601 /* else and elsif blocks */
602 else    :       /* NULL */
603                         { $$ = (OP*)NULL; }
604         |       ELSE mblock
605                         {
606                           ($2)->op_flags |= OPf_PARENS;
607                           $$ = op_scope($2);
608                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'o');
609                         }
610         |       ELSIF '(' mexpr ')' mblock else
611                         { PL_parser->copline = (line_t)IVAL($1);
612                             $$ = newCONDOP(0,
613                                 newSTATEOP(OPf_SPECIAL,NULL,$3),
614                                 op_scope($5), $6);
615                           PL_hints |= HINT_BLOCK_SCOPE;
616                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'I');
617                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'(');
618                           TOKEN_GETMAD($4,$$,')');
619                         }
620         ;
621
622 /* Continue blocks */
623 cont    :       /* NULL */
624                         { $$ = (OP*)NULL; }
625         |       CONTINUE block
626                         {
627                           $$ = op_scope($2);
628                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'o');
629                         }
630         ;
631
632 /* determine whether there are any new my declarations */
633 mintro  :       /* NULL */
634                         { $$ = (PL_min_intro_pending &&
635                             PL_max_intro_pending >=  PL_min_intro_pending);
636                           intro_my(); }
637
638 /* Normal expression */
639 nexpr   :       /* NULL */
640                         { $$ = (OP*)NULL; }
641         |       sideff
642         ;
643
644 /* Boolean expression */
645 texpr   :       /* NULL means true */
646                         { YYSTYPE tmplval;
647                           (void)scan_num("1", &tmplval);
648                           $$ = tmplval.opval; }
649         |       expr
650         ;
651
652 /* Inverted boolean expression */
653 iexpr   :       expr
654                         { $$ = invert(scalar($1)); }
655         ;
656
657 /* Expression with its own lexical scope */
658 mexpr   :       expr
659                         { $$ = $1; intro_my(); }
660         ;
661
662 mnexpr  :       nexpr
663                         { $$ = $1; intro_my(); }
664         ;
665
666 miexpr  :       iexpr
667                         { $$ = $1; intro_my(); }
668         ;
669
670 formname:       WORD            { $$ = $1; }
671         |       /* NULL */      { $$ = (OP*)NULL; }
672         ;
673
674 startsub:       /* NULL */      /* start a regular subroutine scope */
675                         { $$ = start_subparse(FALSE, 0);
676                             SAVEFREESV(PL_compcv); }
677
678         ;
679
680 startanonsub:   /* NULL */      /* start an anonymous subroutine scope */
681                         { $$ = start_subparse(FALSE, CVf_ANON);
682                             SAVEFREESV(PL_compcv); }
683         ;
684
685 startformsub:   /* NULL */      /* start a format subroutine scope */
686                         { $$ = start_subparse(TRUE, 0);
687                             SAVEFREESV(PL_compcv); }
688         ;
689
690 /* Name of a subroutine - must be a bareword, could be special */
691 subname :       WORD
692         |       PRIVATEREF
693         ;
694
695 /* Subroutine prototype */
696 proto   :       /* NULL */
697                         { $$ = (OP*)NULL; }
698         |       THING
699         ;
700
701 /* Optional list of subroutine attributes */
702 subattrlist:    /* NULL */
703                         { $$ = (OP*)NULL; }
704         |       COLONATTR THING
705                         { $$ = $2;
706                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,':');
707                         }
708         |       COLONATTR
709                         { $$ = IF_MAD(
710                                     newOP(OP_NULL, 0),
711                                     (OP*)NULL
712                                 );
713                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,':');
714                         }
715         ;
716
717 /* List of attributes for a "my" variable declaration */
718 myattrlist:     COLONATTR THING
719                         { $$ = $2;
720                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,':');
721                         }
722         |       COLONATTR
723                         { $$ = IF_MAD(
724                                     newOP(OP_NULL, 0),
725                                     (OP*)NULL
726                                 );
727                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,':');
728                         }
729         ;
730
731 /* Optional subroutine signature */
732 subsignature:   /* NULL */ { $$ = (OP*)NULL; }
733         |       '('
734                         {
735                           if (!FEATURE_SIGNATURES_IS_ENABLED)
736                             Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Experimental "
737                                 "subroutine signatures not enabled");
738                           Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_
739                                 packWARN(WARN_EXPERIMENTAL__SIGNATURES),
740                                 "The signatures feature is experimental");
741                           $<opval>$ = parse_subsignature();
742                         }
743                 ')'
744                         {
745                           $$ = op_append_list(OP_LINESEQ, $<opval>2,
746                                 newSTATEOP(0, NULL, sawparens(newNULLLIST())));
747                           PL_parser->expect = XBLOCK;
748                         }
749         ;
750
751 /* Subroutine body - block with optional signature */
752 realsubbody:    remember subsignature '{' stmtseq '}'
753                         {
754                           if (PL_parser->copline > (line_t)IVAL($3))
755                               PL_parser->copline = (line_t)IVAL($3);
756                           $$ = block_end($1,
757                                 op_append_list(OP_LINESEQ, $2, $4));
758                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,'{');
759                           TOKEN_GETMAD($5,$$,'}');
760                         }
761         ;
762
763 /* Optional subroutine body, for named subroutine declaration */
764 optsubbody:     realsubbody { $$ = $1; }
765         |       ';'     { $$ = IF_MAD(
766                                     newOP(OP_NULL,0),
767                                     (OP*)NULL
768                                 );
769                           PL_parser->expect = XSTATE;
770                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,';');
771                         }
772         ;
773
774 /* Ordinary expressions; logical combinations */
775 expr    :       expr ANDOP expr
776                         { $$ = newLOGOP(OP_AND, 0, $1, $3);
777                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'o');
778                         }
779         |       expr OROP expr
780                         { $$ = newLOGOP(IVAL($2), 0, $1, $3);
781                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'o');
782                         }
783         |       expr DOROP expr
784                         { $$ = newLOGOP(OP_DOR, 0, $1, $3);
785                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'o');
786                         }
787         |       listexpr %prec PREC_LOW
788         ;
789
790 /* Expressions are a list of terms joined by commas */
791 listexpr:       listexpr ','
792                         {
793 #ifdef MAD
794                           OP* op = newNULLLIST();
795                           token_getmad($2,op,',');
796                           $$ = op_append_elem(OP_LIST, $1, op);
797 #else
798                           $$ = $1;
799 #endif
800                         }
801         |       listexpr ',' term
802                         { 
803                           OP* term = $3;
804                           DO_MAD(
805                               term = newUNOP(OP_NULL, 0, term);
806                               token_getmad($2,term,',');
807                           )
808                           $$ = op_append_elem(OP_LIST, $1, term);
809                         }
810         |       term %prec PREC_LOW
811         ;
812
813 /* List operators */
814 listop  :       LSTOP indirob listexpr /* map {...} @args or print $fh @args */
815                         { $$ = convert(IVAL($1), OPf_STACKED,
816                                 op_prepend_elem(OP_LIST, newGVREF(IVAL($1),$2), $3) );
817                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'o');
818                         }
819         |       FUNC '(' indirob expr ')'      /* print ($fh @args */
820                         { $$ = convert(IVAL($1), OPf_STACKED,
821                                 op_prepend_elem(OP_LIST, newGVREF(IVAL($1),$3), $4) );
822                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'o');
823                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'(');
824                           TOKEN_GETMAD($5,$$,')');
825                         }
826         |       term ARROW method '(' optexpr ')' /* $foo->bar(list) */
827                         { $$ = convert(OP_ENTERSUB, OPf_STACKED,
828                                 op_append_elem(OP_LIST,
829                                     op_prepend_elem(OP_LIST, scalar($1), $5),
830                                     newUNOP(OP_METHOD, 0, $3)));
831                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'A');
832                           TOKEN_GETMAD($4,$$,'(');
833                           TOKEN_GETMAD($6,$$,')');
834                         }
835         |       term ARROW method                     /* $foo->bar */
836                         { $$ = convert(OP_ENTERSUB, OPf_STACKED,
837                                 op_append_elem(OP_LIST, scalar($1),
838                                     newUNOP(OP_METHOD, 0, $3)));
839                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'A');
840                         }
841         |       METHOD indirob optlistexpr           /* new Class @args */
842                         { $$ = convert(OP_ENTERSUB, OPf_STACKED,
843                                 op_append_elem(OP_LIST,
844                                     op_prepend_elem(OP_LIST, $2, $3),
845                                     newUNOP(OP_METHOD, 0, $1)));
846                         }
847         |       FUNCMETH indirob '(' optexpr ')'    /* method $object (@args) */
848                         { $$ = convert(OP_ENTERSUB, OPf_STACKED,
849                                 op_append_elem(OP_LIST,
850                                     op_prepend_elem(OP_LIST, $2, $4),
851                                     newUNOP(OP_METHOD, 0, $1)));
852                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,'(');
853                           TOKEN_GETMAD($5,$$,')');
854                         }
855         |       LSTOP optlistexpr                    /* print @args */
856                         { $$ = convert(IVAL($1), 0, $2);
857                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'o');
858                         }
859         |       FUNC '(' optexpr ')'                 /* print (@args) */
860                         { $$ = convert(IVAL($1), 0, $3);
861                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'o');
862                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'(');
863                           TOKEN_GETMAD($4,$$,')');
864                         }
865         |       LSTOPSUB startanonsub block /* sub f(&@);   f { foo } ... */
866                         { SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void(PL_compcv);
867                           $<opval>$ = newANONATTRSUB($2, 0, (OP*)NULL, $3); }
868                     optlistexpr         %prec LSTOP  /* ... @bar */
869                         { $$ = newUNOP(OP_ENTERSUB, OPf_STACKED,
870                                  op_append_elem(OP_LIST,
871                                    op_prepend_elem(OP_LIST, $<opval>4, $5), $1));
872                         }
873         ;
874
875 /* Names of methods. May use $object->$methodname */
876 method  :       METHOD
877         |       scalar
878         ;
879
880 /* Some kind of subscripted expression */
881 subscripted:    gelem '{' expr ';' '}'        /* *main::{something} */
882                         /* In this and all the hash accessors, ';' is
883                          * provided by the tokeniser */
884                         { $$ = newBINOP(OP_GELEM, 0, $1, scalar($3));
885                             PL_parser->expect = XOPERATOR;
886                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'{');
887                           TOKEN_GETMAD($4,$$,';');
888                           TOKEN_GETMAD($5,$$,'}');
889                         }
890         |       scalar '[' expr ']'          /* $array[$element] */
891                         { $$ = newBINOP(OP_AELEM, 0, oopsAV($1), scalar($3));
892                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'[');
893                           TOKEN_GETMAD($4,$$,']');
894                         }
895         |       term ARROW '[' expr ']'      /* somearef->[$element] */
896                         { $$ = newBINOP(OP_AELEM, 0,
897                                         ref(newAVREF($1),OP_RV2AV),
898                                         scalar($4));
899                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'a');
900                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,'[');
901                           TOKEN_GETMAD($5,$$,']');
902                         }
903         |       subscripted '[' expr ']'    /* $foo->[$bar]->[$baz] */
904                         { $$ = newBINOP(OP_AELEM, 0,
905                                         ref(newAVREF($1),OP_RV2AV),
906                                         scalar($3));
907                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'[');
908                           TOKEN_GETMAD($4,$$,']');
909                         }
910         |       scalar '{' expr ';' '}'    /* $foo{bar();} */
911                         { $$ = newBINOP(OP_HELEM, 0, oopsHV($1), jmaybe($3));
912                             PL_parser->expect = XOPERATOR;
913                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'{');
914                           TOKEN_GETMAD($4,$$,';');
915                           TOKEN_GETMAD($5,$$,'}');
916                         }
917         |       term ARROW '{' expr ';' '}' /* somehref->{bar();} */
918                         { $$ = newBINOP(OP_HELEM, 0,
919                                         ref(newHVREF($1),OP_RV2HV),
920                                         jmaybe($4));
921                             PL_parser->expect = XOPERATOR;
922                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'a');
923                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,'{');
924                           TOKEN_GETMAD($5,$$,';');
925                           TOKEN_GETMAD($6,$$,'}');
926                         }
927         |       subscripted '{' expr ';' '}' /* $foo->[bar]->{baz;} */
928                         { $$ = newBINOP(OP_HELEM, 0,
929                                         ref(newHVREF($1),OP_RV2HV),
930                                         jmaybe($3));
931                             PL_parser->expect = XOPERATOR;
932                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'{');
933                           TOKEN_GETMAD($4,$$,';');
934                           TOKEN_GETMAD($5,$$,'}');
935                         }
936         |       term ARROW '(' ')'          /* $subref->() */
937                         { $$ = newUNOP(OP_ENTERSUB, OPf_STACKED,
938                                    newCVREF(0, scalar($1)));
939                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'a');
940                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,'(');
941                           TOKEN_GETMAD($4,$$,')');
942                         }
943         |       term ARROW '(' expr ')'     /* $subref->(@args) */
944                         { $$ = newUNOP(OP_ENTERSUB, OPf_STACKED,
945                                    op_append_elem(OP_LIST, $4,
946                                        newCVREF(0, scalar($1))));
947                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'a');
948                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,'(');
949                           TOKEN_GETMAD($5,$$,')');
950                         }
951
952         |       subscripted '(' expr ')'   /* $foo->{bar}->(@args) */
953                         { $$ = newUNOP(OP_ENTERSUB, OPf_STACKED,
954                                    op_append_elem(OP_LIST, $3,
955                                                newCVREF(0, scalar($1))));
956                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'(');
957                           TOKEN_GETMAD($4,$$,')');
958                         }
959         |       subscripted '(' ')'        /* $foo->{bar}->() */
960                         { $$ = newUNOP(OP_ENTERSUB, OPf_STACKED,
961                                    newCVREF(0, scalar($1)));
962                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'(');
963                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,')');
964                         }
965         |       '(' expr ')' '[' expr ']'            /* list slice */
966                         { $$ = newSLICEOP(0, $5, $2);
967                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'(');
968                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,')');
969                           TOKEN_GETMAD($4,$$,'[');
970                           TOKEN_GETMAD($6,$$,']');
971                         }
972         |       QWLIST '[' expr ']'            /* list literal slice */
973                         { $$ = newSLICEOP(0, $3, $1);
974                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'[');
975                           TOKEN_GETMAD($4,$$,']');
976                         }
977         |       '(' ')' '[' expr ']'                 /* empty list slice! */
978                         { $$ = newSLICEOP(0, $4, (OP*)NULL);
979                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'(');
980                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,')');
981                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,'[');
982                           TOKEN_GETMAD($5,$$,']');
983                         }
984     ;
985
986 /* Binary operators between terms */
987 termbinop:      term ASSIGNOP term                     /* $x = $y */
988                         { $$ = newASSIGNOP(OPf_STACKED, $1, IVAL($2), $3);
989                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'o');
990                         }
991         |       term POWOP term                        /* $x ** $y */
992                         { $$ = newBINOP(IVAL($2), 0, scalar($1), scalar($3));
993                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'o');
994                         }
995         |       term MULOP term                        /* $x * $y, $x x $y */
996                         {   if (IVAL($2) != OP_REPEAT)
997                                 scalar($1);
998                             $$ = newBINOP(IVAL($2), 0, $1, scalar($3));
999                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'o');
1000                         }
1001         |       term ADDOP term                        /* $x + $y */
1002                         { $$ = newBINOP(IVAL($2), 0, scalar($1), scalar($3));
1003                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'o');
1004                         }
1005         |       term SHIFTOP term                      /* $x >> $y, $x << $y */
1006                         { $$ = newBINOP(IVAL($2), 0, scalar($1), scalar($3));
1007                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'o');
1008                         }
1009         |       term RELOP term                        /* $x > $y, etc. */
1010                         { $$ = newBINOP(IVAL($2), 0, scalar($1), scalar($3));
1011                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'o');
1012                         }
1013         |       term EQOP term                         /* $x == $y, $x eq $y */
1014                         { $$ = newBINOP(IVAL($2), 0, scalar($1), scalar($3));
1015                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'o');
1016                         }
1017         |       term BITANDOP term                     /* $x & $y */
1018                         { $$ = newBINOP(IVAL($2), 0, scalar($1), scalar($3));
1019                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'o');
1020                         }
1021         |       term BITOROP term                      /* $x | $y */
1022                         { $$ = newBINOP(IVAL($2), 0, scalar($1), scalar($3));
1023                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'o');
1024                         }
1025         |       term DOTDOT term                       /* $x..$y, $x...$y */
1026                         {
1027                           $$ = newRANGE(IVAL($2), scalar($1), scalar($3));
1028                           DO_MAD({
1029                               UNOP *op;
1030                               op = (UNOP*)$$;
1031                               op = (UNOP*)op->op_first; /* get to flop */
1032                               op = (UNOP*)op->op_first; /* get to flip */
1033                               op = (UNOP*)op->op_first; /* get to range */
1034                               token_getmad($2,(OP*)op,'o');
1035                             });
1036                         }
1037         |       term ANDAND term                       /* $x && $y */
1038                         { $$ = newLOGOP(OP_AND, 0, $1, $3);
1039                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'o');
1040                         }
1041         |       term OROR term                         /* $x || $y */
1042                         { $$ = newLOGOP(OP_OR, 0, $1, $3);
1043                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'o');
1044                         }
1045         |       term DORDOR term                       /* $x // $y */
1046                         { $$ = newLOGOP(OP_DOR, 0, $1, $3);
1047                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'o');
1048                         }
1049         |       term MATCHOP term                      /* $x =~ /$y/ */
1050                         { $$ = bind_match(IVAL($2), $1, $3);
1051                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,
1052                                 ($$->op_type == OP_NOT
1053                                     ? ((UNOP*)$$)->op_first : $$),
1054                                 '~');
1055                         }
1056     ;
1057
1058 /* Unary operators and terms */
1059 termunop : '-' term %prec UMINUS                       /* -$x */
1060                         { $$ = newUNOP(OP_NEGATE, 0, scalar($2));
1061                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'o');
1062                         }
1063         |       '+' term %prec UMINUS                  /* +$x */
1064                         { $$ = IF_MAD(
1065                                     newUNOP(OP_NULL, 0, $2),
1066                                     $2
1067                                 );
1068                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'+');
1069                         }
1070         |       '!' term                               /* !$x */
1071                         { $$ = newUNOP(OP_NOT, 0, scalar($2));
1072                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'o');
1073                         }
1074         |       '~' term                               /* ~$x */
1075                         { $$ = newUNOP(OP_COMPLEMENT, 0, scalar($2));
1076                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'o');
1077                         }
1078         |       term POSTINC                           /* $x++ */
1079                         { $$ = newUNOP(OP_POSTINC, 0,
1080                                         op_lvalue(scalar($1), OP_POSTINC));
1081                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'o');
1082                         }
1083         |       term POSTDEC                           /* $x-- */
1084                         { $$ = newUNOP(OP_POSTDEC, 0,
1085                                         op_lvalue(scalar($1), OP_POSTDEC));
1086                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'o');
1087                         }
1088         |       term POSTJOIN    /* implicit join after interpolated ->@ */
1089                         { $$ = convert(OP_JOIN, 0,
1090                                        op_append_elem(
1091                                         OP_LIST,
1092                                         newSVREF(scalar(
1093                                             newSVOP(OP_CONST,0,
1094                                                     newSVpvs("\""))
1095                                         )),
1096                                         $1
1097                                        ));
1098                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'o');
1099                         }
1100         |       PREINC term                            /* ++$x */
1101                         { $$ = newUNOP(OP_PREINC, 0,
1102                                         op_lvalue(scalar($2), OP_PREINC));
1103                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'o');
1104                         }
1105         |       PREDEC term                            /* --$x */
1106                         { $$ = newUNOP(OP_PREDEC, 0,
1107                                         op_lvalue(scalar($2), OP_PREDEC));
1108                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'o');
1109                         }
1110
1111     ;
1112
1113 /* Constructors for anonymous data */
1114 anonymous:      '[' expr ']'
1115                         { $$ = newANONLIST($2);
1116                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'[');
1117                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,']');
1118                         }
1119         |       '[' ']'
1120                         { $$ = newANONLIST((OP*)NULL);
1121                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'[');
1122                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,']');
1123                         }
1124         |       HASHBRACK expr ';' '}'  %prec '(' /* { foo => "Bar" } */
1125                         { $$ = newANONHASH($2);
1126                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'{');
1127                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,';');
1128                           TOKEN_GETMAD($4,$$,'}');
1129                         }
1130         |       HASHBRACK ';' '}'       %prec '(' /* { } (';' by tokener) */
1131                         { $$ = newANONHASH((OP*)NULL);
1132                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'{');
1133                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,';');
1134                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,'}');
1135                         }
1136         |       ANONSUB startanonsub proto subattrlist realsubbody      %prec '('
1137                         { SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void(PL_compcv);
1138                           $$ = newANONATTRSUB($2, $3, $4, $5);
1139                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'o');
1140                           OP_GETMAD($3,$$,'s');
1141                           OP_GETMAD($4,$$,'a');
1142                         }
1143
1144     ;
1145
1146 /* Things called with "do" */
1147 termdo  :       DO term %prec UNIOP                     /* do $filename */
1148                         { $$ = dofile($2, IVAL($1));
1149                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'o');
1150                         }
1151         |       DO block        %prec '('               /* do { code */
1152                         { $$ = newUNOP(OP_NULL, OPf_SPECIAL, op_scope($2));
1153                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'D');
1154                         }
1155         ;
1156
1157 term    :       termbinop
1158         |       termunop
1159         |       anonymous
1160         |       termdo
1161         |       term '?' term ':' term
1162                         { $$ = newCONDOP(0, $1, $3, $5);
1163                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'?');
1164                           TOKEN_GETMAD($4,$$,':');
1165                         }
1166         |       REFGEN term                          /* \$x, \@y, \%z */
1167                         { $$ = newUNOP(OP_REFGEN, 0, op_lvalue($2,OP_REFGEN));
1168                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'o');
1169                         }
1170         |       myattrterm      %prec UNIOP
1171                         { $$ = $1; }
1172         |       LOCAL term      %prec UNIOP
1173                         { $$ = localize($2,IVAL($1));
1174                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'k');
1175                         }
1176         |       '(' expr ')'
1177                         { $$ = sawparens(IF_MAD(newUNOP(OP_NULL,0,$2), $2));
1178                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'(');
1179                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,')');
1180                         }
1181         |       QWLIST
1182                         { $$ = IF_MAD(newUNOP(OP_NULL,0,$1), $1); }
1183         |       '(' ')'
1184                         { $$ = sawparens(newNULLLIST());
1185                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'(');
1186                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,')');
1187                         }
1188         |       scalar  %prec '('
1189                         { $$ = $1; }
1190         |       star    %prec '('
1191                         { $$ = $1; }
1192         |       hsh     %prec '('
1193                         { $$ = $1; }
1194         |       ary     %prec '('
1195                         { $$ = $1; }
1196         |       arylen  %prec '('                    /* $#x, $#{ something } */
1197                         { $$ = newUNOP(OP_AV2ARYLEN, 0, ref($1, OP_AV2ARYLEN));}
1198         |       subscripted
1199                         { $$ = $1; }
1200         |       sliceme '[' expr ']'                     /* array slice */
1201                         { $$ = op_prepend_elem(OP_ASLICE,
1202                                 newOP(OP_PUSHMARK, 0),
1203                                     newLISTOP(OP_ASLICE, 0,
1204                                         list($3),
1205                                         ref($1, OP_ASLICE)));
1206                           if ($$ && $1)
1207                               $$->op_private |=
1208                                   $1->op_private & OPpSLICEWARNING;
1209                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'[');
1210                           TOKEN_GETMAD($4,$$,']');
1211                         }
1212         |       kvslice '[' expr ']'                 /* array key/value slice */
1213                         { $$ = op_prepend_elem(OP_KVASLICE,
1214                                 newOP(OP_PUSHMARK, 0),
1215                                     newLISTOP(OP_KVASLICE, 0,
1216                                         list($3),
1217                                         ref(oopsAV($1), OP_KVASLICE)));
1218                           if ($$ && $1)
1219                               $$->op_private |=
1220                                   $1->op_private & OPpSLICEWARNING;
1221                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'[');
1222                           TOKEN_GETMAD($4,$$,']');
1223                         }
1224         |       sliceme '{' expr ';' '}'                 /* @hash{@keys} */
1225                         { $$ = op_prepend_elem(OP_HSLICE,
1226                                 newOP(OP_PUSHMARK, 0),
1227                                     newLISTOP(OP_HSLICE, 0,
1228                                         list($3),
1229                                         ref(oopsHV($1), OP_HSLICE)));
1230                           if ($$ && $1)
1231                               $$->op_private |=
1232                                   $1->op_private & OPpSLICEWARNING;
1233                             PL_parser->expect = XOPERATOR;
1234                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'{');
1235                           TOKEN_GETMAD($4,$$,';');
1236                           TOKEN_GETMAD($5,$$,'}');
1237                         }
1238         |       kvslice '{' expr ';' '}'                 /* %hash{@keys} */
1239                         { $$ = op_prepend_elem(OP_KVHSLICE,
1240                                 newOP(OP_PUSHMARK, 0),
1241                                     newLISTOP(OP_KVHSLICE, 0,
1242                                         list($3),
1243                                         ref($1, OP_KVHSLICE)));
1244                           if ($$ && $1)
1245                               $$->op_private |=
1246                                   $1->op_private & OPpSLICEWARNING;
1247                             PL_parser->expect = XOPERATOR;
1248                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'{');
1249                           TOKEN_GETMAD($4,$$,';');
1250                           TOKEN_GETMAD($5,$$,'}');
1251                         }
1252         |       THING   %prec '('
1253                         { $$ = $1; }
1254         |       amper                                /* &foo; */
1255                         { $$ = newUNOP(OP_ENTERSUB, 0, scalar($1)); }
1256         |       amper '(' ')'                 /* &foo() or foo() */
1257                         { $$ = newUNOP(OP_ENTERSUB, OPf_STACKED, scalar($1));
1258                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'(');
1259                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,')');
1260                         }
1261         |       amper '(' expr ')'          /* &foo(@args) or foo(@args) */
1262                         {
1263                           $$ = newUNOP(OP_ENTERSUB, OPf_STACKED,
1264                                 op_append_elem(OP_LIST, $3, scalar($1)));
1265                           DO_MAD({
1266                               OP* op = $$;
1267                               if (op->op_type == OP_CONST) { /* defeat const fold */
1268                                 op = (OP*)op->op_madprop->mad_val;
1269                               }
1270                               token_getmad($2,op,'(');
1271                               token_getmad($4,op,')');
1272                           });
1273                         }
1274         |       NOAMP subname optlistexpr       /* foo @args (no parens) */
1275                         { $$ = newUNOP(OP_ENTERSUB, OPf_STACKED,
1276                             op_append_elem(OP_LIST, $3, scalar($2)));
1277                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'o');
1278                         }
1279         |       term ARROW '$' '*'
1280                         { $$ = newSVREF($1);
1281                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,'$');
1282                         }
1283         |       term ARROW '@' '*'
1284                         { $$ = newAVREF($1);
1285                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,'@');
1286                         }
1287         |       term ARROW '%' '*'
1288                         { $$ = newHVREF($1);
1289                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,'%');
1290                         }
1291         |       term ARROW '&' '*'
1292                         { $$ = newUNOP(OP_ENTERSUB, 0,
1293                                        scalar(newCVREF(IVAL($3),$1)));
1294                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,'&');
1295                         }
1296         |       term ARROW '*' '*'      %prec '('
1297                         { $$ = newGVREF(0,$1);
1298                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,'*');
1299                         }
1300         |       LOOPEX  /* loop exiting command (goto, last, dump, etc) */
1301                         { $$ = newOP(IVAL($1), OPf_SPECIAL);
1302                             PL_hints |= HINT_BLOCK_SCOPE;
1303                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'o');
1304                         }
1305         |       LOOPEX term
1306                         { $$ = newLOOPEX(IVAL($1),$2);
1307                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'o');
1308                         }
1309         |       NOTOP listexpr                       /* not $foo */
1310                         { $$ = newUNOP(OP_NOT, 0, scalar($2));
1311                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'o');
1312                         }
1313         |       UNIOP                                /* Unary op, $_ implied */
1314                         { $$ = newOP(IVAL($1), 0);
1315                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'o');
1316                         }
1317         |       UNIOP block                          /* eval { foo }* */
1318                         { $$ = newUNOP(IVAL($1), 0, $2);
1319                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'o');
1320                         }
1321         |       UNIOP term                           /* Unary op */
1322                         { $$ = newUNOP(IVAL($1), 0, $2);
1323                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'o');
1324                         }
1325         |       REQUIRE                              /* require, $_ implied */
1326                         { $$ = newOP(OP_REQUIRE, $1 ? OPf_SPECIAL : 0);
1327                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'o');
1328                         }
1329         |       REQUIRE term                         /* require Foo */
1330                         { $$ = newUNOP(OP_REQUIRE, $1 ? OPf_SPECIAL : 0, $2);
1331                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'o');
1332                         }
1333         |       UNIOPSUB
1334                         { $$ = newUNOP(OP_ENTERSUB, OPf_STACKED, scalar($1)); }
1335         |       UNIOPSUB term                        /* Sub treated as unop */
1336                         { $$ = newUNOP(OP_ENTERSUB, OPf_STACKED,
1337                             op_append_elem(OP_LIST, $2, scalar($1))); }
1338         |       FUNC0                                /* Nullary operator */
1339                         { $$ = newOP(IVAL($1), 0);
1340                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'o');
1341                         }
1342         |       FUNC0 '(' ')'
1343                         { $$ = newOP(IVAL($1), 0);
1344                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'o');
1345                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'(');
1346                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,')');
1347                         }
1348         |       FUNC0OP       /* Same as above, but op created in toke.c */
1349                         { $$ = $1; }
1350         |       FUNC0OP '(' ')'
1351                         { $$ = $1;
1352                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'(');
1353                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,')');
1354                         }
1355         |       FUNC0SUB                             /* Sub treated as nullop */
1356                         { $$ = newUNOP(OP_ENTERSUB, OPf_STACKED,
1357                                 scalar($1)); }
1358         |       FUNC1 '(' ')'                        /* not () */
1359                         { $$ = (IVAL($1) == OP_NOT)
1360                             ? newUNOP(IVAL($1), 0, newSVOP(OP_CONST, 0, newSViv(0)))
1361                             : newOP(IVAL($1), OPf_SPECIAL);
1362
1363                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'o');
1364                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'(');
1365                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,')');
1366                         }
1367         |       FUNC1 '(' expr ')'                   /* not($foo) */
1368                         { $$ = newUNOP(IVAL($1), 0, $3);
1369                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'o');
1370                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,'(');
1371                           TOKEN_GETMAD($4,$$,')');
1372                         }
1373         |       PMFUNC /* m//, s///, qr//, tr/// */
1374                         {
1375                             if (   $1->op_type != OP_TRANS
1376                                 && $1->op_type != OP_TRANSR
1377                                 && (((PMOP*)$1)->op_pmflags & PMf_HAS_CV))
1378                             {
1379                                 $<ival>$ = start_subparse(FALSE, CVf_ANON);
1380                                 SAVEFREESV(PL_compcv);
1381                             } else
1382                                 $<ival>$ = 0;
1383                         }
1384                     '(' listexpr ')'
1385                         { $$ = pmruntime($1, $4, 1, $<ival>2);
1386                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,'(');
1387                           TOKEN_GETMAD($5,$$,')');
1388                         }
1389         |       WORD
1390         |       listop
1391         |       YADAYADA
1392                         {
1393                           $$ = newLISTOP(OP_DIE, 0, newOP(OP_PUSHMARK, 0),
1394                                 newSVOP(OP_CONST, 0, newSVpvs("Unimplemented")));
1395                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'X');
1396                         }
1397         |       PLUGEXPR
1398         ;
1399
1400 /* "my" declarations, with optional attributes */
1401 myattrterm:     MY myterm myattrlist
1402                         { $$ = my_attrs($2,$3);
1403                           DO_MAD(
1404                               token_getmad($1,$$,'d');
1405                               append_madprops($3->op_madprop, $$, 'a');
1406                               $3->op_madprop = 0;
1407                           );
1408                         }
1409         |       MY myterm
1410                         { $$ = localize($2,IVAL($1));
1411                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'d');
1412                         }
1413         ;
1414
1415 /* Things that can be "my"'d */
1416 myterm  :       '(' expr ')'
1417                         { $$ = sawparens($2);
1418                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'(');
1419                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,')');
1420                         }
1421         |       '(' ')'
1422                         { $$ = sawparens(newNULLLIST());
1423                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'(');
1424                           TOKEN_GETMAD($2,$$,')');
1425                         }
1426         |       scalar  %prec '('
1427                         { $$ = $1; }
1428         |       hsh     %prec '('
1429                         { $$ = $1; }
1430         |       ary     %prec '('
1431                         { $$ = $1; }
1432         ;
1433
1434 /* Basic list expressions */
1435 optlistexpr:    /* NULL */ %prec PREC_LOW
1436                         { $$ = (OP*)NULL; }
1437         |       listexpr    %prec PREC_LOW
1438                         { $$ = $1; }
1439         ;
1440
1441 optexpr:        /* NULL */
1442                         { $$ = (OP*)NULL; }
1443         |       expr
1444                         { $$ = $1; }
1445         ;
1446
1447 /* A little bit of trickery to make "for my $foo (@bar)" actually be
1448    lexical */
1449 my_scalar:      scalar
1450                         { PL_parser->in_my = 0; $$ = my($1); }
1451         ;
1452
1453 amper   :       '&' indirob
1454                         { $$ = newCVREF(IVAL($1),$2);
1455                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'&');
1456                         }
1457         ;
1458
1459 scalar  :       '$' indirob
1460                         { $$ = newSVREF($2);
1461                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'$');
1462                         }
1463         ;
1464
1465 ary     :       '@' indirob
1466                         { $$ = newAVREF($2);
1467                           if ($$) $$->op_private |= IVAL($1);
1468                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'@');
1469                         }
1470         ;
1471
1472 hsh     :       '%' indirob
1473                         { $$ = newHVREF($2);
1474                           if ($$) $$->op_private |= IVAL($1);
1475                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'%');
1476                         }
1477         ;
1478
1479 arylen  :       DOLSHARP indirob
1480                         { $$ = newAVREF($2);
1481                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'l');
1482                         }
1483         |       term ARROW DOLSHARP '*'
1484                         { $$ = newAVREF($1);
1485                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,'l');
1486                         }
1487         ;
1488
1489 star    :       '*' indirob
1490                         { $$ = newGVREF(0,$2);
1491                           TOKEN_GETMAD($1,$$,'*');
1492                         }
1493         ;
1494
1495 sliceme :       ary
1496         |       term ARROW '@'
1497                         { $$ = newAVREF($1);
1498                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,'@');
1499                         }
1500         ;
1501
1502 kvslice :       hsh
1503         |       term ARROW '%'
1504                         { $$ = newHVREF($1);
1505                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,'@');
1506                         }
1507         ;
1508
1509 gelem   :       star
1510         |       term ARROW '*'
1511                         { $$ = newGVREF(0,$1);
1512                           TOKEN_GETMAD($3,$$,'*');
1513                         }
1514         ;
1515
1516 /* Indirect objects */
1517 indirob :       WORD
1518                         { $$ = scalar($1); }
1519         |       scalar %prec PREC_LOW
1520                         { $$ = scalar($1); }
1521         |       block
1522                         { $$ = op_scope($1); }
1523
1524         |       PRIVATEREF
1525                         { $$ = $1; }
1526         ;