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1
2=head1 NAME
3
4perltoc - perl documentation table of contents
5
6=head1 DESCRIPTION
7
8This page provides a brief table of contents for the rest of the Perl
28757baa 9documentation set. It is meant to be scanned quickly or grepped
402d0d99 10through to locate the proper section you're looking for.
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11
12=head1 BASIC DOCUMENTATION
13
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14=head2 perl - Practical Extraction and Report Language
15
16=item SYNOPSIS
17
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18=item DESCRIPTION
19
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20Many usability enhancements, Simplified grammar, Lexical scoping,
21Arbitrarily nested data structures, Modularity and reusability,
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22Object-oriented programming, Embeddable and Extensible, POSIX compliant,
23Package constructors and destructors, Multiple simultaneous DBM
24implementations, Subroutine definitions may now be autoloaded, Regular
25expression enhancements, Innumerable Unbundled Modules, Compilability
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26
27=item ENVIRONMENT
28
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29=item AUTHOR
30
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31=item FILES
32
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33=item SEE ALSO
34
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35=item DIAGNOSTICS
36
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37=item BUGS
38
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39=item NOTES
40
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41=head2 perlfaq - frequently asked questions about Perl ($Date: 1997/04/24
4222:46:06 $)
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43
44=item DESCRIPTION
45
46perlfaq: Structural overview of the FAQ, L<perlfaq1>: General Questions
47About Perl, L<perlfaq2>: Obtaining and Learning about Perl, L<perlfaq3>:
48Programming Tools, L<perlfaq4>: Data Manipulation, L<perlfaq5>: Files and
49Formats, L<perlfaq6>: Regexps, L<perlfaq7>: General Perl Language Issues,
50L<perlfaq8>: System Interaction, L<perlfaq9>: Networking
51
52=over
53
54=item Where to get this document
55
56=item How to contribute to this document
57
58=item What will happen if you mail your Perl programming problems to the
59authors
60
61=back
62
63=item Credits
64
65=item Author and Copyright Information
66
67=over
68
54310121 69=item Noncommercial Reproduction
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70
71=item Commercial Reproduction
72
73=item Disclaimer
74
75=back
76
77=item Changes
78
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7924/April/97, 23/April/97, 25/March/97, 18/March/97, 17/March/97 Version,
80Initial Release: 11/March/97
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82=head2 perlfaq1 - General Questions About Perl ($Revision: 1.12 $, $Date:
831997/04/24 22:43:34 $)
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84
85=item DESCRIPTION
86
87=over
88
89=item What is Perl?
90
91=item Who supports Perl? Who develops it? Why is it free?
92
93=item Which version of Perl should I use?
94
95=item What are perl4 and perl5?
96
97=item How stable is Perl?
98
99=item Is Perl difficult to learn?
100
101=item How does Perl compare with other languages like Java, Python, REXX,
102Scheme, or Tcl?
103
104=item Can I do [task] in Perl?
105
106=item When shouldn't I program in Perl?
107
108=item What's the difference between "perl" and "Perl"?
109
110=item Is it a Perl program or a Perl script?
111
112=item What is a JAPH?
113
114=item Where can I get a list of Larry Wall witticisms?
115
116=item How can I convince my sysadmin/supervisor/employees to use version
117(5/5.004/Perl instead of some other language)?
118
119=back
120
121=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
122
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123=head2 perlfaq2 - Obtaining and Learning about Perl ($Revision: 1.16 $,
124$Date: 1997/04/23 18:04:09 $)
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125
126=item DESCRIPTION
127
128=over
129
130=item What machines support Perl? Where do I get it?
131
132=item How can I get a binary version of Perl?
133
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134=item I don't have a C compiler on my system. How can I compile perl?
135
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136=item I copied the Perl binary from one machine to another, but scripts
137don't work.
138
139=item I grabbed the sources and tried to compile but gdbm/dynamic
140loading/malloc/linking/... failed. How do I make it work?
141
193fb0af 142=item What modules and extensions are available for Perl? What is CPAN?
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143What does CPAN/src/... mean?
144
145=item Is there an ISO or ANSI certified version of Perl?
146
147=item Where can I get information on Perl?
148
149=item What are the Perl newsgroups on USENET? Where do I post questions?
150
151=item Where should I post source code?
152
153=item Perl Books
154
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155References, Tutorials
156*Learning Perl [2nd edition]
157by Randal L. Schwartz and Tom Christiansen, Task-Oriented, Special Topics
158
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159=item Perl in Magazines
160
161=item Perl on the Net: FTP and WWW Access
162
163=item What mailing lists are there for perl?
164
165MacPerl, Perl5-Porters, NTPerl, Perl-Packrats
166
167=item Archives of comp.lang.perl.misc
168
169=item Perl Training
170
171=item Where can I buy a commercial version of Perl?
172
173=item Where do I send bug reports?
174
175=item What is perl.com? perl.org? The Perl Institute?
176
177=item How do I learn about object-oriented Perl programming?
178
179=back
180
181=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
182
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183=head2 perlfaq3 - Programming Tools ($Revision: 1.22 $, $Date: 1997/04/24
18422:43:42 $)
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185
186=item DESCRIPTION
187
188=over
189
190=item How do I do (anything)?
191
192=item How can I use Perl interactively?
193
194=item Is there a Perl shell?
195
196=item How do I debug my Perl programs?
197
198=item How do I profile my Perl programs?
199
200=item How do I cross-reference my Perl programs?
201
202=item Is there a pretty-printer (formatter) for Perl?
203
204=item Is there a ctags for Perl?
205
206=item Where can I get Perl macros for vi?
207
208=item Where can I get perl-mode for emacs?
209
210=item How can I use curses with Perl?
211
212=item How can I use X or Tk with Perl?
213
214=item How can I generate simple menus without using CGI or Tk?
215
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216=item What is undump?
217
218=item How can I make my Perl program run faster?
219
220=item How can I make my Perl program take less memory?
221
222=item Is it unsafe to return a pointer to local data?
223
224=item How can I free an array or hash so my program shrinks?
225
226=item How can I make my CGI script more efficient?
227
228=item How can I hide the source for my Perl program?
229
54310121 230=item How can I compile my Perl program into byte code or C?
68dc0745 231
46fc3d4c 232=item How can I get '#!perl' to work on [MS-DOS,NT,...]?
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233
234=item Can I write useful perl programs on the command line?
235
46fc3d4c 236=item Why don't perl one-liners work on my DOS/Mac/VMS system?
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237
238=item Where can I learn about CGI or Web programming in Perl?
239
240=item Where can I learn about object-oriented Perl programming?
241
242=item Where can I learn about linking C with Perl? [h2xs, xsubpp]
243
244=item I've read perlembed, perlguts, etc., but I can't embed perl in
245my C program, what am I doing wrong?
246
247=item When I tried to run my script, I got this message. What does it
248mean?
249
250=item What's MakeMaker?
251
252=back
253
254=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
255
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256=head2 perlfaq4 - Data Manipulation ($Revision: 1.19 $, $Date: 1997/04/24
25722:43:57 $)
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258
259=item DESCRIPTION
260
261=item Data: Numbers
262
263=over
264
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265=item Why am I getting long decimals (eg, 19.9499999999999) instead of the
266numbers I should be getting (eg, 19.95)?
267
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268=item Why isn't my octal data interpreted correctly?
269
270=item Does perl have a round function? What about ceil() and floor()?
271Trig functions?
272
273=item How do I convert bits into ints?
274
275=item How do I multiply matrices?
276
277=item How do I perform an operation on a series of integers?
278
279=item How can I output Roman numerals?
280
281=item Why aren't my random numbers random?
282
283=back
284
285=item Data: Dates
286
287=over
288
289=item How do I find the week-of-the-year/day-of-the-year?
290
291=item How can I compare two date strings?
292
293=item How can I take a string and turn it into epoch seconds?
294
295=item How can I find the Julian Day?
296
193fb0af 297=item Does Perl have a year 2000 problem? Is Perl Y2K compliant?
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298
299=back
300
301=item Data: Strings
302
303=over
304
305=item How do I validate input?
306
307=item How do I unescape a string?
308
309=item How do I remove consecutive pairs of characters?
310
311=item How do I expand function calls in a string?
312
313=item How do I find matching/nesting anything?
314
315=item How do I reverse a string?
316
317=item How do I expand tabs in a string?
318
319=item How do I reformat a paragraph?
320
321=item How can I access/change the first N letters of a string?
322
323=item How do I change the Nth occurrence of something?
324
325=item How can I count the number of occurrences of a substring within a
326string?
327
328=item How do I capitalize all the words on one line?
329
330=item How can I split a [character] delimited string except when inside
331[character]? (Comma-separated files)
332
333=item How do I strip blank space from the beginning/end of a string?
334
335=item How do I extract selected columns from a string?
336
337=item How do I find the soundex value of a string?
338
339=item How can I expand variables in text strings?
340
341=item What's wrong with always quoting "$vars"?
342
343=item Why don't my <<HERE documents work?
344
3451. There must be no space after the << part, 2. There (probably) should be
346a semicolon at the end, 3. You can't (easily) have any space in front of
347the tag
348
349=back
350
351=item Data: Arrays
352
353=over
354
355=item What is the difference between $array[1] and @array[1]?
356
357=item How can I extract just the unique elements of an array?
358
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359a) If @in is sorted, and you want @out to be sorted:(this assumes all true
360values in the array), b) If you don't know whether @in is sorted:, c) Like
361(b), but @in contains only small integers:, d) A way to do (b) without any
362loops or greps:, e) Like (d), but @in contains only small positive
363integers:
68dc0745 364
193fb0af 365=item How can I tell whether a list or array contains a certain element?
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366
367=item How do I compute the difference of two arrays? How do I compute the
368intersection of two arrays?
369
370=item How do I find the first array element for which a condition is true?
371
372=item How do I handle linked lists?
373
374=item How do I handle circular lists?
375
376=item How do I shuffle an array randomly?
377
378=item How do I process/modify each element of an array?
379
380=item How do I select a random element from an array?
381
382=item How do I permute N elements of a list?
383
384=item How do I sort an array by (anything)?
385
386=item How do I manipulate arrays of bits?
387
388=item Why does defined() return true on empty arrays and hashes?
389
390=back
391
392=item Data: Hashes (Associative Arrays)
393
394=over
395
396=item How do I process an entire hash?
397
398=item What happens if I add or remove keys from a hash while iterating over
399it?
400
401=item How do I look up a hash element by value?
402
403=item How can I know how many entries are in a hash?
404
405=item How do I sort a hash (optionally by value instead of key)?
406
407=item How can I always keep my hash sorted?
408
409=item What's the difference between "delete" and "undef" with hashes?
410
411=item Why don't my tied hashes make the defined/exists distinction?
412
413=item How do I reset an each() operation part-way through?
414
415=item How can I get the unique keys from two hashes?
416
417=item How can I store a multidimensional array in a DBM file?
418
419=item How can I make my hash remember the order I put elements into it?
420
421=item Why does passing a subroutine an undefined element in a hash create
422it?
423
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424=item How can I make the Perl equivalent of a C structure/C++ class/hash or
425array of hashes or arrays?
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426
427=item How can I use a reference as a hash key?
428
429=back
430
431=item Data: Misc
432
433=over
434
435=item How do I handle binary data correctly?
436
437=item How do I determine whether a scalar is a number/whole/integer/float?
438
439=item How do I keep persistent data across program calls?
440
441=item How do I print out or copy a recursive data structure?
442
443=item How do I define methods for every class/object?
444
445=item How do I verify a credit card checksum?
446
447=back
448
449=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
450
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451=head2 perlfaq5 - Files and Formats ($Revision: 1.22 $, $Date: 1997/04/24
45222:44:02 $)
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453
454=item DESCRIPTION
455
456=over
457
193fb0af 458=item How do I flush/unbuffer an output filehandle? Why must I do this?
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459
460=item How do I change one line in a file/delete a line in a file/insert a
461line in the middle of a file/append to the beginning of a file?
462
463=item How do I count the number of lines in a file?
464
465=item How do I make a temporary file name?
466
467=item How can I manipulate fixed-record-length files?
468
469=item How can I make a filehandle local to a subroutine? How do I pass
470filehandles between subroutines? How do I make an array of filehandles?
471
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472=item How can I use a filehandle indirectly?
473
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474=item How can I set up a footer format to be used with write()?
475
476=item How can I write() into a string?
477
478=item How can I output my numbers with commas added?
479
480=item How can I translate tildes (~) in a filename?
481
193fb0af 482=item How come when I open a file read-write it wipes it out?
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483
484=item Why do I sometimes get an "Argument list too long" when I use <*>?
485
486=item Is there a leak/bug in glob()?
487
488=item How can I open a file with a leading "E<gt>" or trailing blanks?
489
490=item How can I reliably rename a file?
491
492=item How can I lock a file?
493
494=item What can't I just open(FH, ">file.lock")?
495
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496=item I still don't get locking. I just want to increment the number in
497the file. How can I do this?
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498
499=item How do I randomly update a binary file?
500
501=item How do I get a file's timestamp in perl?
502
503=item How do I set a file's timestamp in perl?
504
505=item How do I print to more than one file at once?
506
507=item How can I read in a file by paragraphs?
508
509=item How can I read a single character from a file? From the keyboard?
510
511=item How can I tell if there's a character waiting on a filehandle?
512
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513=item How do I do a C<tail -f> in perl?
514
515=item How do I dup() a filehandle in Perl?
516
517=item How do I close a file descriptor by number?
518
46fc3d4c 519=item Why can't I use "C:\temp\foo" in DOS paths? What doesn't
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520`C:\temp\foo.exe` work?
521
522=item Why doesn't glob("*.*") get all the files?
523
524=item Why does Perl let me delete read-only files? Why does C<-i> clobber
525protected files? Isn't this a bug in Perl?
526
527=item How do I select a random line from a file?
528
529=back
530
531=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
532
fc36a67e 533=head2 perlfaq6 - Regexps ($Revision: 1.17 $, $Date: 1997/04/24 22:44:10 $)
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534
535=item DESCRIPTION
536
537=over
538
539=item How can I hope to use regular expressions without creating illegible
54310121 540and unmaintainable code?
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541
542Comments Outside the Regexp, Comments Inside the Regexp, Different
543Delimiters
544
545=item I'm having trouble matching over more than one line. What's wrong?
546
547=item How can I pull out lines between two patterns that are themselves on
548different lines?
549
550=item I put a regular expression into $/ but it didn't work. What's wrong?
551
552=item How do I substitute case insensitively on the LHS, but preserving
553case on the RHS?
554
193fb0af 555=item How can I make C<\w> match national character sets?
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556
557=item How can I match a locale-smart version of C</[a-zA-Z]/>?
558
54310121 559=item How can I quote a variable to use in a regexp?
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560
561=item What is C</o> really for?
562
563=item How do I use a regular expression to strip C style comments from a
564file?
565
566=item Can I use Perl regular expressions to match balanced text?
567
568=item What does it mean that regexps are greedy? How can I get around it?
569
570=item How do I process each word on each line?
571
572=item How can I print out a word-frequency or line-frequency summary?
573
574=item How can I do approximate matching?
575
576=item How do I efficiently match many regular expressions at once?
577
578=item Why don't word-boundary searches with C<\b> work for me?
579
580=item Why does using $&, $`, or $' slow my program down?
581
582=item What good is C<\G> in a regular expression?
583
584=item Are Perl regexps DFAs or NFAs? Are they POSIX compliant?
585
586=item What's wrong with using grep or map in a void context?
587
54310121 588=item How can I match strings with multibyte characters?
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589
590=back
591
592=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
593
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594=head2 perlfaq7 - Perl Language Issues ($Revision: 1.18 $, $Date:
5951997/04/24 22:44:14 $)
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596
597=item DESCRIPTION
598
599=over
600
601=item Can I get a BNF/yacc/RE for the Perl language?
602
603=item What are all these $@%* punctuation signs, and how do I know when to
604use them?
605
606=item Do I always/never have to quote my strings or use semicolons and
607commas?
608
609=item How do I skip some return values?
610
611=item How do I temporarily block warnings?
612
613=item What's an extension?
614
615=item Why do Perl operators have different precedence than C operators?
616
617=item How do I declare/create a structure?
618
619=item How do I create a module?
620
621=item How do I create a class?
622
623=item How can I tell if a variable is tainted?
624
625=item What's a closure?
626
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627=item What is variable suicide and how can I prevent it?
628
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629=item How can I pass/return a {Function, FileHandle, Array, Hash, Method,
630Regexp}?
631
632Passing Variables and Functions, Passing Filehandles, Passing Regexps,
633Passing Methods
634
635=item How do I create a static variable?
636
193fb0af 637=item What's the difference between dynamic and lexical (static) scoping?
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638Between local() and my()?
639
640=item How can I access a dynamic variable while a similarly named lexical
641is in scope?
642
643=item What's the difference between deep and shallow binding?
644
645=item Why doesn't "local($foo) = <FILE>;" work right?
646
54310121 647=item How do I redefine a builtin function, operator, or method?
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648
649=item What's the difference between calling a function as &foo and foo()?
650
651=item How do I create a switch or case statement?
652
653=item How can I catch accesses to undefined variables/functions/methods?
654
655=item Why can't a method included in this same file be found?
656
657=item How can I find out my current package?
658
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659=item How can I comment out a large block of perl code?
660
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661=back
662
663=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
664
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665=head2 perlfaq8 - System Interaction ($Revision: 1.21 $, $Date: 1997/04/24
66622:44:19 $)
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667
668=item DESCRIPTION
669
670=over
671
672=item How do I find out which operating system I'm running under?
673
674=item How come exec() doesn't return?
675
676=item How do I do fancy stuff with the keyboard/screen/mouse?
677
678Keyboard, Screen, Mouse
679
680=item How do I ask the user for a password?
681
682=item How do I read and write the serial port?
683
684lockfiles, open mode, end of line, flushing output, non-blocking input
685
686=item How do I decode encrypted password files?
687
688=item How do I start a process in the background?
689
690STDIN, STDOUT and STDERR are shared, Signals, Zombies
691
692=item How do I trap control characters/signals?
693
694=item How do I modify the shadow password file on a Unix system?
695
696=item How do I set the time and date?
697
698=item How can I sleep() or alarm() for under a second?
699
700=item How can I measure time under a second?
701
702=item How can I do an atexit() or setjmp()/longjmp()? (Exception handling)
703
704=item Why doesn't my sockets program work under System V (Solaris)? What
705does the error message "Protocol not supported" mean?
706
707=item How can I call my system's unique C functions from Perl?
708
709=item Where do I get the include files to do ioctl() or syscall()?
710
711=item Why do setuid perl scripts complain about kernel problems?
712
713=item How can I open a pipe both to and from a command?
714
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715=item Why can't I get the output of a command with system()?
716
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717=item How can I capture STDERR from an external command?
718
719=item Why doesn't open() return an error when a pipe open fails?
720
721=item What's wrong with using backticks in a void context?
722
723=item How can I call backticks without shell processing?
724
725=item Why can't my script read from STDIN after I gave it EOF (^D on Unix,
54310121 726^Z on MS-DOS)?
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727
728=item How can I convert my shell script to perl?
729
730=item Can I use perl to run a telnet or ftp session?
731
732=item How can I write expect in Perl?
733
734=item Is there a way to hide perl's command line from programs such as
735"ps"?
736
737=item I {changed directory, modified my environment} in a perl script. How
738come the change disappeared when I exited the script? How do I get my
739changes to be visible?
740
741Unix, VMS
742
743=item How do I close a process's filehandle without waiting for it to
744complete?
745
746=item How do I fork a daemon process?
747
748=item How do I make my program run with sh and csh?
749
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750=item How do I find out if I'm running interactively or not?
751
752=item How do I timeout a slow event?
753
754=item How do I set CPU limits?
755
756=item How do I avoid zombies on a Unix system?
757
758=item How do I use an SQL database?
759
760=item How do I make a system() exit on control-C?
761
762=item How do I open a file without blocking?
763
764=item How do I install a CPAN module?
765
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766=item How do I keep my own module/library directory?
767
768=item How do I add the directory my program lives in to the module/library
769search path?
770
771=item How do I add a directory to my include path at runtime?
772
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773=back
774
fc36a67e
PP
775=item How do I get one key from the terminal at a time, under POSIX?
776
777=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
778
3e3baf6d 779=head2 perlfaq9 - Networking ($Revision: 1.17 $, $Date: 1997/04/24 22:44:29
3fe9a6f1 780$)
68dc0745
PP
781
782=item DESCRIPTION
783
784=over
785
786=item My CGI script runs from the command line but not the browser. Can
787you help me fix it?
788
789=item How do I remove HTML from a string?
790
791=item How do I extract URLs?
792
793=item How do I download a file from the user's machine? How do I open a
794file on another machine?
795
796=item How do I make a pop-up menu in HTML?
797
798=item How do I fetch an HTML file?
799
800=item how do I decode or create those %-encodings on the web?
801
802=item How do I redirect to another page?
803
804=item How do I put a password on my web pages?
805
806=item How do I edit my .htpasswd and .htgroup files with Perl?
807
46fc3d4c
PP
808=item How do I make sure users can't enter values into a form that cause my
809CGI script to do bad things?
810
193fb0af 811=item How do I parse a mail header?
68dc0745
PP
812
813=item How do I decode a CGI form?
814
193fb0af 815=item How do I check a valid mail address?
68dc0745
PP
816
817=item How do I decode a MIME/BASE64 string?
818
193fb0af 819=item How do I return the user's mail address?
68dc0745
PP
820
821=item How do I send/read mail?
822
823=item How do I find out my hostname/domainname/IP address?
824
825=item How do I fetch a news article or the active newsgroups?
826
827=item How do I fetch/put an FTP file?
828
829=item How can I do RPC in Perl?
830
831=back
832
833=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
834
193fb0af 835=head2 perldelta - what's new for perl5.005
cb1a09d0 836
8ebc5c01 837=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 838
193fb0af 839=item Incompatible Changes
cb1a09d0 840
8ebc5c01 841=item Core Changes
cb1a09d0 842
8ebc5c01 843=item Modules
cb1a09d0 844
8ebc5c01
PP
845=over
846
5cd24f17
PP
847=item Required Updates
848
cb1a09d0
AD
849=back
850
774d564b
PP
851=item Utility Changes
852
0a753a76
PP
853=item C Language API Changes
854
8ebc5c01 855=item Documentation Changes
cb1a09d0 856
8ebc5c01 857=item BUGS
cb1a09d0 858
8ebc5c01 859=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0 860
8ebc5c01 861=item HISTORY
cb1a09d0 862
8ebc5c01 863=head2 perldata - Perl data types
cb1a09d0 864
8ebc5c01 865=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 866
8ebc5c01 867=over
cb1a09d0 868
8ebc5c01 869=item Variable names
cb1a09d0 870
8ebc5c01 871=item Context
cb1a09d0 872
8ebc5c01 873=item Scalar values
cb1a09d0 874
8ebc5c01 875=item Scalar value constructors
cb1a09d0 876
8ebc5c01 877=item List value constructors
cb1a09d0 878
8ebc5c01 879=item Typeglobs and Filehandles
cb1a09d0 880
8ebc5c01 881=back
cb1a09d0 882
8ebc5c01 883=head2 perlsyn - Perl syntax
cb1a09d0 884
8ebc5c01 885=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 886
8ebc5c01 887=over
cb1a09d0 888
8ebc5c01 889=item Declarations
cb1a09d0 890
8ebc5c01 891=item Simple statements
cb1a09d0 892
8ebc5c01 893=item Compound statements
cb1a09d0 894
8ebc5c01 895=item Loop Control
cb1a09d0 896
8ebc5c01 897=item For Loops
cb1a09d0 898
8ebc5c01 899=item Foreach Loops
cb1a09d0 900
8ebc5c01 901=item Basic BLOCKs and Switch Statements
cb1a09d0 902
8ebc5c01 903=item Goto
cb1a09d0 904
8ebc5c01 905=item PODs: Embedded Documentation
cb1a09d0 906
774d564b
PP
907=item Plain Old Comments (Not!)
908
8ebc5c01 909=back
cb1a09d0
AD
910
911=head2 perlop - Perl operators and precedence
912
913=item SYNOPSIS
914
cb1a09d0
AD
915=item DESCRIPTION
916
cb1a09d0
AD
917=over
918
919=item Terms and List Operators (Leftward)
920
cb1a09d0
AD
921=item The Arrow Operator
922
5f05dabc 923=item Auto-increment and Auto-decrement
cb1a09d0 924
cb1a09d0
AD
925=item Exponentiation
926
cb1a09d0
AD
927=item Symbolic Unary Operators
928
cb1a09d0
AD
929=item Binding Operators
930
cb1a09d0
AD
931=item Multiplicative Operators
932
cb1a09d0
AD
933=item Additive Operators
934
cb1a09d0
AD
935=item Shift Operators
936
cb1a09d0
AD
937=item Named Unary Operators
938
cb1a09d0
AD
939=item Relational Operators
940
cb1a09d0
AD
941=item Equality Operators
942
cb1a09d0
AD
943=item Bitwise And
944
cb1a09d0
AD
945=item Bitwise Or and Exclusive Or
946
cb1a09d0
AD
947=item C-style Logical And
948
cb1a09d0
AD
949=item C-style Logical Or
950
193fb0af 951=item Range Operators
cb1a09d0 952
cb1a09d0
AD
953=item Conditional Operator
954
cb1a09d0
AD
955=item Assignment Operators
956
cb1a09d0
AD
957=item Comma Operator
958
cb1a09d0
AD
959=item List Operators (Rightward)
960
cb1a09d0
AD
961=item Logical Not
962
cb1a09d0
AD
963=item Logical And
964
cb1a09d0
AD
965=item Logical or and Exclusive Or
966
cb1a09d0
AD
967=item C Operators Missing From Perl
968
cb1a09d0
AD
969unary &, unary *, (TYPE)
970
5f05dabc 971=item Quote and Quote-like Operators
cb1a09d0 972
8ebc5c01 973=item Regexp Quote-Like Operators
cb1a09d0 974
d516a115 975?PATTERN?, m/PATTERN/cgimosx, /PATTERN/cgimosx, q/STRING/, C<'STRING'>,
cb1a09d0
AD
976qq/STRING/, "STRING", qx/STRING/, `STRING`, qw/STRING/,
977s/PATTERN/REPLACEMENT/egimosx, tr/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cds,
978y/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cds
979
980=item I/O Operators
981
cb1a09d0
AD
982=item Constant Folding
983
193fb0af
GS
984=item Bitwise String Operators
985
55497cff 986=item Integer Arithmetic
cb1a09d0 987
68dc0745
PP
988=item Floating-point Arithmetic
989
193fb0af
GS
990=item Bigger Numbers
991
cb1a09d0
AD
992=back
993
cb1a09d0
AD
994=head2 perlre - Perl regular expressions
995
996=item DESCRIPTION
997
55497cff
PP
998i, m, s, x
999
cb1a09d0
AD
1000=over
1001
1002=item Regular Expressions
1003
193fb0af
GS
1004C<(?#text)>, C<(?:pattern)>, C<(?=pattern)>, C<(?!pattern)>,
1005C<(?E<lt>=pattern)>, C<(?<!pattern)>, C<(?{ code })>, C<(?E<gt>pattern)>,
1006C<(?(condition)yes-pattern|no-pattern)>, C<(?(condition)yes-pattern)>,
d516a115 1007C<(?imsx)>
cb1a09d0 1008
7d2bfb28
PP
1009=item Backtracking
1010
cb1a09d0
AD
1011=item Version 8 Regular Expressions
1012
cb1a09d0
AD
1013=item WARNING on \1 vs $1
1014
7bac28a0
PP
1015=item SEE ALSO
1016
cb1a09d0
AD
1017=back
1018
cb1a09d0
AD
1019=head2 perlrun - how to execute the Perl interpreter
1020
1021=item SYNOPSIS
1022
cb1a09d0
AD
1023=item DESCRIPTION
1024
cb1a09d0
AD
1025=over
1026
68dc0745
PP
1027=item #! and quoting on non-Unix systems
1028
54310121 1029OS/2, MS-DOS, Win95/NT, Macintosh
68dc0745 1030
193fb0af
GS
1031=item Location of Perl
1032
cb1a09d0
AD
1033=item Switches
1034
d516a115
JH
1035B<-0>[I<digits>], B<-a>, B<-c>, B<-d>, B<-d:>I<foo>, B<-D>I<letters>,
1036B<-D>I<number>, B<-e> I<commandline>, B<-F>I<pattern>, B<-h>,
8ebc5c01
PP
1037B<-i>[I<extension>], B<-I>I<directory>, B<-l>[I<octnum>],
1038B<-m>[B<->]I<module>, B<-M>[B<->]I<module>, B<-M>[B<->]I<'module ...'>,
1039B<-[mM]>[B<->]I<module=arg[,arg]...>, B<-n>, B<-p>, B<-P>, B<-s>, B<-S>,
1040B<-T>, B<-u>, B<-U>, B<-v>, B<-V>, B<-V:>I<name>, B<-w>, B<-x> I<directory>
cb1a09d0
AD
1041
1042=back
1043
1e422769
PP
1044=item ENVIRONMENT
1045
3e3baf6d
TB
1046HOME, LOGDIR, PATH, PERL5LIB, PERL5OPT, PERLLIB, PERL5DB, PERL5SHELL
1047(specific to WIN32 port), PERL_DEBUG_MSTATS, PERL_DESTRUCT_LEVEL
1e422769 1048
cb1a09d0
AD
1049=head2 perlfunc - Perl builtin functions
1050
1051=item DESCRIPTION
1052
cb1a09d0
AD
1053=over
1054
1055=item Perl Functions by Category
1056
8ebc5c01
PP
1057Functions for SCALARs or strings, Regular expressions and pattern matching,
1058Numeric functions, Functions for real @ARRAYs, Functions for list data,
1059Functions for real %HASHes, Input and output functions, Functions for fixed
1060length data or records, Functions for filehandles, files, or directories,
1061Keywords related to the control flow of your perl program, Keywords related
1062to scoping, Miscellaneous functions, Functions for processes and process
1063groups, Keywords related to perl modules, Keywords related to classes and
1064object-orientedness, Low-level socket functions, System V interprocess
1065communication functions, Fetching user and group info, Fetching network
1066info, Time-related functions, Functions new in perl5, Functions obsoleted
1067in perl5
cb1a09d0
AD
1068
1069=item Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions
1070
d516a115 1071I<-X> FILEHANDLE, I<-X> EXPR, I<-X>, abs VALUE, abs, accept
8ebc5c01
PP
1072NEWSOCKET,GENERICSOCKET, alarm SECONDS, alarm, atan2 Y,X, bind SOCKET,NAME,
1073binmode FILEHANDLE, bless REF,CLASSNAME, bless REF, caller EXPR, caller,
1074chdir EXPR, chmod LIST, chomp VARIABLE, chomp LIST, chomp, chop VARIABLE,
1075chop LIST, chop, chown LIST, chr NUMBER, chr, chroot FILENAME, chroot,
1076close FILEHANDLE, closedir DIRHANDLE, connect SOCKET,NAME, continue BLOCK,
aa689395
PP
1077cos EXPR, crypt PLAINTEXT,SALT, dbmclose HASH, dbmopen HASH,DBNAME,MODE,
1078defined EXPR, defined, delete EXPR, die LIST, do BLOCK, do
1079SUBROUTINE(LIST), do EXPR, dump LABEL, each HASH, eof FILEHANDLE, eof (),
193fb0af
GS
1080eof, eval EXPR, eval BLOCK, exec LIST, exec PROGRAM LIST, exists EXPR, exit
1081EXPR, exp EXPR, exp, fcntl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, fileno FILEHANDLE,
1082flock FILEHANDLE,OPERATION, fork, format, formline PICTURE,LIST, getc
1083FILEHANDLE, getc, getlogin, getpeername SOCKET, getpgrp PID, getppid,
1084getpriority WHICH,WHO, getpwnam NAME, getgrnam NAME, gethostbyname NAME,
1085getnetbyname NAME, getprotobyname NAME, getpwuid UID, getgrgid GID,
1086getservbyname NAME,PROTO, gethostbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE, getnetbyaddr
1087ADDR,ADDRTYPE, getprotobynumber NUMBER, getservbyport PORT,PROTO, getpwent,
1088getgrent, gethostent, getnetent, getprotoent, getservent, setpwent,
1089setgrent, sethostent STAYOPEN, setnetent STAYOPEN, setprotoent STAYOPEN,
1090setservent STAYOPEN, endpwent, endgrent, endhostent, endnetent,
1091endprotoent, endservent, getsockname SOCKET, getsockopt
1092SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME, glob EXPR, glob, gmtime EXPR, goto LABEL, goto EXPR,
1093goto &NAME, grep BLOCK LIST, grep EXPR,LIST, hex EXPR, hex, import, index
1094STR,SUBSTR,POSITION, index STR,SUBSTR, int EXPR, int, ioctl
1095FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, join EXPR,LIST, keys HASH, kill LIST, last
1096LABEL, last, lc EXPR, lc, lcfirst EXPR, lcfirst, length EXPR, length, link
1097OLDFILE,NEWFILE, listen SOCKET,QUEUESIZE, local EXPR, localtime EXPR, log
1098EXPR, log, lstat FILEHANDLE, lstat EXPR, lstat, m//, map BLOCK LIST, map
1099EXPR,LIST, mkdir FILENAME,MODE, msgctl ID,CMD,ARG, msgget KEY,FLAGS, msgsnd
1100ID,MSG,FLAGS, msgrcv ID,VAR,SIZE,TYPE,FLAGS, my EXPR, next LABEL, next, no
1101Module LIST, oct EXPR, oct, open FILEHANDLE,EXPR, open FILEHANDLE, opendir
1102DIRHANDLE,EXPR, ord EXPR, ord, pack TEMPLATE,LIST, package, package
1103NAMESPACE, pipe READHANDLE,WRITEHANDLE, pop ARRAY, pop, pos SCALAR, pos,
1104print FILEHANDLE LIST, print LIST, print, printf FILEHANDLE FORMAT, LIST,
1105printf FORMAT, LIST, prototype FUNCTION, push ARRAY,LIST, q/STRING/,
1106qq/STRING/, qx/STRING/, qw/STRING/, quotemeta EXPR, quotemeta, rand EXPR,
1107rand, read FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, read FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,
1108readdir DIRHANDLE, readline EXPR, readlink EXPR, readlink, readpipe EXPR,
1109recv SOCKET,SCALAR,LEN,FLAGS, redo LABEL, redo, ref EXPR, ref, rename
d516a115
JH
1110OLDNAME,NEWNAME, require EXPR, require, reset EXPR, reset, return EXPR,
1111return, reverse LIST, rewinddir DIRHANDLE, rindex STR,SUBSTR,POSITION,
1112rindex STR,SUBSTR, rmdir FILENAME, rmdir, s///, scalar EXPR, seek
1113FILEHANDLE,POSITION,WHENCE, seekdir DIRHANDLE,POS, select FILEHANDLE,
1114select, select RBITS,WBITS,EBITS,TIMEOUT, semctl ID,SEMNUM,CMD,ARG, semget
1115KEY,NSEMS,FLAGS, semop KEY,OPSTRING, send SOCKET,MSG,FLAGS,TO, send
1116SOCKET,MSG,FLAGS, setpgrp PID,PGRP, setpriority WHICH,WHO,PRIORITY,
1117setsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME,OPTVAL, shift ARRAY, shift, shmctl
1118ID,CMD,ARG, shmget KEY,SIZE,FLAGS, shmread ID,VAR,POS,SIZE, shmwrite
1119ID,STRING,POS,SIZE, shutdown SOCKET,HOW, sin EXPR, sin, sleep EXPR, sleep,
1120socket SOCKET,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL, socketpair
8ebc5c01
PP
1121SOCKET1,SOCKET2,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL, sort SUBNAME LIST, sort BLOCK LIST,
1122sort LIST, splice ARRAY,OFFSET,LENGTH,LIST, splice ARRAY,OFFSET,LENGTH,
1123splice ARRAY,OFFSET, split /PATTERN/,EXPR,LIMIT, split /PATTERN/,EXPR,
1124split /PATTERN/, split, sprintf FORMAT, LIST, sqrt EXPR, sqrt, srand EXPR,
b971f6e4 1125srand, stat FILEHANDLE, stat EXPR, stat, study SCALAR, study, sub BLOCK,
193fb0af
GS
1126sub NAME, sub NAME BLOCK, substr EXPR,OFFSET,LEN,REPLACEMENT, substr
1127EXPR,OFFSET,LEN, substr EXPR,OFFSET, symlink OLDFILE,NEWFILE, syscall LIST,
1128sysopen FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE, sysopen FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE,PERMS,
1129sysread FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, sysread FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,
1130sysseek FILEHANDLE,POSITION,WHENCE, system LIST, system PROGRAM LIST,
1131syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, syswrite
1132FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH, tell FILEHANDLE, tell, telldir DIRHANDLE, tie
1133VARIABLE,CLASSNAME,LIST, tied VARIABLE, time, times, tr///, truncate
1134FILEHANDLE,LENGTH, truncate EXPR,LENGTH, uc EXPR, uc, ucfirst EXPR,
1135ucfirst, umask EXPR, umask, undef EXPR, undef, unlink LIST, unlink, unpack
1136TEMPLATE,EXPR, untie VARIABLE, unshift ARRAY,LIST, use Module LIST, use
1137Module, use Module VERSION LIST, use VERSION, utime LIST, values HASH, vec
1138EXPR,OFFSET,BITS, wait, waitpid PID,FLAGS, wantarray, warn LIST, write
1139FILEHANDLE, write EXPR, write, y///
cb1a09d0
AD
1140
1141=back
1142
cb1a09d0
AD
1143=head2 perlvar - Perl predefined variables
1144
1145=item DESCRIPTION
1146
cb1a09d0
AD
1147=over
1148
1149=item Predefined Names
1150
193fb0af 1151$ARG, $_, $E<lt>I<digits>E<gt>, $MATCH, $&, $PREMATCH, $`, $POSTMATCH, $',
8ebc5c01
PP
1152$LAST_PAREN_MATCH, $+, $MULTILINE_MATCHING, $*, input_line_number HANDLE
1153EXPR, $INPUT_LINE_NUMBER, $NR, $, input_record_separator HANDLE EXPR,
1154$INPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR, $RS, $/, autoflush HANDLE EXPR, $OUTPUT_AUTOFLUSH,
1155$|, output_field_separator HANDLE EXPR, $OUTPUT_FIELD_SEPARATOR, $OFS, $,,
1156output_record_separator HANDLE EXPR, $OUTPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR, $ORS, $\,
1157$LIST_SEPARATOR, $", $SUBSCRIPT_SEPARATOR, $SUBSEP, $;, $OFMT, $#,
1158format_page_number HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_PAGE_NUMBER, $%,
1159format_lines_per_page HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_LINES_PER_PAGE, $=,
1160format_lines_left HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_LINES_LEFT, $-, format_name HANDLE
1161EXPR, $FORMAT_NAME, $~, format_top_name HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_TOP_NAME, $^,
1162format_line_break_characters HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_LINE_BREAK_CHARACTERS,
1163$:, format_formfeed HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_FORMFEED, $^L, $ACCUMULATOR, $^A,
ff0cee69
PP
1164$CHILD_ERROR, $?, $OS_ERROR, $ERRNO, $!, $EXTENDED_OS_ERROR, $^E,
1165$EVAL_ERROR, $@, $PROCESS_ID, $PID, $$, $REAL_USER_ID, $UID, $<,
1166$EFFECTIVE_USER_ID, $EUID, $>, $REAL_GROUP_ID, $GID, $(,
1167$EFFECTIVE_GROUP_ID, $EGID, $), $PROGRAM_NAME, $0, $[, $PERL_VERSION, $],
d516a115
JH
1168$DEBUGGING, $^D, $SYSTEM_FD_MAX, $^F, $^H, $INPLACE_EDIT, $^I, $^M,
1169$OSNAME, $^O, $PERLDB, $^P, 0x01, 0x02, 0x04, 0x08, 0x10, 0x20, $^S,
1170$BASETIME, $^T, $WARNING, $^W, $EXECUTABLE_NAME, $^X, $ARGV, @ARGV, @INC,
193fb0af 1171@_, %INC, %ENV $ENV{expr}, %SIG $SIG{expr}
cb1a09d0
AD
1172
1173=back
1174
cb1a09d0
AD
1175=head2 perlsub - Perl subroutines
1176
1177=item SYNOPSIS
1178
cb1a09d0
AD
1179=item DESCRIPTION
1180
cb1a09d0
AD
1181=over
1182
1183=item Private Variables via my()
1184
193fb0af
GS
1185=item Peristent Private Variables
1186
cb1a09d0
AD
1187=item Temporary Values via local()
1188
cb1a09d0
AD
1189=item Passing Symbol Table Entries (typeglobs)
1190
193fb0af
GS
1191=item When to Still Use local()
1192
11931. You need to give a global variable a temporary value, especially $_, 2.
1194You need to create a local file or directory handle or a local function, 3.
1195You want to temporarily change just one element of an array or hash
1196
cb1a09d0
AD
1197=item Pass by Reference
1198
cb1a09d0
AD
1199=item Prototypes
1200
44a8e56a
PP
1201=item Constant Functions
1202
cb1a09d0
AD
1203=item Overriding Builtin Functions
1204
cb1a09d0
AD
1205=item Autoloading
1206
cb1a09d0
AD
1207=back
1208
1209=item SEE ALSO
1210
c635e13b 1211=head2 perlmod - Perl modules (packages and symbol tables)
cb1a09d0
AD
1212
1213=item DESCRIPTION
1214
cb1a09d0
AD
1215=over
1216
1217=item Packages
1218
cb1a09d0
AD
1219=item Symbol Tables
1220
cb1a09d0
AD
1221=item Package Constructors and Destructors
1222
cb1a09d0
AD
1223=item Perl Classes
1224
cb1a09d0
AD
1225=item Perl Modules
1226
cb1a09d0
AD
1227=back
1228
c635e13b
PP
1229=item SEE ALSO
1230
1231=head2 perlmodlib - constructing new Perl modules and finding existing ones
1232
1233=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 1234
cb1a09d0
AD
1235=item THE PERL MODULE LIBRARY
1236
cb1a09d0
AD
1237=over
1238
1239=item Pragmatic Modules
1240
c635e13b
PP
1241use autouse MODULE => qw(sub1 sub2 sub3), blib, diagnostics, integer, less,
1242lib, locale, ops, overload, sigtrap, strict, subs, vmsish, vars
cb1a09d0
AD
1243
1244=item Standard Modules
1245
8ebc5c01 1246AnyDBM_File, AutoLoader, AutoSplit, Benchmark, CPAN, CPAN::FirstTime,
8cc95fdb 1247CPAN::Nox, Carp, Class::Struct, Config, Cwd, DB_File, Devel::SelfStubber,
8ebc5c01
PP
1248DirHandle, DynaLoader, English, Env, Exporter, ExtUtils::Embed,
1249ExtUtils::Install, ExtUtils::Liblist, ExtUtils::MM_OS2, ExtUtils::MM_Unix,
1250ExtUtils::MM_VMS, ExtUtils::MakeMaker, ExtUtils::Manifest,
d516a115
JH
1251ExtUtils::Mkbootstrap, ExtUtils::Mksymlists, ExtUtils::testlib, Fatal,
1252Fcntl, File::Basename, File::CheckTree, File::Compare, File::Copy,
1253File::Find, File::Path, File::stat, FileCache, FileHandle, FindBin,
1254GDBM_File, Getopt::Long, Getopt::Std, I18N::Collate, IO, IO::File,
1255IO::Handle, IO::Pipe, IO::Seekable, IO::Select, IO::Socket, IPC::Open2,
1256IPC::Open3, Math::BigFloat, Math::BigInt, Math::Complex, Math::Trig,
1257NDBM_File, Net::Ping, Net::hostent, Net::netent, Net::protoent,
1258Net::servent, Opcode, Pod::Text, POSIX, SDBM_File, Safe, Search::Dict,
1259SelectSaver, SelfLoader, Shell, Socket, Symbol, Sys::Hostname, Sys::Syslog,
1260Term::Cap, Term::Complete, Term::ReadLine, Test::Harness, Text::Abbrev,
878e08df
PP
1261Text::ParseWords, Text::Soundex, Text::Tabs, Text::Wrap, Tie::Hash,
1262Tie::RefHash, Tie::Scalar, Tie::SubstrHash, Time::Local, Time::gmtime,
1263Time::localtime, Time::tm, UNIVERSAL, User::grent, User::pwent
cb1a09d0
AD
1264
1265=item Extension Modules
1266
cb1a09d0
AD
1267=back
1268
1269=item CPAN
1270
8ebc5c01
PP
1271Language Extensions and Documentation Tools, Development Support, Operating
1272System Interfaces, Networking, Device Control (modems) and InterProcess
1273Communication, Data Types and Data Type Utilities, Database Interfaces,
1274User Interfaces, Interfaces to / Emulations of Other Programming Languages,
1275File Names, File Systems and File Locking (see also File Handles), String
1276Processing, Language Text Processing, Parsing, and Searching, Option,
1277Argument, Parameter, and Configuration File Processing,
1278Internationalization and Locale, Authentication, Security, and Encryption,
1279World Wide Web, HTML, HTTP, CGI, MIME, Server and Daemon Utilities,
1280Archiving and Compression, Images, Pixmap and Bitmap Manipulation, Drawing,
1281and Graphing, Mail and Usenet News, Control Flow Utilities (callbacks and
1282exceptions etc), File Handle and Input/Output Stream Utilities,
9607fc9c
PP
1283Miscellaneous Modules, Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, North America,
1284South America
8ebc5c01
PP
1285
1286=item Modules: Creation, Use, and Abuse
cb1a09d0
AD
1287
1288=over
1289
1290=item Guidelines for Module Creation
1291
cb1a09d0 1292Do similar modules already exist in some form?, Try to design the new
8ebc5c01
PP
1293module to be easy to extend and reuse, Some simple style guidelines, Select
1294what to export, Select a name for the module, Have you got it right?,
1295README and other Additional Files, A description of the
1296module/package/extension etc, A copyright notice - see below, Prerequisites
1297- what else you may need to have, How to build it - possible changes to
1298Makefile.PL etc, How to install it, Recent changes in this release,
1299especially incompatibilities, Changes / enhancements you plan to make in
1300the future, Adding a Copyright Notice, Give the module a
1301version/issue/release number, How to release and distribute a module, Take
1302care when changing a released module
cb1a09d0
AD
1303
1304=item Guidelines for Converting Perl 4 Library Scripts into Modules
1305
cb1a09d0 1306There is no requirement to convert anything, Consider the implications,
8ebc5c01
PP
1307Make the most of the opportunity, The pl2pm utility will get you started,
1308Adds the standard Module prologue lines, Converts package specifiers from '
1309to ::, Converts die(...) to croak(...), Several other minor changes
cb1a09d0
AD
1310
1311=item Guidelines for Reusing Application Code
1312
cb1a09d0 1313Complete applications rarely belong in the Perl Module Library, Many
193fb0af 1314applications contain some Perl code that could be reused, Break-out the
8ebc5c01
PP
1315reusable code into one or more separate module files, Take the opportunity
1316to reconsider and redesign the interfaces, In some cases the 'application'
1317can then be reduced to a small
cb1a09d0
AD
1318
1319=back
1320
c635e13b
PP
1321=item NOTE
1322
8ebc5c01 1323=head2 perlform - Perl formats
cb1a09d0
AD
1324
1325=item DESCRIPTION
1326
cb1a09d0
AD
1327=over
1328
8ebc5c01 1329=item Format Variables
cb1a09d0 1330
8ebc5c01 1331=back
cb1a09d0 1332
8ebc5c01 1333=item NOTES
cb1a09d0 1334
8ebc5c01 1335=over
cb1a09d0 1336
8ebc5c01 1337=item Footers
cb1a09d0 1338
8ebc5c01 1339=item Accessing Formatting Internals
cb1a09d0
AD
1340
1341=back
1342
8ebc5c01 1343=item WARNINGS
cb1a09d0 1344
8ebc5c01
PP
1345=head2 perllocale - Perl locale handling (internationalization and
1346localization)
cb1a09d0 1347
8ebc5c01 1348=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 1349
8ebc5c01 1350=item PREPARING TO USE LOCALES
cb1a09d0 1351
8ebc5c01 1352=item USING LOCALES
cb1a09d0 1353
8ebc5c01 1354=over
cb1a09d0 1355
8ebc5c01 1356=item The use locale pragma
cb1a09d0 1357
8ebc5c01 1358=item The setlocale function
cb1a09d0 1359
193fb0af
GS
1360=item Finding locales
1361
1362=item LOCALE PROBLEMS
1363
1364=item Temporarily fixing locale problems
1365
1366=item Permanently fixing locale problems
1367
1368=item Permanently fixing your locale configuration
1369
1370=item Permanently fixing system locale configuration
1371
8ebc5c01 1372=item The localeconv function
cb1a09d0 1373
8ebc5c01 1374=back
cb1a09d0 1375
8ebc5c01 1376=item LOCALE CATEGORIES
cb1a09d0 1377
8ebc5c01 1378=over
cb1a09d0 1379
8ebc5c01 1380=item Category LC_COLLATE: Collation
cb1a09d0 1381
8ebc5c01 1382=item Category LC_CTYPE: Character Types
cb1a09d0 1383
8ebc5c01 1384=item Category LC_NUMERIC: Numeric Formatting
cb1a09d0 1385
8ebc5c01 1386=item Category LC_MONETARY: Formatting of monetary amounts
cb1a09d0 1387
8ebc5c01 1388=item LC_TIME
cb1a09d0 1389
8ebc5c01 1390=item Other categories
cb1a09d0 1391
8ebc5c01 1392=back
cb1a09d0 1393
8ebc5c01 1394=item SECURITY
cb1a09d0 1395
8ebc5c01 1396B<Comparison operators> (C<lt>, C<le>, C<ge>, C<gt> and C<cmp>):,
193fb0af 1397B<Case-mapping interpolation> (with C<\l>, C<\L>, C<\u> or C<\U>),
8ebc5c01
PP
1398B<Matching operator> (C<m//>):, B<Substitution operator> (C<s///>):,
1399B<In-memory formatting function> (sprintf()):, B<Output formatting
1400functions> (printf() and write()):, B<Case-mapping functions> (lc(),
1401lcfirst(), uc(), ucfirst()):, B<POSIX locale-dependent functions>
1402(localeconv(), strcoll(),strftime(), strxfrm()):, B<POSIX character class
1403tests> (isalnum(), isalpha(), isdigit(),isgraph(), islower(), isprint(),
1404ispunct(), isspace(), isupper(),
1405isxdigit()):
cb1a09d0 1406
8ebc5c01 1407=item ENVIRONMENT
cb1a09d0 1408
8ebc5c01
PP
1409PERL_BADLANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LC_COLLATE, LC_MONETARY, LC_NUMERIC,
1410LC_TIME, LANG
cb1a09d0 1411
8ebc5c01 1412=item NOTES
cb1a09d0
AD
1413
1414=over
1415
8ebc5c01 1416=item Backward compatibility
cb1a09d0 1417
8ebc5c01 1418=item I18N:Collate obsolete
cb1a09d0 1419
8ebc5c01 1420=item Sort speed and memory use impacts
cb1a09d0 1421
8ebc5c01 1422=item write() and LC_NUMERIC
cb1a09d0 1423
8ebc5c01 1424=item Freely available locale definitions
cb1a09d0 1425
8ebc5c01 1426=item I18n and l10n
cb1a09d0 1427
8ebc5c01 1428=item An imperfect standard
cb1a09d0
AD
1429
1430=back
1431
8ebc5c01 1432=item BUGS
cb1a09d0
AD
1433
1434=over
1435
8ebc5c01 1436=item Broken systems
cb1a09d0 1437
8ebc5c01 1438=back
cb1a09d0 1439
8ebc5c01 1440=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0 1441
8ebc5c01 1442=item HISTORY
cb1a09d0 1443
8ebc5c01 1444=head2 perlref - Perl references and nested data structures
cb1a09d0 1445
8ebc5c01 1446=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 1447
8ebc5c01 1448=over
cb1a09d0 1449
193fb0af
GS
1450=item Making References
1451
1452=item Using References
1453
8ebc5c01 1454=item Symbolic references
cb1a09d0 1455
8ebc5c01 1456=item Not-so-symbolic references
cb1a09d0 1457
193fb0af
GS
1458=item Function Templates
1459
8ebc5c01 1460=back
cb1a09d0 1461
8ebc5c01 1462=item WARNING
cb1a09d0 1463
8ebc5c01 1464=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0 1465
8ebc5c01 1466=head2 perldsc - Perl Data Structures Cookbook
cb1a09d0 1467
8ebc5c01 1468=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 1469
8ebc5c01 1470arrays of arrays, hashes of arrays, arrays of hashes, hashes of hashes,
28757baa 1471more elaborate constructs
cb1a09d0 1472
8ebc5c01 1473=item REFERENCES
cb1a09d0 1474
8ebc5c01 1475=item COMMON MISTAKES
cb1a09d0 1476
8ebc5c01 1477=item CAVEAT ON PRECEDENCE
cb1a09d0 1478
8ebc5c01 1479=item WHY YOU SHOULD ALWAYS C<use strict>
cb1a09d0 1480
8ebc5c01 1481=item DEBUGGING
cb1a09d0 1482
8ebc5c01 1483=item CODE EXAMPLES
cb1a09d0 1484
8ebc5c01 1485=item LISTS OF LISTS
cb1a09d0
AD
1486
1487=over
1488
8ebc5c01 1489=item Declaration of a LIST OF LISTS
cb1a09d0 1490
8ebc5c01 1491=item Generation of a LIST OF LISTS
cb1a09d0 1492
8ebc5c01 1493=item Access and Printing of a LIST OF LISTS
cb1a09d0 1494
8ebc5c01 1495=back
cb1a09d0 1496
8ebc5c01
PP
1497=item HASHES OF LISTS
1498
1499=over
cb1a09d0 1500
8ebc5c01 1501=item Declaration of a HASH OF LISTS
cb1a09d0 1502
8ebc5c01 1503=item Generation of a HASH OF LISTS
cb1a09d0 1504
8ebc5c01 1505=item Access and Printing of a HASH OF LISTS
cb1a09d0
AD
1506
1507=back
1508
8ebc5c01 1509=item LISTS OF HASHES
cb1a09d0
AD
1510
1511=over
1512
8ebc5c01 1513=item Declaration of a LIST OF HASHES
cb1a09d0 1514
8ebc5c01 1515=item Generation of a LIST OF HASHES
cb1a09d0 1516
8ebc5c01 1517=item Access and Printing of a LIST OF HASHES
cb1a09d0 1518
8ebc5c01 1519=back
cb1a09d0 1520
8ebc5c01
PP
1521=item HASHES OF HASHES
1522
1523=over
cb1a09d0 1524
8ebc5c01 1525=item Declaration of a HASH OF HASHES
cb1a09d0 1526
8ebc5c01 1527=item Generation of a HASH OF HASHES
cb1a09d0 1528
8ebc5c01 1529=item Access and Printing of a HASH OF HASHES
cb1a09d0
AD
1530
1531=back
1532
8ebc5c01 1533=item MORE ELABORATE RECORDS
7d2bfb28 1534
8ebc5c01 1535=over
7d2bfb28 1536
8ebc5c01 1537=item Declaration of MORE ELABORATE RECORDS
cb1a09d0 1538
8ebc5c01 1539=item Declaration of a HASH OF COMPLEX RECORDS
cb1a09d0 1540
8ebc5c01 1541=item Generation of a HASH OF COMPLEX RECORDS
cb1a09d0 1542
8ebc5c01 1543=back
cb1a09d0 1544
8ebc5c01 1545=item Database Ties
cb1a09d0 1546
8ebc5c01 1547=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0 1548
8ebc5c01 1549=item AUTHOR
cb1a09d0
AD
1550
1551=head2 perllol, perlLoL - Manipulating Lists of Lists in Perl
1552
1553=item DESCRIPTION
1554
cb1a09d0
AD
1555=item Declaration and Access of Lists of Lists
1556
cb1a09d0
AD
1557=item Growing Your Own
1558
cb1a09d0
AD
1559=item Access and Printing
1560
cb1a09d0
AD
1561=item Slices
1562
cb1a09d0
AD
1563=item SEE ALSO
1564
cb1a09d0
AD
1565=item AUTHOR
1566
8ebc5c01 1567=head2 perltoot - Tom's object-oriented tutorial for perl
cb1a09d0 1568
8ebc5c01 1569=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 1570
8ebc5c01 1571=item Creating a Class
cb1a09d0 1572
8ebc5c01 1573=over
cb1a09d0 1574
8ebc5c01 1575=item Object Representation
cb1a09d0 1576
8ebc5c01
PP
1577=item Class Interface
1578
1579=item Constructors and Instance Methods
1580
1581=item Planning for the Future: Better Constructors
1582
1583=item Destructors
cb1a09d0 1584
8ebc5c01
PP
1585=item Other Object Methods
1586
1587=back
1588
1589=item Class Data
cb1a09d0
AD
1590
1591=over
1592
8ebc5c01 1593=item Accessing Class Data
cb1a09d0 1594
8ebc5c01 1595=item Debugging Methods
cb1a09d0 1596
8ebc5c01 1597=item Class Destructors
cb1a09d0 1598
8ebc5c01 1599=item Documenting the Interface
cb1a09d0 1600
8ebc5c01 1601=back
cb1a09d0 1602
8ebc5c01 1603=item Aggregation
cb1a09d0 1604
8ebc5c01 1605=item Inheritance
cb1a09d0 1606
8ebc5c01 1607=over
cb1a09d0 1608
8ebc5c01 1609=item Overridden Methods
55497cff 1610
8ebc5c01 1611=item Multiple Inheritance
55497cff 1612
8ebc5c01 1613=item UNIVERSAL: The Root of All Objects
55497cff 1614
8ebc5c01 1615=back
cb1a09d0 1616
8ebc5c01 1617=item Alternate Object Representations
cb1a09d0 1618
8ebc5c01 1619=over
cb1a09d0 1620
8ebc5c01 1621=item Arrays as Objects
cb1a09d0 1622
8ebc5c01
PP
1623=item Closures as Objects
1624
1625=back
cb1a09d0 1626
8ebc5c01 1627=item AUTOLOAD: Proxy Methods
cb1a09d0 1628
8ebc5c01
PP
1629=over
1630
1631=item Autoloaded Data Methods
1632
1633=item Inherited Autoloaded Data Methods
1634
1635=back
1636
1637=item Metaclassical Tools
cb1a09d0 1638
8ebc5c01
PP
1639=over
1640
8cc95fdb 1641=item Class::Struct
cb1a09d0 1642
8ebc5c01
PP
1643=item Data Members as Variables
1644
1645=item NOTES
cb1a09d0 1646
8ebc5c01 1647=item Object Terminology
cb1a09d0
AD
1648
1649=back
1650
1651=item SEE ALSO
1652
193fb0af
GS
1653=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
1654
8ebc5c01
PP
1655=item COPYRIGHT
1656
1657=over
1658
1659=item Acknowledgments
1660
1661=back
1662
1663=head2 perlobj - Perl objects
1664
1665=item DESCRIPTION
1666
1667=over
1668
1669=item An Object is Simply a Reference
1670
1671=item A Class is Simply a Package
1672
1673=item A Method is Simply a Subroutine
1674
1675=item Method Invocation
1676
1677=item Default UNIVERSAL methods
1678
ff0cee69 1679isa(CLASS), can(METHOD), VERSION( [NEED] )
8ebc5c01 1680
54310121 1681=item Destructors
8ebc5c01
PP
1682
1683=item WARNING
1684
1685=item Summary
cb1a09d0 1686
8ebc5c01 1687=item Two-Phased Garbage Collection
cb1a09d0 1688
8ebc5c01 1689=back
cb1a09d0 1690
8ebc5c01 1691=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0
AD
1692
1693=head2 perltie - how to hide an object class in a simple variable
1694
1695=item SYNOPSIS
1696
cb1a09d0
AD
1697=item DESCRIPTION
1698
cb1a09d0
AD
1699=over
1700
1701=item Tying Scalars
1702
cb1a09d0
AD
1703TIESCALAR classname, LIST, FETCH this, STORE this, value, DESTROY this
1704
1705=item Tying Arrays
1706
cb1a09d0
AD
1707TIEARRAY classname, LIST, FETCH this, index, STORE this, index, value,
1708DESTROY this
1709
1710=item Tying Hashes
1711
8ebc5c01
PP
1712USER, HOME, CLOBBER, LIST, TIEHASH classname, LIST, FETCH this, key, STORE
1713this, key, value, DELETE this, key, CLEAR this, EXISTS this, key, FIRSTKEY
1714this, NEXTKEY this, lastkey, DESTROY this
cb1a09d0
AD
1715
1716=item Tying FileHandles
1717
193fb0af
GS
1718TIEHANDLE classname, LIST, WRITE this, LIST, PRINT this, LIST, PRINTF this,
1719LIST, READ this, LIST, READLINE this, GETC this, CLOSE this, DESTROY this
cb1a09d0 1720
4fdae800
PP
1721=item The C<untie> Gotcha
1722
cb1a09d0
AD
1723=back
1724
1725=item SEE ALSO
1726
cb1a09d0
AD
1727=item BUGS
1728
cb1a09d0
AD
1729=item AUTHOR
1730
cb1a09d0
AD
1731=head2 perlbot - Bag'o Object Tricks (the BOT)
1732
1733=item DESCRIPTION
1734
cb1a09d0
AD
1735=item OO SCALING TIPS
1736
cb1a09d0
AD
1737=item INSTANCE VARIABLES
1738
cb1a09d0
AD
1739=item SCALAR INSTANCE VARIABLES
1740
cb1a09d0
AD
1741=item INSTANCE VARIABLE INHERITANCE
1742
cb1a09d0
AD
1743=item OBJECT RELATIONSHIPS
1744
cb1a09d0
AD
1745=item OVERRIDING SUPERCLASS METHODS
1746
cb1a09d0
AD
1747=item USING RELATIONSHIP WITH SDBM
1748
cb1a09d0
AD
1749=item THINKING OF CODE REUSE
1750
cb1a09d0
AD
1751=item CLASS CONTEXT AND THE OBJECT
1752
cb1a09d0
AD
1753=item INHERITING A CONSTRUCTOR
1754
cb1a09d0
AD
1755=item DELEGATION
1756
8ebc5c01
PP
1757=head2 perlipc - Perl interprocess communication (signals, fifos, pipes,
1758safe subprocesses, sockets, and semaphores)
cb1a09d0 1759
8ebc5c01 1760=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 1761
8ebc5c01 1762=item Signals
cb1a09d0 1763
8ebc5c01 1764=item Named Pipes
cb1a09d0 1765
193fb0af
GS
1766=over
1767
1768=item WARNING
1769
1770=back
1771
8ebc5c01 1772=item Using open() for IPC
cb1a09d0 1773
8ebc5c01 1774=over
cb1a09d0 1775
68dc0745
PP
1776=item Filehandles
1777
1778=item Background Processes
1779
1780=item Complete Dissociation of Child from Parent
1781
8ebc5c01 1782=item Safe Pipe Opens
cb1a09d0 1783
c90c0ff4 1784=item Bidirectional Communication with Another Process
55497cff 1785
193fb0af
GS
1786=item Bidirectional Communication with Yourself
1787
8ebc5c01
PP
1788=back
1789
1790=item Sockets: Client/Server Communication
55497cff 1791
cb1a09d0
AD
1792=over
1793
193fb0af
GS
1794=item Internet Line Terminators
1795
8ebc5c01 1796=item Internet TCP Clients and Servers
55497cff 1797
8ebc5c01 1798=item Unix-Domain TCP Clients and Servers
55497cff 1799
c90c0ff4
PP
1800=back
1801
1802=item TCP Clients with IO::Socket
1803
1804=over
1805
1806=item A Simple Client
1807
1808C<Proto>, C<PeerAddr>, C<PeerPort>
1809
1810=item A Webget Client
1811
1812=item Interactive Client with IO::Socket
cb1a09d0 1813
8ebc5c01 1814=back
cb1a09d0 1815
c90c0ff4 1816=item TCP Servers with IO::Socket
cb1a09d0 1817
c90c0ff4
PP
1818Proto, LocalPort, Listen, Reuse
1819
1820=item UDP: Message Passing
1821
1822=item SysV IPC
cb1a09d0 1823
8ebc5c01 1824=item NOTES
cb1a09d0 1825
8ebc5c01 1826=item BUGS
55497cff 1827
8ebc5c01 1828=item AUTHOR
55497cff 1829
8ebc5c01 1830=item SEE ALSO
55497cff 1831
8ebc5c01 1832=head2 perldebug - Perl debugging
55497cff 1833
8ebc5c01 1834=item DESCRIPTION
55497cff 1835
8ebc5c01 1836=item The Perl Debugger
55497cff 1837
8ebc5c01 1838=over
55497cff 1839
8ebc5c01 1840=item Debugger Commands
a6006777 1841
774d564b
PP
1842h [command], p expr, x expr, V [pkg [vars]], X [vars], T, s [expr], n
1843[expr], E<lt>CRE<gt>, c [line|sub], l, l min+incr, l min-max, l line, l
1844subname, -, w [line], f filename, /pattern/, ?pattern?, L, S [[!]pattern],
1845t, t expr, b [line] [condition], b subname [condition], b postpone subname
1846[condition], b load filename, b compile subname, d [line], D, a [line]
193fb0af
GS
1847command, A, W [expr], W, O [opt[=val]] [opt"val"] [opt?]..,
1848C<recallCommand>, C<ShellBang>, C<pager>, C<tkRunning>, C<signalLevel>,
1849C<warnLevel>, C<dieLevel>, C<AutoTrace>, C<LineInfo>, C<inhibit_exit>,
1850C<PrintRet>, C<ornaments>, C<frame>, C<maxTraceLen>, C<arrayDepth>,
1851C<hashDepth>, C<compactDump>, C<veryCompact>, C<globPrint>, C<DumpDBFiles>,
1852C<DumpPackages>, C<DumpReused>, C<quote>, C<HighBit>, C<undefPrint>,
1853C<UsageOnly>, C<TTY>, C<noTTY>, C<ReadLine>, C<NonStop>, E<lt> [ command ],
1854E<lt>E<lt> command, E<gt> command, E<gt>E<gt> command, { [ command ], {{
1855command, ! number, ! -number, ! pattern, !! cmd, H -number, q or ^D, R,
1856|dbcmd, ||dbcmd, command, m expr, m package
774d564b
PP
1857
1858=item Debugger input/output
1859
54310121 1860Prompt, Multiline commands, Stack backtrace, Listing, Frame listing
774d564b
PP
1861
1862=item Debugging compile-time statements
cb1a09d0 1863
8ebc5c01 1864=item Debugger Customization
cb1a09d0 1865
8ebc5c01 1866=item Readline Support
cb1a09d0 1867
8ebc5c01 1868=item Editor Support for Debugging
cb1a09d0 1869
8ebc5c01 1870=item The Perl Profiler
cb1a09d0 1871
8ebc5c01 1872=item Debugger support in perl
cb1a09d0 1873
8ebc5c01 1874=item Debugger Internals
cb1a09d0 1875
8ebc5c01 1876=item Other resources
cb1a09d0 1877
193fb0af
GS
1878=item BUGS
1879
8ebc5c01 1880=back
cb1a09d0 1881
193fb0af
GS
1882=item Debugging Perl memory usage
1883
1884=over
1885
1886=item Using C<$ENV{PERL_DEBUG_MSTATS}>
1887
1888C<buckets SMALLEST(APPROX)..GREATEST(APPROX)>, Free/Used, C<Total sbrk():
1889SBRKed/SBRKs:CONTINUOUS>, C<pad: 0>, C<heads: 2192>, C<chain: 0>, C<tail:
18906144>
1891
1892=item Example of using B<-DL> switch
1893
1894C<717>, C<002>, C<054>, C<602>, C<702>, C<704>
1895
1896=item B<-DL> details
1897
1898C<!!!>, C<!!>, C<!>
1899
1900=item Limitations of B<-DL> statistic
1901
1902=back
cb1a09d0
AD
1903
1904=head2 perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
1905
1906=item DESCRIPTION
1907
8ebc5c01 1908=head2 perlsec - Perl security
cb1a09d0
AD
1909
1910=item DESCRIPTION
1911
cb1a09d0
AD
1912=over
1913
55497cff
PP
1914=item Laundering and Detecting Tainted Data
1915
b971f6e4
PP
1916=item Switches On the "#!" Line
1917
55497cff 1918=item Cleaning Up Your Path
cb1a09d0 1919
55497cff 1920=item Security Bugs
a6006777 1921
68dc0745
PP
1922=item Protecting Your Programs
1923
cb1a09d0
AD
1924=back
1925
193fb0af
GS
1926=item SEE ALSO
1927
8ebc5c01 1928=head2 perltrap - Perl traps for the unwary
cb1a09d0 1929
8ebc5c01 1930=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0
AD
1931
1932=over
1933
8ebc5c01 1934=item Awk Traps
cb1a09d0 1935
8ebc5c01 1936=item C Traps
cb1a09d0 1937
8ebc5c01 1938=item Sed Traps
cb1a09d0 1939
8ebc5c01 1940=item Shell Traps
cb1a09d0 1941
8ebc5c01 1942=item Perl Traps
cb1a09d0 1943
8ebc5c01 1944=item Perl4 to Perl5 Traps
cb1a09d0 1945
8ebc5c01
PP
1946Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps, Parsing Traps, Numerical
1947Traps, General data type traps, Context Traps - scalar, list contexts,
1948Precedence Traps, General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc,
1949Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps, OS Traps, DBM Traps, Unclassified Traps
cb1a09d0 1950
8ebc5c01 1951=item Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps
cb1a09d0 1952
8ebc5c01
PP
1953Discontinuance, Deprecation, BugFix, Discontinuance, Discontinuance,
1954Discontinuance, BugFix, Discontinuance, Discontinuance, BugFix,
68dc0745 1955Discontinuance, Discontinuance, Deprecation, Discontinuance
cb1a09d0 1956
8ebc5c01 1957=item Parsing Traps
cb1a09d0 1958
8ebc5c01 1959Parsing, Parsing, Parsing
cb1a09d0 1960
8ebc5c01 1961=item Numerical Traps
cb1a09d0 1962
8ebc5c01 1963Numerical, Numerical, Numerical
cb1a09d0 1964
8ebc5c01 1965=item General data type traps
cb1a09d0 1966
193fb0af
GS
1967(Arrays), (Arrays), (Hashes), (Globs), (Globs), (Scalar String),
1968(Constants), (Scalars), (Variable Suicide)
cb1a09d0 1969
8ebc5c01 1970=item Context Traps - scalar, list contexts
cb1a09d0 1971
8ebc5c01 1972(list context), (scalar context), (scalar context), (list, builtin)
cb1a09d0 1973
8ebc5c01 1974=item Precedence Traps
cb1a09d0 1975
d516a115 1976Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence
cb1a09d0 1977
8ebc5c01 1978=item General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc.
cb1a09d0 1979
8ebc5c01 1980Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular
44a8e56a 1981Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression,
68dc0745 1982Regular Expression, Regular Expression
cb1a09d0 1983
8ebc5c01 1984=item Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps
cb1a09d0 1985
2ae324a7 1986(Signals), (Sort Subroutine), warn() won't let you specify a filehandle
cb1a09d0 1987
8ebc5c01 1988=item OS Traps
cb1a09d0 1989
8ebc5c01 1990(SysV), (SysV)
cb1a09d0 1991
8ebc5c01 1992=item Interpolation Traps
cb1a09d0 1993
8ebc5c01
PP
1994Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation,
1995Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation
cb1a09d0 1996
8ebc5c01 1997=item DBM Traps
cb1a09d0 1998
8ebc5c01 1999DBM, DBM
cb1a09d0 2000
8ebc5c01 2001=item Unclassified Traps
cb1a09d0 2002
d516a115
JH
2003C<require>/C<do> trap using returned value, C<split> on empty string with
2004LIMIT specified
cb1a09d0 2005
8ebc5c01 2006=back
cb1a09d0 2007
8ebc5c01 2008=head2 perlstyle - Perl style guide
cb1a09d0 2009
8ebc5c01 2010=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2011
8ebc5c01 2012=head2 perlpod - plain old documentation
cb1a09d0 2013
8ebc5c01 2014=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2015
d516a115
JH
2016=over
2017
2018=item Verbatim Paragraph
2019
2020=item Command Paragraph
2021
2022=item Ordinary Block of Text
2023
2024=item The Intent
2025
8ebc5c01 2026=item Embedding Pods in Perl Modules
cb1a09d0 2027
8ebc5c01 2028=item Common Pod Pitfalls
cb1a09d0 2029
d516a115
JH
2030=back
2031
8ebc5c01 2032=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0 2033
8ebc5c01 2034=item AUTHOR
cb1a09d0 2035
8ebc5c01 2036=head2 perlbook - Perl book information
cb1a09d0 2037
8ebc5c01 2038=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2039
8ebc5c01 2040=head2 perlembed - how to embed perl in your C program
cb1a09d0 2041
8ebc5c01 2042=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2043
8ebc5c01 2044=over
cb1a09d0 2045
8ebc5c01 2046=item PREAMBLE
cb1a09d0 2047
54310121 2048B<Use C from Perl?>, B<Use a Unix program from Perl?>, B<Use Perl from
8ebc5c01 2049Perl?>, B<Use C from C?>, B<Use Perl from C?>
cb1a09d0 2050
8ebc5c01 2051=item ROADMAP
cb1a09d0 2052
8ebc5c01 2053=item Compiling your C program
cb1a09d0 2054
8ebc5c01 2055=item Adding a Perl interpreter to your C program
cb1a09d0 2056
8ebc5c01 2057=item Calling a Perl subroutine from your C program
cb1a09d0 2058
8ebc5c01 2059=item Evaluating a Perl statement from your C program
cb1a09d0 2060
8ebc5c01 2061=item Performing Perl pattern matches and substitutions from your C program
cb1a09d0 2062
8ebc5c01 2063=item Fiddling with the Perl stack from your C program
cb1a09d0 2064
8ebc5c01 2065=item Maintaining a persistent interpreter
cb1a09d0 2066
8ebc5c01 2067=item Maintaining multiple interpreter instances
cb1a09d0 2068
8ebc5c01
PP
2069=item Using Perl modules, which themselves use C libraries, from your C
2070program
cb1a09d0 2071
8ebc5c01 2072=back
cb1a09d0 2073
3e3baf6d
TB
2074=item Embedding Perl under Win32
2075
8ebc5c01 2076=item MORAL
cb1a09d0 2077
8ebc5c01 2078=item AUTHOR
cb1a09d0 2079
f86702cc
PP
2080=item COPYRIGHT
2081
28757baa 2082=head2 perlapio - perl's IO abstraction interface.
cb1a09d0 2083
8ebc5c01 2084=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0
AD
2085
2086=item DESCRIPTION
2087
8ebc5c01
PP
2088B<PerlIO *>, B<PerlIO_stdin()>, B<PerlIO_stdout()>, B<PerlIO_stderr()>,
2089B<PerlIO_open(path, mode)>, B<PerlIO_fdopen(fd,mode)>,
2090B<PerlIO_printf(f,fmt,...)>, B<PerlIO_vprintf(f,fmt,a)>,
2091B<PerlIO_stdoutf(fmt,...)>, B<PerlIO_read(f,buf,count)>,
d516a115
JH
2092B<PerlIO_write(f,buf,count)>, B<PerlIO_close(f)>, B<PerlIO_puts(f,s)>,
2093B<PerlIO_putc(f,c)>, B<PerlIO_ungetc(f,c)>, B<PerlIO_getc(f)>,
8ebc5c01
PP
2094B<PerlIO_eof(f)>, B<PerlIO_error(f)>, B<PerlIO_fileno(f)>,
2095B<PerlIO_clearerr(f)>, B<PerlIO_flush(f)>, B<PerlIO_tell(f)>,
2096B<PerlIO_seek(f,o,w)>, B<PerlIO_getpos(f,p)>, B<PerlIO_setpos(f,p)>,
2097B<PerlIO_rewind(f)>, B<PerlIO_tmpfile()>
cb1a09d0
AD
2098
2099=over
2100
8ebc5c01 2101=item Co-existence with stdio
cb1a09d0 2102
8ebc5c01
PP
2103B<PerlIO_importFILE(f,flags)>, B<PerlIO_exportFILE(f,flags)>,
2104B<PerlIO_findFILE(f)>, B<PerlIO_releaseFILE(p,f)>, B<PerlIO_setlinebuf(f)>,
2105B<PerlIO_has_cntptr(f)>, B<PerlIO_get_ptr(f)>, B<PerlIO_get_cnt(f)>,
2106B<PerlIO_canset_cnt(f)>, B<PerlIO_fast_gets(f)>,
2107B<PerlIO_set_ptrcnt(f,p,c)>, B<PerlIO_set_cnt(f,c)>, B<PerlIO_has_base(f)>,
2108B<PerlIO_get_base(f)>, B<PerlIO_get_bufsiz(f)>
cb1a09d0 2109
8ebc5c01 2110=back
cb1a09d0 2111
8ebc5c01 2112=head2 perlxs - XS language reference manual
cb1a09d0 2113
8ebc5c01 2114=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2115
8ebc5c01 2116=over
cb1a09d0
AD
2117
2118=item Introduction
2119
cb1a09d0
AD
2120=item On The Road
2121
cb1a09d0
AD
2122=item The Anatomy of an XSUB
2123
cb1a09d0
AD
2124=item The Argument Stack
2125
cb1a09d0
AD
2126=item The RETVAL Variable
2127
cb1a09d0
AD
2128=item The MODULE Keyword
2129
cb1a09d0
AD
2130=item The PACKAGE Keyword
2131
cb1a09d0
AD
2132=item The PREFIX Keyword
2133
cb1a09d0
AD
2134=item The OUTPUT: Keyword
2135
cb1a09d0
AD
2136=item The CODE: Keyword
2137
7d2bfb28
PP
2138=item The INIT: Keyword
2139
cb1a09d0
AD
2140=item The NO_INIT Keyword
2141
cb1a09d0
AD
2142=item Initializing Function Parameters
2143
cb1a09d0
AD
2144=item Default Parameter Values
2145
7d2bfb28
PP
2146=item The PREINIT: Keyword
2147
8ebc5c01 2148=item The SCOPE: Keyword
7d2bfb28
PP
2149
2150=item The INPUT: Keyword
2151
cb1a09d0
AD
2152=item Variable-length Parameter Lists
2153
193fb0af
GS
2154=item The C_ARGS: Keyword
2155
cb1a09d0
AD
2156=item The PPCODE: Keyword
2157
cb1a09d0
AD
2158=item Returning Undef And Empty Lists
2159
cb1a09d0
AD
2160=item The REQUIRE: Keyword
2161
cb1a09d0
AD
2162=item The CLEANUP: Keyword
2163
cb1a09d0
AD
2164=item The BOOT: Keyword
2165
7d2bfb28
PP
2166=item The VERSIONCHECK: Keyword
2167
7d2bfb28
PP
2168=item The PROTOTYPES: Keyword
2169
7d2bfb28
PP
2170=item The PROTOTYPE: Keyword
2171
7d2bfb28
PP
2172=item The ALIAS: Keyword
2173
193fb0af
GS
2174=item The INTERFACE: Keyword
2175
2176=item The INTERFACE_MACRO: Keyword
2177
7d2bfb28
PP
2178=item The INCLUDE: Keyword
2179
7d2bfb28
PP
2180=item The CASE: Keyword
2181
7d2bfb28
PP
2182=item The & Unary Operator
2183
cb1a09d0
AD
2184=item Inserting Comments and C Preprocessor Directives
2185
cb1a09d0
AD
2186=item Using XS With C++
2187
cb1a09d0
AD
2188=item Interface Strategy
2189
cb1a09d0
AD
2190=item Perl Objects And C Structures
2191
cb1a09d0
AD
2192=item The Typemap
2193
cb1a09d0
AD
2194=back
2195
2196=item EXAMPLES
2197
7d2bfb28
PP
2198=item XS VERSION
2199
cb1a09d0
AD
2200=item AUTHOR
2201
8ebc5c01 2202=head2 perlxstut, perlXStut - Tutorial for XSUBs
cb1a09d0
AD
2203
2204=item DESCRIPTION
2205
7d2bfb28
PP
2206=over
2207
2208=item VERSION CAVEAT
2209
7d2bfb28
PP
2210=item DYNAMIC VERSUS STATIC
2211
cb1a09d0
AD
2212=item EXAMPLE 1
2213
cb1a09d0
AD
2214=item EXAMPLE 2
2215
cb1a09d0
AD
2216=item WHAT HAS GONE ON?
2217
8ebc5c01 2218=item WRITING GOOD TEST SCRIPTS
cb1a09d0
AD
2219
2220=item EXAMPLE 3
2221
cb1a09d0
AD
2222=item WHAT'S NEW HERE?
2223
cb1a09d0
AD
2224=item INPUT AND OUTPUT PARAMETERS
2225
cb1a09d0
AD
2226=item THE XSUBPP COMPILER
2227
cb1a09d0
AD
2228=item THE TYPEMAP FILE
2229
cb1a09d0
AD
2230=item WARNING
2231
8ebc5c01 2232=item EXAMPLE 4
cb1a09d0 2233
8ebc5c01 2234=item WHAT HAS HAPPENED HERE?
7d2bfb28 2235
8ebc5c01 2236=item SPECIFYING ARGUMENTS TO XSUBPP
7d2bfb28
PP
2237
2238=item THE ARGUMENT STACK
2239
7d2bfb28
PP
2240=item EXTENDING YOUR EXTENSION
2241
7d2bfb28
PP
2242=item DOCUMENTING YOUR EXTENSION
2243
7d2bfb28
PP
2244=item INSTALLING YOUR EXTENSION
2245
7d2bfb28 2246=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0 2247
cb1a09d0
AD
2248=item Author
2249
cb1a09d0
AD
2250=item Last Changed
2251
7d2bfb28
PP
2252=back
2253
cb1a09d0
AD
2254=head2 perlguts - Perl's Internal Functions
2255
2256=item DESCRIPTION
2257
0a753a76
PP
2258=item Variables
2259
8ebc5c01 2260=over
cb1a09d0
AD
2261
2262=item Datatypes
2263
cb1a09d0
AD
2264=item What is an "IV"?
2265
54310121 2266=item Working with SVs
cb1a09d0 2267
cb1a09d0
AD
2268=item What's Really Stored in an SV?
2269
54310121 2270=item Working with AVs
cb1a09d0 2271
54310121 2272=item Working with HVs
cb1a09d0 2273
1e422769
PP
2274=item Hash API Extensions
2275
cb1a09d0
AD
2276=item References
2277
cb1a09d0
AD
2278=item Blessed References and Class Objects
2279
cb1a09d0
AD
2280=item Creating New Variables
2281
8ebc5c01 2282=item Reference Counts and Mortality
cb1a09d0 2283
8ebc5c01 2284=item Stashes and Globs
cb1a09d0 2285
54310121 2286=item Double-Typed SVs
0a753a76
PP
2287
2288=item Magic Variables
cb1a09d0 2289
cb1a09d0
AD
2290=item Assigning Magic
2291
cb1a09d0
AD
2292=item Magic Virtual Tables
2293
cb1a09d0
AD
2294=item Finding Magic
2295
3e3baf6d
TB
2296=item Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays
2297
d516a115
JH
2298=item Localizing changes
2299
2300C<SAVEINT(int i)>, C<SAVEIV(IV i)>, C<SAVEI32(I32 i)>, C<SAVELONG(long i)>,
2301C<SAVESPTR(s)>, C<SAVEPPTR(p)>, C<SAVEFREESV(SV *sv)>, C<SAVEFREEOP(OP
2302*op)>, C<SAVEFREEPV(p)>, C<SAVECLEARSV(SV *sv)>, C<SAVEDELETE(HV *hv, char
2303*key, I32 length)>, C<SAVEDESTRUCTOR(f,p)>, C<SAVESTACK_POS()>, C<SV*
2304save_scalar(GV *gv)>, C<AV* save_ary(GV *gv)>, C<HV* save_hash(GV *gv)>,
2305C<void save_item(SV *item)>, C<void save_list(SV **sarg, I32 maxsarg)>,
2306C<SV* save_svref(SV **sptr)>, C<void save_aptr(AV **aptr)>, C<void
2307save_hptr(HV **hptr)>
2308
0a753a76
PP
2309=back
2310
2311=item Subroutines
2312
2313=over
cb1a09d0 2314
68dc0745 2315=item XSUBs and the Argument Stack
cb1a09d0
AD
2316
2317=item Calling Perl Routines from within C Programs
2318
cb1a09d0
AD
2319=item Memory Allocation
2320
8ebc5c01 2321=item PerlIO
cb1a09d0 2322
8ebc5c01 2323=item Putting a C value on Perl stack
cb1a09d0 2324
8ebc5c01 2325=item Scratchpads
cb1a09d0 2326
2ae324a7 2327=item Scratchpads and recursion
cb1a09d0 2328
0a753a76
PP
2329=back
2330
2331=item Compiled code
2332
2333=over
2334
2335=item Code tree
2336
2337=item Examining the tree
2338
2339=item Compile pass 1: check routines
2340
2341=item Compile pass 1a: constant folding
2342
2343=item Compile pass 2: context propagation
2344
2345=item Compile pass 3: peephole optimization
2346
2347=back
2348
8ebc5c01 2349=item API LISTING
cb1a09d0 2350
193fb0af 2351av_clear, av_extend, av_fetch, AvFILL, av_len, av_make, av_pop, av_push,
8ebc5c01
PP
2352av_shift, av_store, av_undef, av_unshift, CLASS, Copy, croak, CvSTASH,
2353DBsingle, DBsub, DBtrace, dMARK, dORIGMARK, dowarn, dSP, dXSARGS, dXSI32,
193fb0af
GS
2354do_binmode, ENTER, EXTEND, fbm_compile, fbm_instr, FREETMPS, G_ARRAY,
2355G_DISCARD, G_EVAL, GIMME, GIMME_V, G_NOARGS, G_SCALAR, gv_fetchmeth,
2356gv_fetchmethod, gv_fetchmethod_autoload, G_VOID, gv_stashpv, gv_stashsv,
2357GvSV, HEf_SVKEY, HeHASH, HeKEY, HeKLEN, HePV, HeSVKEY, HeSVKEY_force,
2358HeSVKEY_set, HeVAL, hv_clear, hv_delayfree_ent, hv_delete, hv_delete_ent,
2359hv_exists, hv_exists_ent, hv_fetch, hv_fetch_ent, hv_free_ent, hv_iterinit,
2360hv_iterkey, hv_iterkeysv, hv_iternext, hv_iternextsv, hv_iterval, hv_magic,
2361HvNAME, hv_store, hv_store_ent, hv_undef, isALNUM, isALPHA, isDIGIT,
2362isLOWER, isSPACE, isUPPER, items, ix, LEAVE, looks_like_number, MARK,
2363mg_clear, mg_copy, mg_find, mg_free, mg_get, mg_len, mg_magical, mg_set,
2364Move, na, New, newAV, Newc, newCONSTSUB, newHV, newRV_inc, newRV_noinc,
2365NEWSV, newSViv, newSVnv, newSVpv, newSVpvf, newSVpvn, newSVrv, newSVsv,
2366newXS, newXSproto, Newz, Nullav, Nullch, Nullcv, Nullhv, Nullsv, ORIGMARK,
2367perl_alloc, perl_call_argv, perl_call_method, perl_call_pv, perl_call_sv,
2368perl_construct, perl_destruct, perl_eval_sv, perl_eval_pv, perl_free,
2369perl_get_av, perl_get_cv, perl_get_hv, perl_get_sv, perl_parse,
2370perl_require_pv, perl_run, POPi, POPl, POPp, POPn, POPs, PUSHMARK, PUSHi,
2371PUSHn, PUSHp, PUSHs, PUSHu, PUTBACK, Renew, Renewc, RETVAL, safefree,
2372safemalloc, saferealloc, savepv, savepvn, SAVETMPS, SP, SPAGAIN, ST, strEQ,
2373strGE, strGT, strLE, strLT, strNE, strnEQ, strnNE, sv_2mortal, sv_bless,
2374sv_catpv, sv_catpv_mg, sv_catpvn, sv_catpvn_mg, sv_catpvf, sv_catpvf_mg,
2375sv_catsv, sv_catsv_mg, sv_chop, sv_cmp, SvCUR, SvCUR_set, sv_dec,
2376sv_derived_from, sv_derived_from, SvEND, sv_eq, SvGETMAGIC, SvGROW,
2377sv_grow, sv_inc, sv_insert, SvIOK, SvIOK_off, SvIOK_on, SvIOK_only, SvIOKp,
2378sv_isa, sv_isobject, SvIV, SvIVX, SvLEN, sv_len, sv_magic, sv_mortalcopy,
2379sv_newmortal, SvNIOK, SvNIOK_off, SvNIOKp, sv_no, SvNOK, SvNOK_off,
2380SvNOK_on, SvNOK_only, SvNOKp, SvNV, SvNVX, SvOK, SvOOK, SvPOK, SvPOK_off,
2381SvPOK_on, SvPOK_only, SvPOKp, SvPV, SvPV_force, SvPVX, SvREFCNT,
2382SvREFCNT_dec, SvREFCNT_inc, SvROK, SvROK_off, SvROK_on, SvRV, SvSETMAGIC,
2383sv_setiv, sv_setiv_mg, sv_setnv, sv_setnv_mg, sv_setpv, sv_setpv_mg,
2384sv_setpviv, sv_setpviv_mg, sv_setpvn, sv_setpvn_mg, sv_setpvf,
2385sv_setpvf_mg, sv_setref_iv, sv_setref_nv, sv_setref_pv, sv_setref_pvn,
2386SvSetSV, SvSetSV_nosteal, sv_setsv, sv_setsv_mg, sv_setuv, sv_setuv_mg,
2387SvSTASH, SvTAINT, SvTAINTED, SvTAINTED_off, SvTAINTED_on, SVt_IV, SVt_PV,
2388SVt_PVAV, SVt_PVCV, SVt_PVHV, SVt_PVMG, SVt_NV, SvTRUE, SvTYPE, svtype,
2389sv_undef, sv_unref, SvUPGRADE, sv_upgrade, sv_usepvn, sv_usepvn_mg,
2390sv_vcatpvfn(sv, pat, patlen, args, svargs, svmax, used_locale),
2391sv_vsetpvfn(sv, pat, patlen, args, svargs, svmax, used_locale), SvUV,
2392SvUVX, sv_yes, THIS, toLOWER, toUPPER, warn, XPUSHi, XPUSHn, XPUSHp,
2393XPUSHs, XPUSHu, XS, XSRETURN, XSRETURN_EMPTY, XSRETURN_IV, XSRETURN_NO,
46fc3d4c
PP
2394XSRETURN_NV, XSRETURN_PV, XSRETURN_UNDEF, XSRETURN_YES, XST_mIV, XST_mNV,
2395XST_mNO, XST_mPV, XST_mUNDEF, XST_mYES, XS_VERSION, XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK,
2396Zero
cb1a09d0 2397
193fb0af 2398=item AUTHORS
cb1a09d0
AD
2399
2400=head2 perlcall - Perl calling conventions from C
2401
2402=item DESCRIPTION
2403
cb1a09d0
AD
2404An Error Handler, An Event Driven Program
2405
2406=item THE PERL_CALL FUNCTIONS
2407
8ebc5c01 2408B<perl_call_sv>, B<perl_call_pv>, B<perl_call_method>, B<perl_call_argv>
cb1a09d0
AD
2409
2410=item FLAG VALUES
2411
cb1a09d0
AD
2412=over
2413
54310121
PP
2414=item G_VOID
2415
cb1a09d0
AD
2416=item G_SCALAR
2417
cb1a09d0
AD
2418=item G_ARRAY
2419
cb1a09d0
AD
2420=item G_DISCARD
2421
cb1a09d0
AD
2422=item G_NOARGS
2423
54310121 2424=item G_EVAL
cb1a09d0 2425
7d2bfb28
PP
2426=item G_KEEPERR
2427
54310121 2428=item Determining the Context
cb1a09d0
AD
2429
2430=back
2431
2432=item KNOWN PROBLEMS
2433
cb1a09d0
AD
2434=item EXAMPLES
2435
cb1a09d0
AD
2436=over
2437
2438=item No Parameters, Nothing returned
2439
cb1a09d0
AD
2440=item Passing Parameters
2441
cb1a09d0
AD
2442=item Returning a Scalar
2443
cb1a09d0
AD
2444=item Returning a list of values
2445
cb1a09d0
AD
2446=item Returning a list in a scalar context
2447
cb1a09d0
AD
2448=item Returning Data from Perl via the parameter list
2449
cb1a09d0
AD
2450=item Using G_EVAL
2451
7d2bfb28
PP
2452=item Using G_KEEPERR
2453
cb1a09d0
AD
2454=item Using perl_call_sv
2455
cb1a09d0
AD
2456=item Using perl_call_argv
2457
cb1a09d0
AD
2458=item Using perl_call_method
2459
54310121 2460=item Using GIMME_V
cb1a09d0 2461
cb1a09d0
AD
2462=item Using Perl to dispose of temporaries
2463
cb1a09d0
AD
2464=item Strategies for storing Callback Context Information
2465
cb1a09d0
AD
24661. Ignore the problem - Allow only 1 callback, 2. Create a sequence of
2467callbacks - hard wired limit, 3. Use a parameter to map to the Perl
2468callback
2469
2470=item Alternate Stack Manipulation
2471
5cd24f17
PP
2472=item Creating and calling an anonymous subroutine in C
2473
cb1a09d0
AD
2474=back
2475
2476=item SEE ALSO
2477
cb1a09d0
AD
2478=item AUTHOR
2479
cb1a09d0
AD
2480=item DATE
2481
d516a115
JH
2482=head2 perlhist - the Perl history records
2483
2484=item DESCRIPTION
2485
2486=item INTRODUCTION
2487
2488=item THE KEEPERS OF THE PUMPKIN
2489
2490=over
2491
2492=item PUMPKIN?
2493
2494=back
2495
2496=item THE RECORDS
2497
2498=over
2499
2500=item SELECTED RELEASE SIZES
2501
2502=item SELECTED PATCH SIZES
2503
2504=back
2505
2506=item THE KEEPERS OF THE RECORDS
2507
8ebc5c01 2508=head1 PRAGMA DOCUMENTATION
cb1a09d0 2509
d516a115
JH
2510=head2 attrs - set/get attributes of a subroutine
2511
2512=item SYNOPSIS
2513
2514=item DESCRIPTION
2515
2516method, locked
2517
68dc0745
PP
2518=head2 autouse - postpone load of modules until a function is used
2519
2520=item SYNOPSIS
2521
2522=item DESCRIPTION
2523
2524=item WARNING
2525
68dc0745
PP
2526=item AUTHOR
2527
2528=item SEE ALSO
2529
d516a115
JH
2530=head2 base - Establish IS-A relationship with base class at compile time
2531
2532=item SYNOPSIS
2533
2534=item DESCRIPTION
2535
2536=item BUGS
2537
8ebc5c01 2538=head2 blib - Use MakeMaker's uninstalled version of a package
cb1a09d0 2539
8ebc5c01 2540=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 2541
8ebc5c01 2542=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2543
8ebc5c01 2544=item BUGS
cb1a09d0 2545
8ebc5c01 2546=item AUTHOR
cb1a09d0 2547
54310121
PP
2548=head2 constant - Perl pragma to declare constants
2549
2550=item SYNOPSIS
2551
2552=item DESCRIPTION
2553
2554=item NOTES
2555
2556=item TECHNICAL NOTE
2557
2558=item BUGS
2559
2560=item AUTHOR
2561
2562=item COPYRIGHT
2563
8ebc5c01
PP
2564=head2 diagnostics - Perl compiler pragma to force verbose warning
2565diagnostics
cb1a09d0 2566
8ebc5c01 2567=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 2568
8ebc5c01 2569=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2570
8ebc5c01 2571=over
cb1a09d0 2572
8ebc5c01 2573=item The C<diagnostics> Pragma
cb1a09d0 2574
8ebc5c01 2575=item The I<splain> Program
cb1a09d0 2576
8ebc5c01 2577=back
cb1a09d0 2578
8ebc5c01 2579=item EXAMPLES
cb1a09d0 2580
8ebc5c01 2581=item INTERNALS
cb1a09d0 2582
8ebc5c01 2583=item BUGS
cb1a09d0 2584
8ebc5c01 2585=item AUTHOR
cb1a09d0 2586
d516a115
JH
2587=head2 fields - compile-time class fields
2588
2589=item SYNOPSIS
2590
2591=item DESCRIPTION
2592
8ebc5c01
PP
2593=head2 integer - Perl pragma to compute arithmetic in integer instead of
2594double
cb1a09d0 2595
8ebc5c01 2596=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 2597
8ebc5c01 2598=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2599
8ebc5c01 2600=head2 less - perl pragma to request less of something from the compiler
cb1a09d0 2601
8ebc5c01 2602=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 2603
8ebc5c01 2604=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2605
8ebc5c01 2606=head2 lib - manipulate @INC at compile time
cb1a09d0 2607
8ebc5c01 2608=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 2609
8ebc5c01 2610=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2611
8ebc5c01
PP
2612=over
2613
2614=item ADDING DIRECTORIES TO @INC
cb1a09d0 2615
8ebc5c01 2616=item DELETING DIRECTORIES FROM @INC
cb1a09d0 2617
8ebc5c01 2618=item RESTORING ORIGINAL @INC
cb1a09d0 2619
8ebc5c01 2620=back
cb1a09d0 2621
8ebc5c01 2622=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0 2623
8ebc5c01 2624=item AUTHOR
cb1a09d0 2625
8ebc5c01
PP
2626=head2 locale - Perl pragma to use and avoid POSIX locales for built-in
2627operations
cb1a09d0 2628
8ebc5c01 2629=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0
AD
2630
2631=item DESCRIPTION
2632
8ebc5c01 2633=head2 overload - Package for overloading perl operations
cb1a09d0 2634
8ebc5c01 2635=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 2636
8ebc5c01 2637=item CAVEAT SCRIPTOR
cb1a09d0 2638
8ebc5c01 2639=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2640
8ebc5c01 2641=over
cb1a09d0 2642
8ebc5c01 2643=item Declaration of overloaded functions
cb1a09d0 2644
8ebc5c01 2645=item Calling Conventions for Binary Operations
cb1a09d0 2646
8ebc5c01 2647FALSE, TRUE, C<undef>
cb1a09d0 2648
8ebc5c01 2649=item Calling Conventions for Unary Operations
cb1a09d0 2650
8ebc5c01 2651=item Overloadable Operations
cb1a09d0 2652
8ebc5c01
PP
2653I<Arithmetic operations>, I<Comparison operations>, I<Bit operations>,
2654I<Increment and decrement>, I<Transcendental functions>, I<Boolean, string
2655and numeric conversion>, I<Special>
cb1a09d0 2656
774d564b
PP
2657=item Inheritance and overloading
2658
2659Strings as values of C<use overload> directive, Overloading of an operation
2660is inherited by derived classes
2661
8ebc5c01 2662=back
cb1a09d0 2663
8ebc5c01 2664=item SPECIAL SYMBOLS FOR C<use overload>
cb1a09d0 2665
8ebc5c01 2666=over
cb1a09d0 2667
774d564b 2668=item Last Resort
cb1a09d0 2669
8ebc5c01 2670=item Fallback
cb1a09d0 2671
8ebc5c01 2672C<undef>, TRUE, defined, but FALSE
cb1a09d0 2673
8ebc5c01 2674=item Copy Constructor
cb1a09d0 2675
8ebc5c01 2676B<Example>
cb1a09d0 2677
8ebc5c01 2678=back
cb1a09d0 2679
8ebc5c01 2680=item MAGIC AUTOGENERATION
cb1a09d0 2681
8ebc5c01
PP
2682I<Assignment forms of arithmetic operations>, I<Conversion operations>,
2683I<Increment and decrement>, C<abs($a)>, I<Unary minus>, I<Negation>,
2684I<Concatenation>, I<Comparison operations>, I<Copy operator>
cb1a09d0 2685
8ebc5c01 2686=item WARNING
cb1a09d0 2687
8ebc5c01 2688=item Run-time Overloading
cb1a09d0 2689
8ebc5c01 2690=item Public functions
cb1a09d0 2691
8ebc5c01 2692overload::StrVal(arg), overload::Overloaded(arg), overload::Method(obj,op)
cb1a09d0 2693
8ebc5c01 2694=item IMPLEMENTATION
cb1a09d0 2695
8ebc5c01 2696=item AUTHOR
cb1a09d0 2697
8ebc5c01 2698=item DIAGNOSTICS
cb1a09d0 2699
8ebc5c01 2700=item BUGS
cb1a09d0 2701
8ebc5c01 2702=head2 sigtrap - Perl pragma to enable simple signal handling
cb1a09d0 2703
8ebc5c01 2704=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 2705
8ebc5c01 2706=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2707
8ebc5c01 2708=item OPTIONS
cb1a09d0 2709
8ebc5c01 2710=over
cb1a09d0 2711
8ebc5c01 2712=item SIGNAL HANDLERS
cb1a09d0 2713
8ebc5c01 2714B<stack-trace>, B<die>, B<handler> I<your-handler>
cb1a09d0 2715
8ebc5c01 2716=item SIGNAL LISTS
cb1a09d0 2717
8ebc5c01 2718B<normal-signals>, B<error-signals>, B<old-interface-signals>
cb1a09d0 2719
8ebc5c01 2720=item OTHER
cb1a09d0 2721
8ebc5c01 2722B<untrapped>, B<any>, I<signal>, I<number>
cb1a09d0 2723
8ebc5c01 2724=back
cb1a09d0 2725
8ebc5c01 2726=item EXAMPLES
cb1a09d0 2727
8ebc5c01 2728=head2 strict - Perl pragma to restrict unsafe constructs
cb1a09d0 2729
8ebc5c01 2730=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 2731
8ebc5c01 2732=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2733
8ebc5c01 2734C<strict refs>, C<strict vars>, C<strict subs>
cb1a09d0 2735
8ebc5c01 2736=head2 subs - Perl pragma to predeclare sub names
cb1a09d0
AD
2737
2738=item SYNOPSIS
2739
cb1a09d0
AD
2740=item DESCRIPTION
2741
8ebc5c01 2742=head2 vars - Perl pragma to predeclare global variable names
cb1a09d0 2743
8ebc5c01 2744=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 2745
8ebc5c01 2746=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2747
8ebc5c01 2748=head1 MODULE DOCUMENTATION
cb1a09d0 2749
8ebc5c01 2750=head2 AnyDBM_File - provide framework for multiple DBMs
cb1a09d0
AD
2751
2752=item SYNOPSIS
2753
cb1a09d0
AD
2754=item DESCRIPTION
2755
cb1a09d0
AD
2756=over
2757
8ebc5c01 2758=item DBM Comparisons
cb1a09d0 2759
8ebc5c01 2760[0], [1], [2], [3]
cb1a09d0 2761
8ebc5c01 2762=back
cb1a09d0 2763
8ebc5c01 2764=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0 2765
4a6725af 2766=head2 AutoLoader - load subroutines only on demand
cb1a09d0 2767
8ebc5c01 2768=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 2769
8ebc5c01 2770=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2771
8ebc5c01 2772=over
cb1a09d0 2773
4a6725af
NT
2774=item Subroutine Stubs
2775
2776=item Using B<AutoLoader>'s AUTOLOAD Subroutine
cb1a09d0 2777
4a6725af 2778=item Overriding B<AutoLoader>'s AUTOLOAD Subroutine
cb1a09d0 2779
8ebc5c01 2780=item Package Lexicals
cb1a09d0 2781
4a6725af 2782=item B<AutoLoader> vs. B<SelfLoader>
cb1a09d0 2783
8ebc5c01 2784=back
cb1a09d0 2785
4a6725af
NT
2786=item CAVEATS
2787
2788=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0 2789
8ebc5c01 2790=head2 AutoSplit - split a package for autoloading
cb1a09d0 2791
8ebc5c01 2792=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 2793
8ebc5c01 2794=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2795
193fb0af
GS
2796$keep, $check, $modtime
2797
2798=over
2799
2800=item Multiple packages
2801
2802=back
cb1a09d0 2803
8ebc5c01 2804=item DIAGNOSTICS
cb1a09d0 2805
193fb0af
GS
2806=head2 B::Lint - Perl lint
2807
2808=item SYNOPSIS
2809
2810=item DESCRIPTION
2811
2812=item OPTIONS AND LINT CHECKS
2813
2814B<context>, B<implicit-read> and B<implicit-write>, B<dollar-underscore>,
2815B<private-names>, B<undefined-subs>, B<regexp-variables>, B<all>, B<none>
2816
2817=item NON LINT-CHECK OPTIONS
2818
2819B<-u Package>
2820
2821=item BUGS
2822
2823=item AUTHOR
2824
2825=head2 B::Xref - Generates cross reference reports for Perl programs
2826
2827=item SYNOPSIS
2828
2829=item DESCRIPTION
2830
2831=item OPTIONS
2832
2833C<-oFILENAME>, C<-r>, C<-D[tO]>
2834
2835=item BUGS
2836
2837=item AUTHOR
2838
8ebc5c01 2839=head2 Benchmark - benchmark running times of code
cb1a09d0 2840
8ebc5c01 2841=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0
AD
2842
2843=item DESCRIPTION
2844
cb1a09d0
AD
2845=over
2846
8ebc5c01 2847=item Methods
cb1a09d0 2848
8ebc5c01 2849new, debug
cb1a09d0 2850
8ebc5c01 2851=item Standard Exports
cb1a09d0 2852
54310121
PP
2853timeit(COUNT, CODE), timethis ( COUNT, CODE, [ TITLE, [ STYLE ]] ),
2854timethese ( COUNT, CODEHASHREF, [ STYLE ] ), timediff ( T1, T2 ), timestr (
193fb0af 2855TIMEDIFF, [ STYLE, [ FORMAT ] ] )
cb1a09d0 2856
8ebc5c01 2857=item Optional Exports
cb1a09d0 2858
54310121
PP
2859clearcache ( COUNT ), clearallcache ( ), disablecache ( ), enablecache ( )
2860
8ebc5c01 2861=back
cb1a09d0 2862
8ebc5c01 2863=item NOTES
cb1a09d0 2864
8ebc5c01 2865=item INHERITANCE
cb1a09d0 2866
8ebc5c01 2867=item CAVEATS
cb1a09d0 2868
8ebc5c01 2869=item AUTHORS
cb1a09d0 2870
8ebc5c01 2871=item MODIFICATION HISTORY
cb1a09d0 2872
f86702cc
PP
2873=head2 Bundle::CPAN - A bundle to play with all the other modules on CPAN
2874
2875=item SYNOPSIS
2876
2877=item CONTENTS
2878
2879=item DESCRIPTION
2880
2881=item AUTHOR
2882
54310121
PP
2883=head2 CGI - Simple Common Gateway Interface Class
2884
dc848c6f
PP
2885=item SYNOPSIS
2886
54310121
PP
2887=item ABSTRACT
2888
c635e13b 2889=item INSTALLATION
54310121
PP
2890
2891=item DESCRIPTION
2892
2893=over
2894
2895=item CREATING A NEW QUERY OBJECT:
2896
2897=item CREATING A NEW QUERY OBJECT FROM AN INPUT FILE
2898
2899=item FETCHING A LIST OF KEYWORDS FROM THE QUERY:
2900
2901=item FETCHING THE NAMES OF ALL THE PARAMETERS PASSED TO YOUR SCRIPT:
2902
2903=item FETCHING THE VALUE OR VALUES OF A SINGLE NAMED PARAMETER:
2904
2905=item SETTING THE VALUE(S) OF A NAMED PARAMETER:
2906
2907=item APPENDING ADDITIONAL VALUES TO A NAMED PARAMETER:
2908
2909=item IMPORTING ALL PARAMETERS INTO A NAMESPACE:
2910
2911=item DELETING A PARAMETER COMPLETELY:
2912
2913=item DELETING ALL PARAMETERS:
2914
2915=item SAVING THE STATE OF THE FORM TO A FILE:
2916
2917=item CREATING A SELF-REFERENCING URL THAT PRESERVES STATE INFORMATION:
2918
2919=item COMPATIBILITY WITH CGI-LIB.PL
2920
2921=item CALLING CGI FUNCTIONS THAT TAKE MULTIPLE ARGUMENTS
2922
2923=item CREATING THE HTTP HEADER:
2924
2925=item GENERATING A REDIRECTION INSTRUCTION
2926
2927=item CREATING THE HTML HEADER:
2928
2929B<Parameters:>, 4, 5, 6..
2930
2931=item ENDING THE HTML DOCUMENT:
2932
2933=back
2934
c635e13b 2935=item CREATING FORMS
54310121
PP
2936
2937=over
2938
2939=item CREATING AN ISINDEX TAG
2940
2941=item STARTING AND ENDING A FORM
2942
2943B<application/x-www-form-urlencoded>, B<multipart/form-data>
2944
2945=item CREATING A TEXT FIELD
2946
2947B<Parameters>
2948
2949=item CREATING A BIG TEXT FIELD
2950
2951=item CREATING A PASSWORD FIELD
2952
2953=item CREATING A FILE UPLOAD FIELD
2954
2955B<Parameters>
2956
2957=item CREATING A POPUP MENU
2958
2959=item CREATING A SCROLLING LIST
2960
2961B<Parameters:>
2962
2963=item CREATING A GROUP OF RELATED CHECKBOXES
2964
2965B<Parameters:>
2966
2967=item CREATING A STANDALONE CHECKBOX
2968
2969B<Parameters:>
2970
2971=item CREATING A RADIO BUTTON GROUP
2972
2973B<Parameters:>
2974
2975=item CREATING A SUBMIT BUTTON
2976
2977B<Parameters:>
2978
2979=item CREATING A RESET BUTTON
2980
2981=item CREATING A DEFAULT BUTTON
2982
2983=item CREATING A HIDDEN FIELD
2984
2985B<Parameters:>
2986
2987=item CREATING A CLICKABLE IMAGE BUTTON
2988
2989B<Parameters:>, 3.The third option (-align, optional) is an alignment type,
2990and may be
2991TOP, BOTTOM or MIDDLE
2992
2993=item CREATING A JAVASCRIPT ACTION BUTTON
2994
2995=back
2996
2997=item NETSCAPE COOKIES
2998
29991. an expiration time, 2. a domain, 3. a path, 4. a "secure" flag,
3000B<-name>, B<-value>, B<-path>, B<-domain>, B<-expires>, B<-secure>
3001
3002=item WORKING WITH NETSCAPE FRAMES
3003
30041. Create a <Frameset> document, 2. Specify the destination for the
3005document in the HTTP header, 3. Specify the destination for the document in
3006the <FORM> tag
3007
c90c0ff4
PP
3008=item LIMITED SUPPORT FOR CASCADING STYLE SHEETS
3009
54310121
PP
3010=item DEBUGGING
3011
3012=over
3013
3014=item DUMPING OUT ALL THE NAME/VALUE PAIRS
3015
3016=back
3017
3018=item FETCHING ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
3019
3020B<accept()>, B<raw_cookie()>, B<user_agent()>, B<path_info()>,
3021B<path_translated()>, B<remote_host()>, B<script_name()>Return the script
3022name as a partial URL, for self-refering
3023scripts, B<referer()>, B<auth_type ()>, B<server_name ()>, B<virtual_host
3024()>, B<server_software ()>, B<remote_user ()>, B<user_name ()>,
3025B<request_method()>
3026
c635e13b 3027=item CREATING HTML ELEMENTS
54310121
PP
3028
3029=over
3030
3031=item PROVIDING ARGUMENTS TO HTML SHORTCUTS
3032
3033=item Generating new HTML tags
3034
3035=back
3036
3037=item IMPORTING CGI METHOD CALLS INTO YOUR NAME SPACE
3038
3039B<cgi>, B<form>, B<html2>, B<html3>, B<netscape>, B<shortcuts>,
3040B<standard>, B<all>
3041
3042=item USING NPH SCRIPTS
3043
3044In the B<use> statementSimply add ":nph" to the list of symbols to be
3045imported into your script:, By calling the B<nph()> method:, By using
3046B<-nph> parameters in the B<header()> and B<redirect()> statements:
3047
3048=item AUTHOR INFORMATION
3049
3050=item CREDITS
3051
3052Matt Heffron (heffron@falstaff.css.beckman.com), James Taylor
3053(james.taylor@srs.gov), Scott Anguish <sanguish@digifix.com>, Mike Jewell
3054(mlj3u@virginia.edu), Timothy Shimmin (tes@kbs.citri.edu.au), Joergen Haegg
3055(jh@axis.se), Laurent Delfosse (delfosse@csgrad1.cs.wvu.edu), Richard
3056Resnick (applepi1@aol.com), Craig Bishop (csb@barwonwater.vic.gov.au), Tony
3057Curtis (tc@vcpc.univie.ac.at), Tim Bunce (Tim.Bunce@ig.co.uk), Tom
3058Christiansen (tchrist@convex.com), Andreas Koenig
3059(k@franz.ww.TU-Berlin.DE), Tim MacKenzie (Tim.MacKenzie@fulcrum.com.au),
3060Kevin B. Hendricks (kbhend@dogwood.tyler.wm.edu), Stephen Dahmen
3061(joyfire@inxpress.net), Ed Jordan (ed@fidalgo.net), David Alan Pisoni
3062(david@cnation.com), ...and many many more..
3063
3064=item A COMPLETE EXAMPLE OF A SIMPLE FORM-BASED SCRIPT
3065
3066=item BUGS
3067
3068=item SEE ALSO
3069
3070=head2 CGI::Apache - Make things work with CGI.pm against Perl-Apache API
3071
3072=item SYNOPSIS
3073
3074=item DESCRIPTION
3075
137443ea
PP
3076=item NOTE 1
3077
3078=item NOTE 2
54310121
PP
3079
3080=item SEE ALSO
3081
3082=item AUTHOR
3083
3084=head2 CGI::Carp, B<CGI::Carp> - CGI routines for writing to the HTTPD (or
3085other) error log
3086
3087=item SYNOPSIS
3088
3089=item DESCRIPTION
3090
3091=item REDIRECTING ERROR MESSAGES
3092
3093=item MAKING PERL ERRORS APPEAR IN THE BROWSER WINDOW
3094
3095=item CHANGE LOG
3096
3097=item AUTHORS
3098
3099=item SEE ALSO
3100
3101=head2 CGI::Fast - CGI Interface for Fast CGI
3102
3103=item SYNOPSIS
3104
3105=item DESCRIPTION
3106
3107=item OTHER PIECES OF THE PUZZLE
3108
3109=item WRITING FASTCGI PERL SCRIPTS
3110
3111=item INSTALLING FASTCGI SCRIPTS
3112
3113=item USING FASTCGI SCRIPTS AS CGI SCRIPTS
3114
3115=item CAVEATS
3116
3117=item AUTHOR INFORMATION
3118
3119=item BUGS
3120
3121=item SEE ALSO
3122
3123=head2 CGI::Push - Simple Interface to Server Push
3124
3125=item SYNOPSIS
3126
3127=item DESCRIPTION
3128
3129=item USING CGI::Push
3130
d516a115 3131-next_page, -last_page, -type, -delay, -cookie, -target, -expires
54310121
PP
3132
3133=item INSTALLING CGI::Push SCRIPTS
3134
3135=item CAVEATS
3136
3137=item AUTHOR INFORMATION
3138
3139=item BUGS
3140
3141=item SEE ALSO
3142
3143=head2 CGI::Switch - Try more than one constructors and return the first
3144object available
3145
3146=item SYNOPSIS
3147
3148=item DESCRIPTION
3149
3150=item SEE ALSO
3151
3152=item AUTHOR
3153
8ebc5c01 3154=head2 CPAN - query, download and build perl modules from CPAN sites
cb1a09d0 3155
8ebc5c01 3156=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 3157
8ebc5c01 3158=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0
AD
3159
3160=over
3161
8ebc5c01 3162=item Interactive Mode
cb1a09d0 3163
8ebc5c01 3164Searching for authors, bundles, distribution files and modules, make, test,
774d564b
PP
3165install, clean modules or distributions, readme, look module or
3166distribution
cb1a09d0 3167
8ebc5c01 3168=item CPAN::Shell
cb1a09d0 3169
774d564b
PP
3170=item autobundle
3171
3172=item recompile
3173
d516a115 3174=item The four C<CPAN::*> Classes: Author, Bundle, Module, Distribution
dc848c6f 3175
8ebc5c01 3176=item ProgrammerE<39>s interface
cb1a09d0 3177
dc848c6f
PP
3178expand($type,@things), Programming Examples
3179
d516a115
JH
3180=item Methods in the four
3181
8ebc5c01 3182=item Cache Manager
cb1a09d0 3183
8ebc5c01 3184=item Bundles
cb1a09d0 3185
774d564b 3186=item Prerequisites
cb1a09d0 3187
774d564b
PP
3188=item Debugging
3189
3190=item Floppy, Zip, and all that Jazz
cb1a09d0
AD
3191
3192=back
3193
8ebc5c01 3194=item CONFIGURATION
cb1a09d0 3195
8ebc5c01
PP
3196o conf E<lt>scalar optionE<gt>, o conf E<lt>scalar optionE<gt>
3197E<lt>valueE<gt>, o conf E<lt>list optionE<gt>, o conf E<lt>list optionE<gt>
3198[shift|pop], o conf E<lt>list optionE<gt> [unshift|push|splice]
3199E<lt>listE<gt>
cb1a09d0 3200
d516a115
JH
3201=over
3202
3203=item CD-ROM support
3204
3205=back
3206
8ebc5c01 3207=item SECURITY
cb1a09d0 3208
8ebc5c01 3209=item EXPORT
cb1a09d0 3210
774d564b 3211=item BUGS
cb1a09d0
AD
3212
3213=item AUTHOR
3214
8ebc5c01 3215=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0 3216
8ebc5c01 3217=head2 CPAN::FirstTime - Utility for CPAN::Config file Initialization
cb1a09d0
AD
3218
3219=item SYNOPSIS
3220
cb1a09d0
AD
3221=item DESCRIPTION
3222
8ebc5c01
PP
3223=head2 CPANox, CPAN::Nox - Wrapper around CPAN.pm without using any XS
3224module
cb1a09d0
AD
3225
3226=item SYNOPSIS
3227
cb1a09d0
AD
3228=item DESCRIPTION
3229
8ebc5c01 3230=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0 3231
d516a115 3232=head2 Carp, carp - warn of errors (from perspective of caller)
cb1a09d0 3233
8ebc5c01 3234=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 3235
8ebc5c01 3236=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 3237
d516a115
JH
3238=over
3239
3240=item Forcing a Stack Trace
3241
3242=back
3243
8cc95fdb 3244=head2 Class::Struct - declare struct-like datatypes as Perl classes
cb1a09d0
AD
3245
3246=item SYNOPSIS
3247
cb1a09d0
AD
3248=item DESCRIPTION
3249
8cc95fdb
PP
3250=over
3251
3252=item The C<struct()> function
3253
3254=item Element Types and Accessor Methods
3255
3256Scalar (C<'$'> or C<'*$'>), Array (C<'@'> or C<'*@'>), Hash (C<'%'> or
3257C<'*%'>), Class (C<'Class_Name'> or C<'*Class_Name'>)
3258
3259=back
3260
8ebc5c01 3261=item EXAMPLES
cb1a09d0 3262
8ebc5c01 3263Example 1, Example 2
cb1a09d0 3264
8cc95fdb 3265=item Author and Modification History
cb1a09d0 3266
8ebc5c01 3267=head2 Cwd, getcwd - get pathname of current working directory
cb1a09d0 3268
8ebc5c01 3269=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 3270
8ebc5c01 3271=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 3272
d516a115 3273=head2 DB_File - Perl5 access to Berkeley DB version 1.x
cb1a09d0
AD
3274
3275=item SYNOPSIS
3276
cb1a09d0
AD
3277=item DESCRIPTION
3278
8ebc5c01 3279B<DB_HASH>, B<DB_BTREE>, B<DB_RECNO>
cb1a09d0
AD
3280
3281=over
3282
d516a115
JH
3283=item Using DB_File with Berkeley DB version 2
3284
68dc0745 3285=item Interface to Berkeley DB
cb1a09d0 3286
8ebc5c01 3287=item Opening a Berkeley DB Database File
cb1a09d0 3288
8ebc5c01 3289=item Default Parameters
cb1a09d0 3290
8ebc5c01 3291=item In Memory Databases
cb1a09d0
AD
3292
3293=back
3294
8ebc5c01 3295=item DB_HASH
cb1a09d0 3296
8ebc5c01 3297=over
cb1a09d0 3298
68dc0745 3299=item A Simple Example
cb1a09d0 3300
8ebc5c01 3301=back
cb1a09d0 3302
8ebc5c01 3303=item DB_BTREE
cb1a09d0 3304
8ebc5c01 3305=over
cb1a09d0 3306
8ebc5c01 3307=item Changing the BTREE sort order
cb1a09d0 3308
68dc0745 3309=item Handling Duplicate Keys
cb1a09d0 3310
68dc0745 3311=item The get_dup() Method
cb1a09d0 3312
8ebc5c01 3313=item Matching Partial Keys
cb1a09d0 3314
8ebc5c01 3315=back
cb1a09d0 3316
8ebc5c01 3317=item DB_RECNO
cb1a09d0 3318
8ebc5c01 3319=over
cb1a09d0 3320
68dc0745 3321=item The 'bval' Option
cb1a09d0 3322
8ebc5c01 3323=item A Simple Example
cb1a09d0 3324
8ebc5c01 3325=item Extra Methods
cb1a09d0 3326
8ebc5c01
PP
3327B<$X-E<gt>push(list) ;>, B<$value = $X-E<gt>pop ;>, B<$X-E<gt>shift>,
3328B<$X-E<gt>unshift(list) ;>, B<$X-E<gt>length>
cb1a09d0 3329
8ebc5c01 3330=item Another Example
cb1a09d0 3331
8ebc5c01 3332=back
cb1a09d0 3333
8ebc5c01 3334=item THE API INTERFACE
cb1a09d0 3335
8ebc5c01
PP
3336B<$status = $X-E<gt>get($key, $value [, $flags]) ;>, B<$status =
3337$X-E<gt>put($key, $value [, $flags]) ;>, B<$status = $X-E<gt>del($key [,
3338$flags]) ;>, B<$status = $X-E<gt>fd ;>, B<$status = $X-E<gt>seq($key,
3339$value, $flags) ;>, B<$status = $X-E<gt>sync([$flags]) ;>
cb1a09d0 3340
8ebc5c01 3341=item HINTS AND TIPS
cb1a09d0 3342
8ebc5c01
PP
3343=over
3344
3345=item Locking Databases
cb1a09d0 3346
68dc0745 3347=item Sharing Databases With C Applications
cb1a09d0 3348
68dc0745 3349=item The untie() Gotcha
4fdae800 3350
8ebc5c01 3351=back
cb1a09d0 3352
8ebc5c01 3353=item COMMON QUESTIONS
cb1a09d0
AD
3354
3355=over
3356
8ebc5c01 3357=item Why is there Perl source in my database?
cb1a09d0 3358
8ebc5c01 3359=item How do I store complex data structures with DB_File?
cb1a09d0 3360
8ebc5c01 3361=item What does "Invalid Argument" mean?
cb1a09d0 3362
8ebc5c01 3363=item What does "Bareword 'DB_File' not allowed" mean?
cb1a09d0 3364
8ebc5c01 3365=back
cb1a09d0 3366
8ebc5c01 3367=item HISTORY
cb1a09d0 3368
8ebc5c01 3369=item BUGS
cb1a09d0 3370
8ebc5c01 3371=item AVAILABILITY
cb1a09d0 3372
d516a115
JH
3373=item COPYRIGHT
3374
8ebc5c01 3375=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0 3376
8ebc5c01 3377=item AUTHOR
cb1a09d0 3378
8ebc5c01 3379=head2 Devel::SelfStubber - generate stubs for a SelfLoading module
cb1a09d0 3380
8ebc5c01 3381=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 3382
8ebc5c01 3383=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 3384
8ebc5c01 3385=head2 DirHandle - supply object methods for directory handles
cb1a09d0 3386
8ebc5c01 3387=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 3388
8ebc5c01 3389=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 3390
8ebc5c01
PP
3391=head2 English - use nice English (or awk) names for ugly punctuation
3392variables
cb1a09d0 3393
8ebc5c01 3394=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 3395
8ebc5c01 3396=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 3397
8ebc5c01 3398=head2 Env - perl module that imports environment variables
cb1a09d0
AD
3399
3400=item SYNOPSIS
3401
cb1a09d0
AD
3402=item DESCRIPTION
3403
8ebc5c01 3404=item AUTHOR
cb1a09d0 3405
8ebc5c01 3406=head2 Exporter - Implements default import method for modules
cb1a09d0 3407
8ebc5c01 3408=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 3409
8ebc5c01 3410=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 3411
8ebc5c01 3412=over
cb1a09d0 3413
8ebc5c01 3414=item Selecting What To Export
cb1a09d0 3415
8ebc5c01 3416=item Specialised Import Lists
cb1a09d0 3417
d516a115
JH
3418=item Exporting without using Export's import method
3419
8ebc5c01 3420=item Module Version Checking
cb1a09d0 3421
8ebc5c01 3422=item Managing Unknown Symbols
cb1a09d0 3423
8ebc5c01 3424=item Tag Handling Utility Functions
cb1a09d0 3425
8ebc5c01 3426=back
cb1a09d0 3427
68dc0745
PP
3428=head2 ExtUtils::Command - utilities to replace common UNIX commands in
3429Makefiles etc.
3430
dc848c6f 3431=item SYNOPSIS
68dc0745
PP
3432
3433=item DESCRIPTION
3434
3435cat, eqtime src dst, rm_f files..., rm_f files..., touch files .., mv
3436source... destination, cp source... destination, chmod mode files.., mkpath
3437directory.., test_f file
3438
3439=item BUGS
3440
3441=item SEE ALSO
3442
3443=item AUTHOR
3444
8ebc5c01 3445=head2 ExtUtils::Embed - Utilities for embedding Perl in C/C++ applications
cb1a09d0
AD
3446
3447=item SYNOPSIS
3448
cb1a09d0
AD
3449=item DESCRIPTION
3450
8ebc5c01 3451=item @EXPORT
cb1a09d0 3452
8ebc5c01 3453=item FUNCTIONS
cb1a09d0 3454
8ebc5c01
PP
3455xsinit(), Examples, ldopts(), Examples, perl_inc(), ccflags(), ccdlflags(),
3456ccopts(), xsi_header(), xsi_protos(@modules), xsi_body(@modules)
cb1a09d0 3457
8ebc5c01 3458=item EXAMPLES
cb1a09d0 3459
8ebc5c01 3460=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0 3461
8ebc5c01 3462=item AUTHOR
cb1a09d0 3463
8ebc5c01 3464=head2 ExtUtils::Install - install files from here to there
cb1a09d0 3465
8ebc5c01 3466=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 3467
8ebc5c01 3468=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 3469
193fb0af
GS
3470=head2 ExtUtils::Installed - Inventory management of installed modules
3471
3472=item SYNOPSIS
3473
3474=item DESCRIPTION
3475
3476=item USAGE
3477
3478=item FUNCTIONS
3479
3480new(), modules(), files(), directories(), directory_tree(), validate(),
3481packlist(), version()
3482
3483=item AUTHOR
3484
8ebc5c01 3485=head2 ExtUtils::Liblist - determine libraries to use and how to use them
cb1a09d0 3486
8ebc5c01 3487=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 3488
8ebc5c01 3489=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 3490
8ebc5c01 3491For static extensions, For dynamic extensions, For dynamic extensions
cb1a09d0 3492
8ebc5c01 3493=over
cb1a09d0 3494
8ebc5c01 3495=item EXTRALIBS
cb1a09d0 3496
8ebc5c01 3497=item LDLOADLIBS and LD_RUN_PATH
cb1a09d0 3498
8ebc5c01 3499=item BSLOADLIBS
cb1a09d0 3500
8ebc5c01 3501=back
cb1a09d0 3502
8ebc5c01 3503=item PORTABILITY
cb1a09d0
AD
3504
3505=over
3506
8ebc5c01 3507=item VMS implementation
cb1a09d0 3508
3e3baf6d
TB
3509=item Win32 implementation
3510
8ebc5c01 3511=back
cb1a09d0 3512
8ebc5c01 3513=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0 3514
8ebc5c01
PP
3515=head2 ExtUtils::MM_OS2 - methods to override UN*X behaviour in
3516ExtUtils::MakeMaker
cb1a09d0 3517
8ebc5c01 3518=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 3519
8ebc5c01 3520=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 3521
8ebc5c01 3522=head2 ExtUtils::MM_Unix - methods used by ExtUtils::MakeMaker
cb1a09d0 3523
8ebc5c01 3524=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 3525
8ebc5c01 3526=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 3527
8ebc5c01 3528