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9133bbab 1This document is written in pod format hence there are punctuation
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2characters in odd places. Do not worry, you've apparently got the
3ASCII->EBCDIC translation worked out correctly. You can read more
4about pod in pod/perlpod.pod or the short summary in the INSTALL file.
9d116dd7 5
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6=head1 NAME
7
de2902a6 8perlos390 - building and installing Perl for OS/390 and z/OS
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9
10=head1 SYNOPSIS
11
12This document will help you Configure, build, test and install Perl
37a78d01 13on OS/390 (aka z/OS) Unix System Services.
8fde188e 14
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15B<This document needs to be updated, but we don't know what it should say.
16Please email comments to L<perlbug@perl.org|mailto:perlbug@perl.org>.>
17
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18=head1 DESCRIPTION
19
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20This is a fully ported Perl for OS/390 Version 2 Release 3, 5, 6, 7,
218, and 9. It may work on other versions or releases, but those are
eae55d03 22the ones we've tested it on.
8fde188e 23
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24You may need to carry out some system configuration tasks before
25running the Configure script for Perl.
8fde188e 26
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27
28=head2 Tools
29
30The z/OS Unix Tools and Toys list may prove helpful and contains links
f110302f 31to ports of much of the software helpful for building Perl.
4b05bc8e 32L<http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1toy.html>
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33
34
a83b6f46 35=head2 Unpacking Perl distribution on OS/390
9d116dd7 36
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37If using ftp remember to transfer the distribution in binary format.
38
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39Gunzip/gzip for OS/390 is discussed at:
40
08d7a6b2 41 http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1ty1.html
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42
43to extract an ASCII tar archive on OS/390, try this:
44
45 pax -o to=IBM-1047,from=ISO8859-1 -r < latest.tar
46
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47or
48
49 zcat latest.tar.Z | pax -o to=IBM-1047,from=ISO8859-1 -r
50
0e7519cd 51If you get lots of errors of the form
bbee22da 52
e46aa1dd 53 tar: FSUM7171 ...: cannot set uid/gid: EDC5139I Operation not permitted
bbee22da 54
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55you didn't read the above and tried to use tar instead of pax, you'll
56first have to remove the (now corrupt) perl directory
57
58 rm -rf perl-...
59
60and then use pax.
bbee22da 61
a83b6f46 62=head2 Setup and utilities for Perl on OS/390
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63
64Be sure that your yacc installation is in place including any necessary
65parser template files. If you have not already done so then be sure to:
66
67 cp /samples/yyparse.c /etc
68
9133bbab 69This may also be a good time to ensure that your /etc/protocol file
8fde188e 70and either your /etc/resolv.conf or /etc/hosts files are in place.
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71The IBM document that described such USS system setup issues was
72SC28-1890-07 "OS/390 UNIX System Services Planning", in particular
73Chapter 6 on customizing the OE shell.
8fde188e 74
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75GNU make for OS/390, which is recommended for the build of perl (as
76well as building CPAN modules and extensions), is available from the
77L</Tools>.
9d116dd7 78
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79Some people have reported encountering "Out of memory!" errors while
80trying to build Perl using GNU make binaries. If you encounter such
81trouble then try to download the source code kit and build GNU make
82from source to eliminate any such trouble. You might also find GNU make
83(as well as Perl and Apache) in the red-piece/book "Open Source Software
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84for OS/390 UNIX", SG24-5944-00 from IBM.
85
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86If instead of the recommended GNU make you would like to use the system
87supplied make program then be sure to install the default rules file
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88properly via the shell command:
89
90 cp /samples/startup.mk /etc
91
92and be sure to also set the environment variable _C89_CCMODE=1 (exporting
93_C89_CCMODE=1 is also a good idea for users of GNU make).
94
f2766b05 95You might also want to have GNU groff for OS/390 installed before
b432a672 96running the "make install" step for Perl.
f2766b05 97
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98There is a syntax error in the /usr/include/sys/socket.h header file
99that IBM supplies with USS V2R7, V2R8, and possibly V2R9. The problem with
100the header file is that near the definition of the SO_REUSEPORT constant
101there is a spurious extra '/' character outside of a comment like so:
102
103 #define SO_REUSEPORT 0x0200 /* allow local address & port
104 reuse */ /
105
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106You could edit that header yourself to remove that last '/', or you might
107note that Language Environment (LE) APAR PQ39997 describes the problem
eae55d03 108and PTF's UQ46272 and UQ46271 are the (R8 at least) fixes and apply them.
9133bbab 109If left unattended that syntax error will turn up as an inability for Perl
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110to build its "Socket" extension.
111
9133bbab 112For successful testing you may need to turn on the sticky bit for your
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113world readable /tmp directory if you have not already done so (see man chmod).
114
a83b6f46 115=head2 Configure Perl on OS/390
8fde188e 116
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117Once you've unpacked the distribution, run "sh Configure" (see INSTALL
118for a full discussion of the Configure options). There is a "hints" file
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119for os390 that specifies the correct values for most things. Some things
120to watch out for include:
121
122=over 4
123
124=item *
125
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126A message of the form:
127
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128 (I see you are using the Korn shell. Some ksh's blow up on
129 Configure, mainly on older exotic systems. If yours does, try the
130 Bourne shell instead.)
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131
132is nothing to worry about at all.
133
134=item *
135
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136Some of the parser default template files in /samples are needed in /etc.
137In particular be sure that you at least copy /samples/yyparse.c to /etc
eae55d03 138before running Perl's Configure. This step ensures successful extraction
c67aee7a 139of EBCDIC versions of parser files such as perly.c and perly.h.
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140This has to be done before running Configure the first time. If you failed
141to do so then the easiest way to re-Configure Perl is to delete your
142misconfigured build root and re-extract the source from the tar ball.
143Then you must ensure that /etc/yyparse.c is properly in place before
59c9e5d6 144attempting to re-run Configure.
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145
146=item *
147
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148This port will support dynamic loading, but it is not selected by
149default. If you would like to experiment with dynamic loading then
150be sure to specify -Dusedl in the arguments to the Configure script.
151See the comments in hints/os390.sh for more information on dynamic loading.
152If you build with dynamic loading then you will need to add the
153$archlibexp/CORE directory to your LIBPATH environment variable in order
154for perl to work. See the config.sh file for the value of $archlibexp.
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155If in trying to use Perl you see an error message similar to:
156
157 CEE3501S The module libperl.dll was not found.
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158 From entry point __dllstaticinit at compile unit offset +00000194
159 at
59c9e5d6 160
9133bbab 161then your LIBPATH does not have the location of libperl.x and either
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162libperl.dll or libperl.so in it. Add that directory to your LIBPATH and
163proceed.
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164
165=item *
9d116dd7 166
eae55d03 167Do not turn on the compiler optimization flag "-O". There is
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168a bug in either the optimizer or perl that causes perl to
169not work correctly when the optimizer is on.
9d116dd7 170
8fde188e 171=item *
9d116dd7 172
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173Some of the configuration files in /etc used by the
174networking APIs are either missing or have the wrong
175names. In particular, make sure that there's either
eae55d03 176an /etc/resolv.conf or an /etc/hosts, so that
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177gethostbyname() works, and make sure that the file
178/etc/proto has been renamed to /etc/protocol (NOT
179/etc/protocols, as used by other Unix systems).
59c9e5d6 180You may have to look for things like HOSTNAME and DOMAINORIGIN
9133bbab 181in the "//'SYS1.TCPPARMS(TCPDATA)'" PDS member in order to
59c9e5d6 182properly set up your /etc networking files.
9d116dd7 183
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184=back
185
a83b6f46 186=head2 Build, Test, Install Perl on OS/390
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187
188Simply put:
189
190 sh Configure
191 make
192 make test
193
eae55d03 194if everything looks ok (see the next section for test/IVP diagnosis) then:
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195
196 make install
197
198this last step may or may not require UID=0 privileges depending
199on how you answered the questions that Configure asked and whether
200or not you have write access to the directories you specified.
201
a83b6f46 202=head2 Build Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
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203
204"Out of memory!" messages during the build of Perl are most often fixed
205by re building the GNU make utility for OS/390 from a source code kit.
206
207Another memory limiting item to check is your MAXASSIZE parameter in your
208'SYS1.PARMLIB(BPXPRMxx)' data set (note too that as of V2R8 address space
9133bbab 209limits can be set on a per user ID basis in the USS segment of a RACF
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210profile). People have reported successful builds of Perl with MAXASSIZE
211parameters as small as 503316480 (and it may be possible to build Perl
212with a MAXASSIZE smaller than that).
213
9133bbab 214Within USS your /etc/profile or $HOME/.profile may limit your ulimit
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215settings. Check that the following command returns reasonable values:
216
217 ulimit -a
218
219To conserve memory you should have your compiler modules loaded into the
220Link Pack Area (LPA/ELPA) rather than in a link list or step lib.
221
222If the c89 compiler complains of syntax errors during the build of the
223Socket extension then be sure to fix the syntax error in the system
224header /usr/include/sys/socket.h.
225
a83b6f46 226=head2 Testing Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
eae55d03 227
b432a672 228The "make test" step runs a Perl Verification Procedure, usually before
eae55d03 229installation. You might encounter STDERR messages even during a successful
b432a672 230run of "make test". Here is a guide to some of the more commonly seen
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231anomalies:
232
233=over 4
234
235=item *
236
237A message of the form:
238
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239 io/openpid...........CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
240 CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
241 CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
242 ok
243
244indicates that the t/io/openpid.t test of Perl has passed but done so
245with extraneous messages on stderr from CEE.
246
247=item *
248
249A message of the form:
250
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251 lib/ftmp-security....File::Temp::_gettemp: Parent directory (/tmp/)
252 is not safe (sticky bit not set when world writable?) at
253 lib/ftmp-security.t line 100
254 File::Temp::_gettemp: Parent directory (/tmp/) is not safe (sticky
255 bit not set when world writable?) at lib/ftmp-security.t line 100
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256 ok
257
258indicates a problem with the permissions on your /tmp directory within the HFS.
259To correct that problem issue the command:
260
261 chmod a+t /tmp
262
263from an account with write access to the directory entry for /tmp.
264
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265=item *
266
267Out of Memory!
268
f858446f 269Recent perl test suite is quite memory hungry. In addition to the comments
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270above on memory limitations it is also worth checking for _CEE_RUNOPTS
271in your environment. Perl now has (in miniperlmain.c) a C #pragma
210b36aa 272to set CEE run options, but the environment variable wins.
9133bbab 273
210b36aa 274The C code asks for:
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275
276 #pragma runopts(HEAP(2M,500K,ANYWHERE,KEEP,8K,4K) STACK(,,ANY,) ALL31(ON))
277
278The important parts of that are the second argument (the increment) to HEAP,
279and allowing the stack to be "Above the (16M) line". If the heap
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280increment is too small then when perl (for example loading unicode/Name.pl) tries
281to create a "big" (400K+) string it cannot fit in a single segment
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282and you get "Out of Memory!" - even if there is still plenty of memory
283available.
284
285A related issue is use with perl's malloc. Perl's malloc uses C<sbrk()>
286to get memory, and C<sbrk()> is limited to the first allocation so in this
287case something like:
288
289 HEAP(8M,500K,ANYWHERE,KEEP,8K,4K)
290
291is needed to get through the test suite.
292
293
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294=back
295
a83b6f46 296=head2 Installation Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
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297
298The installman script will try to run on OS/390. There will be fewer errors
9133bbab 299if you have a roff utility installed. You can obtain GNU groff from the
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300Redbook SG24-5944-00 ftp site.
301
a83b6f46 302=head2 Usage Hints for Perl on OS/390
64d55c8a 303
9d116dd7 304When using perl on OS/390 please keep in mind that the EBCDIC and ASCII
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305character sets are different. See perlebcdic.pod for more on such character
306set issues. Perl builtin functions that may behave differently under
eae55d03 307EBCDIC are also mentioned in the perlport.pod document.
9d116dd7 308
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309Open Edition (UNIX System Services) from V2R8 onward does support
310#!/path/to/perl script invocation. There is a PTF available from
eae55d03 311IBM for V2R7 that will allow shell/kernel support for #!. USS
9133bbab 312releases prior to V2R7 did not support the #! means of script invocation.
eae55d03 313If you are running V2R6 or earlier then see:
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314
315 head `whence perldoc`
316
317for an example of how to use the "eval exec" trick to ask the shell to
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318have Perl run your scripts on those older releases of Unix System Services.
319
59c9e5d6 320If you are having trouble with square brackets then consider switching your
9133bbab 321rlogin or telnet client. Try to avoid older 3270 emulators and ISHELL for
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322working with Perl on USS.
323
a83b6f46 324=head2 Floating Point Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
35a77668 325
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326There appears to be a bug in the floating point implementation on S/390
327systems such that calling int() on the product of a number and a small
328magnitude number is not the same as calling int() on the quotient of
329that number and a large magnitude number. For example, in the following
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330Perl code:
331
332 my $x = 100000.0;
333 my $y = int($x * 1e-5) * 1e5; # '0'
334 my $z = int($x / 1e+5) * 1e5; # '100000'
335 print "\$y is $y and \$z is $z\n"; # $y is 0 and $z is 100000
336
9133bbab 337Although one would expect the quantities $y and $z to be the same and equal
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338to 100000 they will differ and instead will be 0 and 100000 respectively.
339
340The problem can be further examined in a roughly equivalent C program:
341
342 #include <stdio.h>
343 #include <math.h>
344 main()
345 {
346 double r1,r2;
347 double x = 100000.0;
348 double y = 0.0;
349 double z = 0.0;
350 x = 100000.0 * 1e-5;
351 r1 = modf (x,&y);
352 x = 100000.0 / 1e+5;
353 r2 = modf (x,&z);
354 printf("y is %e and z is %e\n",y*1e5,z*1e5);
355 /* y is 0.000000e+00 and z is 1.000000e+05 (with c89) */
356 }
357
a83b6f46 358=head2 Modules and Extensions for Perl on OS/390
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359
360Pure pure (that is non xs) modules may be installed via the usual:
361
362 perl Makefile.PL
363 make
364 make test
365 make install
366
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367If you built perl with dynamic loading capability then that would also
368be the way to build xs based extensions. However, if you built perl with
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369the default static linking you can still build xs based extensions for OS/390
370but you will need to follow the instructions in ExtUtils::MakeMaker for
371building statically linked perl binaries. In the simplest configurations
59c9e5d6 372building a static perl + xs extension boils down to:
9d116dd7 373
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374 perl Makefile.PL
375 make
376 make perl
377 make test
378 make install
379 make -f Makefile.aperl inst_perl MAP_TARGET=perl
8fde188e 380
9133bbab 381In most cases people have reported better results with GNU make rather
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382than the system's /bin/make program, whether for plain modules or for
383xs based extensions.
8fde188e 384
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385If the make process encounters trouble with either compilation or
386linking then try setting the _C89_CCMODE to 1. Assuming sh is your
387login shell then run:
388
389 export _C89_CCMODE=1
390
391If tcsh is your login shell then use the setenv command.
392
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393=head1 AUTHORS
394
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395David Fiander and Peter Prymmer with thanks to Dennis Longnecker
396and William Raffloer for valuable reports, LPAR and PTF feedback.
397Thanks to Mike MacIsaac and Egon Terwedow for SG24-5944-00.
35a77668 398Thanks to Ignasi Roca for pointing out the floating point problems.
f2766b05 399Thanks to John Goodyear for dynamic loading help.
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400
401=head1 SEE ALSO
402
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403L<INSTALL>, L<perlport>, L<perlebcdic>, L<ExtUtils::MakeMaker>.
404
e46aa1dd 405 http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1toy.html
eae55d03 406
e46aa1dd 407 http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks/SG245944.html
eae55d03 408
e46aa1dd 409 http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1ty1.html#opensrc
eae55d03 410
e46aa1dd 411 http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/mailing-lists/perl-mvs/
8fde188e 412
e46aa1dd 413 http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com:80/cgi-bin/bookmgr_OS390/BOOKS/ceea3030/
9133bbab 414
e46aa1dd 415 http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com:80/cgi-bin/bookmgr_OS390/BOOKS/CBCUG030/
9133bbab 416
a83b6f46 417=head2 Mailing list for Perl on OS/390
8fde188e 418
043fec90 419If you are interested in the z/OS (formerly known as OS/390)
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420and POSIX-BC (BS2000) ports of Perl then see the perl-mvs mailing list.
421To subscribe, send an empty message to perl-mvs-subscribe@perl.org.
9d116dd7 422
3f66d419 423See also:
35a77668 424
fdee78a1 425 https://lists.perl.org/list/perl-mvs.html
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426
427There are web archives of the mailing list at:
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428
429 http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/mailing-lists/perl-mvs/
35a77668 430 http://archive.develooper.com/perl-mvs@perl.org/
9d116dd7 431
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432=head1 HISTORY
433
434This document was originally written by David Fiander for the 5.005
435release of Perl.
436
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437This document was podified for the 5.005_03 release of Perl 11 March 1999.
438
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439Updated 28 November 2001 for broken URLs.
440
eae55d03 441Updated 12 November 2000 for the 5.7.1 release of Perl.
8fde188e 442
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443Updated 15 January 2001 for the 5.7.1 release of Perl.
444
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445Updated 24 January 2001 to mention dynamic loading.
446
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447Updated 12 March 2001 to mention //'SYS1.TCPPARMS(TCPDATA)'.
448
8fde188e 449=cut
eae55d03 450