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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
12 (S) A severe warning (mandatory).
13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
748a9306 18Optional warnings are enabled by using the B<-w> switch. Warnings may
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19be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}> to a reference to a routine that
20will be called on each warning instead of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
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21Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
22L<perlfunc/eval>.
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23
24Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are denoted with a %s,
2ba9eb46 25just as in a printf format. Note that some messages start with a %s!
702d120d 26The symbols C<"%(-?@> sort before the letters, while C<[> and C<\> sort after.
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27
28=over 4
29
30=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
31
32(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make sense
33to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use local()
34if you want to localize a package variable.
35
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36=item "my" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same scope
37
fb73857a 38(W) A lexical variable has been redeclared in the same scope, effectively
2ba9eb46 39eliminating all access to the previous instance. This is almost always
8b1a09fc 40a typographical error. Note that the earlier variable will still exist
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41until the end of the scope or until all closure referents to it are
42destroyed.
43
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44=item "no" not allowed in expression
45
46(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
47no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
48
49=item "use" not allowed in expression
50
51(F) The "use" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
52no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
53
54=item % may only be used in unpack
55
5f05dabc 56(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
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57checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other
58way. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
59
60=item %s (...) interpreted as function
61
62(W) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator followed
8b1a09fc 63by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list operators arguments
5f05dabc 64found inside the parentheses. See L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
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65
66=item %s argument is not a HASH element
67
5f05dabc 68(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash element, such as
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69
70 $foo{$bar}
71 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
72
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73=item %s argument is not a HASH element or slice
74
75(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash element, such as
76
77 $foo{$bar}
78 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
79
80or a hash slice, such as
81
82 @foo{$bar, $baz, $xyzzy}
83 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
84
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85=item %s did not return a true value
86
87(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
88it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
89traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
90do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
91
92=item %s found where operator expected
93
94(S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator. If it
95sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an operator,
96it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an operator or
97delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
98
f86702cc 99=item %s had compilation errors
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100
101(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
102
f86702cc 103=item %s has too many errors
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104
105(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
106Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
107
108=item %s matches null string many times
109
110(W) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
111regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. See L<perlre>.
112
113=item %s never introduced
114
115(S) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of scope
116before it could possibly have been used.
117
118=item %s syntax OK
119
120(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> succeeds.
121
f86702cc 122=item %s: Command not found
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123
124(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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125of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
126Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 127
f86702cc 128=item %s: Expression syntax
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129
130(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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131of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
132Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 133
f86702cc 134=item %s: Undefined variable
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135
136(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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137of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
138Perl yourself.
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139
140=item %s: not found
141
8b1a09fc 142(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 143instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
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144into Perl yourself.
145
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146=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
147
148(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
149found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
150the previous line just because you saw this message.
151
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152=item B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script
153
154(F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name,
155which provides a race condition that breaks security.
156
157=item C<-T> and C<-B> not implemented on filehandles
158
159(F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it doesn't
160know about your kind of stdio. You'll have to use a filename instead.
161
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162=item C<-p> destination: %s
163
164(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
165command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
166redirected it with select().)
167
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168=item 500 Server error
169
170See Server error.
171
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172=item ?+* follows nothing in regexp
173
174(F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it
175if you meant it literally. See L<perlre>.
176
177=item @ outside of string
178
2ba9eb46 179(F) You had a pack template that specified an absolute position outside
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180the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
181
182=item accept() on closed fd
183
184(W) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
185the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/accept>.
186
187=item Allocation too large: %lx
188
54310121 189(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
55497cff 190
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191=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
192
2c268ad5 193(W) The pattern match (//), substitution (s///), and transliteration (tr///)
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194operators work on scalar values. If you apply one of them to an array
195or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to a scalar value -- the
196length of an array, or the population info of a hash -- and then work on
197that scalar value. This is probably not what you meant to do. See
198L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for alternatives.
199
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200=item Arg too short for msgsnd
201
202(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
203
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204=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
205
206(W)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
207you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
5f05dabc 208a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
748a9306 209
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210=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
211
212(W) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl keyword,
213and you have used the name without qualification for calling one or the
214other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the subroutine is
215not imported.
216
217To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
218before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
219Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
220imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
221
222To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
223on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or by declaring the subroutine
224to be an object method (see L<attrs>).
225
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226=item Args must match #! line
227
228(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
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229with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
230impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
231for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 232
f86702cc 233=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
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234
235(W) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator that
236expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
237will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
238
239=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
240
241(D) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some spots. This
242is now heavily deprecated.
243
244=item assertion botched: %s
245
246(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
247
248=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
249
250(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
251
252=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
253
254(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
255must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
256know which context to supply to the right side.
257
258=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
259
260(P) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas that will
261be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be outside any
262of those arenas.
263
54310121 264=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
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265
266(P) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of strings to
267optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other strings. This
268indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count of a string
269that can no longer be found in the table.
270
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271=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
272
273(W) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the free_tmps()
274routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the SV before
275the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the free_tmps()
276routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does try to free
277it.
278
279=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
280
281(P) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
282
283=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
284
285(W) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to see if it
286would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0 earlier,
287and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed. This
288could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or that
289SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was mortalized
290when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been corrupted.
291
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292=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
293
294(W) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
295function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
296means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
297invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
298literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
299avoid this warning.
300
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301=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
302
303(W) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr() used
8b1a09fc 304as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
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305dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
306
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307=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
308
309(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl() or
2ba9eb46 310shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 311S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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312S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
313
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314=item Bad filehandle: %s
315
316(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the symbol
317has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an open(), or
318did it in another package.
319
320=item Bad free() ignored
321
322(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had never been
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323malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
324setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
325
326This message can be quite often seen with DB_File on systems with
327"hard" dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of
328C<Berkeley DB> which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving>
329system malloc().
a0d0e21e 330
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331=item Bad hash
332
333(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
334
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335=item Bad index while coercing array into hash
336
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337(F) The index looked up in the hash found as the 0'th element of a
338pseudo-hash is not legal. Index values must be at 1 or greater.
339See L<perlref>.
57079c46 340
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341=item Bad name after %s::
342
343(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then didn't
344finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside of quotes,
345so
346
347 $var = 'myvar';
348 $sym = mypack::$var;
349
350is not the same as
351
352 $var = 'myvar';
353 $sym = "mypack::$var";
354
355=item Bad symbol for array
356
357(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
358wasn't a symbol table entry.
359
360=item Bad symbol for filehandle
361
362(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something that
363wasn't a symbol table entry.
364
365=item Bad symbol for hash
366
367(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
368wasn't a symbol table entry.
369
8b1a09fc 370=item Badly placed ()'s
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371
372(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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373of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
374Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 375
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376=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
377
378(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
379subroutine identifier, in curly braces or to the left of the "=>" symbol.
54310121 380Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
3fe9a6f1 381
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382=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
383
384(W) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but
385the compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point.
386Perhaps you need to predeclare a package?
387
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388=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
389
390(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN subroutine.
391Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is exited.
392
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393=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
394
395(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
396implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had
397already occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}>
398could not be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code
399likely depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
400
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401=item bind() on closed fd
402
403(W) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
404the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
405
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406=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
407
408(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not copiable.
409
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410=item Callback called exit
411
412(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via perl_call_sv()
413exited by calling exit.
414
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415=item Can't "goto" outside a block
416
417(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look
418like a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually
419occurs if you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which
420is a no-no. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
421
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422=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
423
424(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a
425foreach loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
426
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427=item Can't "last" outside a block
428
429(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
430except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a
431current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a
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432"loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can usually double
433the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner curlies
434will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/last>.
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435
436=item Can't "next" outside a block
437
438(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
439there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
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440count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can
441usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner
54310121 442curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
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443
444=item Can't "redo" outside a block
445
446(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
447there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
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448count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can
449usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner
54310121 450curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
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451
452=item Can't bless non-reference value
453
454(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
455encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
456
457=item Can't break at that line
458
54310121 459(S) A warning intended to only be printed while running within the debugger, indicating
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460the line number specified wasn't the location of a statement that could
461be stopped at.
462
463=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
464
465(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
466functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
467in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
468
469=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
470
54310121 471(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
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472ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but
473you didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't
474an object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
475
476=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
477
478(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
479object reference or package name contains an expression that returns
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480a defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
481Something like this will reproduce the error:
482
483 $BADREF = 42;
484 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
485 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
486
487=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
488
489(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
490object reference or package name contains an undefined value.
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491Something like this will reproduce the error:
492
493 $BADREF = undef;
494 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
495 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
496
497=item Can't chdir to %s
498
499(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
500that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
501
502=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
503
504(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 505(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
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506say things like:
507
508 *foo += 1;
509
510You CAN say
511
512 $foo = *foo;
513 $foo += 1;
514
515but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
516
517=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
518
519(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 520(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
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521
522=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
523
524(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 525(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e 526
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527=item Can't coerce array into hash
528
529(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
530information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
531only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
532
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533=item Can't create pipe mailbox
534
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535(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted quotas
536or other plumbing problems.
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537
538=item Can't declare %s in my
539
5f05dabc 540(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as lexical variables.
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541They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
542
543=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
544
545(S) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated reason.
546
54310121 547=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 548
54310121 549(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try reading
3fe9a6f1 550from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say C<-i.bak>, or some
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551such.
552
8b1a09fc 553=item Can't do inplace edit: %s E<gt> 14 characters
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554
555(S) There isn't enough room in the filename to make a backup name for the file.
556
557=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
558
559(S) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as a file in
560/dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
561
562=item Can't do setegid!
563
564(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
565of suidperl.
566
567=item Can't do seteuid!
568
569(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
570
571=item Can't do setuid
572
573(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to
574do setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the
575form sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides
576under the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines.
577If the file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask
578your sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
579
580=item Can't do waitpid with flags
581
582(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only waitpid()
583without flags is emulated.
584
8b1a09fc 585=item Can't do {n,m} with n E<gt> m
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586
587(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want
588your regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. See L<perlre>.
589
590=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
591
592(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this point.
593For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #! line.
594
595=item Can't exec "%s": %s
596
5f05dabc 597(W) An system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the named
a0d0e21e
LW
598program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the permissions
599were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in C<$ENV{PATH}>, the
600executable in question was compiled for another architecture, or the
601#! line in a script points to an interpreter that can't be run for
602similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support #! at all.)
603
604=item Can't exec %s
605
606(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because that's
607what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may need to
608mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
609
610=item Can't execute %s
611
2a92aaa0
GS
612(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute found
613in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
614
615=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
616
617(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
618in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The script
619exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
620
621=item Can't find %s on PATH
622
a0d0e21e 623(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
2a92aaa0 624in the PATH.
a0d0e21e
LW
625
626=item Can't find label %s
627
628(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's possible
629for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
630
631=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
632
633(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means that
5f05dabc 634the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count nesting
a0d0e21e
LW
635levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
636
fb73857a
PP
637 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
638
639If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
640included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good
641programmer's editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e
LW
642
643=item Can't fork
644
645(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a pipeline.
646
748a9306
LW
647=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
648
649(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference between
650access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes. Under VMS,
651access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in the stat buffer, so
652that ACLs and other protections can be taken into account. Unfortunately, Perl
653assumes that the stat buffer contains all the necessary information, and passes
654it, instead of the filespec, to the access checking routine. It will try to
655retrieve the filespec using the device name and FID present in the stat buffer,
656but this works only if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat()
5f05dabc 657routine, because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
748a9306
LW
658appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up and
659returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking routine
660knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you shouldn't ever
661see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises only if some internal
662code takes stat buffers lightly.)
663
a0d0e21e
LW
664=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
665
748a9306
LW
666(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a pipe, Perl
667can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
668
669=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
670
748a9306
LW
671(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
672mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e
LW
673
674=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
675
676(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one subroutine
677call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole cloth. In general
5f05dabc 678you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD routine anyway. See
a0d0e21e
LW
679L<perlfunc/goto>.
680
b150fb22
RH
681=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string
682
683(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval "string".
684(You can use it to jump out of an eval {BLOCK}, but you probably don't want to.)
685
706a304b 686=item Can't localize through a reference
4633a7c4 687
706a304b
SM
688(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
689handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
690pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be
691sure that $ref will still be a reference.
4633a7c4 692
748a9306
LW
693=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
694
2ba9eb46 695(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
748a9306
LW
696lexical variable using "my". This is not allowed. If you want to
697localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
698package name.
699
4727527e
IZ
700=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
701
702(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows autoload,
703but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes are a misprint
704in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit> the file, say, by
705doing C<make install>.
706
38b8243a 707=item Can't locate %s in @INC
a0d0e21e 708
7a2e2cd6 709(F) You said to do (or require, or use) a file that couldn't be found
54310121
PP
710in any of the libraries mentioned in @INC. Perhaps you need to set the
711PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the extra library
712is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name to @INC. Or maybe
a0d0e21e
LW
713you just misspelled the name of the file. See L<perlfunc/require>.
714
715=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
716
717(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
718functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 719method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
720
721=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
722
723(W) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that doesn't seem
724to exist.
725
3e3baf6d
TB
726=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
727
728(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably VMS.
729
a0d0e21e
LW
730=item Can't modify %s in %s
731
732(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try to
5f05dabc 733change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 734
54310121 735=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
736
737(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
738a NULL.
739
5f05dabc 740=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 741
5f05dabc 742(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
743buffer.
744
745=item Can't open %s: %s
746
08e9d68e
DD
747(S) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<E<lt>E<gt>>
748filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
749switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
750is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named
751on the command line.
a0d0e21e
LW
752
753=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
754
755(W) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported. You can
756try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such as
7e1af8bc 757IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using "E<gt>",
a0d0e21e
LW
758and then read it in under a different file handle.
759
748a9306
LW
760=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
761
762(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
763couldn't open the file specified after '2E<gt>' or '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the
764command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
765
766=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
767
768(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc 769couldn't open the file specified after 'E<lt>' on the command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
770
771=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
772
773(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
774couldn't open the file specified after 'E<gt>' or 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command
775line for writing.
748a9306
LW
776
777=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
778
779(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
780couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined for stdout.
781
a0d0e21e
LW
782=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
783
784(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
785
7bac28a0
PP
786=item Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s
787
788(F) Perl optimizes the internal handling of sort subroutines and keeps
789pointers into them. You tried to redefine one such sort subroutine when it
790was currently active, which is not allowed. If you really want to do
791this, you should write C<sort { &func } @x> instead of C<sort func @x>.
792
a0d0e21e
LW
793=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
794
795(S) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason, probably because
796you don't have write permission to the directory.
797
748a9306
LW
798=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
799
800(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried to
801reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
802
a0d0e21e
LW
803=item Can't reswap uid and euid
804
805(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
806of suidperl.
807
808=item Can't return outside a subroutine
809
810(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
811there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
812
813=item Can't stat script "%s"
814
815(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have
816it open already. Bizarre.
817
818=item Can't swap uid and euid
819
820(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
821of suidperl.
822
823=item Can't take log of %g
824
fb73857a
PP
825(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
826negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
827standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for
828the negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
829
830=item Can't take sqrt of %g
831
832(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
833negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
834with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
835
836=item Can't undef active subroutine
837
838(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
839however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
840redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
841
842=item Can't unshift
843
844(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
845as the main Perl stack.
846
847=item Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
848
849(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making
850it into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are
851so specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This
852message indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
853
854=item Can't upgrade to undef
855
856(P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme
857of upgradability. Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the
858code calling sv_upgrade.
859
1d2dff63
GS
860=item Can't use %%! because Errno.pm is not available
861
862(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
863Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
864provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
865
c07a80fd
PP
866=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
867
868(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
8b1a09fc 869You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the E<lt>=E<gt> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
870and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
871Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
872lexical variable.
873
a0d0e21e
LW
874=item Can't use %s for loop variable
875
876(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a foreach.
877
878=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
879
880(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
881reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
882test the type of the reference, if need be.
883
748a9306
LW
884=item Can't use \1 to mean $1 in expression
885
886(W) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that creates
887a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a backreference
5f05dabc 888to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular expression pattern.
748a9306
LW
889Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a value that prints
890out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form instead.
891
44a8e56a
PP
892=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while \"strict refs\" in use
893
894(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
895are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
896
748a9306 897=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e
LW
898
899(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
900are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
901
902=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
903
904(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
54310121 905be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
a0d0e21e 906
a0d0e21e
LW
907=item Can't use global %s in "my"
908
909(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This is
5f05dabc 910not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location (namely
a0d0e21e
LW
911the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to have
912variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
913weren't.
914
748a9306
LW
915=item Can't use subscript on %s
916
917(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
918subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
919didn't look like an array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
920
5f05dabc 921=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e
LW
922
923(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value) with
924an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
925Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
926
b6c543e3
IZ
927=item Cannot find an opnumber for "%s"
928
929(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but
930there is no builtin with the name C<word>.
931
e7ea3e70
IZ
932=item Cannot resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
933
934(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
935opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
936package. If method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
937
4599a1de
JH
938=item Character class syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions
939
940(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
941with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future extensions.
942If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
943expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
944backslash: "\[." and ".\]".
945
946=item Character class syntax [: :] is reserved for future extensions
947
948(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
949with "[:" and ending with ":]" is reserved for future extensions.
950If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
951expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
952backslash: "\[:" and ":\]".
953
954=item Character class syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions
955
956(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
957beginning with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future extensions.
958If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
959expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
960backslash: "\[=" and "=\]".
961
a0d0e21e
LW
962=item chmod: mode argument is missing initial 0
963
964(W) A novice will sometimes say
965
966 chmod 777, $filename
967
968not realizing that 777 will be interpreted as a decimal number, equivalent
969to 01411. Octal constants are introduced with a leading 0 in Perl, as in C.
970
8b1a09fc 971=item Close on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
972
973(W) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
974
7a2e2cd6
PP
975=item Compilation failed in require
976
977(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
978Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it encountered
979were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
980
a0d0e21e
LW
981=item connect() on closed fd
982
983(W) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
984the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/connect>.
985
4cee8e80
CS
986=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
987
988(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
989inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
990workarounds.
991
9607fc9c
PP
992=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
993
994(S) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
995inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
996workarounds.
997
e7ea3e70
IZ
998=item Copy method did not return a reference
999
1000(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
1001
a0d0e21e
LW
1002=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1003
1004(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1005
1006=item corrupted regexp pointers
1007
1008(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1009expression compiler gave it.
1010
1011=item corrupted regexp program
1012
1013(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without
1014a valid magic number.
1015
1016=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1017
1018(W) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly) 100
3e3baf6d 1019times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an infinite
a0d0e21e
LW
1020recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in which
1021case it indicates something else.
1022
fc36a67e
PP
1023=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1024
1025(F) In a here document construct like C<E<lt>E<lt>FOO>, the label
1026C<FOO> is too long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously
1027twisted to write code that triggers this error.
1028
4633a7c4
LW
1029=item Did you mean &%s instead?
1030
1031(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some such.
1032
748a9306 1033=item Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?
a0d0e21e 1034
748a9306
LW
1035(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or @hash{@keys}.
1036On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got carried away.
1037
7e1af8bc 1038=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1039
1040(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1041you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1042
54310121 1043=item Do you need to predeclare %s?
748a9306
LW
1044
1045(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1046found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
1047name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1048because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
1049"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're
1050referencing something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have
1051to define the subroutine or package before the current location. You
1052can use an empty "sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward"
1053declaration.
a0d0e21e
LW
1054
1055=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1056
1057(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1058
1059=item do_study: out of memory
1060
1061(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1062
1063=item Duplicate free() ignored
1064
1065(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had already
1066been freed.
1067
4633a7c4
LW
1068=item elseif should be elsif
1069
1070(S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1071ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1072named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
1073unlikely to be what you want.
1074
a0d0e21e
LW
1075=item END failed--cleanup aborted
1076
1077(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing an END subroutine.
1078The interpreter is immediately exited.
1079
748a9306
LW
1080=item Error converting file specification %s
1081
5f05dabc 1082(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306
LW
1083specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
1084single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've
1085passed an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a
1086case the conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
1087
e4d48cc9
GS
1088=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1089
1090(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular expression
1091that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which is unsafe.
1092See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
1093
1094=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1095
1096(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion,
1097but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'> pragma is
1098in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
1099
1100=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time
1101
1102(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the C<(?{ ... })>
3c247ff3
GS
1103zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the pattern contains
1104interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it is not allowed.
e4d48cc9
GS
1105If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly building the pattern
1106from an interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval().
1107See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
1108
fc36a67e
PP
1109=item Excessively long <> operator
1110
1111(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1112Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1113filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1114variable and glob that.
1115
f86702cc 1116=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
1117
1118(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1119
1120=item Exiting eval via %s
1121
8b1a09fc 1122(W) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1123a goto, or a loop control statement.
1124
0a753a76
PP
1125=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1126
1127(W) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a sort block or
1128subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a loop control
1129statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
1130
a0d0e21e
LW
1131=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1132
8b1a09fc 1133(W) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1134a goto, or a loop control statement.
1135
1136=item Exiting substitution via %s
1137
8b1a09fc 1138(W) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1139a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
1140
7b8d334a
GS
1141=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1142
1143(W) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1144the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1145usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target
1146package, e.g. bless($ref, $p or 'MyPackage');
1147
748a9306 1148=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1149
748a9306
LW
1150(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS system
1151service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more details. The
1152filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell you which section of
1153the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1154
1155=item fcntl is not implemented
1156
1157(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1158PDP-11 or something?
1159
1160=item Filehandle %s never opened
1161
1162(W) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was never initialized.
1163You need to do an open() or a socket() call, or call a constructor from
1164the FileHandle package.
1165
5f05dabc 1166=item Filehandle %s opened for only input
a0d0e21e
LW
1167
1168(W) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
1169intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1170"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
5f05dabc 1171you intended only to write the file, use "E<gt>" or "E<gt>E<gt>". See
8b1a09fc 1172L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1173
5f05dabc 1174=item Filehandle opened for only input
a0d0e21e
LW
1175
1176(W) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
1177intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1178"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
5f05dabc 1179you intended only to write the file, use "E<gt>" or "E<gt>E<gt>". See
8b1a09fc 1180L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1181
1182=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1183
1184(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
1185a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1186that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1187the name.
1188
1189=item Final @ should be \@ or @name
1190
1191(F) You must now decide whether the final @ in a string was meant to be
1192a literal "at" sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1193that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1194the name.
1195
1196=item Format %s redefined
1197
1198(W) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
1199
1200 {
1201 local $^W = 0;
1202 eval "format NAME =...";
1203 }
1204
1205=item Format not terminated
1206
1207(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1208to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1209
1210=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1211
1212(W) You said
1213
1214 if ($foo = 123)
1215
1216when you meant
1217
1218 if ($foo == 123)
1219
1220(or something like that).
1221
1222=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1223
1224(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1225
1226=item gethostent not implemented
1227
1228(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1229because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1230on the Internet.
1231
1232=item get{sock,peer}name() on closed fd
1233
1234(W) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed socket.
1235Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
1236
748a9306
LW
1237=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1238
1239(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1240C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1241
1242
a0d0e21e
LW
1243=item Glob not terminated
1244
1245(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
1246a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
1247finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
1248the line, and you really meant a "less than".
1249
1250=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1251
68dc0745
PP
1252(F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables
1253must either be lexically scoped (using "my"), or explicitly qualified to
a0d0e21e
LW
1254say which package the global variable is in (using "::").
1255
1256=item goto must have label
1257
1258(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1259unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1260
1261=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1262
1263(S) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought to have
1264existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be created on
1265an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
1266
1267=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1268
1269(D) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some spots. This
1270is now heavily deprecated.
1271
8903cb82
PP
1272=item Identifier too long
1273
1274(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e
PP
1275about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
1276names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future
1277versions of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1278
8b1a09fc 1279=item Ill-formed logical name |%s| in prime_env_iter
a0d0e21e 1280
8b1a09fc
PP
1281(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. A logical name was encountered when preparing
1282to iterate over %ENV which violates the syntactic rules governing logical
5f05dabc
PP
1283names. Because it cannot be translated normally, it is skipped, and will not
1284appear in %ENV. This may be a benign occurrence, as some software packages
54310121 1285might directly modify logical name tables and introduce nonstandard names,
8b1a09fc 1286or it may indicate that a logical name table has been corrupted.
a0d0e21e 1287
4fdae800
PP
1288=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1289
1290(F) A carriage return character was found in the input. This is an
1291error, and not a warning, because carriage return characters can break
54310121
PP
1292multi-line strings, including here documents (e.g., C<print E<lt>E<lt>EOF;>).
1293
1294Under Unix, this error is usually caused by executing Perl code --
68dc0745 1295either the main program, a module, or an eval'd string -- that was
54310121 1296transferred over a network connection from a non-Unix system without
68dc0745
PP
1297properly converting the text file format.
1298
1299Under systems that use something other than '\n' to delimit lines of
1300text, this error can also be caused by reading Perl code from a file
1301handle that is in binary mode (as set by the C<binmode> operator).
1302
1303In either case, the Perl code in question will probably need to be
1304converted with something like C<s/\x0D\x0A?/\n/g> before it can be
1305executed.
4fdae800 1306
a0d0e21e
LW
1307=item Illegal division by zero
1308
1309(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in your
1310logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against meaningless input.
1311
1312=item Illegal modulus zero
1313
1314(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most numbers
1315don't take to this kindly.
1316
1317=item Illegal octal digit
1318
1319(F) You used an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1320
748a9306
LW
1321=item Illegal octal digit ignored
1322
1323(W) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in a octal number. Interpretation
1324of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
1325
6ff81951
GS
1326=item Illegal hex digit ignored
1327
1328(W) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or A - F in a
1329hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal number stopped
1330before the illegal character.
1331
54310121
PP
1332=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
1333
1334(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
1335following switches: B<-[DIMUdmw]>.
1336
9607fc9c
PP
1337=item In string, @%s now must be written as \@%s
1338
1339(F) It used to be that Perl would try to guess whether you wanted an
1340array interpolated or a literal @. It did this when the string was first
1341used at runtime. Now strings are parsed at compile time, and ambiguous
1342instances of @ must be disambiguated, either by prepending a backslash to
1343indicate a literal, or by declaring (or using) the array within the
1344program before the string (lexically). (Someday it will simply assume
1345that an unbackslashed @ interpolates an array.)
1346
a0d0e21e
LW
1347=item Insecure dependency in %s
1348
8b1a09fc 1349(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
a0d0e21e
LW
1350The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or setgid,
1351or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The tainting mechanism
1352labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly from the user,
1353who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any such data is
1354used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See L<perlsec>
1355for more information.
1356
1357=item Insecure directory in %s
1358
1359(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or setgid
8b1a09fc 1360script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by the world.
a0d0e21e
LW
1361See L<perlsec>.
1362
62f468fc 1363=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1364
1365(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc
G
1366setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
1367C<$ENV{ENV}> or C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> are derived from data supplied (or
a0d0e21e
LW
1368potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set the path to a
1369known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
1370
bbce6d69
PP
1371=item Integer overflow in hex number
1372
1373(S) The literal hex number you have specified is too big for your
1374architecture. On a 32-bit architecture the largest hex literal is
13750xFFFFFFFF.
1376
1377=item Integer overflow in octal number
1378
1379(S) The literal octal number you have specified is too big for your
1380architecture. On a 32-bit architecture the largest octal literal is
1381037777777777.
1382
748a9306
LW
1383=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
1384
1385(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number
5f05dabc 1386of times you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine
2ba9eb46 1387whether the current call to C<exec> should affect the current
748a9306
LW
1388script or a subprocess (see L<perlvms/exec>). Somehow, this count
1389has become scrambled, so Perl is making a guess and treating
1390this C<exec> as a request to terminate the Perl script
1391and execute the specified command.
1392
a0d0e21e
LW
1393=item internal disaster in regexp
1394
1395(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
1396
5cd24f17
PP
1397=item internal error: glob failed
1398
1399(P) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for C<glob>
1400and C<E<lt>*.cE<gt>>. This may mean that your csh (C shell) is
1401broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1402config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1403were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1404empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1405think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
1406C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
1407
a0d0e21e
LW
1408=item internal urp in regexp at /%s/
1409
1410(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser.
1411
1412=item invalid [] range in regexp
1413
1414(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
1415greater than the maximum character. See L<perlre>.
1416
c635e13b
PP
1417=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
1418
878e08df 1419(W) Perl does not understand the given format conversion.
c635e13b
PP
1420See L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
1421
96e4d5b1
PP
1422=item Invalid type in pack: '%s'
1423
8903cb82 1424(F) The given character is not a valid pack type. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
fb73857a
PP
1425(W) The given character is not a valid pack type but used to be silently
1426ignored.
96e4d5b1
PP
1427
1428=item Invalid type in unpack: '%s'
1429
8903cb82 1430(F) The given character is not a valid unpack type. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
fb73857a
PP
1431(W) The given character is not a valid unpack type but used to be silently
1432ignored.
96e4d5b1 1433
a0d0e21e
LW
1434=item ioctl is not implemented
1435
1436(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
1437strange for a machine that supports C.
1438
1439=item junk on end of regexp
1440
1441(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
1442
1443=item Label not found for "last %s"
1444
1445(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a
1446loop of that name, not even if you count where you were called from.
1447See L<perlfunc/last>.
1448
1449=item Label not found for "next %s"
1450
1451(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
1452that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1453L<perlfunc/last>.
1454
1455=item Label not found for "redo %s"
1456
1457(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
1458that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1459L<perlfunc/last>.
1460
1461=item listen() on closed fd
1462
1463(W) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
1464the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/listen>.
1465
a0d0e21e
LW
1466=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
1467
1468(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 1469doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1470
1471=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
1472
1473(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
1474by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
1475ended earlier on the current line.
1476
1477=item Misplaced _ in number
1478
1479(W) An underline in a decimal constant wasn't on a 3-digit boundary.
1480
1481=item Missing $ on loop variable
1482
8b1a09fc
PP
1483(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables are always
1484mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it can vary from
a0d0e21e
LW
1485one line to the next.
1486
1487=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
1488
1489(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
1490"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
1491
748a9306
LW
1492=item Missing operator before %s?
1493
1494(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1495found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
1496
a0d0e21e
LW
1497=item Missing right bracket
1498
1499(F) The lexer counted more opening curly brackets (braces) than closing ones.
1500As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you were last
1501editing.
1502
a0d0e21e
LW
1503=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
1504
1505(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 1506constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
1507catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
1508
1509 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
1510 mod(2);
1511
1512Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
1513
54310121 1514=item Modification of noncreatable array value attempted, subscript %d
a0d0e21e
LW
1515
1516(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
1517subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
1518backwards.
1519
54310121 1520=item Modification of noncreatable hash value attempted, subscript "%s"
a0d0e21e
LW
1521
1522(F) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it couldn't
1523be created for some peculiar reason.
1524
1525=item Module name must be constant
1526
1527(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
1528
1529=item msg%s not implemented
1530
1531(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
1532
1533=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
1534
8b1a09fc
PP
1535(W) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>. They're written
1536like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
1537
1538=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
1539
68dc0745
PP
1540(W) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
1541If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention
1542it again somehow to suppress the message. The C<use vars> pragma is
1543provided for just this purpose.
a0d0e21e
LW
1544
1545=item Negative length
1546
1547(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer length
1548that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
1549
1550=item nested *?+ in regexp
1551
5f05dabc 1552(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
a0d0e21e
LW
1553things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal.
1554
5f05dabc 1555Note, however, that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and C<??> appear
a0d0e21e
LW
1556to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
1557
1558=item No #! line
1559
1560(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1561even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
1562
1563=item No %s allowed while running setuid
1564
1565(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or setgid
1566script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there will be
1567another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least securable.
1568See L<perlsec>.
1569
1570=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
1571
1572(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
1573
1574=item No comma allowed after %s
1575
1576(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
1577allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
1578Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
1579
0a753a76
PP
1580One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
1581constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
1582importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
1583does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
1584explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
1585L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
1586would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
1587remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
1588constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
1589list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
1590this error was triggered?
1591
748a9306
LW
1592=item No command into which to pipe on command line
1593
1594(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
54310121 1595and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know where you
748a9306
LW
1596want to pipe the output from this command.
1597
a0d0e21e
LW
1598=item No DB::DB routine defined
1599
1600(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1601but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1602didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
1603statement. Which is odd, because the file should have been required
1604automatically, and should have blown up the require if it didn't parse
1605right.
1606
1607=item No dbm on this machine
1608
1609(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 1610supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1611
1612=item No DBsub routine
1613
1614(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1615but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1616didn't define a DB::sub routine to be called at the beginning of each
1617ordinary subroutine call.
1618
8b1a09fc 1619=item No error file after 2E<gt> or 2E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1620
1621(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1622and found a '2E<gt>' or a '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find
1623the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 1624
8b1a09fc 1625=item No input file after E<lt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1626
1627(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1628and found a 'E<lt>' on the command line, but can't find the name of the file
1629from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 1630
8b1a09fc 1631=item No output file after E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1632
1633(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc 1634and found a lone 'E<gt>' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know
54310121 1635where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 1636
8b1a09fc 1637=item No output file after E<gt> or E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1638
1639(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1640and found a 'E<gt>' or a 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find the
1641name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 1642
a0d0e21e
LW
1643=item No Perl script found in input
1644
1645(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
1646with #! and containing the word "perl".
1647
1648=item No setregid available
1649
1650(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
1651your system.
1652
1653=item No setreuid available
1654
1655(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
1656your system.
1657
1658=item No space allowed after B<-I>
1659
1660(F) The argument to B<-I> must follow the B<-I> immediately with no
1661intervening space.
1662
57079c46
GA
1663=item No such array field
1664
1665(F) You tried to access an array as a hash, but the field name used is
1666not defined. The hash at index 0 should map all valid field names to
1667array indices for that to work.
1668
f1192cee
GA
1669=item No such field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
1670
1671(F) You tried to access a field of a typed variable where the type
1672does not know about the field name. The field names are looked up in
1673the %FIELDS hash in the type package at compile time. The %FIELDS hash
1674is usually set up with the 'fields' pragma.
1675
748a9306
LW
1676=item No such pipe open
1677
1678(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
1679close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught earlier as
1680an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
1681
a0d0e21e
LW
1682=item No such signal: SIG%s
1683
1684(W) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was not recognized.
1685Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
1686
1687=item Not a CODE reference
1688
1689(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
1690subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
1691use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
1692See also L<perlref>.
1693
1694=item Not a format reference
1695
1696(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
1697format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
1698
1699=item Not a GLOB reference
1700
55497cff 1701(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is,
a0d0e21e
LW
1702a symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
1703something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out
1704what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1705
1706=item Not a HASH reference
1707
1708(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but
1709found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1710function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1711
1712=item Not a perl script
1713
1714(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1715even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
1716mention perl.
1717
1718=item Not a SCALAR reference
1719
1720(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but
1721found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1722function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1723
1724=item Not a subroutine reference
1725
1726(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
1727subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
1728use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
1729See also L<perlref>.
1730
e7ea3e70 1731=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
1732
1733(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 1734doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1735
1736=item Not an ARRAY reference
1737
1738(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but
1739found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1740function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1741
1742=item Not enough arguments for %s
1743
1744(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
1745
1746=item Not enough format arguments
1747
1748(W) A format specified more picture fields than the next line supplied.
1749See L<perlform>.
1750
1751=item Null filename used
1752
5f05dabc 1753(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many machines
a0d0e21e
LW
1754that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
1755
55497cff
PP
1756=item Null picture in formline
1757
1758(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
1759specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
1760supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
1761
a0d0e21e
LW
1762=item NULL OP IN RUN
1763
1764(P) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode pointer.
1765
1766=item Null realloc
1767
1768(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
1769
1770=item NULL regexp argument
1771
5f05dabc 1772(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
1773
1774=item NULL regexp parameter
1775
1776(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
1777
fc36a67e
PP
1778=item Number too long
1779
1780(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to about
1781about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future versions of
1782Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In the meantime,
1783try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of "1_000_000").
1784
1930e939 1785=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 1786
1930e939
TP
1787(S) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash, which
1788is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 1789
bbce6d69
PP
1790=item Offset outside string
1791
1792(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
1793pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to imagine.
1794The sole exception to this is that C<sysread()>ing past the buffer
1795will extend the buffer and zero pad the new area.
1796
a0d0e21e
LW
1797=item oops: oopsAV
1798
1799(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
1800
1801=item oops: oopsHV
1802
1803(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
1804
56f7f34b 1805=item Operation `%s': no method found, %s
44a8e56a 1806
e7ea3e70
IZ
1807(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which
1808no handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in
1809terms of other handlers, there is no default handler for any
1810operation, unless C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be
1811true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 1812
748a9306
LW
1813=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
1814
1815(S) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser was
1816expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant
1817to use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect.
1818For example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as
1819if you said "*foo * 'foo'".
1820
a0d0e21e
LW
1821=item Out of memory for yacc stack
1822
1823(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue parsing,
1824but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or otherwise.
1825
1b979e0a 1826=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 1827
55497cff 1828(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
54310121 1829remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request.
eff9c6e2
CS
1830
1831The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
1832depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
1833However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as
1834an emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the
55497cff
PP
1835error is trappable I<once>.
1836
1b979e0a 1837=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
55497cff
PP
1838
1839(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
1840remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
1841the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so
1842a possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
1843
1b979e0a
IZ
1844=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
1845
1846(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
1847is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g., C<$arr[time]>
1848instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1849
a0d0e21e
LW
1850=item page overflow
1851
1852(W) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a page.
1853See L<perlform>.
1854
1855=item panic: ck_grep
1856
1857(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
1858
1859=item panic: ck_split
1860
1861(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
1862
1863=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
1864
1865(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than there
1866are in the savestack.
1867
1868=item panic: die %s
1869
1870(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
1871it wasn't an eval context.
1872
1873=item panic: do_match
1874
1875(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational data.
1876
1877=item panic: do_split
1878
1879(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
1880
1881=item panic: do_subst
1882
1883(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational data.
1884
1885=item panic: do_trans
1886
1887(P) The internal do_trans() routine was called with invalid operational data.
1888
c635e13b
PP
1889=item panic: frexp
1890
1891(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
1892
a0d0e21e
LW
1893=item panic: goto
1894
1895(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
1896and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
1897
1898=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
1899
1900(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
1901
1902=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
1903
1904(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
1905
1906=item panic: last
1907
1908(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
1909it wasn't a block context.
1910
1911=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
1912
5f05dabc 1913(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
1914
1915=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
1916
1917(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
1918invalid enum on the top of it.
1919
1920=item panic: malloc
1921
1922(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
1923
1924=item panic: mapstart
1925
1926(P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.
1927
1928=item panic: null array
1929
1930(P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.
1931
1932=item panic: pad_alloc
1933
1934(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1935and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1936
1937=item panic: pad_free curpad
1938
1939(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1940and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1941
1942=item panic: pad_free po
1943
1944(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
1945
1946=item panic: pad_reset curpad
1947
1948(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1949and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1950
1951=item panic: pad_sv po
1952
1953(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
1954
1955=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
1956
1957(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1958and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1959
1960=item panic: pad_swipe po
1961
1962(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
1963
1964=item panic: pp_iter
1965
1966(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
1967
1968=item panic: realloc
1969
1970(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
1971
1972=item panic: restartop
1973
1974(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
1975didn't supply the destination.
1976
1977=item panic: return
1978
1979(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
1980then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
1981
1982=item panic: scan_num
1983
1984(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
1985
1986=item panic: sv_insert
1987
1988(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
1989was string.
1990
1991=item panic: top_env
1992
6224f72b 1993(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1994
1995=item panic: yylex
1996
1997(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
1998
7b8d334a 1999=item Parentheses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e
LW
2000
2001(W) You said something like
2002
2003 my $foo, $bar = @_;
2004
2005when you meant
2006
2007 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
2008
2009Remember that "my" and "local" bind closer than comma.
2010
2011=item Perl %3.3f required--this is only version %s, stopped
2012
2013(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more recent
2014than the currently running version. How long has it been since you upgraded,
2015anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
2016
2017=item Permission denied
2018
2019(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
2020
748a9306
LW
2021=item pid %d not a child
2022
2023(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a process which
2024isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is fine from VMS'
2025perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
2026
a0d0e21e
LW
2027=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
2028
2029(F) Your C compiler uses POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
2030the BSD version, which takes a pid.
2031
bbce6d69
PP
2032=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
2033
774d564b
PP
2034(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal
2035strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated
2036as literal data. (You may have used different delimiters than the
7b8d334a 2037parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently used.)
bbce6d69 2038
774d564b
PP
2039You probably wrote something like this:
2040
54310121 2041 @list = qw(
774d564b 2042 a # a comment
bbce6d69 2043 b # another comment
774d564b 2044 );
bbce6d69
PP
2045
2046when you should have written this:
2047
774d564b 2048 @list = qw(
54310121
PP
2049 a
2050 b
774d564b
PP
2051 );
2052
2053If you really want comments, build your list the
2054old-fashioned way, with quotes and commas:
2055
2056 @list = (
2057 'a', # a comment
2058 'b', # another comment
2059 );
bbce6d69
PP
2060
2061=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
2062
774d564b 2063(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore commas
68dc0745 2064aren't needed to separate the items. (You may have used different
774d564b
PP
2065delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently
2066used.)
bbce6d69 2067
54310121 2068You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69 2069
774d564b
PP
2070 qw! a, b, c !;
2071
2072which puts literal commas into some of the list items. Write it without
2073commas if you don't want them to appear in your data:
bbce6d69 2074
774d564b 2075 qw! a b c !;
bbce6d69 2076
a0d0e21e
LW
2077=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
2078
2079(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
2080Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
2081end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
2082Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
2083
2084=item Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
2085
2086(S) The old irregular construct
cb1a09d0 2087
a0d0e21e
LW
2088 open FOO || die;
2089
2090is now misinterpreted as
2091
2092 open(FOO || die);
2093
68dc0745
PP
2094because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary
2095and list operators. (The old open was a little of both.) You must
2096put parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator
2097instead of "||".
a0d0e21e
LW
2098
2099=item print on closed filehandle %s
2100
2101(W) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime before now.
2102Check your logic flow.
2103
2104=item printf on closed filehandle %s
2105
2106(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2107Check your logic flow.
2108
2109=item Probable precedence problem on %s
2110
54310121 2111(W) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a conditional,
a0d0e21e
LW
2112which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part of the
2113last argument of the previous construct, for example:
2114
2115 open FOO || die;
2116
3fe9a6f1 2117=item Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
4633a7c4 2118
3fe9a6f1
PP
2119(S) The subroutine being declared or defined had previously been declared
2120or defined with a different function prototype.
4633a7c4 2121
89ea2908
GA
2122=item Range iterator outside integer range
2123
2124(F) One (or both) of the numeric arguments to the range operator ".."
2125are outside the range which can be represented by integers internally.
2126One possible workaround is to force Perl to use magical string
2127increment by prepending "0" to your numbers.
2128
8b1a09fc 2129=item Read on closed filehandle E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2130
2131(W) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime before now.
2132Check your logic flow.
2133
2134=item Reallocation too large: %lx
2135
54310121 2136(F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e
LW
2137
2138=item Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch
2139
2140(F) You can't use the B<-D> option unless the code to produce the
2141desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead,
2142which is why it's currently left out of your copy.
2143
3e0ccd42 2144=item Recursive inheritance detected in package '%s'
a0d0e21e
LW
2145
2146(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used. Probably indicates
2147an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2148
3e0ccd42
JP
2149=item Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method '%s' in package '%s'
2150
2151(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were encountered while invoking a
2152method. Probably indicates an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2153
1930e939
TP
2154=item Reference found where even-sized list expected
2155
2156(W) You gave a single reference where Perl was expecting a list with
2157an even number of elements (for assignment to a hash). This
2158usually means that you used the anon hash constructor when you meant
2159to use parens. In any case, a hash requires key/value B<pairs>.
7b8d334a
GS
2160
2161 %hash = { one => 1, two => 2, }; # WRONG
2162 %hash = [ qw/ an anon array / ]; # WRONG
2163 %hash = ( one => 1, two => 2, ); # right
2164 %hash = qw( one 1 two 2 ); # also fine
2165
a0d0e21e
LW
2166=item Reference miscount in sv_replace()
2167
2168(W) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with a
2169reference count of other than 1.
2170
fb73857a
PP
2171=item regexp *+ operand could be empty
2172
2173(F) The part of the regexp subject to either the * or + quantifier
2174could match an empty string.
2175
a0d0e21e
LW
2176=item regexp memory corruption
2177
2178(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
2179expression compiler gave it.
2180
2181=item regexp out of space
2182
2183(P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it earlier.
2184
2185=item regexp too big
2186
2ba9eb46 2187(F) The current implementation of regular expressions uses shorts as
a0d0e21e
LW
2188address offsets within a string. Unfortunately this means that if
2189the regular expression compiles to longer than 32767, it'll blow up.
2190Usually when you want a regular expression this big, there is a better
2191way to do it with multiple statements. See L<perlre>.
2192
2193=item Reversed %s= operator
2194
2195(W) You wrote your assignment operator backwards. The = must always
2196comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.
2197
2198=item Runaway format
2199
2200(F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it
2201produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the
2202199th line. Apparently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
2203themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar variables), or by
2204shifting or popping (for array variables). See L<perlform>.
2205
2206=item Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
2207
a6006777 2208(W) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
a0d0e21e 2209an array. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
8b1a09fc
PP
2210The difference is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2211assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo[&bar]> behaves
a0d0e21e 2212like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
5f05dabc 2213subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
a0d0e21e 2214
748a9306 2215On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
5f05dabc 2216element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
748a9306
LW
2217Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2218L<perlref>.
2219
a6006777
PP
2220=item Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
2221
2222(W) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
2223a hash. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
2224The difference is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2225assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> behaves
2226like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
2227subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
2228
2229On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash
2230element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
2231Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2232L<perlref>.
2233
a0d0e21e
LW
2234=item Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
2235
54310121
PP
2236(F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script without a setuid
2237or setgid bit set. This doesn't make much sense.
a0d0e21e
LW
2238
2239=item Search pattern not terminated
2240
2241(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{}
2242construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2243Missing the leading C<$> from a variable C<$m> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2244
96e4d5b1 2245=item %sseek() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2246
96e4d5b1
PP
2247(W) You tried to use the seek() or sysseek() function on a filehandle that
2248was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2249
2250=item select not implemented
2251
2252(F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.
2253
2254=item sem%s not implemented
2255
2256(F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.
2257
2258=item semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
2259
2260(S) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a scalar
2261that had previously been marked as free.
2262
2263=item Semicolon seems to be missing
2264
2265(W) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing semicolon,
2266or possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.
2267
2268=item Send on closed socket
2269
2270(W) The filehandle you're sending to got itself closed sometime before now.
2271Check your logic flow.
2272
1b1626e4 2273=item Sequence (? incomplete
7b8d334a 2274
1b1626e4
G
2275(F) A regular expression ended with an incomplete extension (?.
2276See L<perlre>.
2277
a0d0e21e
LW
2278=item Sequence (?#... not terminated
2279
2280(F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing
5f05dabc 2281parenthesis. Embedded parentheses aren't allowed. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2282
2283=item Sequence (?%s...) not implemented
2284
2285(F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved
2286but has not yet been written. See L<perlre>.
2287
2288=item Sequence (?%s...) not recognized
2289
2290(F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense.
2291See L<perlre>.
2292
a5f75d66
AD
2293=item Server error
2294
9607fc9c
PP
2295Also known as "500 Server error".
2296
2297B<This is a CGI error, not a Perl error>.
2298
2299You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible by the user
2300CGI is running the script under (which is probably not the user account you
2301tested it under), does not rely on any environment variables (like PATH)
2302from the user it isn't running under, and isn't in a location where the CGI
2303server can't find it, basically, more or less. Please see the following
2304for more information:
2305
2306 http://www.perl.com/perl/faq/idiots-guide.html
2307 http://www.perl.com/perl/faq/perl-cgi-faq.html
2308 ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/www/cgi-faq
2309 http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/cgi/interface.html
2310 http://www-genome.wi.mit.edu/WWW/faqs/www-security-faq.html
a5f75d66 2311
a0d0e21e
LW
2312=item setegid() not implemented
2313
8b1a09fc 2314(F) You tried to assign to C<$)>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2315the setegid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2316think so.
2317
2318=item seteuid() not implemented
2319
8b1a09fc 2320(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<gt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2321the seteuid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2322think so.
2323
2324=item setrgid() not implemented
2325
8b1a09fc 2326(F) You tried to assign to C<$(>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2327the setrgid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2328think so.
2329
2330=item setruid() not implemented
2331
1f8d2005 2332(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<lt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2333the setruid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2334think so.
2335
2336=item Setuid/gid script is writable by world
2337
2338(F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is writable by the world,
2339because the world might have written on it already.
2340
2341=item shm%s not implemented
2342
2343(F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your system.
2344
2345=item shutdown() on closed fd
2346
2347(W) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket. Seems a bit superfluous.
2348
f86702cc 2349=item SIG%s handler "%s" not defined
a0d0e21e
LW
2350
2351(W) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't, in fact, exist. Perhaps you
2352put it into the wrong package?
2353
2354=item sort is now a reserved word
2355
2356(F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into anymore.
2357But before sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a filehandle.
2358
2359=item Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value
2360
2361(F) A sort comparison routine must return a number. You probably blew
4633a7c4 2362it by not using C<E<lt>=E<gt>> or C<cmp>, or by not using them correctly.
a0d0e21e
LW
2363See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2364
2365=item Sort subroutine didn't return single value
2366
2367(F) A sort comparison subroutine may not return a list value with more
2368or less than one element. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2369
2370=item Split loop
2371
2372(P) The split was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a split shouldn't iterate
2373more times than there are characters of input, which is what happened.)
2374See L<perlfunc/split>.
2375
8b1a09fc 2376=item Stat on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2377
2378(W) You tried to use the stat() function (or an equivalent file test)
54310121 2379on a filehandle that was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2380
2381=item Statement unlikely to be reached
2382
2383(W) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than a die().
2384This is almost always an error, because exec() never returns unless
2385there was a failure. You probably wanted to use system() instead,
2386which does return. To suppress this warning, put the exec() in a block
2387by itself.
2388
e7ea3e70
IZ
2389=item Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
2390
2391(P) Overloading resolution over @ISA tree may be broken by importation stubs.
2392Stubs should never be implicitely created, but explicit calls to C<can>
2393may break this.
2394
a0d0e21e
LW
2395=item Subroutine %s redefined
2396
2397(W) You redefined a subroutine. To suppress this warning, say
2398
2399 {
2400 local $^W = 0;
2401 eval "sub name { ... }";
2402 }
2403
2404=item Substitution loop
2405
2406(P) The substitution was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a
2407substitution shouldn't iterate more times than there are characters of
68dc0745 2408input, which is what happened.) See the discussion of substitution in
5f05dabc 2409L<perlop/"Quote and Quote-like Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
2410
2411=item Substitution pattern not terminated
2412
2413(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2414construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2415Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2416
2417=item Substitution replacement not terminated
2418
2419(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2420construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2421Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2422
2423=item substr outside of string
2424
3e3baf6d
TB
2425(S),(W) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed outside of a
2426string. That is, the absolute value of the offset was larger than the
2427length of the string. See L<perlfunc/substr>. This warning is
2428mandatory if substr is used in an lvalue context (as the left hand side
2429of an assignment or as a subroutine argument for example).
a0d0e21e 2430
f86702cc 2431=item suidperl is no longer needed since %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2432
2433(F) Your Perl was compiled with B<-D>SETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW, but a
2434version of the setuid emulator somehow got run anyway.
2435
2436=item syntax error
2437
2438(F) Probably means you had a syntax error. Common reasons include:
2439
2440 A keyword is misspelled.
2441 A semicolon is missing.
2442 A comma is missing.
2443 An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
2444 An opening or closing brace is missing.
2445 A closing quote is missing.
2446
2447Often there will be another error message associated with the syntax
2448error giving more information. (Sometimes it helps to turn on B<-w>.)
2449The error message itself often tells you where it was in the line when
2450it decided to give up. Sometimes the actual error is several tokens
5f05dabc 2451before this, because Perl is good at understanding random input.
a0d0e21e
LW
2452Occasionally the line number may be misleading, and once in a blue moon
2453the only way to figure out what's triggering the error is to call
2454C<perl -c> repeatedly, chopping away half the program each time to see
2455if the error went away. Sort of the cybernetic version of S<20 questions>.
2456
cb1a09d0
AD
2457=item syntax error at line %d: `%s' unexpected
2458
8b1a09fc 2459(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 2460instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
2461into Perl yourself.
2462
a0d0e21e
LW
2463=item System V IPC is not implemented on this machine
2464
5f05dabc 2465(F) You tried to do something with a function beginning with "sem", "shm",
a0d0e21e
LW
2466or "msg". See L<perlfunc/semctl>, for example.
2467
2468=item Syswrite on closed filehandle
2469
2470(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2471Check your logic flow.
2472
fc36a67e
PP
2473=item Target of goto is too deeply nested
2474
2475(F) You tried to use C<goto> to reach a label that was too deeply
2476nested for Perl to reach. Perl is doing you a favor by refusing.
2477
8903cb82 2478=item tell() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2479
8903cb82
PP
2480(W) You tried to use the tell() function on a filehandle that was either
2481never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e 2482
8b1a09fc 2483=item Test on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2484
2485(W) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle that isn't
2486open. Check your logic. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
2487
2488=item That use of $[ is unsupported
2489
8b1a09fc 2490(F) Assignment to C<$[> is now strictly circumscribed, and interpreted as
5f05dabc 2491a compiler directive. You may say only one of
a0d0e21e
LW
2492
2493 $[ = 0;
2494 $[ = 1;
2495 ...
2496 local $[ = 0;
2497 local $[ = 1;
2498 ...
2499
2500This is to prevent the problem of one module changing the array base
2501out from under another module inadvertently. See L<perlvar/$[>.
2502
2503=item The %s function is unimplemented
2504
2505The function indicated isn't implemented on this architecture, according
2506to the probings of Configure.
2507
f86702cc 2508=item The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia
a0d0e21e
LW
2509
2510(F) Configure couldn't find the crypt() function on your machine,
2511probably because your vendor didn't supply it, probably because they
8b1a09fc 2512think the U.S. Government thinks it's a secret, or at least that they
a0d0e21e
LW
2513will continue to pretend that it is. And if you quote me on that, I
2514will deny it.
2515
2516=item The stat preceding C<-l _> wasn't an lstat
2517
2518(F) It makes no sense to test the current stat buffer for symbolic linkhood
2519if the last stat that wrote to the stat buffer already went past
2520the symlink to get to the real file. Use an actual filename instead.
2521
2522=item times not implemented
2523
2524(F) Your version of the C library apparently doesn't do times(). I suspect
2525you're not running on Unix.
2526
2527=item Too few args to syscall
2528
2529(F) There has to be at least one argument to syscall() to specify the
2530system call to call, silly dilly.
2531
9607fc9c
PP
2532=item Too late for "B<-T>" option
2533
2534(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
8cc95fdb
PP
2535B<-T> option, but Perl was not invoked with B<-T> in its command line.
2536This is an error because, by the time Perl discovers a B<-T> in a
2537script, it's too late to properly taint everything from the environment.
2538So Perl gives up.
f86702cc 2539
9607fc9c
PP
2540If the Perl script is being executed as a command using the #!
2541mechanism (or its local equivalent), this error can usually be fixed
2542by editing the #! line so that the B<-T> option is a part of Perl's
2543first argument: e.g. change C<perl -n -T> to C<perl -T -n>.
f86702cc 2544
9607fc9c
PP
2545If the Perl script is being executed as C<perl scriptname>, then the
2546B<-T> option must appear on the command line: C<perl -T scriptname>.
f86702cc 2547
8cc95fdb
PP
2548=item Too late for "-%s" option
2549
2550(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
2551B<-M> or B<-m> option. This is an error because B<-M> and B<-m> options
2552are not intended for use inside scripts. Use the C<use> pragma instead.
2553
cb1a09d0
AD
2554=item Too many ('s
2555
2556=item Too many )'s
2557
2558(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
2559of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
2560Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 2561
a0d0e21e
LW
2562=item Too many args to syscall
2563
5f05dabc 2564(F) Perl supports a maximum of only 14 args to syscall().
a0d0e21e
LW
2565
2566=item Too many arguments for %s
2567
2568(F) The function requires fewer arguments than you specified.
2569
2570=item trailing \ in regexp
2571
2572(F) The regular expression ends with an unbackslashed backslash. Backslash
2573it. See L<perlre>.
2574
2c268ad5 2575=item Transliteration pattern not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
2576
2577(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
fb73857a
PP
2578or y/// or y[][] construct. Missing the leading C<$> from variables
2579C<$tr> or C<$y> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2580
2c268ad5 2581=item Transliteration replacement not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
2582
2583(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
2584construct.
2585
2586=item truncate not implemented
2587
2588(F) Your machine doesn't implement a file truncation mechanism that
2589Configure knows about.
2590
2591=item Type of arg %d to %s must be %s (not %s)
2592
2593(F) This function requires the argument in that position to be of a
8b1a09fc
PP
2594certain type. Arrays must be @NAME or C<@{EXPR}>. Hashes must be
2595%NAME or C<%{EXPR}>. No implicit dereferencing is allowed--use the
a0d0e21e
LW
2596{EXPR} forms as an explicit dereference. See L<perlref>.
2597
2598=item umask: argument is missing initial 0
2599
5f05dabc 2600(W) A umask of 222 is incorrect. It should be 0222, because octal literals
a0d0e21e
LW
2601always start with 0 in Perl, as in C.
2602
4633a7c4
LW
2603=item Unable to create sub named "%s"
2604
2605(F) You attempted to create or access a subroutine with an illegal name.
2606
a0d0e21e
LW
2607=item Unbalanced context: %d more PUSHes than POPs
2608
2609(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many execution
2610contexts were entered and left.
2611
2612=item Unbalanced saves: %d more saves than restores
2613
2614(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many
2615values were temporarily localized.
2616
2617=item Unbalanced scopes: %d more ENTERs than LEAVEs
2618
2619(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many blocks
2620were entered and left.
2621
2622=item Unbalanced tmps: %d more allocs than frees
2623
2624(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many mortal
2625scalars were allocated and freed.
2626
2627=item Undefined format "%s" called
2628
2629(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
2630another package? See L<perlform>.
2631
2632=item Undefined sort subroutine "%s" called
2633
2634(F) The sort comparison routine specified doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps
2635it's in a different package? See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2636
2637=item Undefined subroutine &%s called
2638
2639(F) The subroutine indicated hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2640has since been undefined.
2641
2642=item Undefined subroutine called
2643
2644(F) The anonymous subroutine you're trying to call hasn't been defined,
2645or if it was, it has since been undefined.
2646
2647=item Undefined subroutine in sort
2648
2649(F) The sort comparison routine specified is declared but doesn't seem to
2650have been defined yet. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2651
4633a7c4
LW
2652=item Undefined top format "%s" called
2653
2654(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
2655another package? See L<perlform>.
2656
20408e3c
GS
2657=item Undefined value assigned to typeglob
2658
2659(W) An undefined value was assigned to a typeglob, a la C<*foo = undef>.
2660This does nothing. It's possible that you really mean C<undef *foo>.
2661
a0d0e21e
LW
2662=item unexec of %s into %s failed!
2663
2664(F) The unexec() routine failed for some reason. See your local FSF
2665representative, who probably put it there in the first place.
2666
2667=item Unknown BYTEORDER
2668
5f05dabc 2669(F) There are no byte-swapping functions for a machine with this byte order.
a0d0e21e
LW
2670
2671=item unmatched () in regexp
2672
2673(F) Unbackslashed parentheses must always be balanced in regular
2674expressions. If you're a vi user, the % key is valuable for finding
5f05dabc 2675the matching parenthesis. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2676
2677=item Unmatched right bracket
2678
2679(F) The lexer counted more closing curly brackets (braces) than opening
2680ones, so you're probably missing an opening bracket. As a general
2681rule, you'll find the missing one (so to speak) near the place you were
2682last editing.
2683
2684=item unmatched [] in regexp
2685
2686(F) The brackets around a character class must match. If you wish to
2687include a closing bracket in a character class, backslash it or put it first.
2688See L<perlre>.
2689
2690=item Unquoted string "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2691
54310121 2692(W) You used a bareword that might someday be claimed as a reserved word.
a0d0e21e
LW
2693It's best to put such a word in quotes, or capitalize it somehow, or insert
2694an underbar into it. You might also declare it as a subroutine.
2695
54310121 2696=item Unrecognized character %s
a0d0e21e 2697
54310121
PP
2698(F) The Perl parser has no idea what to do with the specified character
2699in your Perl script (or eval). Perhaps you tried to run a compressed
2700script, a binary program, or a directory as a Perl program.
a0d0e21e
LW
2701
2702=item Unrecognized signal name "%s"
2703
2704(F) You specified a signal name to the kill() function that was not recognized.
2705Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
2706
90248788 2707=item Unrecognized switch: -%s (-h will show valid options)
a0d0e21e
LW
2708
2709(F) You specified an illegal option to Perl. Don't do that.
2710(If you think you didn't do that, check the #! line to see if it's
2711supplying the bad switch on your behalf.)
2712
2713=item Unsuccessful %s on filename containing newline
2714
2715(W) A file operation was attempted on a filename, and that operation
2716failed, PROBABLY because the filename contained a newline, PROBABLY
54310121 2717because you forgot to chop() or chomp() it off. See L<perlfunc/chomp>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2718
2719=item Unsupported directory function "%s" called
2720
2721(F) Your machine doesn't support opendir() and readdir().
2722
54310121
PP
2723=item Unsupported function fork
2724
2725(F) Your version of executable does not support forking.
2726
2727Note that under some systems, like OS/2, there may be different flavors of
2728Perl executables, some of which may support fork, some not. Try changing
2729the name you call Perl by to C<perl_>, C<perl__>, and so on.
2730
a0d0e21e
LW
2731=item Unsupported function %s
2732
7b8d334a 2733(F) This machine doesn't implement the indicated function, apparently.
a0d0e21e
LW
2734At least, Configure doesn't think so.
2735
2736=item Unsupported socket function "%s" called
2737
2738(F) Your machine doesn't support the Berkeley socket mechanism, or at
2739least that's what Configure thought.
2740
8b1a09fc 2741=item Unterminated E<lt>E<gt> operator
a0d0e21e
LW
2742
2743(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
2744a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
2745finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
2746the line, and you really meant a "less than".
2747
5cd24f17
PP
2748=item Use of "$$<digit>" to mean "${$}<digit>" is deprecated
2749
2750(D) Perl versions before 5.004 misinterpreted any type marker followed
2751by "$" and a digit. For example, "$$0" was incorrectly taken to mean
2752"${$}0" instead of "${$0}". This bug is (mostly) fixed in Perl 5.004.
2753
2754However, the developers of Perl 5.004 could not fix this bug completely,
2755because at least two widely-used modules depend on the old meaning of
2756"$$0" in a string. So Perl 5.004 still interprets "$$<digit>" in the
2757old (broken) way inside strings; but it generates this message as a
2758warning. And in Perl 5.005, this special treatment will cease.
2759
a0d0e21e
LW
2760=item Use of $# is deprecated
2761
8b1a09fc 2762(D) This was an ill-advised attempt to emulate a poorly defined B<awk> feature.
a0d0e21e
LW
2763Use an explicit printf() or sprintf() instead.
2764
2765=item Use of $* is deprecated
2766
4a6725af 2767(D) This variable magically turned on multi-line pattern matching, both for
a0d0e21e
LW
2768you and for any luckless subroutine that you happen to call. You should
2769use the new C<//m> and C<//s> modifiers now to do that without the dangerous
2770action-at-a-distance effects of C<$*>.
2771
748a9306
LW
2772=item Use of %s in printf format not supported
2773
5f05dabc
PP
2774(F) You attempted to use a feature of printf that is accessible from
2775only C. This usually means there's a better way to do it in Perl.
748a9306 2776
8b1a09fc 2777=item Use of bare E<lt>E<lt> to mean E<lt>E<lt>"" is deprecated
4633a7c4
LW
2778
2779(D) You are now encouraged to use the explicitly quoted form if you
3fe9a6f1 2780wish to use an empty line as the terminator of the here-document.
4633a7c4 2781
a0d0e21e
LW
2782=item Use of implicit split to @_ is deprecated
2783
2784(D) It makes a lot of work for the compiler when you clobber a
2785subroutine's argument list, so it's better if you assign the results of
2786a split() explicitly to an array (or list).
2787
dc848c6f
PP
2788=item Use of inherited AUTOLOAD for non-method %s() is deprecated
2789
5cd24f17
PP
2790(D) As an (ahem) accidental feature, C<AUTOLOAD> subroutines are looked
2791up as methods (using the C<@ISA> hierarchy) even when the subroutines to
2792be autoloaded were called as plain functions (e.g. C<Foo::bar()>), not
7b8d334a 2793as methods (e.g. C<Foo-E<gt>bar()> or C<$obj-E<gt>bar()>).
dc848c6f
PP
2794
2795This bug will be rectified in Perl 5.005, which will use method lookup
2796only for methods' C<AUTOLOAD>s. However, there is a significant base
2797of existing code that may be using the old behavior. So, as an
2798interim step, Perl 5.004 issues an optional warning when non-methods
2799use inherited C<AUTOLOAD>s.
2800
2801The simple rule is: Inheritance will not work when autoloading
2802non-methods. The simple fix for old code is: In any module that used to
2803depend on inheriting C<AUTOLOAD> for non-methods from a base class named
2804C<BaseClass>, execute C<*AUTOLOAD = \&BaseClass::AUTOLOAD> during startup.
2805
fb73857a
PP
2806In code that currently says C<use AutoLoader; @ISA = qw(AutoLoader);> you
2807should remove AutoLoader from @ISA and change C<use AutoLoader;> to
7b8d334a 2808C<use AutoLoader 'AUTOLOAD';>.
fb73857a 2809
85b81015
LW
2810=item Use of reserved word "%s" is deprecated
2811
2812(D) The indicated bareword is a reserved word. Future versions of perl
2813may use it as a keyword, so you're better off either explicitly quoting
2814the word in a manner appropriate for its context of use, or using a
2815different name altogether. The warning can be suppressed for subroutine
2816names by either adding a C<&> prefix, or using a package qualifier,
2817e.g. C<&our()>, or C<Foo::our()>.
2818
dc848c6f
PP
2819=item Use of %s is deprecated
2820
2821(D) The construct indicated is no longer recommended for use, generally
2822because there's a better way to do it, and also because the old way has
2823bad side effects.
2824
a0d0e21e
LW
2825=item Use of uninitialized value
2826
2827(W) An undefined value was used as if it were already defined. It was
2828interpreted as a "" or a 0, but maybe it was a mistake. To suppress this
2829warning assign an initial value to your variables.
2830
2831=item Useless use of %s in void context
2832
2833(W) You did something without a side effect in a context that does nothing
2834with the return value, such as a statement that doesn't return a value
2835from a block, or the left side of a scalar comma operator. Very often
2836this points not to stupidity on your part, but a failure of Perl to parse
2837your program the way you thought it would. For example, you'd get this
2838if you mixed up your C precedence with Python precedence and said
2839
2840 $one, $two = 1, 2;
2841
2842when you meant to say
2843
2844 ($one, $two) = (1, 2);
2845
748a9306
LW
2846Another common error is to use ordinary parentheses to construct a list
2847reference when you should be using square or curly brackets, for
2848example, if you say
2849
2850 $array = (1,2);
2851
2852when you should have said
2853
2854 $array = [1,2];
2855
2856The square brackets explicitly turn a list value into a scalar value,
2857while parentheses do not. So when a parenthesized list is evaluated in
2858a scalar context, the comma is treated like C's comma operator, which
2859throws away the left argument, which is not what you want. See
2860L<perlref> for more on this.
2861
55497cff
PP
2862=item untie attempted while %d inner references still exist
2863
2864(W) A copy of the object returned from C<tie> (or C<tied>) was still
2865valid when C<untie> was called.
2866
68dc0745 2867=item Value of %s can be "0"; test with defined()
a6006777 2868
68dc0745
PP
2869(W) In a conditional expression, you used <HANDLE>, <*> (glob), C<each()>,
2870or C<readdir()> as a boolean value. Each of these constructs can return a
2871value of "0"; that would make the conditional expression false, which is
2872probably not what you intended. When using these constructs in conditional
2873expressions, test their values with the C<defined> operator.
a6006777 2874
9607fc9c 2875=item Variable "%s" is not imported%s
4633a7c4
LW
2876
2877(F) While "use strict" in effect, you referred to a global variable
2878that you apparently thought was imported from another module, because
2879something else of the same name (usually a subroutine) is exported
2880by that module. It usually means you put the wrong funny character
2881on the front of your variable.
2882
44a8e56a
PP
2883=item Variable "%s" may be unavailable
2884
2885(W) An inner (nested) I<anonymous> subroutine is inside a I<named>
2886subroutine, and outside that is another subroutine; and the anonymous
2887(innermost) subroutine is referencing a lexical variable defined in
2888the outermost subroutine. For example:
2889
2890 sub outermost { my $a; sub middle { sub { $a } } }
2891
2892If the anonymous subroutine is called or referenced (directly or
2893indirectly) from the outermost subroutine, it will share the variable
2894as you would expect. But if the anonymous subroutine is called or
2895referenced when the outermost subroutine is not active, it will see
2896the value of the shared variable as it was before and during the
2897*first* call to the outermost subroutine, which is probably not what
2898you want.
2899
2900In these circumstances, it is usually best to make the middle
2901subroutine anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. Perl has specific
2902support for shared variables in nested anonymous subroutines; a named
2903subroutine in between interferes with this feature.
2904
2905=item Variable "%s" will not stay shared
2906
2907(W) An inner (nested) I<named> subroutine is referencing a lexical
2908variable defined in an outer subroutine.
2909
2910When the inner subroutine is called, it will probably see the value of
2911the outer subroutine's variable as it was before and during the
2912*first* call to the outer subroutine; in this case, after the first
2913call to the outer subroutine is complete, the inner and outer
2914subroutines will no longer share a common value for the variable. In
2915other words, the variable will no longer be shared.
2916
2917Furthermore, if the outer subroutine is anonymous and references a
2918lexical variable outside itself, then the outer and inner subroutines
2919will I<never> share the given variable.
2920
2921This problem can usually be solved by making the inner subroutine
2922anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. When inner anonymous subs that
2923reference variables in outer subroutines are called or referenced,
54310121 2924they are automatically rebound to the current values of such
44a8e56a
PP
2925variables.
2926
f86702cc 2927=item Variable syntax
cb1a09d0
AD
2928
2929(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
2930of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
2931Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 2932
3e6e419a
JH
2933=item perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
2934
2935(S) The whole warning message will look something like:
2936
2937 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
2938 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
2939 LC_ALL = "En_US",
2940 LANG = (unset)
2941 are supported and installed on your system.
2942 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
2943
2944Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies. In the above the
2945settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.
2946This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your system
2947administrator have set up the so-called variable system but Perl could
2948not use those settings. This was not dead serious, fortunately: there
2949is a "default locale" called "C" that Perl can and will use, the
2950script will be run. Before you really fix the problem, however, you
2951will get the same error message each time you run Perl. How to really
2952fix the problem can be found in L<perllocale> section B<LOCALE PROBLEMS>.
2953
7e1af8bc 2954=item Warning: something's wrong
5f05dabc
PP
2955
2956(W) You passed warn() an empty string (the equivalent of C<warn "">) or
2957you called it with no args and C<$_> was empty.
2958
f86702cc 2959=item Warning: unable to close filehandle %s properly
a0d0e21e 2960
8b1a09fc 2961(S) The implicit close() done by an open() got an error indication on the
5f05dabc 2962close(). This usually indicates your file system ran out of disk space.
a0d0e21e 2963
5f05dabc 2964=item Warning: Use of "%s" without parentheses is ambiguous
a0d0e21e
LW
2965
2966(S) You wrote a unary operator followed by something that looks like a
2967binary operator that could also have been interpreted as a term or
2968unary operator. For instance, if you know that the rand function
2969has a default argument of 1.0, and you write
2970
2971 rand + 5;
2972
2973you may THINK you wrote the same thing as
2974
2975 rand() + 5;
2976
2977but in actual fact, you got
2978
2979 rand(+5);
2980
5f05dabc 2981So put in parentheses to say what you really mean.
a0d0e21e
LW
2982
2983=item Write on closed filehandle
2984
2985(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2986Check your logic flow.
2987
2988=item X outside of string
2989
2990(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position before
2991the beginning of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2992
2993=item x outside of string
2994
2995(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position after
2996the end of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2997
2998=item Xsub "%s" called in sort
2999
3000(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
3001
3002=item Xsub called in sort
3003
3004(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
3005
3006=item You can't use C<-l> on a filehandle
3007
3008(F) A filehandle represents an opened file, and when you opened the file it
3009already went past any symlink you are presumably trying to look for.
3010Use a filename instead.
3011
3012=item YOU HAVEN'T DISABLED SET-ID SCRIPTS IN THE KERNEL YET!
3013
5f05dabc 3014(F) And you probably never will, because you probably don't have the
a0d0e21e
LW
3015sources to your kernel, and your vendor probably doesn't give a rip
3016about what you want. Your best bet is to use the wrapsuid script in
3017the eg directory to put a setuid C wrapper around your script.
3018
3019=item You need to quote "%s"
3020
3021(W) You assigned a bareword as a signal handler name. Unfortunately, you
3022already have a subroutine of that name declared, which means that Perl 5
3023will try to call the subroutine when the assignment is executed, which is
3024probably not what you want. (If it IS what you want, put an & in front.)
3025
3026=item [gs]etsockopt() on closed fd
3027
3028(W) You tried to get or set a socket option on a closed socket.
3029Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
3030See L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
3031
3032=item \1 better written as $1
3033
3034(W) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables. The use
5f05dabc 3035of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
a0d0e21e
LW
3036substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
3037because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better
3038if there are more than 9 backreferences.
3039
8b1a09fc 3040=item '|' and 'E<lt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
3041
3042(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
3043found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to redirect STDIN using
8b1a09fc 3044'E<lt>'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
748a9306 3045
8b1a09fc 3046=item '|' and 'E<gt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
3047
3048(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
3049thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and into a pipe to another
3050command. You need to choose one or the other, though nothing's stopping you
3051from piping into a program or Perl script which 'splits' output into two
3052streams, such as
3053
3054 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
3055 while (<STDIN>) {
3056 print;
3057 print OUT;
3058 }
3059 close OUT;
3060
774d564b 3061=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
33c8a3fe 3062
774d564b
PP
3063(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
3064version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3065
3066=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
3067
dc848c6f 3068(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
33c8a3fe
IZ
3069
3070 prefix1;prefix2
3071
3072or
3073
3074 prefix1 prefix2
3075
dc848c6f
PP
3076with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix
3077of a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error
3078may appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
3079"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3080
3081=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
3082
54310121 3083(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
dc848c6f 3084C<sh>-shell in. See "PERL_SH_DIR" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3085
3086=item Process terminated by SIG%s
3087
3088(W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while *nix
dc848c6f
PP
3089applications die in silence. It is considered a feature of the OS/2
3090port. One can easily disable this by appropriate sighandlers, see
3091L<perlipc/"Signals">. See also "Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT"
3092in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe 3093
a0d0e21e
LW
3094=back
3095