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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
2It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is specially
3designed to be readable as is.
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4
5=head1 NAME
6
d66be8f9 7README.hpux - Perl version 5 on Hewlett-Packard Unix (HP-UX) systems
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8
9=head1 DESCRIPTION
10
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11This document describes various features of HP's Unix operating system
12(HP-UX) that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just Perl) is
13compiled and/or runs.
f2a260d6 14
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15=head2 Using perl as shipped with HP-UX
16
17As of application release September 2001, HP-UX 11.00 is shipped with
210b36aa 18perl-5.6.1 in /opt/perl. The first occurrence is on CD 5012-7954 and
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19can be installed using
20
21 swinstall -s /cdrom perl
22
23assuming you have mounted that CD on /cdrom. In this version the
24following modules are installed:
25
26 ActivePerl::DocTools-0.04 HTML::Parser-3.19 XML::DOM-1.25
27 Archive::Tar-0.072 HTML::Tagset-3.03 XML::Parser-2.27
28 Compress::Zlib-1.08 MIME::Base64-2.11 XML::Simple-1.05
29 Convert::ASN1-0.10 Net-1.07 XML::XPath-1.09
30 Digest::MD5-2.11 PPM-2.1.5 XML::XSLT-0.32
31 File::CounterFile-0.12 SOAP::Lite-0.46 libwww-perl-5.51
32 Font::AFM-1.18 Storable-1.011 libxml-perl-0.07
33 HTML-Tree-3.11 URI-1.11 perl-ldap-0.23
34
35The build is a portable hppa-1.1 multithread build that supports large
36files compiled with gcc-2.9-hppa-991112
37
38If you perform a new installation, then Perl will be installed
39automatically.
40
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41=head2 Using perl from HP's porting centre
42
43HP porting centre tries very hard to keep up with customer demand and
44release updates from the Open Source community. Having precompiled
45Perl binaries available is obvious.
46
47The HP porting centres are limited in what systems they are allowed
48to port to and they usually choose the two most recent OS versions
49available. This means that at the moment of writing, there are only
50HPUX-11.00 and 11-20/22 (IA64) ports available on the porting centres.
51
52HP has asked the porting centre to move Open Source binaries
53from /opt to /usr/local, so binaries produced since the start
54of July 2002 are located in /usr/local.
55
56One of HP porting centres URL's is http://hpux.connect.org.uk/
57The port currently available is built with GNU gcc.
58
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59=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on HP-UX
60
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61When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. The C compiler
62that ships with all HP-UX systems is a K&R compiler that should only be
63used to build new kernels.
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64
65Perl can be compiled with either HP's ANSI C compiler or with gcc. The
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66former is recommended, as not only can it compile Perl with no
67difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later that
68require the use of HP compiler-specific command-line flags.
f2a260d6 69
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70If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
71complete, and be sure to read the Perl README file for more gcc-specific
72details.
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73
74=head2 PA-RISC
75
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76HP's current Unix systems run on its own Precision Architecture
77(PA-RISC) chip. HP-UX used to run on the Motorola MC68000 family of
78chips, but any machine with this chip in it is quite obsolete and this
79document will not attempt to address issues for compiling Perl on the
80Motorola chipset.
f2a260d6 81
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82The most recent version of PA-RISC at the time of this document's last
83update is 2.0.
f2a260d6 84
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85A complete list of models at the time the OS was built is in the file
86/usr/sam/lib/mo/sched.models. The first column corresponds to the last
87part of the output of the "model" command. The second column is the
88PA-RISC version and the third column is the exact chip type used.
89(Start browsing at the bottom to prevent confusion ;-)
90
91 # model
92 9000/800/L1000-44
93 # grep L1000-44 /usr/sam/lib/mo/sched.models
94 L1000-44 2.0 PA8500
95
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96=head2 PA-RISC 1.0
97
98The original version of PA-RISC, HP no longer sells any system with this chip.
99
13e84f2c 100The following systems contained PA-RISC 1.0 chips:
f2a260d6 101
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102 600, 635, 645, 808, 815, 822, 825, 832, 834, 835, 840, 842, 845, 850,
103 852, 855, 860, 865, 870, 890
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104
105=head2 PA-RISC 1.1
106
107An upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it shipped for many years in many different
108system.
109
110The following systems contain with PA-RISC 1.1 chips:
111
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112 705, 710, 712, 715, 720, 722, 725, 728, 730, 735, 742, 743, 744, 745,
113 747, 750, 755, 770, 777, 778, 779, 800, 801, 803, 806, 807, 809, 811,
114 813, 816, 817, 819, 821, 826, 827, 829, 831, 837, 839, 841, 847, 849,
115 851, 856, 857, 859, 867, 869, 877, 887, 891, 892, 897, A180, A180C,
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116 B115, B120, B132L, B132L+, B160L, B180L, C100, C110, C115, C120,
117 C160L, D200, D210, D220, D230, D250, D260, D310, D320, D330, D350,
118 D360, D410, DX0, DX5, DXO, E25, E35, E45, E55, F10, F20, F30, G30,
119 G40, G50, G60, G70, H20, H30, H40, H50, H60, H70, I30, I40, I50, I60,
120 I70, J200, J210, J210XC, K100, K200, K210, K220, K230, K400, K410,
121 K420, S700i, S715, S744, S760, T500, T520
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122
123=head2 PA-RISC 2.0
124
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125The most recent upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it added support for
12664-bit integer data.
f2a260d6 127
60ed1d8c 128As of the date of this document's last update, the following systems
d464cda8 129contain PA-RISC 2.0 chips:
f2a260d6 130
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131 700, 780, 781, 782, 783, 785, 802, 804, 810, 820, 861, 871, 879, 889,
132 893, 895, 896, 898, 899, A400, A500, B1000, B2000, C130, C140, C160,
133 C180, C180+, C180-XP, C200+, C400+, C3000, C360, C3600, CB260, D270,
134 D280, D370, D380, D390, D650, J220, J2240, J280, J282, J400, J410,
135 J5000, J5500XM, J5600, J7000, J7600, K250, K260, K260-EG, K270, K360,
136 K370, K380, K450, K460, K460-EG, K460-XP, K470, K570, K580, L1000,
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137 L2000, L3000, N4000, R380, R390, RP2400, RP2405, RP2430, RP2450,
138 RP2470, RP5400, RP5405, RP5430, RP5450, RP5470, RP7400, RP7405,
139 RP7410, RP8400, SD16000, SD32000, SD64000, T540, T600, V2000, V2200,
140 V2250, V2500, V2600
1a4e8251 141
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142Just before HP took over Compaq, some systems were renamed. Visit
143http://www.hp.com/products1/servers/server_names.html to see what
144the changes are, or will be.
145
146 HP 9000 A-Class servers, now renamed HP Server rp2400 series.
08c5bf6e 147 HP 9000 L-Class servers, now renamed HP Server rp5400 series.
fb752ac9 148 HP 9000 N-Class servers, now renamed HP Server rp7400.
08c5bf6e 149
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150=head2 Itanium
151
152HP also ships servers with the 128-bit Itanium processor(s). As of the
153date of this document's last update, the following systems contain
154Itanium chips (this is very likely to be out of date):
155
969db73b 156 RX2600, RX4610, RX5670, RX9610
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157
158=head2 Portability Between PA-RISC Versions
159
160An executable compiled on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform will not execute on a
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161PA-RISC 1.1 platform, even if they are running the same version of
162HP-UX. If you are building Perl on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform and want that
d1be9408 163Perl to also run on a PA-RISC 1.1, the compiler flags +DAportable and
60ed1d8c 164+DS32 should be used.
f2a260d6 165
60ed1d8c 166It is no longer possible to compile PA-RISC 1.0 executables on either
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167the PA-RISC 1.1 or 2.0 platforms. The command-line flags are accepted,
168but the resulting executable will not run when transferred to a PA-RISC
1691.0 system.
170
a83b6f46 171=head2 Itanium Processor Family and HP-UX
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172
173HP-UX also runs on the new Itanium processor. This requires the use
174of a different version of HP-UX (currently 11.20), and with the exception
175of a few differences detailed below and in later sections, Perl should
176compile with no problems.
177
178Although PA-RISC binaries can run on Itanium systems, you should not
179attempt to use a PA-RISC version of Perl on an Itanium system. This is
180because shared libraries created on an Itanium system cannot be loaded
181while running a PA-RISC executable.
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182
183=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on HP-UX
184
185HP-UX supports dynamically loadable libraries (shared libraries).
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186Shared libraries end with the suffix .sl. On Itanium systems,
187they end with the suffix .so.
f2a260d6 188
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189Shared libraries created on a platform using a particular PA-RISC
190version are not usable on platforms using an earlier PA-RISC version by
191default. However, this backwards compatibility may be enabled using the
192same +DAportable compiler flag (with the same PA-RISC 1.0 caveat
193mentioned above).
f2a260d6 194
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195Shared libraries created on an Itanium platform cannot be loaded on
196a PA-RISC platform. Shared libraries created on a PA-RISC platform
197can only be loaded on an Itanium platform if it is a PA-RISC executable
198that is attempting to load the PA-RISC library. A PA-RISC shared
199library cannot be loaded into an Itanium executable nor vice-versa.
200
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201To create a shared library, the following steps must be performed:
202
203 1. Compile source modules with +z or +Z flag to create a .o module
204 which contains Position-Independent Code (PIC). The linker will
205 tell you in the next step if +Z was needed.
206
207 2. Link the shared library using the -b flag. If the code calls
208 any functions in other system libraries (e.g., libm), it must
209 be included on this line.
210
211(Note that these steps are usually handled automatically by the extension's
212Makefile).
213
214If these dependent libraries are not listed at shared library creation
215time, you will get fatal "Unresolved symbol" errors at run time when the
216library is loaded.
217
a75f7dba 218You may create a shared library that refers to another library, which
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219may be either an archive library or a shared library. If this second
220library is a shared library, this is called a "dependent library". The
221dependent library's name is recorded in the main shared library, but it
222is not linked into the shared library. Instead, it is loaded when the
223main shared library is loaded. This can cause problems if you build an
224extension on one system and move it to another system where the
225libraries may not be located in the same place as on the first system.
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226
227If the referred library is an archive library, then it is treated as a
228simple collection of .o modules (all of which must contain PIC). These
229modules are then linked into the shared library.
230
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231Note that it is okay to create a library which contains a dependent
232library that is already linked into perl.
f2a260d6 233
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234Some extensions, like DB_File and Compress::Zlib use/require prebuilt
235libraries for the perl extensions/modules to work. If these libraries
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236are built using the default configuration, it might happen that you
237run into an error like "invalid loader fixup" during load phase.
238HP is aware of this problem. Search the HP-UX cxx-dev forums for
239discussions about the subject. The short answer is that B<everything>
240(all libraries, everything) must be compiled with C<+z> or C<+Z> to be
241PIC (position independent code). In HP-UX 11.00 or newer the linker
242error message should tell the name of the offending object file.
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243
244A more general approach is to intervene manually, as with an example for
245the DB_File module, which requires SleepyCat's libdb.sl:
246
247 # cd .../db-3.2.9/build_unix
248 # vi Makefile
249 ... add +Z to all cflags to create shared objects
250 CFLAGS= -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \
251 -I/usr/local/include -I/usr/include/X11R6
252 CXXFLAGS= -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \
253 -I/usr/local/include -I/usr/include/X11R6
254
255 # make clean
256 # make
257 # mkdir tmp
258 # cd tmp
259 # ar x ../libdb.a
260 # ld -b -o libdb-3.2.sl *.o
261 # mv libdb-3.2.sl /usr/local/lib
262 # rm *.o
263 # cd /usr/local/lib
264 # rm -f libdb.sl
265 # ln -s libdb-3.2.sl libdb.sl
266
267 # cd .../DB_File-1.76
268 # make distclean
269 # perl Makefile.PL
270 # make
271 # make test
272 # make install
273
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274It is no longer possible to link PA-RISC 1.0 shared libraries (even
275though the command-line flags are still present).
276
277PA-RISC and Itanium object files are not interchangeable. Although
278you may be able to use ar to create an archive library of PA-RISC
279object files on an Itanium system, you cannot link against it using
280an Itanium link editor.
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281
282=head2 The HP ANSI C Compiler
283
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284When using this compiler to build Perl, you should make sure that the
285flag -Aa is added to the cpprun and cppstdin variables in the config.sh
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286file (though see the section on 64-bit perl below). If you are using a
287recent version of the Perl distribution, these flags are set automatically.
f2a260d6 288
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289=head2 The GNU C Compiler
290
291When you are going to use the GNU C compiler (gcc), and you don't have
292gcc yet, you can either build it yourself from the sources (available
293from e.g. http://www.gnu.ai.mit.edu/software/gcc/releases.html) or fetch
294a prebuilt binary from the HP porting center. There are two places where
3a1825b5 295gcc prebuilds can be fetched; the first and best (for HP-UX 11 only) is
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296http://h21007.www2.hp.com/dspp/tech/tech_TechSoftwareDetailPage_IDX/1,1703,547,00.html
297the second is http://hpux.cs.utah.edu/hppd/hpux/Gnu/ where you can also
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298find the GNU binutils package. (Browse through the list, because there
299are often multiple versions of the same package available).
2be3a552 300
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301Above mentioned distributions are depots. H.Merijn Brand has made prebuilt
302gcc binaries available on https://www.beepz.com/personal/merijn/ for
303HP-UX 10.20 and HP-UX 11.00 in both 32- and 64-bit versions. These are
304bzipped tar archives that also include recent GNU binutils and GNU gdb.
305Read the instructions on that page to rebuild gcc using itself.
306
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307Building a 64bit capable gcc from source is possible only when you have
308the HP C-ANSI C compiler available, which you should use anyway when
309building perl.
310
a83b6f46 311=head2 Using Large Files with Perl on HP-UX
f2a260d6 312
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313Beginning with HP-UX version 10.20, files larger than 2GB (2^31 bytes)
314may be created and manipulated. Three separate methods of doing this
315are available. Of these methods, the best method for Perl is to compile
316using the -Duselargefiles flag to Configure. This causes Perl to be
317compiled using structures and functions in which these are 64 bits wide,
318rather than 32 bits wide. (Note that this will only work with HP's ANSI
319C compiler. If you want to compile Perl using gcc, you will have to get
2be3a552 320a version of the compiler that support 64-bit operations. See above for
f3e4a94e 321where to find it.)
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322
323There are some drawbacks to this approach. One is that any extension
324which calls any file-manipulating C function will need to be recompiled
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325(just follow the usual "perl Makefile.PL; make; make test; make install"
326procedure).
60ed1d8c 327
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328The list of functions that will need to recompiled is:
329creat, fgetpos, fopen,
330freopen, fsetpos, fstat,
331fstatvfs, fstatvfsdev, ftruncate,
332ftw, lockf, lseek,
333lstat, mmap, nftw,
334open, prealloc, stat,
335statvfs, statvfsdev, tmpfile,
336truncate, getrlimit, setrlimit
f2a260d6 337
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338Another drawback is only valid for Perl versions before 5.6.0. This
339drawback is that the seek and tell functions (both the builtin version
340and POSIX module version) will not perform correctly.
341
342It is strongly recommended that you use this flag when you run
343Configure. If you do not do this, but later answer the question about
344large files when Configure asks you, you may get a configuration that
345cannot be compiled, or that does not function as expected.
346
a83b6f46 347=head2 Threaded Perl on HP-UX
f2a260d6 348
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349It is possible to compile a version of threaded Perl on any version of
350HP-UX before 10.30, but it is strongly suggested that you be running on
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351HP-UX 11.00 at least.
352
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353To compile Perl with threads, add -Dusethreads to the arguments of
354Configure. Verify that the -D_POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L compiler flag is
355automatically added to the list of flags. Also make sure that -lpthread
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356is listed before -lc in the list of libraries to link Perl with. The
357hints provided for HP-UX during Configure will try very hard to get
358this right for you.
f2a260d6 359
210b36aa 360HP-UX versions before 10.30 require a separate installation of a POSIX
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361threads library package. Two examples are the HP DCE package, available
362on "HP-UX Hardware Extensions 3.0, Install and Core OS, Release 10.20,
363April 1999 (B3920-13941)" or the Freely available PTH package, available
364though worldwide HP-UX mirrors of precompiled packages
37a78d01 365(e.g. http://hpux.tn.tudelft.nl/hppd/hpux/)
c7d9b096 366
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367If you are going to use the HP DCE package, the library used for threading
368is /usr/lib/libcma.sl, but there have been multiple updates of that
369library over time. Perl will build with the first version, but it
370will not pass the test suite. Older Oracle versions might be a compelling
8e4bcd96 371reason not to update that library, otherwise please find a newer version
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372in one of the following patches: PHSS_19739, PHSS_20608, or PHSS_23672
373
374reformatted output:
375
376 d3:/usr/lib 106 > what libcma-*.1
377 libcma-00000.1:
378 HP DCE/9000 1.5 Module: libcma.sl (Export)
379 Date: Apr 29 1996 22:11:24
380 libcma-19739.1:
381 HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_19739-40 Module: libcma.sl (Export)
382 Date: Sep 4 1999 01:59:07
383 libcma-20608.1:
384 HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_20608 Module: libcma.1 (Export)
385 Date: Dec 8 1999 18:41:23
386 libcma-23672.1:
387 HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_23672 Module: libcma.1 (Export)
388 Date: Apr 9 2001 10:01:06
389 d3:/usr/lib 107 >
390
391
a83b6f46 392=head2 64-bit Perl on HP-UX
f2a260d6 393
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394Beginning with HP-UX 11.00, programs compiled under HP-UX can take
395advantage of the LP64 programming environment (LP64 means Longs and
396Pointers are 64 bits wide).
f2a260d6 397
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398Work is being performed on Perl to make it 64-bit compliant on all
399versions of Unix. Once this is complete, scalar variables will be able
400to hold numbers larger than 2^32 with complete precision.
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401
402As of the date of this document, Perl is not 64-bit compliant on HP-UX.
403
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404Should a user wish to experiment with compiling Perl in the LP64
405environment, use the -Duse64bitall flag to Configure. This will force
406Perl to be compiled in a pure LP64 environment (via the +DD64 flag).
f74a9bd3 407
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408You can also use the -Duse64bitint flag to Configure. Although there
409are some minor differences between compiling Perl with this flag versus
410the -Duse64bitall flag, they should not be noticeable from a Perl user's
411perspective.
f74a9bd3 412
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413In both cases, it is strongly recommended that you use these flags when
414you run Configure. If you do not use do this, but later answer the
415questions about 64-bit numbers when Configure asks you, you may get a
416configuration that cannot be compiled, or that does not function as
417expected.
f74a9bd3 418
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419(Note that these Configure flags will only work with HP's ANSI C
420compiler. If you want to compile Perl using gcc, you will have to get a
421version of the compiler that support 64-bit operations.)
f2a260d6 422
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423=head2 Oracle on HP-UX
424
425Using perl to connect to Oracle databases through DBI and DBD::Oracle
426has caused a lot of people many headaches. Read README.hpux in the
427DBD::Oracle for much more information. The reason to mention it here
428is that Oracle requires a perl built with libcl and libpthread, the
429latter even when perl is build without threads. Building perl using
430all defaults, but still enabling to build DBD::Oracle later on can be
431achieved using
432
433 Configure -A prepend:libswanted='cl pthread ' ...
434
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435Do not forget the space before the trailing quote.
436
437Also note that this does not (yet) work with all configurations,
438it is known to fail with 64bit versions of GCC.
5df8692c 439
a83b6f46 440=head2 GDBM and Threads on HP-UX
d66be8f9 441
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442If you attempt to compile Perl with threads on an 11.X system and also
443link in the GDBM library, then Perl will immediately core dump when it
444starts up. The only workaround at this point is to relink the GDBM
445library under 11.X, then relink it into Perl.
d66be8f9 446
a83b6f46 447=head2 NFS filesystems and utime(2) on HP-UX
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448
449If you are compiling Perl on a remotely-mounted NFS filesystem, the test
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450io/fs.t may fail on test #18. This appears to be a bug in HP-UX and no
451fix is currently available.
d66be8f9 452
a83b6f46 453=head2 perl -P and // and HP-UX
183968aa 454
efdf3af0 455In HP-UX Perl is compiled with flags that will cause problems if the
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456-P flag of Perl (preprocess Perl code with the C preprocessor before
457perl sees it) is used. The problem is that C<//>, being a C++-style
458until-end-of-line comment, will disappear along with the remainder
459of the line. This means that common Perl constructs like
460
efdf3af0 461 s/foo//;
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462
463will turn into illegal code
464
efdf3af0 465 s/foo
183968aa 466
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467The workaround is to use some other quoting separator than C<"/">,
468like for example C<"!">:
183968aa 469
efdf3af0 470 s!foo!!;
183968aa 471
a83b6f46 472=head2 HP-UX Kernel Parameters (maxdsiz) for Compiling Perl
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473
474By default, HP-UX comes configured with a maximum data segment size of
47564MB. This is too small to correctly compile Perl with the maximum
476optimization levels. You can increase the size of the maxdsiz kernel
477parameter through the use of SAM.
478
479When using the GUI version of SAM, click on the Kernel Configuration
480icon, then the Configurable Parameters icon. Scroll down and select
481the maxdsiz line. From the Actions menu, select the Modify Configurable
482Parameter item. Insert the new formula into the Formula/Value box.
483Then follow the instructions to rebuild your kernel and reboot your
484system.
485
486In general, a value of 256MB (or "256*1024*1024") is sufficient for
487Perl to compile at maximum optimization.
488
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489=head1 nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent
490
491You may get a bus error core dump from the op/pwent or op/grent
492tests. If compiled with -g you will see a stack trace much like
493the following:
494
495 #0 0xc004216c in () from /usr/lib/libc.2
496 #1 0xc00d7550 in __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2
497 #2 0xc00d7768 in __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2
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498 #3 0xc00d78a8 in nss_delete () from /usr/lib/libc.2
499 #4 0xc01126d8 in endpwent () from /usr/lib/libc.2
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500 #5 0xd1950 in Perl_pp_epwent () from ./perl
501 #6 0x94d3c in Perl_runops_standard () from ./perl
502 #7 0x23728 in S_run_body () from ./perl
503 #8 0x23428 in perl_run () from ./perl
504 #9 0x2005c in main () from ./perl
505
506The key here is the C<nss_delete> call. One workaround for this
507bug seems to be to create add to the file F</etc/nsswitch.conf>
508(at least) the following lines
509
48529397 510 group: files
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511 passwd: files
512
513Whether you are using NIS does not matter. Amazingly enough,
3a1825b5 514the same bug also affects Solaris.
1081c3b9 515
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516=head1 AUTHOR
517
518Jeff Okamoto <okamoto@corp.hp.com>
fa01be49 519H.Merijn Brand <h.m.brand@hccnet.nl>
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520
521With much assistance regarding shared libraries from Marc Sabatella.
522
523=head1 DATE
524
8df8c42b 525Version 0.6.7: 2002-09-05
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526
527=cut