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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
de42a5a9 53=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous overloaded argument to %s resolved as %s
80
81(W ambiguous) You called C<keys>, C<values> or C<each> on an object that had
82overloading of C<%{}> or C<@{}> or both. In such a case, the object is
83dereferenced according to its overloading, not its underlying reference type.
84The warning is issued when C<%{}> overloading exists on a blessed arrayref,
85when C<@{}> overloading exists on a blessed hashref, or when both overloadings
86are defined (in which case C<%{}> is used). You can force the interpretation
c69ca1d4 87of the object by explicitly dereferencing it as an array or hash instead of
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88passing the object itself to C<keys>, C<values> or C<each>.
89
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90=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
91
92(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
93all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
94first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
95C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
96
6df41af2 97=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 98
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99(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
100you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
101a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 102
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103=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
104
105(W ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
106bitwise and, and multpication), and you said something like C<*foo *
107foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We assumed you
108meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more clear -- in
109the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you really meant
110to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
111
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112=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
113
114(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
115asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
116named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
117the varable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
118function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
119and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
120
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121=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s%s} resolved to %c%s%s
122
123(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}>, which might be
124looking for element number 2 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case
125please write C<$foo[2]>, or you might have meant to pass an anonymous
126arrayref to the function named foo, then do a scalar deref on the
127value it returns. If you meant that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
128
bdac9d71 129=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
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130
131(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
132string C<"-foo"> (outside of C<use strict 'subs'>), or a call to the
133function C<foo>, negated. If you meant the string, just write
134C<"-foo">, and please use strict. If you meant the function call,
135write C<-foo()>.
136
6df41af2 137=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 138
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139(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
140redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
141redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 142
6df41af2 143=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 144
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145(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
146redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
147into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
148though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
149which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 150
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151 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
152 while (<STDIN>) {
153 print;
154 print OUT;
155 }
156 close OUT;
c9f97d15 157
6df41af2 158=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 159
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160(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
161transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 162one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 163a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
164hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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165you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
166alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 167
6df41af2 168=item Args must match #! line
a0d0e21e 169
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170(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
171with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
172impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
173for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 174
6df41af2 175=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 176
6df41af2 177(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 178
b0fdf69e 179=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 180
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181(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
182subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
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183
184 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 185 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 186 &do_something
a0d0e21e 187
8ea97a1e 188=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 189
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190(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
191such as:
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192
193 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 194 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 195
8ea97a1e 196or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 197
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198 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
199 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 200
6df41af2 201=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 202
6df41af2 203(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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204name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
205error.
a0d0e21e 206
f86702cc 207=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 208
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209(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
210that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
211will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 212
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213=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
214
215(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you
216forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
217data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
218the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
219If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
220the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
221
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222=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
223
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224(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
225spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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226
227=item assertion botched: %s
228
229(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
230
231=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
232
233(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
234
235=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
236
237(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
238must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
239know which context to supply to the right side.
240
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241=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
242
4447dfc1 243(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily the main
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244thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
245Usually it's a good idea to first collect the return values of the
246created threads by joining them, and only then exit from the main
247thread. See L<threads>.
248
2393f1b9 249=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 250
49293501 251(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 252the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 253
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254=item Attempt to bless into a reference
255
256(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
257the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
258supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
259
260 bless $self, $proto;
261
262when you intended
263
264 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
265
266If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
267of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
268example by:
269
270 bless $self, "$proto";
271
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272=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
273
274(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
275which is not in its key set.
276
277=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
278
279(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
280declared readonly from a restricted hash.
281
de42a5a9 282=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 283
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284(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
285that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
286outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 287
54310121 288=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 289
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290(P internal) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of
291strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
292strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
293of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 294
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295=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
296
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297(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
298free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
299SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
300free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
301try to free it.
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302
303=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
304
e476b1b5 305(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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306
307=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
308
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309(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
310see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
311earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
312This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
313that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
314mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
315corrupted.
a0d0e21e 316
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317=item Attempt to join self
318
319(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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320impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
321to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 322
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323=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
324
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325(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
326function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
327means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
328invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
329literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
330avoid this warning.
84902520 331
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332=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
333
334(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
335compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
336unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
337L<perlvar/%INC>.
338
1b20cd17
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339=item Attempt to set length of freed array
340
341(W) You tried to set the length of an array which has been freed. You
342can do this by storing a reference to the scalar representing the last index
343of an array and later assigning through that reference. For example
344
345 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
346 $$r = 503
347
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348=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
349
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350(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
351used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
352dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 353
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354=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
355
356(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragam to modify the "locked"
357attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is obsolete, has had no
358effect since 5005 threads were removed, and will be removed in the next major
359release of Perl 5.
360
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361=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
362
363(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragam to modify the "unique"
b7a2910f 364attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference. The :unique attribute has
259976bd 365had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and will be removed in the next major
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366release of Perl 5.
367
de42a5a9 368=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 369
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370(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
371or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 372S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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373S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
374
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375=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
376
496a33f5 377(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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378substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
379most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
380
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381=item Bad filehandle: %s
382
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383(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
384symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
385open(), or did it in another package.
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386
387=item Bad free() ignored
388
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389(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
390been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 391setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 392
9ea8bc6d 393This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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394dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
395which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 396
aa689395
PP
397=item Bad hash
398
399(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
400
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401=item Badly placed ()'s
402
403(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
404of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
405Perl yourself.
406
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407=item Bad name after %s::
408
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409(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
410didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
411of quotes, so
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412
413 $var = 'myvar';
414 $sym = mypack::$var;
415
416is not the same as
417
418 $var = 'myvar';
419 $sym = "mypack::$var";
420
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421=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
422
423(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
424plugin API.
425
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426=item Bad realloc() ignored
427
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428(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
429never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
430by setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 431
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432=item Bad symbol for array
433
434(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
435wasn't a symbol table entry.
436
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437=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
438
439(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
440that wasn't a symbol table entry.
441
442
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443=item Bad symbol for filehandle
444
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445(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
446that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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447
448=item Bad symbol for hash
449
450(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
451wasn't a symbol table entry.
452
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453=item Bareword found in conditional
454
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455(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
456conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
457of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
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458
459 open FOO || die;
460
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461It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
462a bareword:
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463
464 use constant TYPO => 1;
465 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
466
467The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
468
6df41af2
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469=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
470
471(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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472subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
473symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
GS
474
475=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
476
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477(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
478compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
479you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 480
a0d0e21e
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481=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
482
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483(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
484subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
485exited.
a0d0e21e 486
68dc0745
PP
487=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
488
489(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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490implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
491occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
492be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
493depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 494
6df41af2
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495=item \1 better written as $1
496
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497(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
498The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
499substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
500because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
501there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 502
252aa082
JH
503=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
504
e476b1b5 505(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
506(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
507L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 508
69282e91 509=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 510
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511(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
512check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 513
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JH
514=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
515
516(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
517Check you control flow and number of arguments.
518
c5a0f51a
JH
519=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
520
e476b1b5 521(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 522
4633a7c4
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523=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
524
be771a83 525(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
b45f050a 526copyable.
4633a7c4 527
f675dbe5
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528=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
529
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530(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
531iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
532which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 533
a0d0e21e
LW
534=item Callback called exit
535
4929bf7b 536(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
537exited by calling exit.
538
6df41af2 539=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 540
be771a83
GS
541(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
542parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
543that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
544early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
545subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
546checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
547function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
548the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 549
49704364 550=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
551
552(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
553compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
554attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
555See L<perlfunc/pack>.
556
49704364 557=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
558
559(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
560format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
561
5c1f4d79
NC
562=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
563
564(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference in it,
565then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax. The access
566triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is no legal conversion
567from that type of reference to a typeglob.
568
ba2fdce6
NC
569=item Cannot copy to %s in %s
570
571(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
572be directly assigned not.
573
b5d97229
RGS
574=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
575
576(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
577either with open() or binmode().
578
96ebfdd7
RK
579=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
580
581(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
582integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
583to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
584
a0d0e21e
LW
585=item Can't bless non-reference value
586
587(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
588encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
589
dc57907a
RGS
590=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
591
0d863452
RH
592(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
593a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
594
595=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 596
0d863452
RH
597(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
598
a0d0e21e
LW
599=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
600
601(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
602functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
603in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
604
6df41af2
GS
605=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
606
607(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
608object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
609like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
610
611 $BADREF = undef;
612 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
613 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
614
a0d0e21e
LW
615=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
616
54310121 617(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
618ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
619didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
620object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
621
622=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
623
624(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
625object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
626defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
627Something like this will reproduce the error:
628
629 $BADREF = 42;
630 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
631 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
632
a0d0e21e
LW
633=item Can't chdir to %s
634
635(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
636that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
637
0545a864 638=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 639
be771a83
GS
640(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
641nosuid.
104d25b7 642
6df41af2
GS
643=item Can't coerce array into hash
644
645(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
646information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
647only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
648
a0d0e21e
LW
649=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
650
651(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 652(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
653say things like:
654
655 *foo += 1;
656
657You CAN say
658
659 $foo = *foo;
660 $foo += 1;
661
662but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
663
664=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
665
666(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 667(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e
LW
668
669=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
670
671(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 672(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e 673
0d863452 674=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 675
0d863452
RH
676(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
677or C<default> block.
678
a0d0e21e
LW
679=item Can't create pipe mailbox
680
be771a83
GS
681(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
682quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 683
eb64745e 684=item Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
a0d0e21e 685
2f7e735d 686(F) Currently, only scalar variables can be declared with a specific
30c282f6 687class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration. The semantics may be
2f7e735d 688extended for other types of variables in future.
eb64745e
GS
689
690=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
691
30c282f6
NC
692(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
693"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 694
6df41af2
GS
695=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
696
be771a83
GS
697(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
698a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 699
a0d0e21e
LW
700=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
701
be771a83
GS
702(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
703reason.
a0d0e21e 704
54310121 705=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 706
be771a83
GS
707(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
708reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
709C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 710
10f9c03d 711=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 712
e476b1b5 713(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
714characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
715inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 716
7253e4e3 717=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 718
b45f050a 719(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
7253e4e3 720regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the
b45f050a 721regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 722
a0d0e21e
LW
723=item Can't do waitpid with flags
724
be771a83
GS
725(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
726waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 727
a0d0e21e
LW
728=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
729
be771a83
GS
730(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
731point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
732line.
a0d0e21e 733
1109a392
MHM
734=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
735
736(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
737or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
738little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
739See L<perlfunc/pack>.
740
a0d0e21e
LW
741=item Can't exec "%s": %s
742
d1be9408 743(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
744named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
745permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
746C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
747architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
748can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
749#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
750
751=item Can't exec %s
752
be771a83
GS
753(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
754that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
755need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
756
757=item Can't execute %s
758
be771a83
GS
759(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
760found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 761
6df41af2 762=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 763
be771a83
GS
764(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
765is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 766
56ca2fc0
JH
767=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
768
769(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
e1b711da
KW
770could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
771See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
772for a complete list of available properties.
56ca2fc0 773
6df41af2
GS
774=item Can't find label %s
775
be771a83
GS
776(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
777possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
778
779=item Can't find %s on PATH
780
be771a83
GS
781(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
782found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 783
6df41af2 784=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 785
be771a83
GS
786(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
787found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
788script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
789
790=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
791
be771a83
GS
792(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
793that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
794nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 795
fb73857a
PP
796 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
797
be771a83
GS
798If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included
799unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good programmer's
800editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e 801
660a4616
ST
802=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
803
804(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode property (for
e1b711da
KW
805example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase letters). If you did mean to use a
806Unicode property, see
807L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
808for a complete list of available properties.
660a4616
ST
809If you didn't mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either
810by C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, until
811possible C<\E>).
812
b3647a36 813=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 814
be771a83
GS
815(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
816pipeline.
a0d0e21e 817
b3647a36
SR
818=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
819
c973c02e 820(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
821after five seconds.
822
748a9306
LW
823=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
824
be771a83
GS
825(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
826between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
827Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
828the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
829account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
830the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
831the access checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
832the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
833if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
834because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
835appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up
836and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking
837routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
838shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
839only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 840
a0d0e21e
LW
841=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
842
be771a83
GS
843(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
844pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
845
846=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
847
748a9306
LW
848(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
849mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 850
6df41af2 851=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 852
be771a83
GS
853(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
854loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
855
856=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
857
be771a83
GS
858(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
859a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
860you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
861See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 862
9850bf21 863=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 864
9850bf21
RH
865(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
866comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
867as the reduce() function in List::Util).
868
c74ace89 869=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 870
be771a83 871(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 872"string" or block.
b150fb22 873
6df41af2
GS
874=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
875
be771a83
GS
876(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
877subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
878cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
879routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 880
0b5b802d
GS
881=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
882
be771a83
GS
883(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
884signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
885signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
886processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
887situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
888may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 889
e2c0f81f
DG
890=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
891
892(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
893attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
894process identifier.
895
6df41af2 896=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 897
6df41af2 898(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
899except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
900block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
901block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
902usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
903inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
904L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 905
2c7d6b9c
RGS
906=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
907
908(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
909package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
910
b8170e59
JB
911=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
912
913(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension. This
914may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one that is
915incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known to happen
916between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your dynamic
16d98ec5 917extension was built against an older version of the library that is
b8170e59
JB
918installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old dynamic
919extensions.
920
748a9306
LW
921=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
922
2ba9eb46 923(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
30c282f6 924lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you want to
748a9306
LW
925localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
926package name.
927
6df41af2 928=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 929
6df41af2
GS
930(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
931handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 932pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 933that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 934
ea071790 935=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a
GS
936
937(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
938found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
939unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
940need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
941the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
942to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
943L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 944
6df41af2
GS
945=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
946
be771a83
GS
947(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
948autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
949are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
950the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 951
b8170e59
JB
952=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
953
954(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
955for example, C<foo.so> or C<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
956unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
957
a0d0e21e
LW
958=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
959
960(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
961functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 962method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
963
964=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
965
be771a83
GS
966(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
967doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 968
2f7da168
RK
969=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
970
971(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
972e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
973
3e3baf6d
TB
974=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
975
be771a83
GS
976(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
977VMS.
3e3baf6d 978
a0d0e21e
LW
979=item Can't modify %s in %s
980
be771a83
GS
981(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
982to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 983
54310121 984=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
985
986(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
987a NULL.
988
6df41af2
GS
989=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
990
991(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
992such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
993
5f05dabc 994=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 995
5f05dabc 996(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
997buffer.
998
6df41af2
GS
999=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
1000
1001(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
1002there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
1003count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
1004grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1005though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
1006once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 1007
a0d0e21e
LW
1008=item Can't open %s: %s
1009
c47ff5f1 1010(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
1011filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
1012switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
1013is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
1014the command line.
a0d0e21e 1015
9a869a14
RGS
1016=item Can't open a reference
1017
1018(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
1019using the 3-arg open() syntax :
1020
1021 open FH, '>', $ref;
1022
1023but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1024open is not supported.
1025
a0d0e21e
LW
1026=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1027
be771a83
GS
1028(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1029You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1030as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1031">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1032
748a9306
LW
1033=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1034
be771a83
GS
1035(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1036redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1037the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1038
1039=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1040
be771a83
GS
1041(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1042redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1043command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1044
1045=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1046
be771a83
GS
1047(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1048redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1049the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1050
1051=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1052
be771a83
GS
1053(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1054redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1055for stdout.
748a9306 1056
2b8ca739 1057=item Can't open perl script%s
a0d0e21e
LW
1058
1059(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1060
fa3aa65a
JC
1061If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1062shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1063you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1064
6df41af2
GS
1065=item Can't read CRTL environ
1066
1067(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1068from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1069missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1070or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1071searched.
6df41af2 1072
6df41af2
GS
1073=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1074
1075(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1076there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1077count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1078or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1079though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1080loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1081
64977eb6 1082=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1083
be771a83
GS
1084(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1085file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1086the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1087
a0d0e21e
LW
1088=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1089
e476b1b5 1090(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1091probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1092
748a9306
LW
1093=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1094
be771a83
GS
1095(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1096to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1097
fe13d51d 1098=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1099
be771a83
GS
1100(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
1101to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
1102method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1103
cd06dffe
GS
1104=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1105
be771a83
GS
1106(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1107temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1108is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1109
96ebfdd7
RK
1110=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1111
1112(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1113there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1114
78f9721b
SM
1115=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1116
1117(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
1118but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
1119to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
1120the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
1121list context.
1122
a0d0e21e
LW
1123=item Can't stat script "%s"
1124
be771a83
GS
1125(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1126open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1127
a0d0e21e
LW
1128=item Can't take log of %g
1129
fb73857a
PP
1130(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1131negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1132standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1133negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1134
1135=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1136
1137(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1138negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1139with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1140
1141=item Can't undef active subroutine
1142
1143(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1144however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1145redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1146
1147=item Can't unshift
1148
1149(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
1150as the main Perl stack.
1151
c81225bc 1152=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1153
be771a83
GS
1154(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1155into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1156specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1157indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1158
1db89ea5
BS
1159=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1160
e27ad1f2 1161(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1162table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1163for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1164
96ebfdd7
RK
1165=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1166
1167(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1168be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1169
6df41af2
GS
1170=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1171
be771a83
GS
1172(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1173references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1174
90b75b61 1175=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1176
1177(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1178Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1179provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1180
1109a392
MHM
1181=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1182
1183(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1184byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1185allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1186
6df41af2
GS
1187=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1188
be771a83
GS
1189(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1190foreach.
6df41af2 1191
aab6a793 1192=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1193
be771a83
GS
1194(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1195is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1196(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1197have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1198weren't.
1199
6d3b25aa
RGS
1200=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1201
1202(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1203that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1204For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1205is inside a big-endian group.
1206
c07a80fd
PP
1207=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1208
1209(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1210You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1211and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1212Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1213lexical variable.
1214
a0d0e21e
LW
1215=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1216
1217(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1218reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1219test the type of the reference, if need be.
1220
748a9306 1221=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1222
be771a83
GS
1223(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1224references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1225
748a9306
LW
1226=item Can't use subscript on %s
1227
1228(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1229subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1230didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1231
6df41af2
GS
1232=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1233
75b44862
GS
1234(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1235creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1236backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1237expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1238value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1239instead.
6df41af2 1240
0d863452 1241=item Can't use "when" outside a topicalizer
dc57907a 1242
0d863452
RH
1243(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1244loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1245from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1246or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1247
810b8aa5
GS
1248=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1249
1250(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1251references can be weakened.
1252
5f05dabc 1253=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1254
be771a83
GS
1255(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1256with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1257Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1258
4a68bf9d 1259=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529
KW
1260
1261(F) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
1262
f337b084 1263=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1264
1265(W pack) You said
1266
1267 pack("C", $x)
1268
1269where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1270only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1271and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1272
1273 pack("C", $x & 255)
1274
1275If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1276instead.
1277
f337b084
TH
1278=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1279
1280(W pack) You said
1281
1282 pack("U0W", $x)
1283
1284where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode expects
1285all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved as if you
1286meant:
1287
1288 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1289
1290=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1291
1292(W pack) You said
1293
1294 pack("c", $x)
1295
1296where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1297is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1298and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1299
1300 pack("c", $x & 255);
1301
1302If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1303instead.
1304
f337b084
TH
1305=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1306
1307(W unpack) You tried something like
1308
1309 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1310
1a147d38 1311where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
f337b084
TH
1312below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the value
1313modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1314
1315 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1316
1317=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1318
1319(W pack) You tried something like
1320
1321 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1322
1a147d38
YO
1323where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1324value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1325uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1326
1327 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1328
1329=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1330
1331(W unpack) You tried something like
1332
1333 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1334
1a147d38
YO
1335where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1336value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1337uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1338
1339 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1340
96ebfdd7
RK
1341=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1342
1343(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1344
abc7ecad
SP
1345=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1346
1347(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1348a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1349
541ed3a9
FC
1350=item Closure prototype called
1351
1352(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1353handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1354This subroutine cannot be called.
1355
49704364
LW
1356=item Code missing after '/'
1357
1358(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be another
1359template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1360
0876b9a0
KW
1361=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1362
9ae3ac1a
KW
1363=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, no properties match it; all inverse properties do
1364
0876b9a0
KW
1365(W utf8) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum of U+10FFFF.
1366
1367Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code
1368points, up to the limit of what is storable in an unsigned integer on
1369your system, but these may not be accepted by other languages/systems.
1370At one time, it was legal in some standards to have code points up to
13710x7FFF_FFFF, but not higher. Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require
1372larger than a 32 bit word.
1373
9ae3ac1a
KW
1374None of the Unicode or Perl-defined properties will match a non-Unicode
1375code point. For example,
1376
1377 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\p{Any}/
1378
1379will not match, because the code point is not in Unicode. But
1380
1381 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\P{Any}/
1382
1383will match.
1384
6df41af2
GS
1385=item %s: Command not found
1386
be771a83
GS
1387(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1388Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1389
7a2e2cd6
PP
1390=item Compilation failed in require
1391
1392(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1393Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1394encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1395
c3464db5
DD
1396=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1397
be771a83
GS
1398(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1399situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1400to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1401arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1402recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1403under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1404in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1405that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1406on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1407
38875929
DM
1408=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1409
1410(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1411cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_broadcast()
1412function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1413cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1414has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1415first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1416after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1417lock.
1418
38875929
DM
1419=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1420
1421(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1422cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_signal()
1423function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1424cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1425has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1426first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1427after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1428lock.
1429
69282e91 1430=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1431
be771a83
GS
1432(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1433to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1434L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1435
41ab332f 1436=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1437
be771a83
GS
1438(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1439an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1440specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1441corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1442L<overload>.
6df41af2 1443
fc8cd66c
YO
1444=item Constant(%s)%s: %s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1445
1a147d38
YO
1446(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to find
1447the character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1448forgot to load the corresponding C<charnames> pragma?
fc8cd66c
YO
1449See L<charnames>.
1450
1451
779c5bc9
GS
1452=item Constant is not %s reference
1453
1454(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1455is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1456The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1457usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1458See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1459
4cee8e80
CS
1460=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1461
bb028877 1462(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
be771a83
GS
1463eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1464commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1465
9607fc9c
PP
1466=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1467
be771a83
GS
1468(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1469for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1470workarounds.
9607fc9c 1471
e7ea3e70
IZ
1472=item Copy method did not return a reference
1473
64977eb6 1474(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1475L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1476
6798c92b
GS
1477=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1478
1479(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1480
a0d0e21e
LW
1481=item corrupted regexp pointers
1482
1483(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1484expression compiler gave it.
1485
1486=item corrupted regexp program
1487
be771a83
GS
1488(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1489valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1490
de42a5a9 1491=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1492
1493(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1494
49704364
LW
1495=item Count after length/code in unpack
1496
1497(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1498you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1499L<perlfunc/pack>.
1500
1408fb84 1501=item "\c%c" more clearly written simply as "%s"
f9d13529
KW
1502
1503(D deprecated) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
1504non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1408fb84
KW
1505written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
1506characters. This message may not remain as Deprecated beyond 5.13.
f9d13529 1507
a0d0e21e
LW
1508=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1509
be771a83
GS
1510(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1511100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1512infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1513which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1514
aad1d01f
NC
1515This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1516setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1517
f10b0346 1518=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1519
be771a83
GS
1520(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1521checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1522array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1523
f10b0346 1524=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1525
be771a83
GS
1526(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it
1527checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash
64977eb6 1528is empty, just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1529
62658f4d
PM
1530=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1531
1532(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1533there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1534
fc36a67e
PP
1535=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1536
be771a83
GS
1537(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1538long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1539that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1540
4a68bf9d 1541=item Deprecated character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s<-- HERE %s
cb233ae3
KW
1542
1543(D deprecated) Just about anything is legal for the C<...> in C<\N{...}>.
1544But starting in 5.12, non-reasonable ones that don't look like names are
1545deprecated. A reasonable name begins with an alphabetic character and
1546continues with any combination of alphanumerics, dashes, spaces, parentheses or
1547colons.
1548
6d3b25aa
RGS
1549=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1550
1551(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>.
1552There has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
1553not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
1554conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
1555static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
1556relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
1557declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1558
6d3b25aa
RGS
1559 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1560
1561becomes
1562
1563 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1564
36fb85f3
RGS
1565Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to
1566have lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
1567
1568 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1569
500ab966
RGS
1570=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1571
1572(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
1573just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather than
1574to create a dangling reference.
1575
3cdd684c
TP
1576=item Did not produce a valid header
1577
1578See Server error.
1579
6df41af2
GS
1580=item %s did not return a true value
1581
1582(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1583it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1584traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1585do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1586
cc507455 1587=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1588
413ff9f6
FC
1589(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1590some such.
4633a7c4 1591
cc507455 1592=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1593
be771a83
GS
1594(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1595variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1596seems superfluous.
33633739 1597
cc507455 1598=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1599
be771a83
GS
1600(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1601@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1602carried away.
748a9306 1603
7e1af8bc 1604=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1605
1606(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1607you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1608
3cdd684c
TP
1609=item Document contains no data
1610
1611See Server error.
1612
62658f4d
PM
1613=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1614
1615(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1616define a C<$VERSION.>
1617
49704364
LW
1618=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1619
1620(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1621See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1622
a0d0e21e
LW
1623=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1624
1625(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1626
1627=item do_study: out of memory
1628
1629(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1630
6df41af2
GS
1631=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1632
56da5a46
RGS
1633(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1634"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1635name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1636because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1637"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1638something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1639subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1640"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1641
ac206dc8
RGS
1642=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1643
1644(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1645qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1646
84d78eb7
YO
1647=item dump is not supported
1648
1649(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1650
a0d0e21e
LW
1651=item Duplicate free() ignored
1652
be771a83
GS
1653(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1654already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1655
1109a392
MHM
1656=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1657
1658(W) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a type
1659in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1660
4633a7c4
LW
1661=item elseif should be elsif
1662
56da5a46
RGS
1663(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1664ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
be771a83 1665"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1666unlikely to be what you want.
1667
ab13f0c7
JH
1668=item Empty %s
1669
af6f566e
HS
1670(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
1671described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
1672a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1673
85ab1d1d 1674=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1675
85ab1d1d 1676(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1677effective uids or gids failed.
1678
c038024b
RGS
1679=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1680
1681(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1682aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
1683program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
1684
748a9306
LW
1685=item Error converting file specification %s
1686
5f05dabc 1687(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1688specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1689single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1690an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1691conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1692
e4d48cc9
GS
1693=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1694
be771a83
GS
1695(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1696expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1697is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1698
fc8f615e 1699=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval'
e4d48cc9 1700
be771a83
GS
1701(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1702C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
1703pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it
1704is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly
1705building the pattern from an interpolated string at run time and using
1706that in an eval(). See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1707
6df41af2
GS
1708=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1709
be771a83
GS
1710(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1711assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1712pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1713
1a147d38
YO
1714=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1715
1716(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
1717any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1718
1719The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1720discovered.
1721
fc36a67e
PP
1722=item Excessively long <> operator
1723
1724(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1725Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1726filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1727variable and glob that.
1728
ed9aa3b7
SG
1729=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1730
1731(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented in MacPerl. See L<perlport>.
1732
fe13d51d 1733=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1734
1735(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1736
1737=item Exiting eval via %s
1738
be771a83
GS
1739(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1740goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1741
1742=item Exiting format via %s
1743
9a2ff54b 1744(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1745goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1746
0a753a76
PP
1747=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1748
be771a83
GS
1749(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1750sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1751loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1752
a0d0e21e
LW
1753=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1754
be771a83
GS
1755(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1756as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1757
1758=item Exiting substitution via %s
1759
be771a83
GS
1760(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1761as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1762
7b8d334a
GS
1763=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1764
be771a83
GS
1765(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1766the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1767usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1768e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1769
6df41af2
GS
1770=item %s: Expression syntax
1771
be771a83
GS
1772(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1773Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1774
1775=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1776
3c10abe3
AG
1777(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1778CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1779queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1780
7253e4e3 1781=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1782
be771a83 1783(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1784character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1785in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1786"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1787problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1788
1b1ee2ef 1789=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1790
be771a83
GS
1791(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1792system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1793details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1794you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1795
1796=item fcntl is not implemented
1797
1798(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1799PDP-11 or something?
1800
22846ab4
AB
1801=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1802
1803(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1804is not possible.
1805
f337b084
TH
1806=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1807
1808(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string start with a length indicator
1809which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1810a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
1811C<u63> as format.
1812
af8c498a 1813=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1814
6c8d78fb
HS
1815(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1816it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1817"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1818write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1819
af8c498a 1820=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1821
6c8d78fb
HS
1822(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1823you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
be771a83
GS
1824with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you
1825intended only to read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>.
6c8d78fb
HS
1826Another possibility is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0
1827(also known as STDIN) for output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1828
1829=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1830
1831(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1832as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1833previously.
1834
1835=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1836
1837(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1838as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1839
1840=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1841
1842(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1843a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1844happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1845name.
a0d0e21e 1846
56e90b21
GS
1847=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1848
be771a83 1849(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1850some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1851filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1852same name?
56e90b21 1853
6df41af2
GS
1854=item Format not terminated
1855
1856(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1857to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1858
a0d0e21e
LW
1859=item Format %s redefined
1860
e476b1b5 1861(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1862
1863 {
271595cc 1864 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1865 eval "format NAME =...";
1866 }
1867
a0d0e21e
LW
1868=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1869
e476b1b5 1870(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1871
1872 if ($foo = 123)
1873
1874when you meant
1875
1876 if ($foo == 123)
1877
1878(or something like that).
1879
6df41af2
GS
1880=item %s found where operator expected
1881
56da5a46
RGS
1882(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
1883If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
1884operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1885operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1886
a0d0e21e
LW
1887=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1888
1889(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1890
1891=item gethostent not implemented
1892
1893(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1894because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1895on the Internet.
1896
69282e91 1897=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1898
be771a83
GS
1899(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1900socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1901
748a9306
LW
1902=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1903
1904(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1905C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1906
6df41af2
GS
1907=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1908
be771a83
GS
1909(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1910forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1911L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1912
1913=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1914
a4edf47d 1915(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 1916that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
1917declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
1918which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 1919
e476b1b5
GS
1920=item glob failed (%s)
1921
be771a83
GS
1922(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1923C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1924C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1925nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1926resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1927broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1928config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1929were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1930empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1931think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1932C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1933
a0d0e21e
LW
1934=item Glob not terminated
1935
1936(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1937a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1938not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1939earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1940
bcd05b94 1941=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 1942
fc003d4b
MS
1943(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with an number that was larger than
1944it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1945date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1946not-a-number value).
1947
bcd05b94 1948=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b
MS
1949
1950(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with an number that was smaller than
1951it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1952date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1953not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 1954
6df41af2 1955=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1956
6df41af2
GS
1957(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1958version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1959
1960=item goto must have label
1961
1962(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1963unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1964
49704364 1965=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 1966
49704364 1967(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is
18529408 1968supposed to follow something: a template character or a ()-group.
49704364 1969 See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 1970
fe13d51d 1971=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
1972
1973(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
1974
a0d0e21e
LW
1975=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1976
be771a83
GS
1977(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
1978to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
1979created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
1980
1981=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1982
be771a83
GS
1983(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
1984spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 1985
6df41af2
GS
1986=item %s has too many errors
1987
1988(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
1989Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
1990
e6897b1a
KW
1991=item Having no space between pattern and following word is deprecated
1992
1993(D syntax)
1994
1995You had a word that isn't a regex modifier immediately following a pattern
1996without an intervening space. For example, the two constructs:
1997
1998 $a =~ m/$foo/sand $bar
1999 $a =~ m/$foo/s and $bar
2000
2001both currently mean the same thing, but it is planned to disallow the first form
2002in Perl 5.16. And,
2003
2004 $a =~ m/$foo/and $bar
2005
2006will be disallowed too.
2007
252aa082
JH
2008=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2009
e476b1b5 2010(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2011(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2012L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2013
8903cb82
PP
2014=item Identifier too long
2015
2016(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2017about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2018names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2019of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2020
c3c41406 2021=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class
fc8cd66c 2022
ff3f963a
KW
2023(W) Named Unicode character escapes (\N{...}) may return a
2024zero length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class
1a147d38 2025its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
2026been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
2027
6df41af2 2028=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2029
6df41af2 2030(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2031
6df41af2 2032=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2033
be771a83
GS
2034(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2035binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2036offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2037
78d0fecf 2038=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2039
d5898338 2040(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2041would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2042when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2043version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2044to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2045
d37a9538
ST
2046=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2047
197afce1
MT
2048(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2049Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, and \.
d37a9538 2050
904d85c5
RGS
2051=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2052
2053(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
2054you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
2055
8e742a20
MHM
2056=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2057
2058(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
2059
a0d0e21e
LW
2060=item Illegal division by zero
2061
be771a83
GS
2062(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2063your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2064meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2065
6df41af2
GS
2066=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2067
be771a83
GS
2068(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2069A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2070number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2071
a0d0e21e
LW
2072=item Illegal modulus zero
2073
be771a83
GS
2074(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2075numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2076
6df41af2 2077=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2078
6df41af2
GS
2079(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2080two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2081
2082=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2083
d1be9408 2084(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2085
399388f4 2086=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2087
d1be9408 2088(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2089Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2090
fe13d51d 2091=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2092
6df41af2 2093(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2094following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2095
6df41af2 2096=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2097
75b44862 2098(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2099internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2100delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2101
6df41af2 2102=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2103
be771a83
GS
2104(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2105name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2106didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2107ignored.
54310121 2108
6df41af2 2109=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2110
be771a83
GS
2111(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2112the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2113system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2114times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2115would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2116
be771a83
GS
2117Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2118also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2119
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2120=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on parent '%s'
2121
2122(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2123C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2124documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2125
979699d9
JH
2126=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2127
2128(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2129Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2130encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2131
1a147d38
YO
2132=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2133
2134(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
2135text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
2136either consume text or fail.
2137
2138The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2139discovered.
2140
6dbe9451
NC
2141=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2142
2143(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the initialization
2144of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write C<state ($a) = 42> as
2145C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar context. Constructions such
2146as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be supported in a future perl release.
2147
a0d0e21e
LW
2148=item Insecure dependency in %s
2149
8b1a09fc 2150(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2151The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2152setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2153tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2154from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2155such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2156L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2157
2158=item Insecure directory in %s
2159
be771a83
GS
2160(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2161setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2162the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2163See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2164
62f468fc 2165=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2166
2167(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2168setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2169C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2170supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2171the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2172
a7ae9550
GS
2173=item Integer overflow in %s number
2174
75b44862 2175(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2176either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2177your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2178On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2179representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
21800b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2181transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2182internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2183operations.
bbce6d69 2184
2fba7546
GA
2185=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2186
0be96356
AL
2187(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2188or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2fba7546
GA
2189integers for your architecture.
2190
46314c13
JP
2191=item Integer overflow in version
2192
2193(F) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the
2194size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
2195because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use a
2196element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by
2197trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
2198100/9.
2199
7253e4e3 2200=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2201
2202(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 2203The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2204discovered.
2205
748a9306
LW
2206=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2207
be771a83
GS
2208(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2209you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2210to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2211L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2212Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2213terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2214
7253e4e3 2215=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2216
7253e4e3
RK
2217(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
2218<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2219discovered.
a0d0e21e 2220
6df41af2
GS
2221=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2222
75b44862 2223(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2224followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2225operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2226L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2227
09bef843
SB
2228=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2229
a4a4c9e2 2230(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2231by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2232
2233=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2234
a4a4c9e2 2235(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2236recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2237
c635e13b
PP
2238=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2239
be771a83
GS
2240(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2241L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2242
9e08bc66
ST
2243=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2244
2245(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2246didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2247from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2248The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
2249The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2250escape was discovered.
2251
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2252=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2253
2254(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")>
2255or C<use mro 'foo'>, where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO).
2256(Currently, the only valid ones are C<dfs> and C<c3>). See L<mro>.
2257
7253e4e3 2258=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2259
2260(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2261greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2262C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
2263up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2264problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2265
d1573ac7 2266=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2267
2268(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2269character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2270
09bef843
SB
2271=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2272
0120eecf 2273(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2274elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2275parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2276See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2277
b4581f09
JH
2278=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2279
2280(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other than a
2281colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
2282If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2283list was terminated too soon.
2284
2c86d456
DG
2285=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2286
2287(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2288A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2289decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2290v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2291The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2292See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2293
49704364 2294=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2295
49704364
LW
2296(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2297See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2298(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2299silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2300
2c86d456
DG
2301=item Invalid version format (%s)
2302
2303(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2304A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2305decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2306v-string. If the v-string has less than three components, it must have a
2307leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is optional. Both
2308decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a trailing "alpha"
2309component separated by an underscore character after a fractional or
2310dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized text indicates which
a6485a24 2311criteria were not met. See the L<version> module for more details on
2c86d456 2312allowed version formats.
46314c13 2313
798ae1b7
DG
2314=item Invalid version object
2315
2316(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid. Perhaps
2317the internals were modified directly in some way or an arbitrary reference
2318was blessed into the "version" class.
2319
a0d0e21e
LW
2320=item ioctl is not implemented
2321
2322(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2323strange for a machine that supports C.
2324
c289d2f7
JH
2325=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2326
2327(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
2328Check you control flow and number of arguments.
2329
fe13d51d 2330=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2331
2332(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
2333you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO Perl must be configured
2334with 'useperlio'.
2335
80cbd5ad
JH
2336=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2337
2338(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
2339neither as a system call or an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
2340
b4581f09
JH
2341=item $* is no longer supported
2342
d1d15184 2343(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older perls, has
4fd19576
B
2344been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In previous versions of perl the use of
2345C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line matching within a string.
2346
2347Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
2348modifiers. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value then all regular
2349expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2350
8ae1fe26
RGS
2351=item $# is no longer supported
2352
d1d15184 2353(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older perls, has
8ae1fe26
RGS
2354been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You should use the
2355printf/sprintf functions instead.
2356
6ad11d81
JH
2357=item `%s' is not a code reference
2358
04a80ee0
RGS
2359(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant
2360needs to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
6ad11d81
JH
2361to a subroutine.
2362
2363=item `%s' is not an overloadable type
2364
04a80ee0
RGS
2365(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2366unaware of.
6ad11d81 2367
a0d0e21e
LW
2368=item junk on end of regexp
2369
2370(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2371
2372=item Label not found for "last %s"
2373
be771a83
GS
2374(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2375of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2376L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2377
2378=item Label not found for "next %s"
2379
2380(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2381that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2382L<perlfunc/last>.
2383
2384=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2385
2386(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2387that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2388L<perlfunc/last>.
2389
85ab1d1d 2390=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2391
85ab1d1d 2392(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2393effective uids or gids failed.
2394
49704364
LW
2395=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2396
d7f8936a 2397(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
49704364
LW
2398length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2399an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2400
f0e67a1d
Z
2401=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2402
2403(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
2404(using L<lex_stuff_pvn_flags|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn_flags> or similar), but
2405tried to insert a character that couldn't be part of the current input.
2406This is an inherent pitfall of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the
2407reasons to avoid it. Where it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only
2408plain ASCII is recommended.
2409
2410=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2411
2412(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2413detectable way.
2414
69282e91 2415=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2416
be771a83
GS
2417(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2418to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2419L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2420
bcd05b94 2421=item localtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2422
fc003d4b
MS
2423(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with an number that was larger
2424than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2425wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2426not-a-number value).
2427
bcd05b94 2428=item localtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b
MS
2429
2430(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with an number that was smaller
2431than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2432wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2433not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 2434
58e23c8d 2435=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2436
2437(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
58e23c8d 2438handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2439
b88df990
NC
2440=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2441
2442(W) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one is too large
2443for the underlying floating point representation to store accurately,
2444hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this warning
2445because it has already switched from integers to floating point when values
2446are too large for integers, and now even floating point is insufficient.
2447You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
2448
2f7da168
RK
2449=item lstat() on filehandle %s
2450
2451(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2452by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2453instead on the filehandle.)
2454
885ef6f5
GG
2455=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2456
963d9ce9 2457(W misc) Making a subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined
d9159685
RS
2458by declaring the subroutine with an lvalue attribute is not
2459possible. To make the subroutine an lvalue subroutine add the
e2bd2e2b 2460lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the declaration before
885ef6f5
GG
2461the definition.
2462
96ebfdd7
RK
2463=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
2464
2465(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
2466values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context. See
2467L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
2468
49704364
LW
2469=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
2470
2471(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2472are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2473
2474=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2475
2476(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2477are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2478
6df41af2
GS
2479=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2480
2481(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2482
2483 prefix1;prefix2
2484
2485or
6df41af2
GS
2486 prefix1 prefix2
2487
be771a83
GS
2488with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2489a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2490appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2491"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2492
2f758a16
ST
2493=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2494
d37a9538
ST
2495(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2496syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2497obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2498when the function is called.
2f758a16 2499
ba210ebe
JH
2500=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2501
2575c402
JW
2502(S utf8) (F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2503encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2504
2575c402
JW
2505One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2506you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
25078-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2508
2509If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2510sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2511set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2512message.
2513
2514See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2515
dea0fc0b
JH
2516=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
2517
183097aa 2518(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
dea0fc0b
JH
2519doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2520
ff3f963a
KW
2521=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N
2522
2523(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2524
f337b084
TH
2525=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2526
2527(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2528rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2529
2530=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2531
2532(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2533rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2534
2535=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2536
2537(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2538rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2539
de42a5a9 2540=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 2541
fe13d51d 2542(F) Perl aborted due to a too high number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2543usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2544too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2545resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
2546safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2547
49704364 2548=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2549
2550(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
7253e4e3
RK
2551regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
2552shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2553See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2554
25f58aea
PN
2555=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2556
2557(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2558interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2559"use" or "my".
2560
49704364 2561=item % may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2562
2563(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2564checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2565See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2566
a0d0e21e
LW
2567=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2568
2569(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2570doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2571
3cdd684c
TP
2572=item Method %s not permitted
2573
2574See Server error.
2575
a0d0e21e
LW
2576=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2577
2578(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2579by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2580ended earlier on the current line.
2581
2582=item Misplaced _ in number
2583
d4ced10d
JH
2584(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2585separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2586
7baa4690
HS
2587=item Missing argument in %s
2588
2589(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2590supplied.
2591
9e81e6a1
RGS
2592=item Missing argument to -%c
2593
2594(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2595immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2596
ff3f963a 2597=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2598
4a2d328f 2599(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
c3c41406
KW
2600double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space (or
2601comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2602This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately follow
2603the C<\N>.
423cee85 2604
f0a2b745
KW
2605=item Missing braces on \o{}
2606
2607(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2608
a0d0e21e
LW
2609=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2610
2611(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2612"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2613
06eaf0bc
GS
2614=item Missing command in piped open
2615
be771a83
GS
2616(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2617C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2618blank.
06eaf0bc 2619
961ce445
RGS
2620=item Missing control char name in \c
2621
2622(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2623character name.
2624
6df41af2
GS
2625=item Missing name in "my sub"
2626
be771a83
GS
2627(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2628they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2629
2630=item Missing $ on loop variable
2631
be771a83
GS
2632(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2633are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2634can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2635
cc507455 2636=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2637
56da5a46
RGS
2638(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2639"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2640
ab13f0c7
JH
2641=item Missing right brace on %s
2642
ff3f963a
KW
2643(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
2644
4a68bf9d 2645=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 2646
0a96133f
KW
2647(F)
2648C<\N> has two meanings.
2649
2650The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed
2651in braces, meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that name.
ff3f963a 2652Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
0a96133f
KW
2653double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns, it doesn't
2654have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
ff3f963a 2655
0a96133f 2656Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only) in
c3c41406
KW
2657patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short for
2658C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
ff3f963a
KW
2659
2660This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately by a
c3c41406 2661left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if
ff3f963a
KW
2662the braces form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes
2663that this means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
0a96133f 26643; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a C<\N{>
ff3f963a
KW
2665and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
2666
2667However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was mistakenly
c3c41406 2668omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and
0a96133f
KW
2669raises this error. If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant
2670the latter, escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 2671
d98d5fff 2672=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2673
be771a83
GS
2674(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2675ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2676were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2677
6df41af2
GS
2678=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2679
56da5a46
RGS
2680(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2681"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2682the previous line just because you saw this message.
2683
a0d0e21e
LW
2684=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2685
2686(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2687constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2688catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2689
2690 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2691 mod(2);
2692
2693Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2694
c5674021
PDF
2695Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2696is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2697
2698 $x = 1;
2699 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2700 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 2701 }
c5674021 2702
7a4340ed 2703=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2704
2705(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2706subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2707backwards.
2708
7a4340ed 2709=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2710
be771a83
GS
2711(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2712couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2713
2714=item Module name must be constant
2715
2716(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2717
be98fb35 2718=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2719
be98fb35
GS
2720(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2721you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2722about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2723
fe13d51d 2724=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7
SG
2725
2726(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
2727can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2728list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2729See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2730
a0d0e21e
LW
2731=item msg%s not implemented
2732
2733(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2734
2735=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2736
75b44862
GS
2737(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2738They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2739
49704364 2740=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2741
49704364
LW
2742(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2743follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2744See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2745
2746=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2747
be771a83
GS
2748(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2749that yet.
6df41af2 2750
30c282f6 2751=item "%s" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 2752
be771a83
GS
2753(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2754sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2755local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2756
4a68bf9d 2757=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...}
ff3f963a 2758
c3c41406
KW
2759(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in a bracketed
2760character class, for the same reason that C<.> in a character class loses its
2761specialness: it matches almost everything, which is probably not what you want.
2762
4a68bf9d 2763=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer
c3c41406
KW
2764
2765(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or sequence
2766was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that bypass the lexer,
b09c05e6 2767such as using single-quotish context, or an extra backslash in double quotish:
c3c41406
KW
2768
2769 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
b09c05e6 2770 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
c3c41406
KW
2771 /$re/;
2772
b09c05e6 2773Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
c3c41406
KW
2774
2775 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
2776 /$re/;
2777
2778The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
2779components:
2780
2781 $re = '\N';
2782 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
2783
2784It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and it
2785doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
2786
2787Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
2788C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
2789
2790 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
2791 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
ff3f963a 2792
8b1a09fc
PP
2793=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2794
e476b1b5 2795(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
be771a83
GS
2796If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2797again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
77ca0c92 2798provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e 2799
64b374f4
FD
2800NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2801%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2802the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2803will not trigger this warning.
2804
4a68bf9d 2805=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
ff3f963a
KW
2806
2807(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
c3c41406
KW
2808number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than 0 - 9
2809or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
ff3f963a 2810
49704364
LW
2811=item Negative '/' count in unpack
2812
2813(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
2814negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2815
a0d0e21e
LW
2816=item Negative length
2817
be771a83
GS
2818(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2819length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2820
ed9aa3b7
SG
2821=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
2822
2823(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
2824greater than or equal to zero.
2825
7253e4e3 2826=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2827
b45f050a 2828(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
7253e4e3 2829things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2830expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2831
7253e4e3 2832Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2833C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2834
6df41af2 2835=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2836
be771a83
GS
2837(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2838scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 2839
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2840=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
2841
2842(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
2843real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
2844See L<mro>.
2845
a0d0e21e
LW
2846=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2847
be771a83
GS
2848(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2849setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2850will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2851securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2852
a0d0e21e
LW
2853=item No comma allowed after %s
2854
2855(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2856allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2857Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2858
0a753a76
PP
2859One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2860constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2861importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2862does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
2863explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
2864L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2865would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2866remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2867constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2868list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2869this error was triggered?
2870
748a9306
LW
2871=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2872
be771a83
GS
2873(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2874redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2875doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2876
a0d0e21e
LW
2877=item No DB::DB routine defined
2878
be771a83 2879(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
ccafdc96
RGS
2880for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2881module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
2882statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2883
2884=item No dbm on this machine
2885
2886(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2887supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 2888
ccafdc96 2889=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 2890
ccafdc96
RGS
2891(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2892for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2893module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
2894of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 2895
96ebfdd7
RK
2896=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
2897
2898(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
2899
c47ff5f1 2900=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2901
be771a83
GS
2902(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2903redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2904find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2905
49704364
LW
2906=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
2907
2908(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
2909matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2910
c47ff5f1 2911=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2912
be771a83
GS
2913(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2914redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2915name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2916
6df41af2
GS
2917=item No #! line
2918
2919(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2920even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
2921
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2922=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
2923
2924(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
2925in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
2926it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
2927or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2928
6df41af2
GS
2929=item "no" not allowed in expression
2930
be771a83
GS
2931(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2932returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2933
c47ff5f1 2934=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2935
be771a83
GS
2936(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2937redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2938doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2939
c47ff5f1 2940=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2941
be771a83
GS
2942(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2943redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2944find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2945
1ec3e8de
GS
2946=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2947
be771a83
GS
2948(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2949declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2950semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2951
a0d0e21e
LW
2952=item No Perl script found in input
2953
2954(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2955with #! and containing the word "perl".
2956
2957=item No setregid available
2958
2959(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2960your system.
2961
2962=item No setreuid available
2963
2964(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2965your system.
2966
6df41af2
GS
2967=item No %s specified for -%c
2968
2969(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
2970you haven't specified one.
e75d1f10
RD
2971=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
2972
2973(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed variable
2974but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type. The indicated
2975package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the L<fields> pragma.
2976
2c692339
RGS
2977=item No such class %s
2978
30c282f6 2979(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration, but
2c692339
RGS
2980this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2981
3c20a832
SP
2982=item No such hook: %s
2983
2984(F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl. Currently, Perl
2985accepts C<__DIE__> and C<__WARN__> as valid signal hooks
2986
6df41af2
GS
2987=item No such pipe open
2988
2989(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
2990close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
2991earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 2992
a0d0e21e
LW
2993=item No such signal: SIG%s
2994
be771a83
GS
2995(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
2996not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
2997names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
2998
2999=item Not a CODE reference
3000
3001(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3002subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3003use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3004also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3005
3006=item Not a format reference
3007
3008(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
3009format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
3010
3011=item Not a GLOB reference
3012
be771a83
GS
3013(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
3014symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
3015something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
3016kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3017
3018=item Not a HASH reference
3019
be771a83
GS
3020(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
3021reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
3022find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3023
6df41af2
GS
3024=item Not an ARRAY reference
3025
be771a83
GS
3026(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
3027a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3028to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 3029
a0d0e21e
LW
3030=item Not a perl script
3031
3032(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
3033even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
3034mention perl.
3035
3036=item Not a SCALAR reference
3037
be771a83
GS
3038(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
3039a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3040to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3041
3042=item Not a subroutine reference
3043
3044(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3045subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3046use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3047also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3048
e7ea3e70 3049=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
3050
3051(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 3052doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 3053
a0d0e21e
LW
3054=item Not enough arguments for %s
3055
3056(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
3057
6df41af2
GS
3058=item Not enough format arguments
3059
be771a83
GS
3060(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
3061supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
3062
3063=item %s: not found
3064
be771a83
GS
3065(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
3066of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
3067yourself.
6df41af2
GS
3068
3069=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 3070
6df41af2
GS
3071(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
3072timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
3073to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
3074F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
3075need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e 3076
f0a2b745
KW
3077=item Non-octal character '%c'. Resolved as "%s"
3078
3079(W digit) In parsing an octal numeric constant, a character was unexpectedly
3080encountered that isn't octal. The resulting value is as indicated.
3081
4ef2275c
GA
3082=item Non-string passed as bitmask
3083
3084(W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().
3085Use the vec() function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for
3086select. See L<perlfunc/select>
3087
a0d0e21e
LW
3088=item Null filename used
3089
be771a83
GS
3090(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
3091machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 3092
6df41af2
GS
3093=item NULL OP IN RUN
3094
be771a83
GS
3095(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
3096pointer.
6df41af2 3097
55497cff
PP
3098=item Null picture in formline
3099
3100(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
3101specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
3102supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
3103
a0d0e21e
LW
3104=item Null realloc
3105
3106(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
3107
3108=item NULL regexp argument
3109
5f05dabc 3110(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
3111
3112=item NULL regexp parameter
3113
3114(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
3115
fc36a67e
PP
3116=item Number too long
3117
be771a83 3118(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 3119about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
3120versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
3121the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
3122"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 3123
f0a2b745
KW
3124=item Number with no digits
3125
3126(F) Perl was looking for a number but found nothing that looked like a number.
3127This happens, for example with C<\o{}>, with no number between the braces.
3128
6df41af2
GS
3129=item Octal number in vector unsupported
3130
be771a83
GS
3131(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
3132The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
3133future version.
6df41af2 3134
252aa082
JH
3135=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
3136
75b44862 3137(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
3138(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
3139L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
3140
3141See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
3142
6ad11d81
JH
3143=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
3144
04a80ee0
RGS
3145(W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of
3146arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.
6ad11d81 3147
b21befc1
MG
3148=item Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
3149
3150(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3151which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
3152
1930e939 3153=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 3154
be771a83
GS
3155(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3156which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 3157
bbce6d69
PP
3158=item Offset outside string
3159
a4a4c9e2 3160(F|W layer) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv/seek operation
42bc49da 3161with an offset pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to
f5a7294f
JH
3162imagine. The sole exceptions to this are that zero padding will
3163take place when going past the end of the string when either
3164C<sysread()>ing a file, or when seeking past the end of a scalar opened
1a7a2554
MB
3165for I/O (in anticipation of future reads and to imitate the behaviour
3166with real files).
bbce6d69 3167
c289d2f7 3168=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
3169
3170(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
3171never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
3172call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
3173
96ebfdd7
RK
3174=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
3175
3176(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
3177that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
3178
a0d0e21e
LW
3179=item oops: oopsAV
3180
e476b1b5 3181(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
3182
3183=item oops: oopsHV
3184
e476b1b5 3185(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 3186
abc718f2
RGS
3187=item Opening dirhandle %s also as a file
3188
a4a4c9e2 3189(W io, deprecated) You used open() to associate a filehandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3190a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a dirhandle.
3191Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3192and is deprecated.
3193
3194=item Opening filehandle %s also as a directory
3195
a4a4c9e2 3196(W io, deprecated) You used opendir() to associate a dirhandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3197a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a filehandle.
3198Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3199and is deprecated.
3200
a0288114 3201=item Operation "%s": no method found, %s
44a8e56a 3202
be771a83
GS
3203(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
3204handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
3205of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
3206C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 3207
9ae3ac1a
KW
3208=item Operation "%s" returns its argument for UTF-16 surrogate U+%X
3209
3210(W) You performed an operation requiring Unicode semantics on a Unicode
3211surrogate. Unicode frowns upon the use of surrogates for anything but
3212storing strings in UTF-16, but semantics are (reluctantly) defined for
3213the surrogates, and they are to do nothing for this operation. Because
3214the use of surrogates can be dangerous, Perl warns.
3215
3216If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive
3217matching in a regular expression was done on the code point.
3218
3219If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by
3220C<no warnings 'utf8';>.
3221
3222=item Operation "%s" returns its argument for non-Unicode code point 0x%X
3223
3224(W) You performed an operation requiring Unicode semantics on a code
3225point that is not in Unicode, so what it should do is not defined. Perl
3226has chosen to have it do nothing, and warn you.
3227
3228If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive
3229matching in a regular expression was done on the code point.
3230
3231If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by
3232C<no warnings 'utf8';>.
3233
748a9306
LW
3234=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
3235
be771a83
GS
3236(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
3237was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
3238use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
3239example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
3240"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 3241
6df41af2
GS
3242=item "our" variable %s redeclared
3243
be771a83
GS
3244(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
3245in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 3246
a80b8354
GS
3247=item Out of memory!
3248
3249(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
3250remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
3251no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 3252
19a52907
JH
3253At least in Unix you may be able to get past this by increasing your
3254process datasize limits: in csh/tcsh use C<limit> and
3255C<limit datasize n> (where C<n> is the number of kilobytes) to check
3256the current limits and change them, and in ksh/bash/zsh use C<ulimit -a>
3257and C<ulimit -d n>, respectively.
3258
6d3b25aa
RGS
3259=item Out of memory during %s extend
3260
3261(X) An attempt was made to extend an array, a list, or a string beyond
3262the largest possible memory allocation.
3263
6df41af2 3264=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 3265
6df41af2
GS
3266(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
3267remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
3268the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
3269possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 3270
1b979e0a 3271=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 3272
be771a83
GS
3273(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
3274insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
3275request.
eff9c6e2
CS
3276
3277The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
3278depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
3279However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
3280emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
b022d2d2
IZ
3281is trappable I<once>, and the error message will include the line and file
3282where the failed request happened.
55497cff 3283
1b979e0a
IZ
3284=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
3285
3286(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
3287is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
3288C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 3289
6df41af2
GS
3290=item Out of memory for yacc stack
3291
be771a83
GS
3292(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
3293parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
3294otherwise.
6df41af2 3295
28be1210
TH
3296=item '.' outside of string in pack
3297
3298(F) The argument to a '.' in your template tried to move the working
3299position to before the start of the packed string being built.
3300
49704364 3301=item '@' outside of string in unpack
6df41af2 3302
49704364 3303(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
6df41af2
GS
3304the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3305
f337b084
TH
3306=item '@' outside of string with malformed UTF-8 in unpack
3307
3308(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
3309the string being unpacked. The string being unpacked was also invalid
3310UTF-8. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3311
7cb0cfe6
BM
3312=item Overloaded dereference did not return a reference
3313
3314(F) An object with an overloaded dereference operator was dereferenced,
3315but the overloaded operation did not return a reference. See
3316L<overload>.
3317
3318=item Overloaded qr did not return a REGEXP
3319
3320(F) An object with a C<qr> overload was used as part of a match, but the
3321overloaded operation didn't return a compiled regexp. See L<overload>.
3322
6df41af2
GS
3323=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
3324
be771a83
GS
3325(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a
3326package-specific handler. That name might have a meaning to Perl itself
3327some day, even though it doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a
3328mixed-case attribute name, instead. See L<attributes>.
6df41af2 3329
fb2e24cd
KW
3330=item \p{} uses Unicode rules, not locale rules
3331
3332(W) You compiled a regular expression that contained a Unicode property
3333match (C<\p> or C<\P>), but the regular expression is also being told to
3334use the run-time locale, not Unicode. It's best to not use these
3335Unicode properties with locale, as only if the locale is a properly
3336implemented ISO 8859-1 (Latin1) locale (which is supposed to be a subset
3337of Unicode) will there not be any anomalies.
3338
96ebfdd7
RK
3339=item pack/unpack repeat count overflow
3340
3341(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
3342signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3343
a0d0e21e
LW
3344=item page overflow
3345
be771a83
GS
3346(W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a
3347page. See L<perlform>.
a0d0e21e 3348
6df41af2
GS
3349=item panic: %s
3350
3351(P) An internal error.
3352
c99a1475
NC
3353=item panic: attempt to call %s in %s
3354
3355(P) One of the file test operators entered a code branch that calls
3356an ACL related-function, but that function is not available on this
3357platform. Earlier checks mean that it should not be possible to
3358enter this branch on this platform.
3359
a0d0e21e
LW
3360=item panic: ck_grep
3361
3362(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
3363
3364=item panic: ck_split
3365
3366(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
3367
3368=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
3369
be771a83
GS
3370(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than
3371there are in the savestack.
a0d0e21e 3372
810b8aa5
GS
3373=item panic: del_backref
3374
3375(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
3376reference.
3377
7619c85e
RG
3378=item panic: Devel::DProf inconsistent subroutine return
3379
3380(P) Devel::DProf called a subroutine that exited using goto(LABEL),
3381last(LABEL) or next(LABEL). Leaving that way a subroutine called from
3382an XSUB will lead very probably to a crash of the interpreter. This is
3383a bug that will hopefully one day get fixed.
3384
a0d0e21e
LW
3385=item panic: die %s
3386
3387(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
3388it wasn't an eval context.
3389
a0d0e21e
LW
3390=item panic: do_subst
3391
be771a83
GS
3392(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational
3393data.
a0d0e21e