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1
2=head1 NAME
3
4perltoc - perl documentation table of contents
5
6=head1 DESCRIPTION
7
8This page provides a brief table of contents for the rest of the Perl
28757baa 9documentation set. It is meant to be scanned quickly or grepped
402d0d99 10through to locate the proper section you're looking for.
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11
12=head1 BASIC DOCUMENTATION
13
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14=head2 perl - Practical Extraction and Report Language
15
d420ca49 16=over 4
a45bd81d 17
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18=item SYNOPSIS
19
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20=over 4
21
22=item Overview
23
24=item Tutorials
25
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26=item Reference Manual
27
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28=item Internals and C Language Interface
29
30=item Miscellaneous
31
32=item Platform-Specific
33
34=back
35
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36=item DESCRIPTION
37
14218588 38=item AVAILABILITY
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39
40=item ENVIRONMENT
41
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42=item AUTHOR
43
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44=item FILES
45
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46=item SEE ALSO
47
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48=item DIAGNOSTICS
49
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50=item BUGS
51
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52=item NOTES
53
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54=back
55
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56=head2 perlintro -- a brief introduction and overview of Perl
57
58=over 4
59
60=item DESCRIPTION
61
62=over 4
63
64=item What is Perl?
65
66=item Running Perl programs
67
68=item Basic syntax overview
69
70=item Perl variable types
71
72Scalars, Arrays, Hashes
73
74=item Variable scoping
75
76=item Conditional and looping constructs
77
78if, while, for, foreach
79
80=item Builtin operators and functions
81
82Arithmetic, Numeric comparison, String comparison, Boolean logic,
83Miscellaneous
84
85=item Files and I/O
86
87=item Regular expressions
88
89Simple matching, Simple substitution, More complex regular expressions,
90Parentheses for capturing, Other regexp features
91
92=item Writing subroutines
93
94=item OO Perl
95
96=item Using Perl modules
97
98=back
99
100=item AUTHOR
101
102=back
103
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104=head2 perlfaq - frequently asked questions about Perl ($Date: 2002/03/11
10521:32:23 $)
68dc0745 106
d420ca49 107=over 4
a45bd81d 108
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109=item DESCRIPTION
110
983dbef6 111=over 4
68dc0745 112
983dbef6 113=item perlfaq: Structural overview of the FAQ.
68dc0745 114
983dbef6 115=item L<perlfaq1>: General Questions About Perl
68dc0745 116
983dbef6 117=item L<perlfaq2>: Obtaining and Learning about Perl
68dc0745 118
983dbef6 119=item L<perlfaq3>: Programming Tools
68dc0745 120
983dbef6 121=item L<perlfaq4>: Data Manipulation
68dc0745 122
983dbef6 123=item L<perlfaq5>: Files and Formats
68dc0745 124
fe9287c4 125=item L<perlfaq6>: Regular Expressions
68dc0745 126
983dbef6 127=item L<perlfaq7>: General Perl Language Issues
68dc0745 128
983dbef6 129=item L<perlfaq8>: System Interaction
68dc0745 130
983dbef6 131=item L<perlfaq9>: Networking
68dc0745 132
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133=back
134
983dbef6 135=item About the perlfaq documents
68dc0745 136
d420ca49 137=over 4
a45bd81d 138
983dbef6 139=item Where to get the perlfaq
68dc0745 140
983dbef6 141=item How to contribute to the perlfaq
68dc0745 142
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143=item What will happen if you mail your Perl programming problems to the
144authors
68dc0745 145
983dbef6 146=back
68dc0745 147
983dbef6 148=item Credits
68dc0745 149
983dbef6 150=item Author and Copyright Information
68dc0745 151
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152=over 4
153
154=item Bundled Distributions
155
156=item Disclaimer
68dc0745 157
4755096e 158=back
68dc0745 159
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160=item Changes
161
1621/November/2000, 23/May/99, 13/April/99, 7/January/99, 22/June/98,
16324/April/97, 23/April/97, 25/March/97, 18/March/97, 17/March/97 Version,
164Initial Release: 11/March/97
165
4755096e 166=back
68dc0745 167
4755096e 168=head2 perlbook - Perl book information
68dc0745 169
d420ca49 170=over 4
68dc0745 171
4755096e 172=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 173
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174=back
175
4755096e 176=head2 perlsyn - Perl syntax
a45bd81d 177
d420ca49 178=over 4
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179
180=item DESCRIPTION
181
d420ca49 182=over 4
68dc0745 183
4755096e 184=item Declarations
68dc0745 185
4755096e 186=item Simple statements
68dc0745 187
4755096e 188=item Compound statements
3fe9a6f1 189
4755096e 190=item Loop Control
68dc0745 191
4755096e 192=item For Loops
68dc0745 193
4755096e 194=item Foreach Loops
68dc0745 195
4755096e 196=item Basic BLOCKs and Switch Statements
68dc0745 197
4755096e 198=item Goto
68dc0745 199
4755096e 200=item PODs: Embedded Documentation
68dc0745 201
4755096e 202=item Plain Old Comments (Not!)
68dc0745 203
4755096e 204=back
68dc0745 205
4755096e 206=back
193fb0af 207
4755096e 208=head2 perldata - Perl data types
68dc0745 209
d420ca49 210=over 4
68dc0745 211
4755096e 212=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 213
d420ca49 214=over 4
68dc0745 215
4755096e 216=item Variable names
68dc0745 217
4755096e 218=item Context
68dc0745 219
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220=item Scalar values
221
222=item Scalar value constructors
223
224=item List value constructors
225
226=item Slices
227
228=item Typeglobs and Filehandles
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229
230=back
231
4755096e 232=item SEE ALSO
68dc0745 233
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234=back
235
4755096e 236=head2 perlop - Perl operators and precedence
68dc0745 237
d420ca49 238=over 4
a45bd81d 239
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240=item SYNOPSIS
241
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242=item DESCRIPTION
243
d420ca49 244=over 4
68dc0745 245
4755096e 246=item Terms and List Operators (Leftward)
68dc0745 247
4755096e 248=item The Arrow Operator
68dc0745 249
4755096e 250=item Auto-increment and Auto-decrement
68dc0745 251
4755096e 252=item Exponentiation
68dc0745 253
4755096e 254=item Symbolic Unary Operators
68dc0745 255
4755096e 256=item Binding Operators
68dc0745 257
4755096e 258=item Multiplicative Operators
68dc0745 259
4755096e 260=item Additive Operators
68dc0745 261
4755096e 262=item Shift Operators
14218588 263
4755096e 264=item Named Unary Operators
68dc0745 265
4755096e 266=item Relational Operators
68dc0745 267
4755096e 268=item Equality Operators
68dc0745 269
4755096e 270=item Bitwise And
68dc0745 271
4755096e 272=item Bitwise Or and Exclusive Or
68dc0745 273
4755096e 274=item C-style Logical And
68dc0745 275
4755096e 276=item C-style Logical Or
68dc0745 277
4755096e 278=item Range Operators
68dc0745 279
4755096e 280=item Conditional Operator
68dc0745 281
4755096e 282=item Assignment Operators
68dc0745 283
4755096e 284=item Comma Operator
68dc0745 285
4755096e 286=item List Operators (Rightward)
68dc0745 287
4755096e 288=item Logical Not
68dc0745 289
4755096e 290=item Logical And
14218588 291
4755096e 292=item Logical or and Exclusive Or
68dc0745 293
4755096e 294=item C Operators Missing From Perl
68dc0745 295
4755096e 296unary &, unary *, (TYPE)
68dc0745 297
4755096e 298=item Quote and Quote-like Operators
68dc0745 299
4755096e 300=item Regexp Quote-Like Operators
68dc0745 301
4755096e 302?PATTERN?, m/PATTERN/cgimosx, /PATTERN/cgimosx, q/STRING/, C<'STRING'>,
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303qq/STRING/, "STRING", qr/STRING/imosx, qx/STRING/, `STRING`, qw/STRING/,
304s/PATTERN/REPLACEMENT/egimosx, tr/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cds,
35bf961c 305y/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cds, <<EOF
68dc0745 306
4755096e 307=item Gory details of parsing quoted constructs
68dc0745 308
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309Finding the end, Removal of backslashes before delimiters, Interpolation,
310C<<<'EOF'>, C<m''>, C<s'''>, C<tr///>, C<y///>, C<''>, C<q//>, C<"">,
311C<``>, C<qq//>, C<qx//>, C<< <file*glob> >>, C<?RE?>, C</RE/>, C<m/RE/>,
312C<s/RE/foo/>,, Interpolation of regular expressions, Optimization of
313regular expressions
68dc0745 314
4755096e 315=item I/O Operators
68dc0745 316
4755096e 317=item Constant Folding
68dc0745 318
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319=item Bitwise String Operators
320
321=item Integer Arithmetic
322
323=item Floating-point Arithmetic
324
325=item Bigger Numbers
68dc0745 326
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327=back
328
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329=back
330
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331=head2 perlsub - Perl subroutines
332
d420ca49 333=over 4
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334
335=item SYNOPSIS
336
337=item DESCRIPTION
338
d420ca49 339=over 4
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340
341=item Private Variables via my()
342
343=item Persistent Private Variables
344
345=item Temporary Values via local()
346
347=item Lvalue subroutines
348
349=item Passing Symbol Table Entries (typeglobs)
350
351=item When to Still Use local()
352
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353=item Pass by Reference
354
355=item Prototypes
356
357=item Constant Functions
358
359=item Overriding Built-in Functions
360
361=item Autoloading
362
363=item Subroutine Attributes
364
365=back
366
367=item SEE ALSO
368
369=back
370
371=head2 perlfunc - Perl builtin functions
372
d420ca49 373=over 4
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374
375=item DESCRIPTION
376
d420ca49 377=over 4
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378
379=item Perl Functions by Category
380
381Functions for SCALARs or strings, Regular expressions and pattern matching,
382Numeric functions, Functions for real @ARRAYs, Functions for list data,
383Functions for real %HASHes, Input and output functions, Functions for fixed
384length data or records, Functions for filehandles, files, or directories,
385Keywords related to the control flow of your perl program, Keywords related
386to scoping, Miscellaneous functions, Functions for processes and process
387groups, Keywords related to perl modules, Keywords related to classes and
388object-orientedness, Low-level socket functions, System V interprocess
389communication functions, Fetching user and group info, Fetching network
390info, Time-related functions, Functions new in perl5, Functions obsoleted
391in perl5
392
393=item Portability
394
395=item Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions
396
397I<-X> FILEHANDLE, I<-X> EXPR, I<-X>, abs VALUE, abs, accept
398NEWSOCKET,GENERICSOCKET, alarm SECONDS, alarm, atan2 Y,X, bind SOCKET,NAME,
399binmode FILEHANDLE, DISCIPLINE, binmode FILEHANDLE, bless REF,CLASSNAME,
400bless REF, caller EXPR, caller, chdir EXPR, chmod LIST, chomp VARIABLE,
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401chomp( LIST ), chomp, chop VARIABLE, chop( LIST ), chop, chown LIST, chr
402NUMBER, chr, chroot FILENAME, chroot, close FILEHANDLE, close, closedir
403DIRHANDLE, connect SOCKET,NAME, continue BLOCK, cos EXPR, cos, crypt
404PLAINTEXT,SALT, dbmclose HASH, dbmopen HASH,DBNAME,MASK, defined EXPR,
405defined, delete EXPR, die LIST, do BLOCK, do SUBROUTINE(LIST), do EXPR,
406dump LABEL, dump, each HASH, eof FILEHANDLE, eof (), eof, eval EXPR, eval
407BLOCK, exec LIST, exec PROGRAM LIST, exists EXPR, exit EXPR, exp EXPR, exp,
408fcntl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, fileno FILEHANDLE, flock
409FILEHANDLE,OPERATION, fork, format, formline PICTURE,LIST, getc FILEHANDLE,
410getc, getlogin, getpeername SOCKET, getpgrp PID, getppid, getpriority
411WHICH,WHO, getpwnam NAME, getgrnam NAME, gethostbyname NAME, getnetbyname
412NAME, getprotobyname NAME, getpwuid UID, getgrgid GID, getservbyname
413NAME,PROTO, gethostbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE, getnetbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE,
414getprotobynumber NUMBER, getservbyport PORT,PROTO, getpwent, getgrent,
415gethostent, getnetent, getprotoent, getservent, setpwent, setgrent,
416sethostent STAYOPEN, setnetent STAYOPEN, setprotoent STAYOPEN, setservent
417STAYOPEN, endpwent, endgrent, endhostent, endnetent, endprotoent,
418endservent, getsockname SOCKET, getsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME, glob EXPR,
419glob, gmtime EXPR, goto LABEL, goto EXPR, goto &NAME, grep BLOCK LIST, grep
420EXPR,LIST, hex EXPR, hex, import, index STR,SUBSTR,POSITION, index
421STR,SUBSTR, int EXPR, int, ioctl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, join
422EXPR,LIST, keys HASH, kill SIGNAL, LIST, last LABEL, last, lc EXPR, lc,
423lcfirst EXPR, lcfirst, length EXPR, length, link OLDFILE,NEWFILE, listen
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424SOCKET,QUEUESIZE, local EXPR, localtime EXPR, lock THING, log EXPR, log,
425lstat EXPR, lstat, m//, map BLOCK LIST, map EXPR,LIST, mkdir FILENAME,MASK,
426mkdir FILENAME, msgctl ID,CMD,ARG, msgget KEY,FLAGS, msgrcv
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427ID,VAR,SIZE,TYPE,FLAGS, msgsnd ID,MSG,FLAGS, my EXPR, my EXPR : ATTRIBUTES,
428next LABEL, next, no Module LIST, oct EXPR, oct, open FILEHANDLE,EXPR, open
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429FILEHANDLE,MODE,EXPR, open FILEHANDLE,MODE,EXPR,LIST, open
430FILEHANDLE,MODE,REFERENCE, open FILEHANDLE, opendir DIRHANDLE,EXPR, ord
431EXPR, ord, our EXPR, our EXPR : ATTRIBUTES, pack TEMPLATE,LIST, package
432NAMESPACE, package, pipe READHANDLE,WRITEHANDLE, pop ARRAY, pop, pos
433SCALAR, pos, print FILEHANDLE LIST, print LIST, print, printf FILEHANDLE
434FORMAT, LIST, printf FORMAT, LIST, prototype FUNCTION, push ARRAY,LIST,
435q/STRING/, qq/STRING/, qr/STRING/, qx/STRING/, qw/STRING/, quotemeta EXPR,
436quotemeta, rand EXPR, rand, read FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, read
437FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH, readdir DIRHANDLE, readline EXPR, readlink EXPR,
438readlink, readpipe EXPR, recv SOCKET,SCALAR,LENGTH,FLAGS, redo LABEL, redo,
439ref EXPR, ref, rename OLDNAME,NEWNAME, require VERSION, require EXPR,
440require, reset EXPR, reset, return EXPR, return, reverse LIST, rewinddir
441DIRHANDLE, rindex STR,SUBSTR,POSITION, rindex STR,SUBSTR, rmdir FILENAME,
442rmdir, s///, scalar EXPR, seek FILEHANDLE,POSITION,WHENCE, seekdir
443DIRHANDLE,POS, select FILEHANDLE, select, select RBITS,WBITS,EBITS,TIMEOUT,
444semctl ID,SEMNUM,CMD,ARG, semget KEY,NSEMS,FLAGS, semop KEY,OPSTRING, send
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445SOCKET,MSG,FLAGS,TO, send SOCKET,MSG,FLAGS, setpgrp PID,PGRP, setpriority
446WHICH,WHO,PRIORITY, setsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME,OPTVAL, shift ARRAY,
447shift, shmctl ID,CMD,ARG, shmget KEY,SIZE,FLAGS, shmread ID,VAR,POS,SIZE,
448shmwrite ID,STRING,POS,SIZE, shutdown SOCKET,HOW, sin EXPR, sin, sleep
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449EXPR, sleep, sockatmark SOCKET, socket SOCKET,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL,
450socketpair SOCKET1,SOCKET2,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL, sort SUBNAME LIST, sort
451BLOCK LIST, sort LIST, splice ARRAY,OFFSET,LENGTH,LIST, splice
452ARRAY,OFFSET,LENGTH, splice ARRAY,OFFSET, splice ARRAY, split
453/PATTERN/,EXPR,LIMIT, split /PATTERN/,EXPR, split /PATTERN/, split, sprintf
454FORMAT, LIST, sqrt EXPR, sqrt, srand EXPR, srand, stat FILEHANDLE, stat
455EXPR, stat, study SCALAR, study, sub BLOCK, sub NAME, sub NAME BLOCK,
456substr EXPR,OFFSET,LENGTH,REPLACEMENT, substr EXPR,OFFSET,LENGTH, substr
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457EXPR,OFFSET, symlink OLDFILE,NEWFILE, syscall LIST, sysopen
458FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE, sysopen FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE,PERMS, sysread
459FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, sysread FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH, sysseek
460FILEHANDLE,POSITION,WHENCE, system LIST, system PROGRAM LIST, syswrite
461FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,
462syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR, tell FILEHANDLE, tell, telldir DIRHANDLE, tie
463VARIABLE,CLASSNAME,LIST, tied VARIABLE, time, times, tr///, truncate
464FILEHANDLE,LENGTH, truncate EXPR,LENGTH, uc EXPR, uc, ucfirst EXPR,
465ucfirst, umask EXPR, umask, undef EXPR, undef, unlink LIST, unlink, unpack
466TEMPLATE,EXPR, untie VARIABLE, unshift ARRAY,LIST, use Module VERSION LIST,
467use Module VERSION, use Module LIST, use Module, use VERSION, utime LIST,
468values HASH, vec EXPR,OFFSET,BITS, wait, waitpid PID,FLAGS, wantarray, warn
469LIST, write FILEHANDLE, write EXPR, write, y///
470
471=back
472
473=back
474
4755096e 475=head2 perlreftut - Mark's very short tutorial about references
68dc0745 476
d420ca49 477=over 4
a45bd81d 478
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479=item DESCRIPTION
480
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481=item Who Needs Complicated Data Structures?
482
483=item The Solution
484
485=item Syntax
68dc0745 486
d420ca49 487=over 4
68dc0745 488
4755096e 489=item Making References
46fc3d4c 490
4755096e 491=item Using References
68dc0745 492
4755096e 493=back
68dc0745 494
4755096e 495=item An Example
68dc0745 496
4755096e 497=item Arrow Rule
14218588 498
4755096e 499=item Solution
68dc0745 500
4755096e 501=item The Rest
68dc0745 502
4755096e 503=item Summary
68dc0745 504
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505=item Credits
506
d420ca49 507=over 4
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508
509=item Distribution Conditions
68dc0745
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510
511=back
512
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513=back
514
515=head2 perldsc - Perl Data Structures Cookbook
68dc0745 516
d420ca49 517=over 4
68dc0745 518
4755096e 519=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 520
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521arrays of arrays, hashes of arrays, arrays of hashes, hashes of hashes,
522more elaborate constructs
14218588 523
4755096e 524=item REFERENCES
68dc0745 525
4755096e 526=item COMMON MISTAKES
68dc0745 527
4755096e 528=item CAVEAT ON PRECEDENCE
68dc0745 529
4755096e 530=item WHY YOU SHOULD ALWAYS C<use strict>
14218588 531
4755096e 532=item DEBUGGING
68dc0745 533
4755096e 534=item CODE EXAMPLES
68dc0745 535
4755096e 536=item ARRAYS OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 537
d420ca49 538=over 4
68dc0745 539
ba62762e 540=item Declaration of an ARRAY OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 541
ba62762e 542=item Generation of an ARRAY OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 543
ba62762e 544=item Access and Printing of an ARRAY OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 545
4755096e 546=back
68dc0745 547
4755096e 548=item HASHES OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 549
d420ca49 550=over 4
68dc0745 551
4755096e 552=item Declaration of a HASH OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 553
4755096e 554=item Generation of a HASH OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 555
4755096e 556=item Access and Printing of a HASH OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 557
4755096e 558=back
68dc0745 559
4755096e 560=item ARRAYS OF HASHES
68dc0745 561
d420ca49 562=over 4
68dc0745 563
ba62762e 564=item Declaration of an ARRAY OF HASHES
68dc0745 565
ba62762e 566=item Generation of an ARRAY OF HASHES
68dc0745 567
ba62762e 568=item Access and Printing of an ARRAY OF HASHES
14218588 569
4755096e 570=back
68dc0745 571
4755096e 572=item HASHES OF HASHES
68dc0745 573
d420ca49 574=over 4
68dc0745 575
4755096e 576=item Declaration of a HASH OF HASHES
68dc0745 577
4755096e 578=item Generation of a HASH OF HASHES
68dc0745 579
4755096e 580=item Access and Printing of a HASH OF HASHES
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581
582=back
583
4755096e 584=item MORE ELABORATE RECORDS
68dc0745 585
d420ca49 586=over 4
68dc0745 587
4755096e 588=item Declaration of MORE ELABORATE RECORDS
14218588 589
4755096e 590=item Declaration of a HASH OF COMPLEX RECORDS
68dc0745 591
4755096e 592=item Generation of a HASH OF COMPLEX RECORDS
68dc0745 593
4755096e 594=back
68dc0745 595
4755096e 596=item Database Ties
68dc0745 597
4755096e 598=item SEE ALSO
68dc0745 599
4755096e 600=item AUTHOR
14218588 601
4755096e 602=back
68dc0745 603
4755096e 604=head2 perlrequick - Perl regular expressions quick start
68dc0745 605
d420ca49 606=over 4
68dc0745 607
4755096e 608=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 609
4755096e 610=item The Guide
68dc0745 611
d420ca49 612=over 4
68dc0745 613
4755096e 614=item Simple word matching
68dc0745 615
4755096e 616=item Using character classes
68dc0745 617
4755096e 618=item Matching this or that
68dc0745 619
4755096e 620=item Grouping things and hierarchical matching
68dc0745 621
4755096e 622=item Extracting matches
68dc0745 623
4755096e 624=item Matching repetitions
68dc0745 625
4755096e 626=item More matching
68dc0745 627
4755096e 628=item Search and replace
68dc0745 629
4755096e 630=item The split operator
68dc0745
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631
632=back
633
4755096e 634=item BUGS
68dc0745 635
4755096e 636=item SEE ALSO
68dc0745 637
4755096e 638=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
68dc0745 639
d420ca49 640=over 4
68dc0745 641
4755096e 642=item Acknowledgments
14218588 643
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644=back
645
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646=back
647
8a93676d 648=head2 perlpod - the Plain Old Documentation format
68dc0745 649
d420ca49 650=over 4
a45bd81d 651
68dc0745
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652=item DESCRIPTION
653
d420ca49 654=over 4
68dc0745 655
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656=item Ordinary Paragraph
657
c2e66d9e 658=item Verbatim Paragraph
68dc0745 659
c2e66d9e 660=item Command Paragraph
68dc0745 661
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662C<=head1 I<Heading Text>>, C<=head2 I<Heading Text>>, C<=head3 I<Heading
663Text>>, C<=head4 I<Heading Text>>, C<=over I<indentlevel>>, C<=item
664I<stuff...>>, C<=back>, C<=cut>, C<=pod>, C<=begin I<formatname>>, C<=end
665I<formatname>>, C<=for I<formatname> I<text...>>
666
667=item Formatting Codes
668
669C<IE<lt>textE<gt>> -- italic text, C<BE<lt>textE<gt>> -- bold text,
670C<CE<lt>codeE<gt>> -- code text, C<LE<lt>nameE<gt>> -- a hyperlink,
671C<EE<lt>escapeE<gt>> -- a character escape, C<FE<lt>filenameE<gt>> -- used
672for filenames, C<SE<lt>textE<gt>> -- text contains non-breaking spaces,
673C<XE<lt>topic nameE<gt>> -- an index entry, C<ZE<lt>E<gt>> -- a null
674(zero-effect) formatting code
68dc0745 675
c2e66d9e 676=item The Intent
68dc0745 677
c2e66d9e 678=item Embedding Pods in Perl Modules
68dc0745 679
8a93676d
SB
680=item Hints for Writing Pod
681
682=back
683
684=item SEE ALSO
685
686=item AUTHOR
193fb0af 687
c2e66d9e 688=back
68dc0745 689
8a93676d
SB
690=head2 perlpodspec - Plain Old Documentation: format specification and
691notes
692
693=over 4
694
695=item DESCRIPTION
696
697=item Pod Definitions
698
699=item Pod Commands
700
701"=head1", "=head2", "=head3", "=head4", "=pod", "=cut", "=over", "=item",
702"=back", "=begin formatname", "=end formatname", "=for formatname text..."
703
704=item Pod Formatting Codes
705
706C<IE<lt>textE<gt>> -- italic text, C<BE<lt>textE<gt>> -- bold text,
707C<CE<lt>codeE<gt>> -- code text, C<FE<lt>filenameE<gt>> -- style for
708filenames, C<XE<lt>topic nameE<gt>> -- an index entry, C<ZE<lt>E<gt>> -- a
709null (zero-effect) formatting code, C<LE<lt>nameE<gt>> -- a hyperlink,
710C<EE<lt>escapeE<gt>> -- a character escape, C<SE<lt>textE<gt>> -- text
711contains non-breaking spaces
712
713=item Notes on Implementing Pod Processors
714
715=item About LE<lt>...E<gt> Codes
716
717First:, Second:, Third:, Fourth:, Fifth:, Sixth:
718
719=item About =over...=back Regions
720
721=item About Data Paragraphs and "=begin/=end" Regions
722
c2e66d9e 723=item SEE ALSO
68dc0745 724
c2e66d9e 725=item AUTHOR
68dc0745 726
c2e66d9e 727=back
68dc0745 728
c2e66d9e 729=head2 perlstyle - Perl style guide
68dc0745 730
d420ca49 731=over 4
c2e66d9e
GS
732
733=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 734
4755096e 735=back
68dc0745 736
c2e66d9e 737=head2 perltrap - Perl traps for the unwary
68dc0745 738
d420ca49 739=over 4
68dc0745 740
c2e66d9e 741=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 742
d420ca49 743=over 4
68dc0745 744
c2e66d9e 745=item Awk Traps
68dc0745 746
c2e66d9e 747=item C Traps
4755096e 748
c2e66d9e 749=item Sed Traps
4755096e 750
c2e66d9e 751=item Shell Traps
4755096e 752
c2e66d9e 753=item Perl Traps
68dc0745 754
c2e66d9e 755=item Perl4 to Perl5 Traps
68dc0745 756
c2e66d9e
GS
757Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps, Parsing Traps, Numerical
758Traps, General data type traps, Context Traps - scalar, list contexts,
759Precedence Traps, General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc,
760Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps, OS Traps, DBM Traps, Unclassified Traps
761
762=item Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps
763
764Discontinuance, Deprecation, BugFix, Discontinuance, Discontinuance,
765Discontinuance, BugFix, Discontinuance, Discontinuance, BugFix,
766Discontinuance, Deprecation, Discontinuance, Discontinuance
767
768=item Parsing Traps
769
07fcf8ff 770Parsing, Parsing, Parsing, Parsing, Parsing
c2e66d9e
GS
771
772=item Numerical Traps
773
774Numerical, Numerical, Numerical, Bitwise string ops
775
776=item General data type traps
777
778(Arrays), (Arrays), (Hashes), (Globs), (Globs), (Scalar String),
779(Constants), (Scalars), (Variable Suicide)
780
781=item Context Traps - scalar, list contexts
782
783(list context), (scalar context), (scalar context), (list, builtin)
784
785=item Precedence Traps
786
787Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence,
788Precedence
789
790=item General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc.
791
792Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular
793Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression,
794Regular Expression
795
796=item Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps
797
798(Signals), (Sort Subroutine), warn() won't let you specify a filehandle
799
800=item OS Traps
801
802(SysV), (SysV)
803
804=item Interpolation Traps
805
806Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation,
807Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation
808
809=item DBM Traps
810
811DBM, DBM
812
813=item Unclassified Traps
814
815C<require>/C<do> trap using returned value, C<split> on empty string with
816LIMIT specified
68dc0745 817
4755096e 818=back
68dc0745 819
c2e66d9e 820=back
14218588 821
c2e66d9e 822=head2 perlrun - how to execute the Perl interpreter
68dc0745 823
d420ca49 824=over 4
c2e66d9e
GS
825
826=item SYNOPSIS
827
828=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 829
d420ca49 830=over 4
68dc0745 831
c2e66d9e
GS
832=item #! and quoting on non-Unix systems
833
834OS/2, MS-DOS, Win95/NT, Macintosh, VMS
835
836=item Location of Perl
837
838=item Command Switches
839
91e74348 840B<-0>[I<digits>], B<-a>, B<-C>, B<-c>, B<-d>, B<-d:>I<foo[=bar,baz]>,
c2e66d9e
GS
841B<-D>I<letters>, B<-D>I<number>, B<-e> I<commandline>, B<-F>I<pattern>,
842B<-h>, B<-i>[I<extension>], B<-I>I<directory>, B<-l>[I<octnum>],
843B<-m>[B<->]I<module>, B<-M>[B<->]I<module>, B<-M>[B<->]I<'module ...'>,
844B<-[mM]>[B<->]I<module=arg[,arg]...>, B<-n>, B<-p>, B<-P>, B<-s>, B<-S>,
0e9b9e0c
JH
845B<-t>, B<-T>, B<-u>, B<-U>, B<-v>, B<-V>, B<-V:>I<name>, B<-w>, B<-W>,
846B<-X>, B<-x> I<directory>
68dc0745 847
4755096e 848=back
68dc0745 849
c2e66d9e
GS
850=item ENVIRONMENT
851
852HOME, LOGDIR, PATH, PERL5LIB, PERL5OPT, PERLLIB, PERL5DB, PERL5SHELL
853(specific to the Win32 port), PERL_DEBUG_MSTATS, PERL_DESTRUCT_LEVEL,
cb52f95f
JH
854PERL_ENCODING, PERL_ROOT (specific to the VMS port), SYS$LOGIN (specific to
855the VMS port)
c2e66d9e 856
c2e66d9e
GS
857=item DESCRIPTION
858
ff426ff2
JH
859accept() on closed socket %s, Allocation too large: %lx, '!' allowed only
860after types %s, Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or
861use &, Ambiguous range in transliteration operator, Ambiguous use of %s
862resolved as %s, '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line, '|'
863and '>' may not both be specified on command line, Applying %s to %s will
864act on scalar(%s), Args must match #! line, Arg too short for msgsnd, %s
865argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element, %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY
866element or slice, %s argument is not a subroutine name, Argument "%s" isn't
867numeric%s, Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s(), assertion
868botched: %s, Assertion failed: file "%s", Assignment to both a list and a
80327a3d
JH
869scalar, Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a fixed hash, Attempt to
870clear a fixed hash, Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a fixed hash,
871Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a fixed hash, Attempt to bless
872into a reference, Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx, Attempt to free
873nonexistent shared string, Attempt to free temp prematurely, Attempt to
874free unreferenced glob pointers, Attempt to free unreferenced scalar,
875Attempt to join self, Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value, Attempt
876to use reference as lvalue in substr, Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should
877be %s, Bad evalled substitution pattern, Bad filehandle: %s, Bad free()
878ignored, Bad hash, Bad index while coercing array into hash, Badly placed
879()'s, Bad name after %s::, Bad realloc() ignored, Bad symbol for array, Bad
880symbol for filehandle, Bad symbol for hash, Bareword found in conditional,
ff426ff2
JH
881Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use, Bareword "%s" refers
882to nonexistent package, BEGIN failed--compilation aborted, BEGIN not safe
883after errors--compilation aborted, \1 better written as $1, Binary number >
8840b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable, bind() on closed socket
885%s, binmode() on closed filehandle %s, Bit vector size > 32 non-portable,
886Bizarre copy of %s in %s, B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script,
887Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s, Callback called exit, %s() called
888too early to check prototype, / cannot take a count, Can't bless
889non-reference value, Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s", Can't
890call method "%s" on an undefined value, Can't call method "%s" on unblessed
891reference, Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference,
892Can't chdir to %s, Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid, Can't
893coerce array into hash, Can't coerce %s to integer in %s, Can't coerce %s
894to number in %s, Can't coerce %s to string in %s, Can't create pipe
895mailbox, Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s", Can't declare %s in
896"%s", Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file, Can't do inplace
897edit on %s: %s, Can't do inplace edit without backup, Can't do inplace
898edit: %s would not be unique, Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by
899<-- HERE in m/%s/, Can't do setegid!, Can't do seteuid!, Can't do setuid,
900Can't do waitpid with flags, Can't emulate -%s on #! line, Can't exec "%s":
901%s, Can't exec %s, Can't execute %s, Can't find an opnumber for "%s", Can't
902find %s character property "%s", Can't find label %s, Can't find %s on
903PATH, Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH, Can't find string terminator
904%s anywhere before EOF, Can't find %s property definition %s, Can't fork,
905Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?, Can't get pipe mailbox device
906name, Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF, Can't "goto" into the
907middle of a foreach loop, Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block, Can't goto
908subroutine from an eval-string, Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine,
909Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default, Can't "last" outside a loop
910block, Can't localize lexical variable %s, Can't localize pseudo-hash
fa17183e
JH
911element, Can't localize through a reference, Can't locate file %s, Can't
912locate auto/%s.al in @INC, Can't locate object method "%s" via package
913"%s", (perhaps you forgot to load "%s"?), Can't locate package %s for
914@%s::ISA, Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system, Can't modify
915%s in %s, Can't modify nonexistent substring, Can't modify non-lvalue
916subroutine call, Can't msgrcv to read-only var, Can't "next" outside a loop
917block, Can't open %s: %s, Can't open bidirectional pipe, Can't open error
918file %s as stderr, Can't open input file %s as stdin, Can't open output
919file %s as stdout, Can't open output pipe (name: %s), Can't open perl
920script%s: %s, Can't read CRTL environ, Can't redefine active sort
921subroutine %s, Can't "redo" outside a loop block, Can't remove %s: %s,
922skipping file, Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file, Can't reopen input
923pipe (name: %s) in binary mode, Can't resolve method `%s' overloading `%s'
924in package `%s', Can't reswap uid and euid, Can't return %s from lvalue
925subroutine, Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context, Can't return outside
926a subroutine, Can't stat script "%s", Can't swap uid and euid, Can't take
927log of %g, Can't take sqrt of %g, Can't undef active subroutine, Can't
928unshift, Can't upgrade that kind of scalar, Can't upgrade to undef, Can't
929use an undefined value as %s reference, Can't use anonymous symbol table
930for method lookup, Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs"
931in use, Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available, Can't use %s for
932loop variable, Can't use global %s in "my", Can't use "my %s" in sort
933comparison, Can't use %s ref as %s ref, Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref
934while "strict refs" in use, Can't use subscript on %s, Can't use \%c to
935mean $%c in expression, Can't weaken a nonreference, Can't x= to read-only
936value, Character in "C" format wrapped, Character in "c" format wrapped,
937close() on unopened filehandle %s, %s: Command not found, Compilation
938failed in require, Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d)
939exceeded, connect() on closed socket %s, Constant(%s)%s: %s, Constant is
940not %s reference, Constant subroutine %s redefined, Constant subroutine %s
941undefined, Copy method did not return a reference, CORE::%s is not a
942keyword, corrupted regexp pointers, corrupted regexp program, Corrupt
943malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx, C<-p> destination: %s, C<-T> and C<-B> not
944implemented on filehandles, Deep recursion on subroutine "%s",
945defined(@array) is deprecated, defined(%hash) is deprecated, %s defines
946neither package nor VERSION--version check failed, Delimiter for here
947document is too long, Did not produce a valid header, %s did not return a
948true value, (Did you mean &%s instead?), (Did you mean "local" instead of
949"our"?), (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?), Died, Document contains no
950data, %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed, Don't know how
951to handle magic of type '%s', do_study: out of memory, (Do you need to
952predeclare %s?), dump() better written as CORE::dump(), Duplicate free()
953ignored, elseif should be elsif, Empty %s, entering effective %s failed,
954Error converting file specification %s, %s: Eval-group in insecure regular
955expression, %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time, %s: Eval-group not
956allowed, use re 'eval', Excessively long <> operator, exec? I'm not *that*
957kind of operating system, Execution of %s aborted due to compilation
958errors, Exiting eval via %s, Exiting format via %s, Exiting pseudo-block
959via %s, Exiting subroutine via %s, Exiting substitution via %s, Explicit
960blessing to '' (assuming package main), %s: Expression syntax, %s
961failed--call queue aborted, False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <--
962HERE in m/%s/, Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d, fcntl is not implemented,
963Filehandle %s opened only for input, Filehandle %s opened only for output,
964Final $ should be \$ or $name, Final @ should be \@ or @name, flock() on
965closed filehandle %s, Quantifier follows nothing in regex;, Format not
966terminated, Format %s redefined, Found = in conditional, should be ==, %s
967found where operator expected, gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s",
968gethostent not implemented, get%sname() on closed socket %s, getpwnam
969returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s", getsockopt() on closed socket %s,
970Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name, glob failed (%s), Glob
971not terminated, Got an error from DosAllocMem, goto must have label,
972%s-group starts with a count, %s had compilation errors, Had to create %s
973unexpectedly, Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s(), %s has too
974many errors, Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable, Identifier too
975long, Illegal binary digit %s, Illegal binary digit %s ignored, Illegal
976character %s (carriage return), Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s,
977Illegal division by zero, Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored, Illegal
978modulus zero, Illegal number of bits in vec, Illegal octal digit %s,
979Illegal octal digit %s ignored, Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s, Ill-formed
980CRTL environ value "%s", Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|, (in
981cleanup) %s, In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647,
982Insecure dependency in %s, Insecure directory in %s, Insecure $ENV{%s}
983while running %s, Integer overflow in %s number, Internal disaster in
984regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/, Internal inconsistency in tracking
985vforks, Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/, %s (...)
986interpreted as function, Invalid %s attribute: %s, Invalid %s attributes:
987%s, Invalid conversion in %s: "%s", Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked
988by <-- HERE in m/%s/, Invalid [] range "%s" in transliteration operator,
989Invalid separator character %s in attribute list, Invalid type in pack:
990'%s', Invalid type in unpack: '%s', ioctl is not implemented, ioctl() on
991unopened %s, IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture, `%s'
992is not a code reference, `%s' is not an overloadable type, junk on end of
993regexp, Label not found for "last %s", Label not found for "next %s", Label
994not found for "redo %s", leaving effective %s failed, listen() on closed
995socket %s, lstat() on filehandle %s, Lvalue subs returning %s not
996implemented yet, Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex;,
997Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX, Malformed prototype for %s: %s, Malformed UTF-8
998character (%s), Malformed UTF-16 surrogate, %s matches null string many
999times in regex;, "%s" may clash with future reserved word, % may only be
1000used in unpack, Method for operation %s not found in package %s during
1001blessing, Method %s not permitted, Might be a runaway multi-line %s string
1002starting on line %d, Misplaced _ in number, Missing %sbrace%s on \N{},
1003Missing comma after first argument to %s function, Missing command in piped
1004open, Missing name in "my sub", Missing $ on loop variable, (Missing
1005operator before %s?), Missing right brace on %s, Missing right curly or
1006square bracket, (Missing semicolon on previous line?), Modification of a
1007read-only value attempted, Modification of non-creatable array value
1008attempted, %s, Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s,
1009Module name must be constant, Module name required with -%c option, More
1010than one argument to open, msg%s not implemented, Multidimensional syntax
1011%s not supported, / must be followed by a*, A* or Z*, / must be followed by
1012a, A or Z, / must follow a numeric type, "my sub" not yet implemented, "my"
1013variable %s can't be in a package, Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible
1014typo, Negative length, Negative offset to vec in lvalue context, Nested
1015quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/, %s never introduced, No
1016%s allowed while running setuid, No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts, No
1017comma allowed after %s, No command into which to pipe on command line, No
1018DB::DB routine defined, No dbm on this machine, No DBsub routine, No error
1019file after 2> or 2>> on command line, No input file after < on command
1020line, No #! line, "no" not allowed in expression, No output file after > on
1021command line, No output file after > or >> on command line, No package name
1022allowed for variable %s in "our", No Perl script found in input, No
1023setregid available, No setreuid available, No space allowed after -%c, No
1024%s specified for -%c, No such class %s, No such pipe open, No such
1025pseudo-hash field "%s", No such pseudo-hash field "%s" in variable %s of
1026type %s, No such signal: SIG%s, Not a CODE reference, Not a format
1027reference, Not a GLOB reference, Not a HASH reference, Not an ARRAY
1028reference, Not a perl script, Not a SCALAR reference, Not a subroutine
1029reference, Not a subroutine reference in overload table, Not enough
1030arguments for %s, Not enough format arguments, %s: not found, %s not
1031allowed in length fields, no UTC offset information; assuming local time is
1032UTC, Null filename used, NULL OP IN RUN, Null picture in formline, Null
1033realloc, NULL regexp argument, NULL regexp parameter, Number too long,
1034Octal number in vector unsupported, Octal number > 037777777777
1035non-portable, Odd number of arguments for overload::constant, Odd number of
1036elements in anonymous hash, Odd number of elements in hash assignment,
1037Offset outside string, -%s on unopened filehandle %s, %s() on unopened %s,
1038oops: oopsAV, oops: oopsHV, Operation `%s': no method found, %s, Operator
1039or semicolon missing before %s, "our" variable %s redeclared, Out of
1040memory!, Out of memory during "large" request for %s, Out of memory during
1041request for %s, Out of memory during ridiculously large request, Out of
1042memory for yacc stack, @ outside of string, %s package attribute may clash
1043with future reserved word: %s, page overflow, panic: %s, panic: ck_grep,
1044panic: ck_split, panic: corrupt saved stack index, panic: del_backref,
1045panic: die %s, panic: pp_match%s, panic: do_subst, panic: do_trans_%s,
1046panic: frexp, panic: goto, panic: INTERPCASEMOD, panic: INTERPCONCAT,
1047panic: kid popen errno read, panic: last, panic: leave_scope clearsv,
1048panic: leave_scope inconsistency, panic: magic_killbackrefs, panic: malloc,
1049panic: mapstart, panic: null array, panic: pad_alloc, panic: pad_free
1050curpad, panic: pad_free po, panic: pad_reset curpad, panic: pad_sv po,
1051panic: pad_swipe curpad, panic: pad_swipe po, panic: pp_iter, panic:
1052pp_split, panic: realloc, panic: restartop, panic: return, panic: scan_num,
1053panic: sv_insert, panic: top_env, panic: yylex, panic: utf16_to_utf8: odd
1054bytelen, Parentheses missing around "%s" list, Perl %s required--this is
1055only version %s, stopped, PERL_SH_DIR too long, perl: warning: Setting
1056locale failed, perlio: argument list not closed for layer "%s", perlio:
1057invalid separator character %s in attribute list, perlio: unknown layer
1058"%s", Permission denied, pid %x not a child, P must have an explicit size,
1059POSIX syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes in regex;, POSIX syntax
1060[. .] is reserved for future extensions in regex;, POSIX syntax [= =] is
1061reserved for future extensions in regex;, POSIX class [:%s:] unknown in
1062regex;, POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument, Possible attempt to put
1063comments in qw() list, Possible attempt to separate words with commas,
1064Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument, Possible unintended
1065interpolation of %s in string, Possible Y2K bug: %s, pragma "attrs" is
1066deprecated, use "sub NAME : ATTRS" instead, Precedence problem: open %s
1067should be open(%s), Premature end of script headers, printf() on closed
1068filehandle %s, print() on closed filehandle %s, Process terminated by
1069SIG%s, Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s, Prototype not terminated, Quantifier
1070in {,} bigger than %d in regex;, Quantifier unexpected on zero-length
1071expression;, Range iterator outside integer range, readline() on closed
1072filehandle %s, Reallocation too large: %lx, realloc() of freed memory
1073ignored, Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch, Recursive
1074inheritance detected in package '%s', Recursive inheritance detected while
1075looking for method %s, Reference found where even-sized list expected,
1076Reference is already weak, Reference miscount in sv_replace(), Reference to
1077nonexistent group in regex;, regexp memory corruption, Regexp out of space,
1078Repeat count in pack overflows, Repeat count in unpack overflows, Reversed
1079%s= operator, Runaway format, Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as
1080$%s[%s], Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}, Scalars leaked:
1081%d, Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl, Search pattern not terminated,
1082%sseek() on unopened filehandle, select not implemented, Self-ties of
1083arrays and hashes are not supported, Semicolon seems to be missing,
1084semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string, sem%s not implemented, send() on
1085closed socket %s, Sequence (? incomplete in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
1086m/%s/, Sequence (?{...}) not terminated or not {}-balanced in regex;,
1087Sequence (?%s...) not implemented in regex;, Sequence (?%s...) not
1088recognized in regex;, Sequence (?#... not terminated in regex;, 500 Server
1089error, Server error, setegid() not implemented, seteuid() not implemented,
1090setpgrp can't take arguments, setrgid() not implemented, setruid() not
1091implemented, setsockopt() on closed socket %s, Setuid/gid script is
1092writable by world, shm%s not implemented, <> should be quotes, /%s/ should
1093probably be written as "%s", shutdown() on closed socket %s, SIG%s handler
1094"%s" not defined, sort is now a reserved word, Sort subroutine didn't
1095return a numeric value, Sort subroutine didn't return single value,
1096splice() offset past end of array, Split loop, Statement unlikely to be
1097reached, stat() on unopened filehandle %s, Stub found while resolving
1098method `%s' overloading %s, Subroutine %s redefined, Substitution loop,
1099Substitution pattern not terminated, Substitution replacement not
1100terminated, substr outside of string, suidperl is no longer needed since
1101%s, Switch (?(condition)... contains too many branches in regex;, Switch
1102condition not recognized in regex;, switching effective %s is not
1103implemented, syntax error, syntax error at line %d: `%s' unexpected, syntax
1104error in file %s at line %d, next 2 tokens "%s", %s syntax OK, System V %s
1105is not implemented on this machine, syswrite() on closed filehandle %s,
1106Target of goto is too deeply nested, tell() on unopened filehandle, That
1107use of $[ is unsupported, The crypt() function is unimplemented due to
1108excessive paranoia, The %s function is unimplemented, The stat preceding %s
1109wasn't an lstat, This Perl can't reset CRTL environ elements (%s), This
1110Perl can't set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s), times not implemented, Too
1111few args to syscall, Too late for "B<-T>" option, Too late for "-%s"
1112option, Too late to run %s block, Too many args to syscall, Too many
1113arguments for %s, Too many )'s, Too many ('s, Trailing \ in regex m/%s/,
1114Transliteration pattern not terminated, Transliteration replacement not
1115terminated, truncate not implemented, Type of arg %d to %s must be %s (not
1116%s), umask not implemented, Unable to create sub named "%s", Unbalanced
1117context: %d more PUSHes than POPs, Unbalanced saves: %d more saves than
1118restores, Unbalanced scopes: %d more ENTERs than LEAVEs, Unbalanced tmps:
1119%d more allocs than frees, Undefined format "%s" called, Undefined sort
1120subroutine "%s" called, Undefined subroutine &%s called, Undefined
1121subroutine called, Undefined subroutine in sort, Undefined top format "%s"
1122called, Undefined value assigned to typeglob, %s: Undefined variable,
1123unexec of %s into %s failed!, Unicode character %s is illegal, Unknown
1124BYTEORDER, Unknown "re" subpragma '%s' (known ones are: %s), Unknown switch
1125condition (?(%.2s in regex;, Unknown open() mode '%s', Unknown process %x
1126sent message to prime_env_iter: %s, Unknown warnings category '%s',
1127unmatched [ in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/, unmatched ( in regex;
1128marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/, Unmatched right %s bracket, Unquoted string
1129"%s" may clash with future reserved word, Unrecognized character %s, /%s/:
1130Unrecognized escape \\%c in character class passed through, Unrecognized
1131escape \\%c passed through in regex;, Unrecognized escape \\%c passed
1132through, Unrecognized signal name "%s", Unrecognized switch: -%s (-h will
1133show valid options), Unsuccessful %s on filename containing newline,
1134Unsupported directory function "%s" called, Unsupported function %s,
1135Unsupported function fork, Unsupported script encoding, Unsupported socket
1136function "%s" called, Unterminated attribute list, Unterminated attribute
1137parameter in attribute list, Unterminated compressed integer, Unterminated
1138<> operator, untie attempted while %d inner references still exist, Useless
1139(?%s) - use /%s modifier in regex;, Useless (?-%s) - don't use /%s modifier
1140in regex;, Useless use of %s in void context, Useless use of "re" pragma,
1141Useless use of sort in scalar context, Useless use of %s with no values,
1142"use" not allowed in expression, Use of bare << to mean <<"" is deprecated,
1143Use of *glob{FILEHANDLE} is deprecated, Use of chdir('') or chdir(undef) as
1144chdir() deprecated, Use of implicit split to @_ is deprecated, Use of
1145inherited AUTOLOAD for non-method %s() is deprecated, Use of -l on
1146filehandle %s, Use of "package" with no arguments is deprecated, Use of %s
1147in printf format not supported, Use of $* is deprecated, Use of %s is
1148deprecated, Use of $# is deprecated, Use of reference "%s" as array index,
1149Use of reserved word "%s" is deprecated, Use of tainted arguments in %s is
1150deprecated, Use of uninitialized value%s, Using a hash as a reference is
1151deprecated, Using an array as a reference is deprecated, UTF-16 surrogate
1152%s, Value of %s can be "0"; test with defined(), Value of CLI symbol "%s"
1153too long, Variable "%s" is not imported%s, "%s" variable %s masks earlier
1154declaration in same %s, Variable "%s" may be unavailable, Variable syntax,
1155Variable "%s" will not stay shared, Variable length lookbehind not
1156implemented in regex;, Version number must be a constant number, v-string
1157in use/require is non-portable, Warning: something's wrong, Warning: unable
1158to close filehandle %s properly, Warning: Use of "%s" without parentheses
1159is ambiguous, Wide character in %s, write() on closed filehandle %s, X
1160outside of string, x outside of string, Xsub "%s" called in sort, Xsub
1161called in sort, YOU HAVEN'T DISABLED SET-ID SCRIPTS IN THE KERNEL YET!, You
1162need to quote "%s"
ff426ff2 1163
4755096e 1164=back
68dc0745 1165
4755096e 1166=head2 perllexwarn - Perl Lexical Warnings
68dc0745 1167
d420ca49 1168=over 4
68dc0745 1169
4755096e 1170=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 1171
d420ca49 1172=over 4
68dc0745 1173
4755096e 1174=item Default Warnings and Optional Warnings
14218588 1175
4755096e 1176=item What's wrong with B<-w> and C<$^W>
68dc0745 1177
4755096e 1178=item Controlling Warnings from the Command Line
68dc0745 1179
4755096e 1180B<-w>, B<-W>, B<-X>
a45bd81d 1181
4755096e 1182=item Backward Compatibility
68dc0745 1183
4755096e 1184=item Category Hierarchy
a45bd81d 1185
4755096e 1186=item Fatal Warnings
68dc0745 1187
4755096e 1188=item Reporting Warnings from a Module
68dc0745 1189
4755096e 1190=back
68dc0745 1191
4755096e 1192=item TODO
68dc0745 1193
4755096e 1194=item SEE ALSO
68dc0745 1195
4755096e 1196=item AUTHOR
68dc0745 1197
4755096e 1198=back
68dc0745 1199
10862624
RF
1200=head2 perldebtut - Perl debugging tutorial
1201
d420ca49 1202=over 4
10862624
RF
1203
1204=item DESCRIPTION
1205
1206=item use strict
1207
ff426ff2 1208=item Looking at data and -w and v
d396a558
JH
1209
1210=item help
10862624
RF
1211
1212=item Stepping through code
1213
1214=item Placeholder for a, w, t, T
1215
d396a558 1216=item REGULAR EXPRESSIONS
10862624 1217
d396a558 1218=item OUTPUT TIPS
10862624
RF
1219
1220=item CGI
1221
1222=item GUIs
1223
d396a558 1224=item SUMMARY
10862624
RF
1225
1226=item SEE ALSO
1227
1228=item AUTHOR
1229
1230=item CONTRIBUTORS
1231
1232=back
1233
4755096e 1234=head2 perldebug - Perl debugging
68dc0745 1235
d420ca49 1236=over 4
68dc0745 1237
4755096e 1238=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 1239
4755096e 1240=item The Perl Debugger
68dc0745 1241
d420ca49 1242=over 4
68dc0745 1243
4755096e 1244=item Debugger Commands
68dc0745 1245
ff426ff2
JH
1246h, h [command], h h, p expr, x [maxdepth] expr, V [pkg [vars]], X [vars],
1247T, s [expr], n [expr], r, <CR>, c [line|sub], l, l min+incr, l min-max, l
1248line, l subname, -, v [line], f filename, /pattern/, ?pattern?, L [abw], S
1249[[!]regex], t, t expr, b, b [line] [condition], b subname [condition], b
1250postpone subname [condition], b load filename, b compile subname, B line, B
1251*, a [line] command, A line, A *, w expr, W expr, W *, o, o booloption ..,
1252o anyoption? .., o option=value .., < ?, < [ command ], << command, > ?, >
1253command, >> command, { ?, { [ command ], {{ command, ! number, ! -number, !
1254pattern, !! cmd, @ file, H -number, q or ^D, R, |dbcmd, ||dbcmd, command, m
1255expr, M, man [manpage]
68dc0745 1256
4755096e 1257=item Configurable Options
68dc0745 1258
4755096e
GS
1259C<recallCommand>, C<ShellBang>, C<pager>, C<tkRunning>, C<signalLevel>,
1260C<warnLevel>, C<dieLevel>, C<AutoTrace>, C<LineInfo>, C<inhibit_exit>,
a6fb92f1 1261C<PrintRet>, C<ornaments>, C<frame>, C<maxTraceLen>, C<windowSize>,
12b7c5c7
JH
1262C<arrayDepth>, C<hashDepth>, C<dumpDepth>, C<compactDump>, C<veryCompact>,
1263C<globPrint>, C<DumpDBFiles>, C<DumpPackages>, C<DumpReused>, C<quote>,
1264C<HighBit>, C<undefPrint>, C<UsageOnly>, C<TTY>, C<noTTY>, C<ReadLine>,
1265C<NonStop>
68dc0745 1266
4755096e 1267=item Debugger input/output
68dc0745 1268
4755096e
GS
1269Prompt, Multiline commands, Stack backtrace, Line Listing Format, Frame
1270listing
68dc0745 1271
4755096e 1272=item Debugging compile-time statements
68dc0745 1273
4755096e 1274=item Debugger Customization
68dc0745 1275
4755096e 1276=item Readline Support
68dc0745 1277
4755096e 1278=item Editor Support for Debugging
68dc0745 1279
4755096e 1280=item The Perl Profiler
68dc0745 1281
4755096e 1282=back
68dc0745 1283
4755096e 1284=item Debugging regular expressions
68dc0745 1285
4755096e 1286=item Debugging memory usage
14218588 1287
4755096e 1288=item SEE ALSO
68dc0745 1289
4755096e 1290=item BUGS
68dc0745 1291
a45bd81d
GS
1292=back
1293
c2e66d9e 1294=head2 perlvar - Perl predefined variables
68dc0745 1295
d420ca49 1296=over 4
a45bd81d 1297
68dc0745
PP
1298=item DESCRIPTION
1299
d420ca49 1300=over 4
68dc0745 1301
c2e66d9e 1302=item Predefined Names
68dc0745 1303
640374d0 1304$ARG, $_, $a, $b, $<I<digits>>, $MATCH, $&, $PREMATCH, $`, $POSTMATCH, $',
354a27bf 1305$LAST_PAREN_MATCH, $+, $^N, @LAST_MATCH_END, @+, $MULTILINE_MATCHING, $*,
53d7eaa8
JH
1306HANDLE->input_line_number(EXPR), $INPUT_LINE_NUMBER, $NR, $,
1307IO::Handle->input_record_separator(EXPR), $INPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR, $RS, $/,
1308HANDLE->autoflush(EXPR), $OUTPUT_AUTOFLUSH, $|,
2a2bf5f4
JH
1309IO::Handle->output_field_separator EXPR, $OUTPUT_FIELD_SEPARATOR, $OFS, $,,
1310IO::Handle->output_record_separator EXPR, $OUTPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR, $ORS,
1311$\, $LIST_SEPARATOR, $", $SUBSCRIPT_SEPARATOR, $SUBSEP, $;, $OFMT, $#,
53d7eaa8
JH
1312HANDLE->format_page_number(EXPR), $FORMAT_PAGE_NUMBER, $%,
1313HANDLE->format_lines_per_page(EXPR), $FORMAT_LINES_PER_PAGE, $=,
1314HANDLE->format_lines_left(EXPR), $FORMAT_LINES_LEFT, $-, @LAST_MATCH_START,
2a2bf5f4
JH
1315@-, C<$`> is the same as C<substr($var, 0, $-[0])>, C<$&> is the same as
1316C<substr($var, $-[0], $+[0] - $-[0])>, C<$'> is the same as C<substr($var,
1317$+[0])>, C<$1> is the same as C<substr($var, $-[1], $+[1] - $-[1])>, C<$2>
1318is the same as C<substr($var, $-[2], $+[2] - $-[2])>, C<$3> is the same as
53d7eaa8
JH
1319C<substr $var, $-[3], $+[3] - $-[3])>, HANDLE->format_name(EXPR),
1320$FORMAT_NAME, $~, HANDLE->format_top_name(EXPR), $FORMAT_TOP_NAME, $^,
2a2bf5f4
JH
1321IO::Handle->format_line_break_characters EXPR,
1322$FORMAT_LINE_BREAK_CHARACTERS, $:, IO::Handle->format_formfeed EXPR,
cb52f95f
JH
1323$FORMAT_FORMFEED, $^L, $ACCUMULATOR, $^A, $CHILD_ERROR, $?, ${^ENCODING},
1324$OS_ERROR, $ERRNO, $!, $EXTENDED_OS_ERROR, $^E, $EVAL_ERROR, $@,
1325$PROCESS_ID, $PID, $$, $REAL_USER_ID, $UID, $<, $EFFECTIVE_USER_ID, $EUID,
1326$>, $REAL_GROUP_ID, $GID, $(, $EFFECTIVE_GROUP_ID, $EGID, $),
1327$PROGRAM_NAME, $0, $[, $], $COMPILING, $^C, $DEBUGGING, $^D,
1328$SYSTEM_FD_MAX, $^F, $^H, %^H, $INPLACE_EDIT, $^I, $^M, $OSNAME, $^O,
428dc699
JH
1329${^OPEN}, $PERLDB, $^P, 0x01, 0x02, 0x04, 0x08, 0x10, 0x20, 0x40, 0x80,
13300x100, 0x200, $LAST_REGEXP_CODE_RESULT, $^R, $EXCEPTIONS_BEING_CAUGHT, $^S,
1331$BASETIME, $^T, ${^TAINT}, $PERL_VERSION, $^V, $WARNING, $^W,
1332${^WARNING_BITS}, ${^WIDE_SYSTEM_CALLS}, $EXECUTABLE_NAME, $^X, ARGV,
1333$ARGV, @ARGV, @F, @INC, @_, %INC, %ENV, $ENV{expr}, %SIG, $SIG{expr}
68dc0745 1334
c2e66d9e 1335=item Error Indicators
68dc0745 1336
c2e66d9e 1337=item Technical Note on the Syntax of Variable Names
4755096e 1338
c2e66d9e
GS
1339=back
1340
1341=item BUGS
4755096e
GS
1342
1343=back
1344
c2e66d9e 1345=head2 perllol - Manipulating Arrays of Arrays in Perl
4755096e 1346
d420ca49 1347=over 4
c2e66d9e
GS
1348
1349=item DESCRIPTION
1350
4d4e713d
JH
1351=over 4
1352
c2e66d9e
GS
1353=item Declaration and Access of Arrays of Arrays
1354
1355=item Growing Your Own
1356
1357=item Access and Printing
1358
1359=item Slices
1360
4d4e713d
JH
1361=back
1362
c2e66d9e
GS
1363=item SEE ALSO
1364
1365=item AUTHOR
4755096e
GS
1366
1367=back
1368
c2e66d9e 1369=head2 perlopentut - tutorial on opening things in Perl
4755096e 1370
d420ca49 1371=over 4
4755096e
GS
1372
1373=item DESCRIPTION
1374
c2e66d9e
GS
1375=item Open E<agrave> la shell
1376
d420ca49 1377=over 4
4755096e 1378
c2e66d9e 1379=item Simple Opens
4755096e 1380
c2e66d9e 1381=item Pipe Opens
4755096e 1382
c2e66d9e 1383=item The Minus File
4755096e 1384
c2e66d9e 1385=item Mixing Reads and Writes
4755096e
GS
1386
1387=item Filters
1388
1389=back
1390
1391=item Open E<agrave> la C
1392
d420ca49 1393=over 4
4755096e
GS
1394
1395=item Permissions E<agrave> la mode
1396
1397=back
1398
1399=item Obscure Open Tricks
1400
d420ca49 1401=over 4
4755096e
GS
1402
1403=item Re-Opening Files (dups)
1404
1405=item Dispelling the Dweomer
1406
1407=item Paths as Opens
1408
1409=item Single Argument Open
1410
1411=item Playing with STDIN and STDOUT
1412
1413=back
1414
1415=item Other I/O Issues
1416
d420ca49 1417=over 4
4755096e
GS
1418
1419=item Opening Non-File Files
1420
1421=item Binary Files
1422
1423=item File Locking
1424
1425=back
1426
1427=item SEE ALSO
1428
1429=item AUTHOR and COPYRIGHT
1430
1431=item HISTORY
1432
1433=back
1434
34babc16
JH
1435=head2 perlpacktut - tutorial on C<pack> and C<unpack>
1436
1437=over 4
1438
1439=item DESCRIPTION
1440
1441=item The Basic Principle
1442
1443=item Packing Text
1444
1445=item Packing Numbers
1446
1447=over 4
1448
1449=item Integers
1450
1451=item Unpacking a Stack Frame
1452
1453=item How to Eat an Egg on a Net
1454
1455=item Floating point Numbers
1456
1457=back
1458
1459=item Exotic Templates
1460
1461=over 4
1462
1463=item Bit Strings
1464
1465=item Uuencoding
1466
1467=item Doing Sums
1468
1469=item Unicode
1470
493a87da
JH
1471=item Another Portable Binary Encoding
1472
34babc16
JH
1473=back
1474
1475=item Lengths and Widths
1476
1477=over 4
1478
1479=item String Lengths
1480
1481=item Dynamic Templates
1482
34babc16
JH
1483=back
1484
1485=item Packing and Unpacking C Structures
1486
1487=over 4
1488
1489=item The Alignment Pit
1490
1491=item Alignment, Take 2
1492
248e172a
JH
1493=item Alignment, Take 3
1494
34babc16
JH
1495=item Pointers for How to Use Them
1496
1497=back
1498
1499=item Pack Recipes
1500
493a87da
JH
1501=item Funnies Section
1502
34babc16
JH
1503=item Authors
1504
1505=back
1506
c2e66d9e 1507=head2 perlretut - Perl regular expressions tutorial
4755096e 1508
d420ca49 1509=over 4
4755096e
GS
1510
1511=item DESCRIPTION
1512
c2e66d9e 1513=item Part 1: The basics
4755096e 1514
d420ca49 1515=over 4
4755096e 1516
c2e66d9e 1517=item Simple word matching
4755096e 1518
c2e66d9e 1519=item Using character classes
4755096e 1520
c2e66d9e 1521=item Matching this or that
4755096e 1522
c2e66d9e 1523=item Grouping things and hierarchical matching
4755096e 1524
c2e66d9e 1525=item Extracting matches
4755096e 1526
c2e66d9e 1527=item Matching repetitions
4755096e 1528
c2e66d9e 1529=item Building a regexp
4755096e 1530
c2e66d9e 1531=item Using regular expressions in Perl
4755096e 1532
c2e66d9e 1533=back
4755096e 1534
c2e66d9e 1535=item Part 2: Power tools
4755096e 1536
d420ca49 1537=over 4
4755096e 1538
c2e66d9e 1539=item More on characters, strings, and character classes
4755096e 1540
c2e66d9e 1541=item Compiling and saving regular expressions
4755096e 1542
c2e66d9e 1543=item Embedding comments and modifiers in a regular expression
4755096e 1544
c2e66d9e 1545=item Non-capturing groupings
4755096e 1546
c2e66d9e 1547=item Looking ahead and looking behind
4755096e 1548
c2e66d9e 1549=item Using independent subexpressions to prevent backtracking
4755096e 1550
c2e66d9e 1551=item Conditional expressions
4755096e 1552
c2e66d9e 1553=item A bit of magic: executing Perl code in a regular expression
4755096e 1554
c2e66d9e 1555=item Pragmas and debugging
4755096e
GS
1556
1557=back
1558
c2e66d9e 1559=item BUGS
4755096e 1560
c2e66d9e 1561=item SEE ALSO
4755096e 1562
c2e66d9e 1563=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
4755096e 1564
d420ca49 1565=over 4
4755096e 1566
c2e66d9e 1567=item Acknowledgments
4755096e
GS
1568
1569=back
1570
4755096e
GS
1571=back
1572
c2e66d9e 1573=head2 perlre - Perl regular expressions
4755096e 1574
d420ca49 1575=over 4
4755096e
GS
1576
1577=item DESCRIPTION
1578
c2e66d9e 1579i, m, s, x
4755096e 1580
d420ca49 1581=over 4
4755096e 1582
c2e66d9e 1583=item Regular Expressions
4755096e 1584
428dc699 1585[1], [2], [3], cntrl, graph, print, punct, xdigit
4755096e 1586
c2e66d9e 1587=item Extended Patterns
4755096e 1588
c2e66d9e
GS
1589C<(?#text)>, C<(?imsx-imsx)>, C<(?:pattern)>, C<(?imsx-imsx:pattern)>,
1590C<(?=pattern)>, C<(?!pattern)>, C<(?<=pattern)>, C<(?<!pattern)>, C<(?{
1591code })>, C<(??{ code })>, C<< (?>pattern) >>,
1592C<(?(condition)yes-pattern|no-pattern)>, C<(?(condition)yes-pattern)>
4755096e 1593
c2e66d9e 1594=item Backtracking
4755096e 1595
c2e66d9e 1596=item Version 8 Regular Expressions
4755096e 1597
c2e66d9e 1598=item Warning on \1 vs $1
4755096e 1599
c2e66d9e
GS
1600=item Repeated patterns matching zero-length substring
1601
1602=item Combining pieces together
1603
1604C<ST>, C<S|T>, C<S{REPEAT_COUNT}>, C<S{min,max}>, C<S{min,max}?>, C<S?>,
1605C<S*>, C<S+>, C<S??>, C<S*?>, C<S+?>, C<< (?>S) >>, C<(?=S)>, C<(?<=S)>,
1606C<(?!S)>, C<(?<!S)>, C<(??{ EXPR })>,
1607C<(?(condition)yes-pattern|no-pattern)>
1608
1609=item Creating custom RE engines
4755096e
GS
1610
1611=back
1612
c2e66d9e 1613=item BUGS
4755096e 1614
c2e66d9e 1615=item SEE ALSO
4755096e 1616
c2e66d9e
GS
1617=back
1618
d396a558
JH
1619=head2 perlref - Perl references and nested data structures
1620
d420ca49 1621=over 4
d396a558
JH
1622
1623=item NOTE
1624
1625=item DESCRIPTION
1626
d420ca49 1627=over 4
d396a558
JH
1628
1629=item Making References
1630
1631=item Using References
1632
1633=item Symbolic references
1634
1635=item Not-so-symbolic references
1636
1637=item Pseudo-hashes: Using an array as a hash
1638
1639=item Function Templates
1640
1641=back
1642
1643=item WARNING
1644
1645=item SEE ALSO
1646
1647=back
1648
c2e66d9e 1649=head2 perlform - Perl formats
4755096e 1650
d420ca49 1651=over 4
4755096e 1652
c2e66d9e 1653=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 1654
d420ca49 1655=over 4
4755096e 1656
c2e66d9e 1657=item Format Variables
4755096e 1658
c2e66d9e 1659=back
4755096e 1660
c2e66d9e 1661=item NOTES
4755096e 1662
d420ca49 1663=over 4
c2e66d9e
GS
1664
1665=item Footers
1666
1667=item Accessing Formatting Internals
4755096e
GS
1668
1669=back
1670
c2e66d9e 1671=item WARNINGS
4755096e
GS
1672
1673=back
1674
d396a558 1675=head2 perlboot - Beginner's Object-Oriented Tutorial
4755096e 1676
d420ca49 1677=over 4
4755096e
GS
1678
1679=item DESCRIPTION
1680
d420ca49 1681=over 4
c2e66d9e 1682
d396a558
JH
1683=item If we could talk to the animals...
1684
1685=item Introducing the method invocation arrow
1686
1687=item Invoking a barnyard
1688
1689=item The extra parameter of method invocation
1690
1691=item Calling a second method to simplify things
1692
1693=item Inheriting the windpipes
1694
1695=item A few notes about @ISA
1696
1697=item Overriding the methods
1698
1699=item Starting the search from a different place
1700
1701=item The SUPER way of doing things
1702
1703=item Where we're at so far...
1704
1705=item A horse is a horse, of course of course -- or is it?
1706
1707=item Invoking an instance method
1708
1709=item Accessing the instance data
1710
1711=item How to build a horse
1712
1713=item Inheriting the constructor
1714
1715=item Making a method work with either classes or instances
1716
1717=item Adding parameters to a method
1718
1719=item More interesting instances
1720
1721=item A horse of a different color
1722
1723=item Summary
1724
1725=back
1726
1727=item SEE ALSO
1728
1729=item COPYRIGHT
1730
1731=back
1732
1733=head2 perltoot - Tom's object-oriented tutorial for perl
c2e66d9e 1734
d420ca49 1735=over 4
4755096e 1736
d396a558 1737=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 1738
d396a558 1739=item Creating a Class
4755096e 1740
d420ca49 1741=over 4
4755096e 1742
d396a558 1743=item Object Representation
4755096e 1744
d396a558 1745=item Class Interface
4755096e 1746
d396a558 1747=item Constructors and Instance Methods
c2e66d9e 1748
d396a558 1749=item Planning for the Future: Better Constructors
c2e66d9e 1750
d396a558 1751=item Destructors
c2e66d9e 1752
d396a558 1753=item Other Object Methods
4755096e
GS
1754
1755=back
1756
d396a558 1757=item Class Data
4755096e 1758
d420ca49 1759=over 4
4755096e 1760
d396a558 1761=item Accessing Class Data
4755096e 1762
d396a558 1763=item Debugging Methods
4755096e 1764
d396a558 1765=item Class Destructors
4755096e 1766
d396a558 1767=item Documenting the Interface
4755096e 1768
d396a558 1769=back
4755096e 1770
d396a558
JH
1771=item Aggregation
1772
1773=item Inheritance
1774
d420ca49 1775=over 4
d396a558
JH
1776
1777=item Overridden Methods
1778
1779=item Multiple Inheritance
1780
1781=item UNIVERSAL: The Root of All Objects
4755096e 1782
c2e66d9e 1783=back
4755096e 1784
d396a558 1785=item Alternate Object Representations
4755096e 1786
d420ca49 1787=over 4
4755096e 1788
d396a558 1789=item Arrays as Objects
4755096e 1790
d396a558
JH
1791=item Closures as Objects
1792
1793=back
1794
1795=item AUTOLOAD: Proxy Methods
1796
d420ca49 1797=over 4
d396a558
JH
1798
1799=item Autoloaded Data Methods
1800
1801=item Inherited Autoloaded Data Methods
1802
1803=back
1804
1805=item Metaclassical Tools
1806
d420ca49 1807=over 4
d396a558
JH
1808
1809=item Class::Struct
1810
1811=item Data Members as Variables
4755096e 1812
d420ca49
AD
1813=back
1814
c2e66d9e 1815=item NOTES
4755096e 1816
d420ca49
AD
1817=over 4
1818
d396a558
JH
1819=item Object Terminology
1820
1821=back
1822
1823=item SEE ALSO
1824
1825=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
1826
1827=item COPYRIGHT
1828
d420ca49 1829=over 4
c2e66d9e 1830
d396a558 1831=item Acknowledgments
c2e66d9e 1832
d396a558 1833=back
c2e66d9e 1834
d396a558 1835=back
c2e66d9e 1836
890a53b9 1837=head2 perltooc - Tom's OO Tutorial for Class Data in Perl
c2e66d9e 1838
d420ca49 1839=over 4
c2e66d9e 1840
d396a558 1841=item DESCRIPTION
c2e66d9e 1842
dc5c060f
JH
1843=item Class Data in a Can
1844
d396a558
JH
1845=item Class Data as Package Variables
1846
d420ca49 1847=over 4
d396a558
JH
1848
1849=item Putting All Your Eggs in One Basket
1850
1851=item Inheritance Concerns
1852
1853=item The Eponymous Meta-Object
1854
1855=item Indirect References to Class Data
1856
1857=item Monadic Classes
1858
1859=item Translucent Attributes
4755096e
GS
1860
1861=back
1862
d396a558 1863=item Class Data as Lexical Variables
4755096e 1864
d420ca49 1865=over 4
4755096e 1866
d396a558
JH
1867=item Privacy and Responsibility
1868
1869=item File-Scoped Lexicals
1870
1871=item More Inheritance Concerns
1872
1873=item Locking the Door and Throwing Away the Key
1874
1875=item Translucency Revisited
4755096e 1876
c2e66d9e 1877=back
4755096e 1878
d396a558
JH
1879=item NOTES
1880
c2e66d9e 1881=item SEE ALSO
4755096e 1882
d396a558
JH
1883=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
1884
1885=item ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
1886
c2e66d9e 1887=item HISTORY
4755096e 1888
c2e66d9e 1889=back
4755096e 1890
d396a558 1891=head2 perlobj - Perl objects
4755096e 1892
d420ca49 1893=over 4
4755096e 1894
c2e66d9e 1895=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 1896
d420ca49 1897=over 4
4755096e 1898
d396a558 1899=item An Object is Simply a Reference
4755096e 1900
d396a558 1901=item A Class is Simply a Package
4755096e 1902
d396a558 1903=item A Method is Simply a Subroutine
4755096e 1904
d396a558 1905=item Method Invocation
4755096e 1906
bd28ded5 1907=item Indirect Object Syntax
d396a558
JH
1908
1909=item Default UNIVERSAL methods
1910
1911isa(CLASS), can(METHOD), VERSION( [NEED] )
1912
1913=item Destructors
1914
1915=item Summary
1916
1917=item Two-Phased Garbage Collection
4755096e 1918
c2e66d9e 1919=back
4755096e 1920
d396a558
JH
1921=item SEE ALSO
1922
1923=back
1924
1925=head2 perlbot - Bag'o Object Tricks (the BOT)
1926
d420ca49 1927=over 4
d396a558
JH
1928
1929=item DESCRIPTION
1930
1931=item OO SCALING TIPS
1932
1933=item INSTANCE VARIABLES
1934
1935=item SCALAR INSTANCE VARIABLES
1936
1937=item INSTANCE VARIABLE INHERITANCE
1938
1939=item OBJECT RELATIONSHIPS
1940
1941=item OVERRIDING SUPERCLASS METHODS
1942
1943=item USING RELATIONSHIP WITH SDBM
1944
1945=item THINKING OF CODE REUSE
1946
1947=item CLASS CONTEXT AND THE OBJECT
1948
1949=item INHERITING A CONSTRUCTOR
1950
1951=item DELEGATION
1952
1953=back
1954
1955=head2 perltie - how to hide an object class in a simple variable
1956
d420ca49 1957=over 4
d396a558
JH
1958
1959=item SYNOPSIS
1960
1961=item DESCRIPTION
1962
d420ca49 1963=over 4
d396a558
JH
1964
1965=item Tying Scalars
1966
93d73c42
JH
1967TIESCALAR classname, LIST, FETCH this, STORE this, value, UNTIE this,
1968DESTROY this
d396a558
JH
1969
1970=item Tying Arrays
1971
1972TIEARRAY classname, LIST, FETCH this, index, STORE this, index, value,
165c0277
JH
1973FETCHSIZE this, STORESIZE this, count, EXTEND this, count, EXISTS this,
1974key, DELETE this, key, CLEAR this, PUSH this, LIST, POP this, SHIFT this,
1975UNSHIFT this, LIST, SPLICE this, offset, length, LIST, UNTIE this, DESTROY
1976this
d396a558
JH
1977
1978=item Tying Hashes
1979
1980USER, HOME, CLOBBER, LIST, TIEHASH classname, LIST, FETCH this, key, STORE
1981this, key, value, DELETE this, key, CLEAR this, EXISTS this, key, FIRSTKEY
93d73c42 1982this, NEXTKEY this, lastkey, UNTIE this, DESTROY this
d396a558
JH
1983
1984=item Tying FileHandles
1985
1986TIEHANDLE classname, LIST, WRITE this, LIST, PRINT this, LIST, PRINTF this,
93d73c42
JH
1987LIST, READ this, LIST, READLINE this, GETC this, CLOSE this, UNTIE this,
1988DESTROY this
d396a558 1989
9fa7f388
JH
1990=item UNTIE this
1991
d396a558
JH
1992=item The C<untie> Gotcha
1993
1994=back
4755096e 1995
c2e66d9e 1996=item SEE ALSO
4755096e 1997
d396a558
JH
1998=item BUGS
1999
2000=item AUTHOR
2001
c2e66d9e 2002=back
4755096e 2003
c2e66d9e
GS
2004=head2 perlipc - Perl interprocess communication (signals, fifos, pipes,
2005safe subprocesses, sockets, and semaphores)
4755096e 2006
d420ca49 2007=over 4
4755096e 2008
c2e66d9e 2009=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 2010
c2e66d9e 2011=item Signals
4755096e 2012
c2e66d9e 2013=item Named Pipes
4755096e 2014
d420ca49 2015=over 4
4755096e 2016
c2e66d9e 2017=item WARNING
4755096e 2018
c2e66d9e 2019=back
4755096e 2020
c2e66d9e 2021=item Using open() for IPC
4755096e 2022
d420ca49 2023=over 4
4755096e 2024
c2e66d9e 2025=item Filehandles
4755096e 2026
c2e66d9e 2027=item Background Processes
4755096e 2028
c2e66d9e 2029=item Complete Dissociation of Child from Parent
4755096e 2030
c2e66d9e 2031=item Safe Pipe Opens
4755096e 2032
c2e66d9e 2033=item Bidirectional Communication with Another Process
4755096e 2034
c2e66d9e 2035=item Bidirectional Communication with Yourself
4755096e
GS
2036
2037=back
2038
c2e66d9e 2039=item Sockets: Client/Server Communication
4755096e 2040
d420ca49 2041=over 4
4755096e 2042
c2e66d9e 2043=item Internet Line Terminators
4755096e 2044
c2e66d9e 2045=item Internet TCP Clients and Servers
4755096e 2046
c2e66d9e
GS
2047=item Unix-Domain TCP Clients and Servers
2048
2049=back
2050
2051=item TCP Clients with IO::Socket
4755096e 2052
d420ca49 2053=over 4
4755096e 2054
c2e66d9e 2055=item A Simple Client
4755096e 2056
c2e66d9e 2057C<Proto>, C<PeerAddr>, C<PeerPort>
4755096e 2058
c2e66d9e 2059=item A Webget Client
4755096e 2060
c2e66d9e 2061=item Interactive Client with IO::Socket
4755096e 2062
c2e66d9e 2063=back
4755096e 2064
c2e66d9e 2065=item TCP Servers with IO::Socket
4755096e 2066
c2e66d9e 2067Proto, LocalPort, Listen, Reuse
4755096e 2068
c2e66d9e 2069=item UDP: Message Passing
4755096e 2070
c2e66d9e 2071=item SysV IPC
4755096e 2072
c2e66d9e 2073=item NOTES
4755096e 2074
c2e66d9e 2075=item BUGS
4755096e 2076
c2e66d9e 2077=item AUTHOR
4755096e 2078
c2e66d9e 2079=item SEE ALSO
4755096e
GS
2080
2081=back
2082
bd28ded5 2083=head2 perlfork - Perl's fork() emulation (EXPERIMENTAL, subject to change)
4755096e 2084
d420ca49 2085=over 4
4755096e 2086
c2e66d9e
GS
2087=item SYNOPSIS
2088
2089=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 2090
d420ca49 2091=over 4
4755096e 2092
c2e66d9e 2093=item Behavior of other Perl features in forked pseudo-processes
4755096e 2094
c2e66d9e
GS
2095$$ or $PROCESS_ID, %ENV, chdir() and all other builtins that accept
2096filenames, wait() and waitpid(), kill(), exec(), exit(), Open handles to
2097files, directories and network sockets
4755096e 2098
c2e66d9e 2099=item Resource limits
4755096e 2100
c2e66d9e 2101=item Killing the parent process
4755096e 2102
c2e66d9e 2103=item Lifetime of the parent process and pseudo-processes
4755096e 2104
c2e66d9e 2105=item CAVEATS AND LIMITATIONS
4755096e 2106
c2e66d9e
GS
2107BEGIN blocks, Open filehandles, Forking pipe open() not yet implemented,
2108Global state maintained by XSUBs, Interpreter embedded in larger
2109application, Thread-safety of extensions
4755096e 2110
c2e66d9e 2111=back
4755096e 2112
c2e66d9e
GS
2113=item BUGS
2114
2115=item AUTHOR
2116
2117=item SEE ALSO
4755096e
GS
2118
2119=back
2120
c2e66d9e 2121=head2 perlnumber - semantics of numbers and numeric operations in Perl
4755096e 2122
d420ca49 2123=over 4
4755096e 2124
c2e66d9e 2125=item SYNOPSIS
4755096e 2126
c2e66d9e 2127=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 2128
c2e66d9e 2129=item Storing numbers
4755096e 2130
c2e66d9e 2131=item Numeric operators and numeric conversions
4755096e 2132
c2e66d9e 2133=item Flavors of Perl numeric operations
4755096e 2134
c2e66d9e
GS
2135Arithmetic operators except, C<no integer>, Arithmetic operators except,
2136C<use integer>, Bitwise operators, C<no integer>, Bitwise operators, C<use
2137integer>, Operators which expect an integer, Operators which expect a
2138string
4755096e 2139
c2e66d9e 2140=item AUTHOR
4755096e 2141
c2e66d9e 2142=item SEE ALSO
4755096e
GS
2143
2144=back
2145
c2e66d9e 2146=head2 perlthrtut - tutorial on threads in Perl
4755096e 2147
d420ca49 2148=over 4
4755096e
GS
2149
2150=item DESCRIPTION
2151
53d7eaa8
JH
2152=back
2153
2154=head2 perlothrtut - old tutorial on threads in Perl
2155
2156=over 4
2157
2158=item DESCRIPTION
2159
c2e66d9e 2160=item What Is A Thread Anyway?
4755096e 2161
c2e66d9e 2162=item Threaded Program Models
4755096e 2163
d420ca49 2164=over 4
4755096e 2165
c2e66d9e 2166=item Boss/Worker
4755096e 2167
c2e66d9e 2168=item Work Crew
4755096e 2169
c2e66d9e 2170=item Pipeline
4755096e
GS
2171
2172=back
2173
c2e66d9e 2174=item Native threads
4755096e 2175
c2e66d9e 2176=item What kind of threads are perl threads?
4755096e 2177
c2e66d9e 2178=item Threadsafe Modules
4755096e 2179
c2e66d9e 2180=item Thread Basics
4755096e 2181
d420ca49 2182=over 4
4755096e 2183
c2e66d9e 2184=item Basic Thread Support
4755096e 2185
c2e66d9e 2186=item Creating Threads
4755096e 2187
c2e66d9e 2188=item Giving up control
4755096e 2189
c2e66d9e 2190=item Waiting For A Thread To Exit
4755096e 2191
c2e66d9e 2192=item Errors In Threads
4755096e 2193
c2e66d9e 2194=item Ignoring A Thread
4755096e
GS
2195
2196=back
2197
c2e66d9e 2198=item Threads And Data
4755096e 2199
d420ca49 2200=over 4
4755096e 2201
c2e66d9e 2202=item Shared And Unshared Data
4755096e 2203
c2e66d9e 2204=item Thread Pitfall: Races
4755096e 2205
c2e66d9e 2206=item Controlling access: lock()
4755096e 2207
c2e66d9e 2208=item Thread Pitfall: Deadlocks
4755096e 2209
c2e66d9e 2210=item Queues: Passing Data Around
4755096e 2211
c2e66d9e 2212=back
4755096e 2213
c2e66d9e 2214=item Threads And Code
4755096e 2215
d420ca49 2216=over 4
4755096e 2217
c2e66d9e 2218=item Semaphores: Synchronizing Data Access
4755096e 2219
c2e66d9e 2220Basic semaphores, Advanced Semaphores
4755096e 2221
c2e66d9e 2222=item Attributes: Restricting Access To Subroutines
4755096e 2223
c2e66d9e 2224=item Subroutine Locks
4755096e 2225
c2e66d9e 2226=item Methods
4755096e 2227
c2e66d9e 2228=item Locking A Subroutine
4755096e
GS
2229
2230=back
2231
c2e66d9e 2232=item General Thread Utility Routines
4755096e 2233
d420ca49 2234=over 4
4755096e 2235
c2e66d9e 2236=item What Thread Am I In?
4755096e 2237
c2e66d9e 2238=item Thread IDs
4755096e 2239
c2e66d9e 2240=item Are These Threads The Same?
4755096e 2241
c2e66d9e 2242=item What Threads Are Running?
4755096e 2243
c2e66d9e 2244=back
4755096e 2245
c2e66d9e 2246=item A Complete Example
4755096e 2247
c2e66d9e 2248=item Conclusion
4755096e 2249
c2e66d9e 2250=item Bibliography
4755096e 2251
d420ca49 2252=over 4
4755096e 2253
c2e66d9e 2254=item Introductory Texts
4755096e 2255
c2e66d9e 2256=item OS-Related References
4755096e 2257
c2e66d9e 2258=item Other References
4755096e
GS
2259
2260=back
2261
c2e66d9e 2262=item Acknowledgements
4755096e 2263
c2e66d9e 2264=item AUTHOR
4755096e 2265
c2e66d9e 2266=item Copyrights
4755096e 2267
c2e66d9e 2268=back
4755096e 2269
c2e66d9e 2270=head2 perlport - Writing portable Perl
4755096e 2271
d420ca49 2272=over 4
4755096e 2273
c2e66d9e 2274=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 2275
c2e66d9e
GS
2276Not all Perl programs have to be portable, Nearly all of Perl already I<is>
2277portable
4755096e 2278
c2e66d9e 2279=item ISSUES
4755096e 2280
d420ca49 2281=over 4
4755096e 2282
c2e66d9e 2283=item Newlines
4755096e 2284
c2e66d9e 2285=item Numbers endianness and Width
4755096e 2286
c2e66d9e 2287=item Files and Filesystems
4755096e 2288
c2e66d9e 2289=item System Interaction
4755096e 2290
c2e66d9e 2291=item Interprocess Communication (IPC)
4755096e 2292
c2e66d9e 2293=item External Subroutines (XS)
4755096e 2294
c2e66d9e 2295=item Standard Modules
4755096e 2296
c2e66d9e 2297=item Time and Date
4755096e 2298
c2e66d9e 2299=item Character sets and character encoding
4755096e 2300
c2e66d9e 2301=item Internationalisation
4755096e 2302
c2e66d9e 2303=item System Resources
4755096e 2304
c2e66d9e 2305=item Security
4755096e 2306
c2e66d9e 2307=item Style
4755096e
GS
2308
2309=back
2310
c2e66d9e 2311=item CPAN Testers
4755096e 2312
c2e66d9e
GS
2313Mailing list: cpan-testers@perl.org, Testing results:
2314http://testers.cpan.org/
4755096e 2315
c2e66d9e 2316=item PLATFORMS
4755096e 2317
d420ca49 2318=over 4
4755096e 2319
c2e66d9e 2320=item Unix
4755096e 2321
c2e66d9e 2322=item DOS and Derivatives
4755096e 2323
c2e66d9e 2324=item S<Mac OS>
4755096e 2325
c2e66d9e 2326=item VMS
4755096e 2327
c2e66d9e 2328=item VOS
4755096e 2329
c2e66d9e 2330=item EBCDIC Platforms
4755096e 2331
c2e66d9e 2332=item Acorn RISC OS
4755096e 2333
c2e66d9e 2334=item Other perls
4755096e
GS
2335
2336=back
2337
c2e66d9e 2338=item FUNCTION IMPLEMENTATIONS
4755096e 2339
d420ca49 2340=over 4
4755096e 2341
c2e66d9e
GS
2342=item Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions
2343
2344-I<X> FILEHANDLE, -I<X> EXPR, -I<X>, alarm SECONDS, alarm, binmode
2345FILEHANDLE, chmod LIST, chown LIST, chroot FILENAME, chroot, crypt
2346PLAINTEXT,SALT, dbmclose HASH, dbmopen HASH,DBNAME,MODE, dump LABEL, exec
ba62762e
JH
2347LIST, exit EXPR, exit, fcntl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, flock
2348FILEHANDLE,OPERATION, fork, getlogin, getpgrp PID, getppid, getpriority
2349WHICH,WHO, getpwnam NAME, getgrnam NAME, getnetbyname NAME, getpwuid UID,
2350getgrgid GID, getnetbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE, getprotobynumber NUMBER,
2351getservbyport PORT,PROTO, getpwent, getgrent, gethostent, getnetent,
2352getprotoent, getservent, setpwent, setgrent, sethostent STAYOPEN, setnetent
2353STAYOPEN, setprotoent STAYOPEN, setservent STAYOPEN, endpwent, endgrent,
2354endhostent, endnetent, endprotoent, endservent, getsockopt
2355SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME, glob EXPR, glob, ioctl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR,
2356kill SIGNAL, LIST, link OLDFILE,NEWFILE, lstat FILEHANDLE, lstat EXPR,
2357lstat, msgctl ID,CMD,ARG, msgget KEY,FLAGS, msgsnd ID,MSG,FLAGS, msgrcv
2358ID,VAR,SIZE,TYPE,FLAGS, open FILEHANDLE,EXPR, open FILEHANDLE, pipe
2359READHANDLE,WRITEHANDLE, readlink EXPR, readlink, select
2360RBITS,WBITS,EBITS,TIMEOUT, semctl ID,SEMNUM,CMD,ARG, semget
2361KEY,NSEMS,FLAGS, semop KEY,OPSTRING, setgrent, setpgrp PID,PGRP,
c2e66d9e
GS
2362setpriority WHICH,WHO,PRIORITY, setpwent, setsockopt
2363SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME,OPTVAL, shmctl ID,CMD,ARG, shmget KEY,SIZE,FLAGS,
80cbd5ad
JH
2364shmread ID,VAR,POS,SIZE, shmwrite ID,STRING,POS,SIZE, sockatmark SOCKET,
2365socketpair SOCKET1,SOCKET2,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL, stat FILEHANDLE, stat
2366EXPR, stat, symlink OLDFILE,NEWFILE, syscall LIST, sysopen
d396a558
JH
2367FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE,PERMS, system LIST, times, truncate
2368FILEHANDLE,LENGTH, truncate EXPR,LENGTH, umask EXPR, umask, utime LIST,
2369wait, waitpid PID,FLAGS
4755096e 2370
d396a558 2371=back
4755096e 2372
d396a558 2373=item CHANGES
4755096e 2374
603b90a8
JH
2375v1.48, 02 February 2001, v1.47, 22 March 2000, v1.46, 12 February 2000,
2376v1.45, 20 December 1999, v1.44, 19 July 1999, v1.43, 24 May 1999, v1.42, 22
2377May 1999, v1.41, 19 May 1999, v1.40, 11 April 1999, v1.39, 11 February
23781999, v1.38, 31 December 1998, v1.37, 19 December 1998, v1.36, 9 September
23791998, v1.35, 13 August 1998, v1.33, 06 August 1998, v1.32, 05 August 1998,
2380v1.30, 03 August 1998, v1.23, 10 July 1998
4755096e 2381
d396a558 2382=item Supported Platforms
4755096e 2383
d396a558 2384=item SEE ALSO
4755096e 2385
d396a558 2386=item AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS
4755096e 2387
4755096e
GS
2388=back
2389
d396a558
JH
2390=head2 perllocale - Perl locale handling (internationalization and
2391localization)
4755096e 2392
d420ca49 2393=over 4
4755096e 2394
d396a558 2395=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 2396
d396a558
JH
2397=item PREPARING TO USE LOCALES
2398
2399=item USING LOCALES
4755096e 2400
d420ca49 2401=over 4
4755096e 2402
d396a558 2403=item The use locale pragma
4755096e 2404
d396a558 2405=item The setlocale function
4755096e 2406
d396a558 2407=item Finding locales
4755096e 2408
d396a558 2409=item LOCALE PROBLEMS
4755096e 2410
d396a558 2411=item Temporarily fixing locale problems
4755096e 2412
d396a558 2413=item Permanently fixing locale problems
4755096e 2414
d396a558 2415=item Permanently fixing your system's locale configuration
4755096e 2416
d396a558 2417=item Fixing system locale configuration
4755096e 2418
d396a558 2419=item The localeconv function
4755096e 2420
d0363f02
JH
2421=item I18N::Langinfo
2422
4755096e
GS
2423=back
2424
d396a558 2425=item LOCALE CATEGORIES
4755096e 2426
d420ca49 2427=over 4
4755096e 2428
d396a558 2429=item Category LC_COLLATE: Collation
4755096e 2430
d396a558 2431=item Category LC_CTYPE: Character Types
4755096e 2432
d396a558 2433=item Category LC_NUMERIC: Numeric Formatting
4755096e 2434
d396a558 2435=item Category LC_MONETARY: Formatting of monetary amounts
4755096e 2436
d396a558 2437=item LC_TIME
4755096e 2438
d396a558 2439=item Other categories
4755096e 2440
d396a558 2441=back
4755096e 2442
d396a558 2443=item SECURITY
4755096e 2444
d396a558 2445=item ENVIRONMENT
4755096e 2446
d396a558
JH
2447PERL_BADLANG, LC_ALL, LANGUAGE, LC_CTYPE, LC_COLLATE, LC_MONETARY,
2448LC_NUMERIC, LC_TIME, LANG
4755096e 2449
d396a558 2450=item NOTES
4755096e 2451
d420ca49 2452=over 4
4755096e 2453
d396a558 2454=item Backward compatibility
4755096e 2455
d396a558 2456=item I18N:Collate obsolete
4755096e 2457
d396a558 2458=item Sort speed and memory use impacts
4755096e 2459
d396a558 2460=item write() and LC_NUMERIC
4755096e 2461
d396a558 2462=item Freely available locale definitions
4755096e 2463
d396a558 2464=item I18n and l10n
4755096e 2465
d396a558 2466=item An imperfect standard
4755096e
GS
2467
2468=back
2469
d396a558 2470=item BUGS
4755096e 2471
d420ca49 2472=over 4
4755096e 2473
d396a558 2474=item Broken systems
4755096e
GS
2475
2476=back
2477
2478=item SEE ALSO
2479
d396a558 2480=item HISTORY
4755096e
GS
2481
2482=back
2483
07fcf8ff 2484=head2 perluniintro - Perl Unicode introduction
ba62762e
JH
2485
2486=over 4
2487
2488=item DESCRIPTION
2489
2490=over 4
2491
2492=item Unicode
2493
2494=item Perl's Unicode Support
2495
2496=item Perl's Unicode Model
2497
2498=item Creating Unicode
2499
2500=item Handling Unicode
2501
2502=item Legacy Encodings
2503
2504=item Unicode I/O
2505
3ecb3787
JH
2506=item Displaying Unicode As Text
2507
ba62762e
JH
2508=item Special Cases
2509
2510=item Advanced Topics
2511
2512=item Miscellaneous
2513
2514=item Questions With Answers
2515
ff426ff2 2516, , , , , ,
ba62762e
JH
2517
2518=item Hexadecimal Notation
2519
2520=item Further Resources
2521
2522=back
2523
34babc16
JH
2524=item UNICODE IN OLDER PERLS
2525
ba62762e
JH
2526=item SEE ALSO
2527
2528=item ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
2529
2530=item AUTHOR, COPYRIGHT, AND LICENSE
2531
2532=back
2533
d396a558 2534=head2 perlunicode - Unicode support in Perl
4755096e 2535
d420ca49 2536=over 4
4755096e
GS
2537
2538=item DESCRIPTION
2539
d420ca49 2540=over 4
4755096e 2541
e42c74e1 2542=item Important Caveats
4755096e 2543
d396a558 2544Input and Output Disciplines, Regular Expressions, C<use utf8> still needed
ad0029c4 2545to enable UTF-8/UTF-EBCDIC in scripts
4755096e 2546
d396a558 2547=item Byte and Character semantics
4755096e 2548
d396a558 2549=item Effects of character semantics
4755096e 2550
fbe3d936
JH
2551=item Scripts
2552
2553=item Blocks
2554
d396a558 2555=item Character encodings for input and output
4755096e 2556
80327a3d 2557=item Unicode Regular Expression Support Level
ba62762e
JH
2558
2559=item Unicode Encodings
2560
ba62762e
JH
2561=item Security Implications of Malformed UTF-8
2562
2563=item Unicode in Perl on EBCDIC
2564
37b1fd75
JH
2565=item Using Unicode in XS
2566
ba62762e
JH
2567=back
2568
80327a3d 2569=item BUGS
4755096e
GS
2570
2571=back
2572
d396a558 2573=head2 perlebcdic - Considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms
4755096e 2574
d420ca49 2575=over 4
4755096e 2576
d396a558 2577=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 2578
d396a558 2579=item COMMON CHARACTER CODE SETS
4755096e 2580
d420ca49 2581=over 4
4755096e 2582
d396a558 2583=item ASCII
4755096e 2584
d396a558 2585=item ISO 8859
4755096e 2586
d396a558 2587=item Latin 1 (ISO 8859-1)
4755096e 2588
d396a558 2589=item EBCDIC
4755096e 2590
d396a558 2591=item 13 variant characters
4755096e 2592
d396a558 2593=item 0037
4755096e 2594
d396a558 2595=item 1047
4755096e 2596
d396a558 2597=item POSIX-BC
4755096e 2598
41ca3a40
JH
2599=item Unicode and UTF
2600
ff426ff2
JH
2601=item Using Encode
2602
4755096e
GS
2603=back
2604
d396a558 2605=item SINGLE OCTET TABLES
4755096e 2606
41ca3a40 2607recipe 0, recipe 1, recipe 2, recipe 3, recipe 4, recipe 5, recipe 6
4755096e 2608
d396a558 2609=item IDENTIFYING CHARACTER CODE SETS
4755096e 2610
d396a558 2611=item CONVERSIONS
4755096e 2612
d420ca49 2613=over 4
37d4d706
JH
2614
2615=item tr///
2616
2617=item iconv
2618
2619=item C RTL
2620
2621=back
2622
d396a558 2623=item OPERATOR DIFFERENCES
4755096e 2624
d396a558 2625=item FUNCTION DIFFERENCES
4755096e 2626
d396a558 2627chr(), ord(), pack(), print(), printf(), sort(), sprintf(), unpack()
4755096e 2628
d396a558 2629=item REGULAR EXPRESSION DIFFERENCES
4755096e 2630
d396a558 2631=item SOCKETS
4755096e 2632
d396a558 2633=item SORTING
4755096e 2634
d420ca49 2635=over 4
4755096e 2636
9fa7f388 2637=item Ignore ASCII vs. EBCDIC sort differences.
4755096e 2638
9fa7f388 2639=item MONO CASE then sort data.
4755096e 2640
9fa7f388 2641=item Convert, sort data, then re convert.
4755096e 2642
d396a558 2643=item Perform sorting on one type of machine only.
4755096e
GS
2644
2645=back
2646
41ca3a40 2647=item TRANSFORMATION FORMATS
37d4d706 2648
d420ca49 2649=over 4
37d4d706
JH
2650
2651=item URL decoding and encoding
2652
2653=item uu encoding and decoding
2654
2655=item Quoted-Printable encoding and decoding
2656
41ca3a40 2657=item Caesarian ciphers
37d4d706
JH
2658
2659=back
2660
2661=item Hashing order and checksums
4755096e 2662
d396a558 2663=item I18N AND L10N
4755096e 2664
d396a558 2665=item MULTI OCTET CHARACTER SETS
4755096e 2666
d396a558 2667=item OS ISSUES
4755096e 2668
d420ca49 2669=over 4
4755096e 2670
d396a558 2671=item OS/400
7029d033 2672
d396a558 2673IFS access
4755096e 2674
41ca3a40 2675=item OS/390, z/OS
4755096e 2676
41ca3a40 2677chcp, dataset access, OS/390, z/OS iconv, locales
4755096e 2678
d396a558 2679=item VM/ESA?
4755096e 2680
d396a558 2681=item POSIX-BC?
4755096e 2682
d396a558 2683=back
4755096e 2684
9fa7f388
JH
2685=item BUGS
2686
b3b6085d
PP
2687=item SEE ALSO
2688
d396a558 2689=item REFERENCES
c2e66d9e 2690
41ca3a40
JH
2691=item HISTORY
2692
d396a558 2693=item AUTHOR
4755096e
GS
2694
2695=back
2696
d396a558 2697=head2 perlsec - Perl security
4755096e 2698
d420ca49 2699=over 4
4755096e 2700
4755096e
GS
2701=item DESCRIPTION
2702
d420ca49 2703=over 4
4755096e 2704
d396a558 2705=item Laundering and Detecting Tainted Data
4755096e 2706
d396a558 2707=item Switches On the "#!" Line
4755096e 2708
d396a558 2709=item Cleaning Up Your Path
c2e66d9e 2710
d396a558 2711=item Security Bugs
c2e66d9e 2712
d396a558 2713=item Protecting Your Programs
4755096e
GS
2714
2715=back
2716
c2e66d9e
GS
2717=item SEE ALSO
2718
4755096e
GS
2719=back
2720
c2e66d9e 2721=head2 perlmod - Perl modules (packages and symbol tables)
4755096e 2722
d420ca49 2723=over 4
4755096e
GS
2724
2725=item DESCRIPTION
2726
d420ca49 2727=over 4
4755096e 2728
c2e66d9e 2729=item Packages
4755096e 2730
c2e66d9e 2731=item Symbol Tables
4755096e 2732
c2e66d9e 2733=item Package Constructors and Destructors
4755096e 2734
c2e66d9e 2735=item Perl Classes
4755096e 2736
c2e66d9e 2737=item Perl Modules
4755096e 2738
a6fb92f1
JH
2739=item Making your module threadsafe
2740
4755096e
GS
2741=back
2742
c2e66d9e 2743=item SEE ALSO
4755096e 2744
c2e66d9e 2745=back
4755096e 2746
35bf961c
JH
2747=head2 perlmodinstall - Installing CPAN Modules
2748
2749=over 4
2750
2751=item DESCRIPTION
2752
2753=over 4
2754
2755=item PREAMBLE
2756
2757B<DECOMPRESS> the file, B<UNPACK> the file into a directory, B<BUILD> the
2758module (sometimes unnecessary), B<INSTALL> the module
2759
2760=back
2761
2762=item PORTABILITY
2763
2764=item HEY
2765
2766=item AUTHOR
2767
2768=item COPYRIGHT
2769
2770=back
2771
c2e66d9e 2772=head2 perlmodlib - constructing new Perl modules and finding existing ones
4755096e 2773
d420ca49 2774=over 4
4755096e 2775
c2e66d9e 2776=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 2777
c2e66d9e 2778=item THE PERL MODULE LIBRARY
4755096e 2779
d420ca49 2780=over 4
4755096e 2781
c2e66d9e 2782=item Pragmatic Modules
4755096e 2783
04b01f78
JH
2784attributes, autouse, base, blib, bytes, charnames, constant, diagnostics,
2785encoding, fields, filetest, integer, less, locale, open, overload, sigtrap,
2786sort, strict, subs, utf8, vars, vmsish, warnings, warnings::register
4755096e 2787
c2e66d9e 2788=item Standard Modules
4755096e 2789
04b01f78
JH
2790AnyDBM_File, Attribute::Handlers, AutoLoader, AutoSplit, Benchmark, CGI,
2791CGI::Apache, CGI::Carp, CGI::Cookie, CGI::Fast, CGI::Pretty, CGI::Push,
2792CGI::Switch, CGI::Util, CPAN, CPAN::FirstTime, CPAN::Nox, Carp,
2793Carp::Heavy, Class::ISA, Class::Struct, Cwd, DB, Devel::SelfStubber,
2794Digest, DirHandle, Dumpvalue, English, Env, Exporter, Exporter::Heavy,
c27482a4
JH
2795ExtUtils::Command, ExtUtils::Constant, ExtUtils::Embed, ExtUtils::Install,
2796ExtUtils::Installed, ExtUtils::Liblist, ExtUtils::MM_Cygwin,
2797ExtUtils::MM_NW5, ExtUtils::MM_OS2, ExtUtils::MM_Unix, ExtUtils::MM_VMS,
2798ExtUtils::MM_Win32, ExtUtils::MakeMaker, ExtUtils::Manifest,
2799ExtUtils::Mkbootstrap, ExtUtils::Mksymlists, ExtUtils::Packlist,
04b01f78
JH
2800ExtUtils::testlib, Fatal, File::Basename, File::CheckTree, File::Compare,
2801File::Copy, File::DosGlob, File::Find, File::Path, File::Spec,
2802File::Spec::Cygwin, File::Spec::Epoc, File::Spec::Functions,
2803File::Spec::Mac, File::Spec::OS2, File::Spec::Unix, File::Spec::VMS,
2804File::Spec::Win32, File::Temp, File::stat, FileCache, FileHandle,
2805Filter::Simple, FindBin, Getopt::Long, Getopt::Std, I18N::Collate,
2806I18N::LangTags, I18N::LangTags::List, IPC::Open2, IPC::Open3,
2807Locale::Constants, Locale::Country, Locale::Currency, Locale::Language,
2808Locale::Maketext, Locale::Maketext::TPJ13, Math::BigFloat, Math::BigInt,
2809Math::BigInt::Calc, Math::Complex, Math::Trig, Memoize,
2810Memoize::AnyDBM_File, Memoize::Expire, Memoize::ExpireFile,
2811Memoize::ExpireTest, Memoize::NDBM_File, Memoize::SDBM_File,
2812Memoize::Storable, NEXT, Net::Cmd, Net::Config, Net::Domain, Net::FTP,
2813Net::NNTP, Net::Netrc, Net::POP3, Net::Ping, Net::SMTP, Net::Time,
2814Net::hostent, Net::libnetFAQ, Net::netent, Net::protoent, Net::servent,
2815PerlIO, Pod::Checker, Pod::Find, Pod::Functions, Pod::Html,
2816Pod::InputObjects, Pod::LaTeX, Pod::Man, Pod::ParseLink, Pod::ParseUtils,
2817Pod::Parser, Pod::Plainer, Pod::Select, Pod::Text, Pod::Text::Color,
2818Pod::Text::Overstrike, Pod::Text::Termcap, Pod::Usage, Pod::t::basic,
2819Search::Dict, SelectSaver, SelfLoader, Shell, Switch, Symbol,
2820Term::ANSIColor, Term::Cap, Term::Complete, Term::ReadLine, Test,
34babc16
JH
2821Test::Builder, Test::Harness, Test::More, Test::Simple, Test::Tutorial,
2822Text::Abbrev, Text::Balanced, Text::ParseWords, Text::Soundex, Text::Tabs,
2823Text::Wrap, Thread, Tie::Array, Tie::Handle, Tie::Hash, Tie::RefHash,
2824Tie::Scalar, Tie::SubstrHash, Time::Local, Time::gmtime, Time::localtime,
2825Time::tm, UNIVERSAL, Unicode::Collate, Unicode::UCD, User::grent,
e61ecf27 2826User::pwent, Win32
4755096e 2827
c2e66d9e 2828=item Extension Modules
4755096e 2829
c2e66d9e 2830=back
4755096e 2831
c2e66d9e 2832=item CPAN
4755096e 2833
603b90a8
JH
2834=over 4
2835
2836=item Africa
2837
2838=item Asia
2839
2840=item Central America
2841
2842=item Europe
2843
2844=item North America
2845
2846=item Oceania
2847
2848=item South America
2849
2850=back
4755096e 2851
c2e66d9e 2852=item Modules: Creation, Use, and Abuse
4755096e 2853
d420ca49 2854=over 4
4755096e 2855
c2e66d9e 2856=item Guidelines for Module Creation
4755096e 2857
c2e66d9e 2858=item Guidelines for Converting Perl 4 Library Scripts into Modules
4755096e 2859
c2e66d9e 2860=item Guidelines for Reusing Application Code
4755096e 2861
c2e66d9e 2862=back
4755096e 2863
c2e66d9e 2864=item NOTE
4755096e 2865
c2e66d9e 2866=back
4755096e 2867
35bf961c 2868=head2 perlmodstyle - Perl module style guide
4755096e 2869
d420ca49 2870=over 4
4755096e 2871
35bf961c
JH
2872=item INTRODUCTION
2873
2874=item QUICK CHECKLIST
4755096e 2875
d420ca49 2876=over 4
4755096e 2877
35bf961c 2878=item Before you start
4755096e 2879
35bf961c
JH
2880=item The API
2881
2882=item Stability
2883
2884=item Documentation
2885
2886=item Release considerations
4755096e 2887
c2e66d9e 2888=back
4755096e 2889
35bf961c 2890=item BEFORE YOU START WRITING A MODULE
a9ef4385 2891
35bf961c 2892=over 4
c2e66d9e 2893
35bf961c 2894=item Has it been done before?
c2e66d9e 2895
35bf961c
JH
2896=item Do one thing and do it well
2897
2898=item What's in a name?
2899
2900=back
2901
2902=item DESIGNING AND WRITING YOUR MODULE
2903
2904=over 4
2905
2906=item To OO or not to OO?
2907
2908=item Designing your API
2909
2910Write simple routines to do simple things, Separate functionality from
2911output, Provide sensible shortcuts and defaults, Naming conventions,
2912Parameter passing
2913
2914=item Strictness and warnings
2915
2916=item Backwards compatibility
2917
2918=item Error handling and messages
2919
2920=back
2921
2922=item DOCUMENTING YOUR MODULE
2923
2924=over 4
2925
2926=item POD
2927
2928=item README, INSTALL, release notes, changelogs
2929
2930=back
2931
2932=item RELEASE CONSIDERATIONS
2933
2934=over 4
2935
2936=item Version numbering
2937
2938=item Pre-requisites
2939
2940=item Testing
2941
2942=item Packaging
2943
2944=item Licensing
2945
2946=back
2947
2948=item COMMON PITFALLS
2949
2950=over 4
2951
2952=item Reinventing the wheel
2953
2954=item Trying to do too much
2955
2956=item Inappropriate documentation
2957
2958=back
2959
2960=item SEE ALSO
2961
2962L<perlstyle>, L<perlnewmod>, L<perlpod>, L<podchecker>, Testing tools,
2963http://pause.perl.org/, Any good book on software engineering
2964
2965=item AUTHOR
4755096e
GS
2966
2967=back
2968
c2e66d9e 2969=head2 perlnewmod - preparing a new module for distribution
4755096e 2970
d420ca49 2971=over 4
4755096e 2972
c2e66d9e 2973=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 2974
d420ca49 2975=over 4
4755096e 2976
c2e66d9e 2977=item Warning
4755096e 2978
c2e66d9e 2979=item What should I make into a module?
4755096e 2980
c2e66d9e 2981=item Step-by-step: Preparing the ground
4755096e 2982
c2e66d9e 2983Look around, Check it's new, Discuss the need, Choose a name, Check again
4755096e 2984
c2e66d9e 2985=item Step-by-step: Making the module
4755096e 2986
c2e66d9e 2987Start with F<h2xs>, Use L<strict|strict> and L<warnings|warnings>, Use
4d4e713d
JH
2988L<Carp|Carp>, Use L<Exporter|Exporter> - wisely!, Use L<plain old
2989documentation|perlpod>, Write tests, Write the README
4755096e 2990
c2e66d9e 2991=item Step-by-step: Distributing your module
4755096e 2992
c2e66d9e
GS
2993Get a CPAN user ID, C<perl Makefile.PL; make test; make dist>, Upload the
2994tarball, Announce to the modules list, Announce to clpa, Fix bugs!
4755096e 2995
c2e66d9e 2996=back
4755096e 2997
c2e66d9e 2998=item AUTHOR
4755096e 2999
c2e66d9e 3000=item SEE ALSO
4755096e
GS
3001
3002=back
3003
fa17183e
JH
3004=head2 perlfaq1 - General Questions About Perl ($Revision: 1.7 $, $Date:
30052002/02/21 14:49:15 $)
4755096e 3006
d420ca49 3007=over 4
4755096e
GS
3008
3009=item DESCRIPTION
3010
d420ca49 3011=over 4
4755096e
GS
3012
3013=item What is Perl?
3014
3015=item Who supports Perl? Who develops it? Why is it free?
3016
3017=item Which version of Perl should I use?
3018
3019=item What are perl4 and perl5?
3020
3021=item What is perl6?
3022
3023=item How stable is Perl?
3024
3025=item Is Perl difficult to learn?
3026
3027=item How does Perl compare with other languages like Java, Python, REXX,
3028Scheme, or Tcl?
3029
3030=item Can I do [task] in Perl?
3031
3032=item When shouldn't I program in Perl?
3033
3034=item What's the difference between "perl" and "Perl"?
3035
3036=item Is it a Perl program or a Perl script?
3037
3038=item What is a JAPH?
3039
3040=item Where can I get a list of Larry Wall witticisms?
3041
165c0277 3042=item How can I convince my sysadmin/supervisor/employees to use version
fe9287c4 30435/5.6.1/Perl instead of some other language?
4755096e
GS
3044
3045=back
3046
3047=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
3048
3049=back
3050
fa17183e
JH
3051=head2 perlfaq2 - Obtaining and Learning about Perl ($Revision: 1.9 $,
3052$Date: 2002/03/09 21:01:13 $)
4755096e 3053
d420ca49 3054=over 4
4755096e
GS
3055
3056=item DESCRIPTION
3057
d420ca49 3058=over 4
4755096e
GS
3059
3060=item What machines support Perl? Where do I get it?
3061
3062=item How can I get a binary version of Perl?
3063
3064=item I don't have a C compiler on my system. How can I compile perl?
3065
3066=item I copied the Perl binary from one machine to another, but scripts
3067don't work.
3068
3069=item I grabbed the sources and tried to compile but gdbm/dynamic
3070loading/malloc/linking/... failed. How do I make it work?
3071
3072=item What modules and extensions are available for Perl? What is CPAN?
3073What does CPAN/src/... mean?
3074
3075=item Is there an ISO or ANSI certified version of Perl?
3076
3077=item Where can I get information on Perl?
3078
3079=item What are the Perl newsgroups on Usenet? Where do I post questions?
3080
3081=item Where should I post source code?
3082
3083=item Perl Books
3084
3085References, Tutorials, Task-Oriented, Special Topics
3086
3087=item Perl in Magazines
3088
3089=item Perl on the Net: FTP and WWW Access
3090
3091=item What mailing lists are there for Perl?
3092
3093=item Archives of comp.lang.perl.misc
3094
3095=item Where can I buy a commercial version of Perl?
3096
3097=item Where do I send bug reports?
3098
04b01f78 3099=item What is perl.com? Perl Mongers? pm.org? perl.org? cpan.org?
4755096e
GS
3100
3101=back
3102
3103=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
3104
3105=back
3106
12b7c5c7
JH
3107=head2 perlfaq3 - Programming Tools ($Revision: 1.15 $, $Date: 2002/02/11
310819:29:52 $)
4755096e 3109
d420ca49 3110=over 4
4755096e
GS
3111
3112=item DESCRIPTION
3113
d420ca49 3114=over 4
4755096e
GS
3115
3116=item How do I do (anything)?
3117
3118=item How can I use Perl interactively?
3119
3120=item Is there a Perl shell?
3121
3122=item How do I debug my Perl programs?
3123
3124=item How do I profile my Perl programs?
3125
3126=item How do I cross-reference my Perl programs?
3127
3128=item Is there a pretty-printer (formatter) for Perl?
3129
3130=item Is there a ctags for Perl?
3131
3132=item Is there an IDE or Windows Perl Editor?
3133
245d750e
JH
3134Komodo, The Object System, Open Perl IDE, PerlBuilder, visiPerl+,
3135CodeMagicCD, GNU Emacs, MicroEMACS, XEmacs, Elvis, Vile, Vim, Codewright,
603b90a8
JH
3136MultiEdit, SlickEdit, Bash, Ksh, Tcsh, Zsh, BBEdit and BBEdit Lite, Alpha
3137
4755096e
GS
3138=item Where can I get Perl macros for vi?
3139
3140=item Where can I get perl-mode for emacs?
3141
3142=item How can I use curses with Perl?
3143
3144=item How can I use X or Tk with Perl?
3145
3146=item How can I generate simple menus without using CGI or Tk?
3147
4755096e
GS
3148=item How can I make my Perl program run faster?
3149
3150=item How can I make my Perl program take less memory?
3151
35bf961c
JH
3152Don't slurp!, Use map and grep selectively, Avoid unnecessary quotes and
3153stringification, Pass by reference, Tie large variables to disk
3154
4755096e
GS
3155=item Is it unsafe to return a pointer to local data?
3156
3157=item How can I free an array or hash so my program shrinks?
3158
3159=item How can I make my CGI script more efficient?
3160
3161=item How can I hide the source for my Perl program?
3162
3163=item How can I compile my Perl program into byte code or C?
3164
3165=item How can I compile Perl into Java?
3166
3167=item How can I get C<#!perl> to work on [MS-DOS,NT,...]?
3168
3169=item Can I write useful Perl programs on the command line?
3170
3171=item Why don't Perl one-liners work on my DOS/Mac/VMS system?
3172
3173=item Where can I learn about CGI or Web programming in Perl?
3174
cb52f95f
JH
3175=item Where can I learn about object-oriented Perl programming?
3176
4755096e
GS
3177=item Where can I learn about linking C with Perl? [h2xs, xsubpp]
3178
3179=item I've read perlembed, perlguts, etc., but I can't embed perl in
d420ca49 3180my C program; what am I doing wrong?
4755096e 3181
fe9287c4 3182=item When I tried to run my script, I got this message. What does it mean?
4755096e
GS
3183
3184=item What's MakeMaker?
3185
3186=back
3187
3188=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
3189
3190=back
3191
fa17183e
JH
3192=head2 perlfaq4 - Data Manipulation ($Revision: 1.19 $, $Date: 2002/03/11
319322:15:19 $)
4755096e 3194
d420ca49 3195=over 4
4755096e
GS
3196
3197=item DESCRIPTION
3198
3199=item Data: Numbers
3200
d420ca49 3201=over 4
4755096e
GS
3202
3203=item Why am I getting long decimals (eg, 19.9499999999999) instead of the
3204numbers I should be getting (eg, 19.95)?
3205
3206=item Why isn't my octal data interpreted correctly?
3207
3208=item Does Perl have a round() function? What about ceil() and floor()?
3209Trig functions?
3210
fe9287c4 3211=item How do I convert between numeric representations?
1fdc5aa6
JH
3212
3213B<How do I convert Hexadecimal into decimal:>, B<How do I convert from
3214decimal to hexadecimal:>, B<How do I convert from octal to decimal:>, B<How
3215do I convert from decimal to octal:>, B<How do I convert from binary to
3216decimal:>, B<How do I convert from decimal to binary:>
4755096e
GS
3217
3218=item Why doesn't & work the way I want it to?
3219
3220=item How do I multiply matrices?
3221
3222=item How do I perform an operation on a series of integers?
3223
3224=item How can I output Roman numerals?
3225
3226=item Why aren't my random numbers random?
3227
fa17183e
JH
3228=item How do I get a random number between X and Y?
3229
4755096e
GS
3230=back
3231
3232=item Data: Dates
3233
d420ca49 3234=over 4
4755096e
GS
3235
3236=item How do I find the week-of-the-year/day-of-the-year?
3237
3238=item How do I find the current century or millennium?
3239
3240=item How can I compare two dates and find the difference?
3241
3242=item How can I take a string and turn it into epoch seconds?
3243
3244=item How can I find the Julian Day?
3245
3246=item How do I find yesterday's date?
3247
3248=item Does Perl have a Year 2000 problem? Is Perl Y2K compliant?
3249
3250=back
3251
3252=item Data: Strings
3253
d420ca49 3254=over 4
4755096e
GS
3255
3256=item How do I validate input?
3257
3258=item How do I unescape a string?
3259
3260=item How do I remove consecutive pairs of characters?
3261
3262=item How do I expand function calls in a string?
3263
3264=item How do I find matching/nesting anything?
3265
3266=item How do I reverse a string?
3267
3268=item How do I expand tabs in a string?
3269
3270=item How do I reformat a paragraph?
3271
3272=item How can I access/change the first N letters of a string?
3273
3274=item How do I change the Nth occurrence of something?
3275
3276=item How can I count the number of occurrences of a substring within a
3277string?
3278
3279=item How do I capitalize all the words on one line?
3280
3281=item How can I split a [character] delimited string except when inside
3282[character]? (Comma-separated files)
3283
3284=item How do I strip blank space from the beginning/end of a string?
3285
3286=item How do I pad a string with blanks or pad a number with zeroes?
3287
3288=item How do I extract selected columns from a string?
3289
3290=item How do I find the soundex value of a string?
3291
3292=item How can I expand variables in text strings?
3293
3294=item What's wrong with always quoting "$vars"?
3295
3296=item Why don't my <<HERE documents work?
3297
32981. There must be no space after the << part, 2. There (probably) should be
3299a semicolon at the end, 3. You can't (easily) have any space in front of
3300the tag
3301
3302=back
3303
3304=item Data: Arrays
3305
d420ca49 3306=over 4
4755096e
GS
3307
3308=item What is the difference between a list and an array?
3309
3310=item What is the difference between $array[1] and @array[1]?
3311
3312=item How can I remove duplicate elements from a list or array?
3313
ab648d5e 3314a), b), c), d), e)
4755096e 3315
389925df
JH
3316=item How can I tell whether a certain element is contained in a list or
3317array?
4755096e
GS
3318
3319=item How do I compute the difference of two arrays? How do I compute the
3320intersection of two arrays?
3321
3322=item How do I test whether two arrays or hashes are equal?
3323
3324=item How do I find the first array element for which a condition is true?
3325
3326=item How do I handle linked lists?
3327
3328=item How do I handle circular lists?
3329
3330=item How do I shuffle an array randomly?
3331
3332=item How do I process/modify each element of an array?
3333
3334=item How do I select a random element from an array?
3335
3336=item How do I permute N elements of a list?
3337
3338=item How do I sort an array by (anything)?
3339
3340=item How do I manipulate arrays of bits?
3341
3342=item Why does defined() return true on empty arrays and hashes?
3343
3344=back
3345
3346=item Data: Hashes (Associative Arrays)
3347
d420ca49 3348=over 4
4755096e
GS
3349
3350=item How do I process an entire hash?
3351
3352=item What happens if I add or remove keys from a hash while iterating over
3353it?
3354
3355=item How do I look up a hash element by value?
3356
3357=item How can I know how many entries are in a hash?
3358
3359=item How do I sort a hash (optionally by value instead of key)?
3360
3361=item How can I always keep my hash sorted?
3362
3363=item What's the difference between "delete" and "undef" with hashes?
3364
3365=item Why don't my tied hashes make the defined/exists distinction?
3366
3367=item How do I reset an each() operation part-way through?
3368
3369=item How can I get the unique keys from two hashes?
3370
3371=item How can I store a multidimensional array in a DBM file?
3372
3373=item How can I make my hash remember the order I put elements into it?
3374
3375=item Why does passing a subroutine an undefined element in a hash create
3376it?
3377
3378=item How can I make the Perl equivalent of a C structure/C++ class/hash or
3379array of hashes or arrays?
3380
3381=item How can I use a reference as a hash key?
3382
3383=back
3384
3385=item Data: Misc
3386
d420ca49 3387=over 4
4755096e
GS
3388
3389=item How do I handle binary data correctly?
3390
3391=item How do I determine whether a scalar is a number/whole/integer/float?
3392
3393=item How do I keep persistent data across program calls?
3394
3395=item How do I print out or copy a recursive data structure?
3396
3397=item How do I define methods for every class/object?
3398
3399=item How do I verify a credit card checksum?
3400
3401=item How do I pack arrays of doubles or floats for XS code?
3402
3403=back
3404
3405=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
3406
3407=back
3408
fa17183e
JH
3409=head2 perlfaq5 - Files and Formats ($Revision: 1.12 $, $Date: 2002/03/11
341022:25:25 $)
4755096e 3411
d420ca49 3412=over 4
4755096e
GS
3413
3414=item DESCRIPTION
3415
d420ca49 3416=over 4
4755096e
GS
3417
3418=item How do I flush/unbuffer an output filehandle? Why must I do this?
3419
3420=item How do I change one line in a file/delete a line in a file/insert a
3421line in the middle of a file/append to the beginning of a file?
3422
3423=item How do I count the number of lines in a file?
3424
3425=item How do I make a temporary file name?
3426
3427=item How can I manipulate fixed-record-length files?
3428
3429=item How can I make a filehandle local to a subroutine? How do I pass
3430filehandles between subroutines? How do I make an array of filehandles?
3431
3432=item How can I use a filehandle indirectly?
3433
3434=item How can I set up a footer format to be used with write()?
3435
3436=item How can I write() into a string?
3437
3438=item How can I output my numbers with commas added?
3439
3440=item How can I translate tildes (~) in a filename?
3441
3442=item How come when I open a file read-write it wipes it out?
3443
3444=item Why do I sometimes get an "Argument list too long" when I use <*>?
3445
3446=item Is there a leak/bug in glob()?
3447
3448=item How can I open a file with a leading ">" or trailing blanks?
3449
3450=item How can I reliably rename a file?
3451
3452=item How can I lock a file?
3453
3454=item Why can't I just open(FH, ">file.lock")?
3455
3456=item I still don't get locking. I just want to increment the number in
3457the file. How can I do this?
3458
1fa7ca25
JH
3459=item All I want to do is append a small amount of text to the end of a
3460file. Do I still have to use locking?
3461
4755096e
GS
3462=item How do I randomly update a binary file?
3463
3464=item How do I get a file's timestamp in perl?
3465
3466=item How do I set a file's timestamp in perl?
3467
3468=item How do I print to more than one file at once?
3469
3470=item How can I read in an entire file all at once?
3471
3472=item How can I read in a file by paragraphs?
3473
3474=item How can I read a single character from a file? From the keyboard?
3475
3476=item How can I tell whether there's a character waiting on a filehandle?
3477
3478=item How do I do a C<tail -f> in perl?
3479
3480=item How do I dup() a filehandle in Perl?
3481
3482=item How do I close a file descriptor by number?