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initialisation of simple aggregate state variables
[perl5.git] / pod / perldiag.pod
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
466416ed 23below. E.g. C<(W closed)> means a warning in the C<closed> category.
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24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
fa816bf3 26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
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27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
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53=item Aliasing via reference is experimental
54
55(S experimental::refaliasing) This warning is emitted if you use
56a reference constructor on the left-hand side of an assignment to
57alias one variable to another. Simply suppress the warning if you
58want to use the feature, but know that in doing so you are taking
59the risk of using an experimental feature which may change or be
60removed in a future Perl version:
61
62 no warnings "experimental::refaliasing";
63 use feature "refaliasing";
64 \$x = \$y;
65
de42a5a9 66=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 67
6df41af2 68(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 69
04f74579 70=item '%c' allowed only after types %s in %s
ef54e1a4 71
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72(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
73after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 74
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75=item alpha->numify() is lossy
76
77(W numeric) An alpha version can not be numified without losing
78information.
79
6df41af2 80=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 81
75b44862 82(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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83keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
84one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
85subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 86
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87To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
88before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
89Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
90imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 91
6df41af2 92To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 93on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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94to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
95L<attributes>).
43192e07 96
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97=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
98
99(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
100all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
101first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
102C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
103
6df41af2 104=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 105
7c7af292 106(S ambiguous) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
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107you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
108a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 109
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110=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
111
112(S ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
113string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
114the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
115write C<-foo()>.
116
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117=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
118
7c7af292 119(S ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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120bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
121(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
122like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
123assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
124clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
125really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 126
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127=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
128
129(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
130asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
131named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
1cecf2c0 132the variable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
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133function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
134and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
135
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136=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s[...]} resolved to %c%s[...]
137
138=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s{...}} resolved to %c%s{...}
4da60377 139
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140(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo represents
141the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for element number
1422 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write C<$foo[2]>, or you
143might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to the function named
144foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it returns. If you meant
145that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
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146
147In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
148to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
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149C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length> followed
150by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what you
151want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/> to the
152unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to something
153that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by simply turning
154off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 155
6df41af2 156=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 157
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158(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
159redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
160redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 161
6df41af2 162=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 163
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164(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
165redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
166into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
167though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
168which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 169
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170 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
171 while (<STDIN>) {
172 print;
173 print OUT;
174 }
175 close OUT;
c9f97d15 176
6df41af2 177=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 178
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179(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
180transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 181one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 182a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
183hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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184you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
185alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 186
6df41af2 187=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 188
6df41af2 189(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 190
f86702cc 191=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 192
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193(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
194that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
195will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 196
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197Note that for the C<Inf> and C<NaN> (infinity and not-a-number) the
198definition of "numeric" is somewhat unusual: the strings themselves
199(like "Inf") are considered numeric, and anything following them is
200considered non-numeric.
201
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202=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
203
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204(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O
205system you forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers
206take care of transforming data between external and internal
207representations.) Perl stopped parsing the layer list at this
208point and did not attempt to push this layer. If your program
209didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be the
210result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
b4581f09 211
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212=item Argument "%s" treated as 0 in increment (++)
213
214(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to the C<++>
215operator which expects either a number or a string matching
216C</^[a-zA-Z]*[0-9]*\z/>. See L<perlop/Auto-increment and
217Auto-decrement> for details.
218
637494ac 219=item Array passed to stat will be coerced to a scalar%s
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220
221(W syntax) You called stat() on an array, but the array will be
222coerced to a scalar - the number of elements in the array.
223
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224=item A signature parameter must start with '$', '@' or '%'
225
226(F) Each subroutine signature parameter declaration must start with a valid
227sigil; for example:
228
229 sub foo ($a, $, $b = 1, @c) {}
230
231=item A slurpy parameter may not have a default value
232
233(F) Only scalar subroutine signature parameters may have a default value;
234for example:
235
236 sub foo ($a = 1) {} # legal
237 sub foo (@a = (1)) {} # invalid
238 sub foo (%a = (a => b)) {} # invalid
239
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240=item assertion botched: %s
241
21b5e840 242(X) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
a0d0e21e 243
0eacef8e 244=item Assertion %s failed: file "%s", line %d
a0d0e21e 245
21b5e840 246(X) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
a0d0e21e 247
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248=item Assigned value is not a reference
249
250(F) You tried to assign something that was not a reference to an lvalue
251reference (e.g., C<\$x = $y>). If you meant to make $x an alias to $y, use
252C<\$x = \$y>.
253
254=item Assigned value is not %s reference
255
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256(F) You tried to assign a reference to a reference constructor, but the
257two references were not of the same type. You cannot alias a scalar to
258an array, or an array to a hash; the two types must match.
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259
260 \$x = \@y; # error
261 \@x = \%y; # error
262 $y = [];
263 \$x = $y; # error; did you mean \$y?
264
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265=item Assigning non-zero to $[ is no longer possible
266
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267(F) When the "array_base" feature is disabled (e.g., under C<use v5.16;>)
268the special variable C<$[>, which is deprecated, is now a fixed zero value.
82122228 269
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270=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
271
272(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
273must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
274know which context to supply to the right side.
275
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276=item Assuming NOT a POSIX class since %s in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
277
278(W regexp) You had something like these:
279
280 [[:alnum]]
281 [[:digit:xyz]
282
283They look like they might have been meant to be the POSIX classes
284C<[:alnum:]> or C<[:digit:]>. If so, they should be written:
285
286 [[:alnum:]]
287 [[:digit:]xyz]
288
289Since these aren't legal POSIX class specifications, but are legal
290bracketed character classes, Perl treats them as the latter. In the
291first example, it matches the characters C<":">, C<"[">, C<"a">, C<"l">,
292C<"m">, C<"n">, and C<"u">.
293
294If these weren't meant to be POSIX classes, this warning message is
295spurious, and can be suppressed by reordering things, such as
296
297 [[al:num]]
298
299or
300
301 [[:munla]]
302
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303=item <> at require-statement should be quotes
304
305(F) You wrote C<< require <file> >> when you should have written
306C<require 'file'>.
307
2393f1b9 308=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 309
49293501 310(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 311the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 312
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313=item Attempt to bless into a freed package
314
315(F) You wrote C<bless $foo> with one argument after somehow causing
316the current package to be freed. Perl cannot figure out what to
317do, so it throws up in hands in despair.
318
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319=item Attempt to bless into a reference
320
321(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
57dedab9 322the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
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323supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
324
325 bless $self, $proto;
326
327when you intended
328
329 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
330
331If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
332of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
333example by:
334
335 bless $self, "$proto";
336
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337=item Attempt to clear deleted array
338
339(S debugging) An array was assigned to when it was being freed.
340Freed values are not supposed to be visible to Perl code. This
341can also happen if XS code calls C<av_clear> from a custom magic
342callback on the array.
343
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344=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
345
346(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
347which is not in its key set.
348
349=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
350
351(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
352declared readonly from a restricted hash.
353
de42a5a9 354=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 355
f84fe999 356(S internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
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357that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
358outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 359
12578ffb 360=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string '%s'%s
bbce6d69 361
f84fe999 362(S internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
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363strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
364strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
365of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 366
7d5b40b4 367=item Attempt to free temp prematurely: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 368
f84fe999 369(S debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
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370free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
371SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
372free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
373try to free it.
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374
375=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
376
f84fe999 377(S internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
a0d0e21e 378
7d5b40b4 379=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 380
8f7e4d2c 381(S internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
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382see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
383earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
384This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
385that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
386mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
387corrupted.
a0d0e21e 388
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389=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
390
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391(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
392function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
393means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
394invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
395literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
396avoid this warning.
84902520 397
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398=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
399
400(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
401compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
402unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
403L<perlvar/%INC>.
404
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405=item Attempt to set length of freed array
406
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FC
407(W misc) You tried to set the length of an array which has
408been freed. You can do this by storing a reference to the
409scalar representing the last index of an array and later
410assigning through that reference. For example
1b20cd17
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411
412 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
413 $$r = 503
414
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415=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
416
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417(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
418used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
419dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 420
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FC
421=item Attribute prototype(%s) discards earlier prototype attribute in same sub
422
423(W misc) A sub was declared as sub foo : prototype(A) : prototype(B) {}, for
424example. Since each sub can only have one prototype, the earlier
425declaration(s) are discarded while the last one is applied.
426
ccce04a4
FC
427=item av_reify called on tied array
428
429(S debugging) This indicates that something went wrong and Perl got I<very>
430confused about C<@_> or C<@DB::args> being tied.
431
de42a5a9 432=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 433
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434(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
435or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 436S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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437S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
438
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439=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
440
496a33f5 441(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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442substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
443most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
444
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445=item Bad filehandle: %s
446
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447(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
448symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
449open(), or did it in another package.
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450
451=item Bad free() ignored
452
be771a83 453(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
fa816bf3 454been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 455setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 456
9ea8bc6d 457This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
6903afa2 458dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
be771a83 459which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 460
aa689395
PP
461=item Bad hash
462
463(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
464
6df41af2
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465=item Badly placed ()'s
466
467(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
468of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
469Perl yourself.
470
a7cb8dae 471=item Bad name after %s
a0d0e21e 472
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473(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
474didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
475of quotes, so
a0d0e21e
LW
476
477 $var = 'myvar';
478 $sym = mypack::$var;
479
480is not the same as
481
482 $var = 'myvar';
483 $sym = "mypack::$var";
484
88e1f1a2
JV
485=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
486
487(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
488plugin API.
489
4ad56ec9
IZ
490=item Bad realloc() ignored
491
6903afa2
FC
492(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that
493had never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can
494be disabled by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 495
a0d0e21e
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496=item Bad symbol for array
497
498(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
499wasn't a symbol table entry.
500
4df3f177
SP
501=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
502
503(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
504that wasn't a symbol table entry.
505
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506=item Bad symbol for filehandle
507
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508(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
509that wasn't a symbol table entry.
a0d0e21e
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510
511=item Bad symbol for hash
512
513(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
514wasn't a symbol table entry.
515
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FC
516=item Bad symbol for scalar
517
518(P) An internal request asked to add a scalar entry to something that
519wasn't a symbol table entry.
520
34d09196
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521=item Bareword found in conditional
522
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523(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
524conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
525of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
GS
526
527 open FOO || die;
528
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529It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
530a bareword:
34d09196
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531
532 use constant TYPO => 1;
533 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
534
535The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
536
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NC
537=item Bareword in require contains "%s"
538
a52f2cce
NC
539=item Bareword in require maps to disallowed filename "%s"
540
09eb1f39 541=item Bareword in require maps to empty filename
5bad2b39 542
a52f2cce 543(F) The bareword form of require has been invoked with a filename which could
d4e5761f 544not have been generated by a valid bareword permitted by the parser. You
a52f2cce
NC
545shouldn't be able to get this error from Perl code, but XS code may throw it
546if it passes an invalid module name to C<Perl_load_module>.
547
5bad2b39
DM
548=item Bareword in require must not start with a double-colon: "%s"
549
550(F) In C<require Bare::Word>, the bareword is not allowed to start with a
d4e5761f 551double-colon. Write C<require ::Foo::Bar> as C<require Foo::Bar> instead.
5bad2b39 552
6df41af2
GS
553=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
554
555(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
be771a83
GS
556subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
557symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
GS
558
559=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
560
be771a83
GS
561(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
562compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
563you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 564
a0d0e21e
LW
565=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
566
be771a83
GS
567(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
568subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
569exited.
a0d0e21e 570
68dc0745
PP
571=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
572
573(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
be771a83
GS
574implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
575occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
576be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
577depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 578
c782d7ee 579=item \%d better written as $%d
6df41af2 580
be771a83
GS
581(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
582The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
583substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
584because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
585there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 586
252aa082
JH
587=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
588
e476b1b5 589(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
590(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
591L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 592
69282e91 593=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 594
be771a83
GS
595(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
596check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 597
c289d2f7
JH
598=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
599
600(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 601Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 602
c5a0f51a
JH
603=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
604
e476b1b5 605(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 606
043c750c 607=item Bizarre copy of %s
4633a7c4 608
be771a83 609(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
ab830aa0 610copiable.
4633a7c4 611
5a25739d
FC
612=item Bizarre SvTYPE [%d]
613
434f489b 614(P) When starting a new thread or returning values from a thread, Perl
5a25739d
FC
615encountered an invalid data type.
616
b927b7e9 617=item Both or neither range ends should be Unicode in regex; marked by
6e8a73f2 618S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
b927b7e9
KW
619
620(W regexp) (only under C<S<use re 'strict'>> or within C<(?[...])>)
621
622In a bracketed character class in a regular expression pattern, you
623had a range which has exactly one end of it specified using C<\N{}>, and
624the other end is specified using a non-portable mechanism. Perl treats
625the range as a Unicode range, that is, all the characters in it are
626considered to be the Unicode characters, and which may be different code
627points on some platforms Perl runs on. For example, C<[\N{U+06}-\x08]>
628is treated as if you had instead said C<[\N{U+06}-\N{U+08}]>, that is it
629matches the characters whose code points in Unicode are 6, 7, and 8.
630But that C<\x08> might indicate that you meant something different, so
631the warning gets raised.
632
f675dbe5
CB
633=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
634
be771a83
GS
635(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
636iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
637which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 638
a0d0e21e
LW
639=item Callback called exit
640
4929bf7b 641(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
642exited by calling exit.
643
6df41af2 644=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 645
be771a83
GS
646(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
647parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
648that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
649early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
650subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
651checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
652function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
653the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 654
0c7df902
JH
655=item Cannot chr %f
656
657(F) You passed an invalid number (like an infinity or not-a-number) to C<chr>.
658
1b4d0d79
TC
659=item Cannot complete in-place edit of %s: %s
660
661(F) Your perl script appears to have changed directory while
662performing an in-place edit of a file specified by a relative path,
663and your system doesn't include the directory relative POSIX functions
664needed to handle that.
665
5dee29d4 666=item Cannot compress %f in pack
0c7df902 667
5dee29d4
JH
668(F) You tried compressing an infinity or not-a-number as an unsigned
669integer with BER, which makes no sense.
0c7df902 670
49704364 671=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b 672
717feafc
JH
673(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress.
674The BER compressed integer format can only be used with positive
675integers, and you attempted to compress a very large number (> 1e308).
676See L<perlfunc/pack>.
0258719b 677
49704364 678=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
679
680(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
681format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
682
5c1f4d79
NC
683=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
684
6903afa2
FC
685(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference
686in it, then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax.
687The access triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is
688no legal conversion from that type of reference to a typeglob.
5c1f4d79 689
4040665a 690=item Cannot copy to %s
ba2fdce6
NC
691
692(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 693be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 694
b5d97229
RGS
695=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
696
697(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
698either with open() or binmode().
699
714f94d1
FC
700=item Cannot open %s as a dirhandle: it is already open as a filehandle
701
702(F) You tried to use opendir() to associate a dirhandle to a symbol (glob
703or scalar) that already holds a filehandle. Since this idiom might render
704your code confusing, it was deprecated in Perl 5.10. As of Perl 5.28, it
705is a fatal error.
706
707=item Cannot open %s as a filehandle: it is already open as a dirhandle
708
709(F) You tried to use open() to associate a filehandle to a symbol (glob
710or scalar) that already holds a dirhandle. Since this idiom might render
711your code confusing, it was deprecated in Perl 5.10. As of Perl 5.28, it
712is a fatal error.
713
0c7df902
JH
714=item Cannot pack %f with '%c'
715
5dee29d4 716(F) You tried converting an infinity or not-a-number to an integer,
0c7df902
JH
717which makes no sense.
718
719=item Cannot printf %f with '%c'
720
721(F) You tried printing an infinity or not-a-number as a character (%c),
722which makes no sense. Maybe you meant '%s', or just stringifying it?
723
7355df7e
FC
724=item Cannot set tied @DB::args
725
726(F) C<caller> tried to set C<@DB::args>, but found it tied. Tying C<@DB::args>
727is not supported. (Before this error was added, it used to crash.)
728
ce65bc73
FC
729=item Cannot tie unreifiable array
730
731(P) You somehow managed to call C<tie> on an array that does not
732keep a reference count on its arguments and cannot be made to
733do so. Such arrays are not even supposed to be accessible to
734Perl code, but are only used internally.
735
46e58bd2
AC
736=item Cannot yet reorder sv_catpvfn() arguments from va_list
737
738(F) Some XS code tried to use C<sv_catpvfn()> or a related function with a
739format string that specifies explicit indexes for some of the elements, and
d4e5761f
FC
740using a C-style variable-argument list (a C<va_list>). This is not currently
741supported. XS authors wanting to do this must instead construct a C array
742of C<SV*> scalars containing the arguments.
46e58bd2 743
96ebfdd7
RK
744=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
745
746(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
747integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
748to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
749
a0d0e21e
LW
750=item Can't bless non-reference value
751
752(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
753encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
754
dc57907a
RGS
755=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
756
0d863452 757(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
6903afa2 758a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
0d863452
RH
759
760=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 761
0d863452
RH
762(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
763
6df41af2
GS
764=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
765
766(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
767object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
768like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
769
770 $BADREF = undef;
771 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
772 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
773
a0d0e21e
LW
774=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
775
54310121 776(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
777ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
778didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
779object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
780
781=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
782
783(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
784object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
785defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
786Something like this will reproduce the error:
787
788 $BADREF = 42;
789 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
790 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
791
dfe378f1
FC
792=item Can't call mro_isa_changed_in() on anonymous symbol table
793
794(P) Perl got confused as to whether a hash was a plain hash or a
795symbol table hash when trying to update @ISA caches.
796
2bf7e7b2
FC
797=item Can't call mro_method_changed_in() on anonymous symbol table
798
799(F) An XS module tried to call C<mro_method_changed_in> on a hash that was
800not attached to the symbol table.
801
a0d0e21e
LW
802=item Can't chdir to %s
803
f703fc96 804(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but F</foo/bar> is not a directory
a0d0e21e
LW
805that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
806
0545a864 807=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 808
be771a83
GS
809(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
810nosuid.
104d25b7 811
22e74366 812=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
813
814(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 815(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
816say things like:
817
818 *foo += 1;
819
820You CAN say
821
822 $foo = *foo;
823 $foo += 1;
824
825but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
826
0d863452 827=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 828
0d863452
RH
829(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
830or C<default> block.
831
a0d0e21e
LW
832=item Can't create pipe mailbox
833
be771a83
GS
834(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
835quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 836
eb64745e
GS
837=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
838
30c282f6
NC
839(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
840"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 841
fc7debfb
FC
842=item Can't "default" outside a topicalizer
843
844(F) You have used a C<default> block that is neither inside a
845C<foreach> loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is
846issued on exit from the C<default> block, so you won't get the
847error if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
848
1e85b658
DM
849=item Can't determine class of operator %s, assuming BASEOP
850
851(S) This warning indicates something wrong in the internals of perl.
852Perl was trying to find the class (e.g. LISTOP) of a particular OP,
853and was unable to do so. This is likely to be due to a bug in the perl
854internals, or due to a bug in XS code which manipulates perl optrees.
855
a2162cd9
FC
856=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
857
858(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
859a file in /dev, a FIFO or an uneditable directory. The file was ignored.
860
861=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
862
863(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
864reason.
865
866=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
867
868(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
869reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
870C<-i.bak>, or some such.
871
872=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
873
874(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
875characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
876inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
877
ab0b796c
KW
878=item Can't do %s("%s") on non-UTF-8 locale; resolved to "%s".
879
880(W locale) You are 1) running under "C<use locale>"; 2) the current
881locale is not a UTF-8 one; 3) you tried to do the designated case-change
882operation on the specified Unicode character; and 4) the result of this
883operation would mix Unicode and locale rules, which likely conflict.
884Mixing of different rule types is forbidden, so the operation was not
885done; instead the result is the indicated value, which is the best
886available that uses entirely Unicode rules. That turns out to almost
887always be the original character, unchanged.
888
889It is generally a bad idea to mix non-UTF-8 locales and Unicode, and
890this issue is one of the reasons why. This warning is raised when
891Unicode rules would normally cause the result of this operation to
892contain a character that is in the range specified by the locale,
8930..255, and hence is subject to the locale's rules, not Unicode's.
894
895If you are using locale purely for its characteristics related to things
896like its numeric and time formatting (and not C<LC_CTYPE>), consider
897using a restricted form of the locale pragma (see L<perllocale/The "use
898locale" pragma>) like "S<C<use locale ':not_characters'>>".
899
900Note that failed case-changing operations done as a result of
901case-insensitive C</i> regular expression matching will show up in this
902warning as having the C<fc> operation (as that is what the regular
903expression engine calls behind the scenes.)
904
a0d0e21e
LW
905=item Can't do waitpid with flags
906
be771a83
GS
907(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
908waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 909
a0d0e21e
LW
910=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
911
be771a83
GS
912(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
913point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
914line.
a0d0e21e 915
1109a392
MHM
916=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
917
918(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
919or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
920little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
921See L<perlfunc/pack>.
922
a0d0e21e
LW
923=item Can't exec "%s": %s
924
d1be9408 925(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
926named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
927permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
928C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
929architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
930can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
931#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
932
933=item Can't exec %s
934
be771a83
GS
935(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
936that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
937need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
938
939=item Can't execute %s
940
be771a83
GS
941(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
942found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 943
6df41af2 944=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 945
be771a83
GS
946(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
947is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2
GS
948
949=item Can't find label %s
950
be771a83
GS
951(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
952possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
953
954=item Can't find %s on PATH
955
be771a83
GS
956(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
957found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 958
6df41af2 959=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 960
be771a83
GS
961(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
962found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
963script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
964
965=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
966
be771a83
GS
967(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
968that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
969nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 970
fb73857a
PP
971 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
972
97b3d10f 973If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
b6b8cb97
FC
974included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag or there
975may not be a linebreak after it. A good programmer's editor will have
976a way to help you find these characters (or lack of characters). See
977L<perlop> for the full details on here-documents.
a0d0e21e 978
660a4616
ST
979=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
980
29f52644
KW
981=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
982
983(F) The named property which you specified via C<\p> or C<\P> is not one
984known to Perl. Perhaps you misspelled the name? See
e1b711da 985L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
29f52644
KW
986for a complete list of available official
987properties. If it is a
988L<user-defined property|perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties>
989it must have been defined by the time the regular expression is
990matched.
991
992If you didn't mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either
993by C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, or
5f8ad6b6 994until C<\E>).
660a4616 995
b3647a36 996=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 997
be771a83
GS
998(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
999pipeline.
a0d0e21e 1000
b3647a36
SR
1001=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
1002
c973c02e 1003(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
1004after five seconds.
1005
748a9306
LW
1006=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
1007
be771a83
GS
1008(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
1009between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
1010Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
1011the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
1012account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
1013the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
2fe2bdfd 1014the access-checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
be771a83
GS
1015the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
1016if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
1017because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
2fe2bdfd
FC
1018appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-checking routine gave up
1019and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access-checking
be771a83
GS
1020routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
1021shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
1022only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 1023
a0d0e21e
LW
1024=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
1025
be771a83
GS
1026(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
1027pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
1028
1029=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
1030
748a9306
LW
1031(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
1032mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 1033
6df41af2 1034=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 1035
be771a83
GS
1036(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
1037loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
1038
1039=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
1040
be771a83
GS
1041(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
1042a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
1043you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
1044See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 1045
5a25739d
FC
1046=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
1047
1048(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
1049"string" or block.
1050
9850bf21 1051=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 1052
9850bf21
RH
1053(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
1054comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
1055as the reduce() function in List::Util).
1056
6df41af2
GS
1057=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
1058
be771a83
GS
1059(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
1060subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
1061cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
1062routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 1063
0b5b802d
GS
1064=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
1065
be771a83
GS
1066(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
1067signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
1068signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
1069processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
1070situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
1071may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 1072
e2c0f81f
DG
1073=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
1074
1075(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
1076attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
1077process identifier.
1078
6df41af2 1079=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 1080
6df41af2 1081(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
1082except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
1083block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
1084block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
1085usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
1086inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
1087L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 1088
2c7d6b9c
RGS
1089=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
1090
1091(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
1092package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
1093
b8170e59
JB
1094=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
1095
6903afa2
FC
1096(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension.
1097This may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one
1098that is incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known
1099to happen between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your
1100dynamic extension was built against an older version of the library
1101that is installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old
1102dynamic extensions.
b8170e59 1103
748a9306
LW
1104=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
1105
2ba9eb46 1106(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
b7e4ecc1
FC
1107lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you
1108want to localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with
1109the package name.
748a9306 1110
6df41af2 1111=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 1112
6df41af2
GS
1113(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
1114handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 1115pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 1116that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 1117
ea071790 1118=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a 1119
fa816bf3
FC
1120(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be found.
1121Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC, unless
1122the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
1123to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the
1124extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
be771a83
GS
1125to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
1126L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 1127
6df41af2
GS
1128=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
1129
be771a83
GS
1130(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
1131autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
1132are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
1133the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 1134
b8170e59
JB
1135=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
1136
1137(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
d70d8e57 1138for example, F<foo.so> or F<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
b8170e59
JB
1139unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
1140
a0d0e21e
LW
1141=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
1142
1143(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
1144functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 1145method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e 1146
8af56b9d
FC
1147=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s" (perhaps you forgot
1148to load "%s"?)
1149
1150(F) You called a method on a class that did not exist, and the method
1151could not be found in UNIVERSAL. This often means that a method
1152requires a package that has not been loaded.
1153
a0d0e21e
LW
1154=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
1155
be771a83
GS
1156(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
1157doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 1158
2f7da168
RK
1159=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
1160
1161(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
1162e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
1163
f4ad53f4 1164=item Can't make list assignment to %ENV on this system
3e3baf6d 1165
be771a83
GS
1166(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
1167VMS.
3e3baf6d 1168
cd40cd58
NC
1169=item Can't make loaded symbols global on this platform while loading %s
1170
ff9c1ae8 1171(S) A module passed the flag 0x01 to DynaLoader::dl_load_file() to request
cd40cd58
NC
1172that symbols from the stated file are made available globally within the
1173process, but that functionality is not available on this platform. Whilst
1174the module likely will still work, this may prevent the perl interpreter
1175from loading other XS-based extensions which need to link directly to
1176functions defined in the C or XS code in the stated file.
1177
a0d0e21e
LW
1178=item Can't modify %s in %s
1179
be771a83
GS
1180(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
1181to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 1182
54310121 1183=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
1184
1185(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
1186a NULL.
1187
0f948285 1188=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call of &%s
6df41af2 1189
8d9d0498
FC
1190=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call of &%s in %s
1191
6df41af2 1192(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
2fe2bdfd 1193such. See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
6df41af2 1194
cf6e1fa1
FC
1195=item Can't modify reference to %s in %s assignment
1196
1197(F) Only a limited number of constructs can be used as the argument to a
1198reference constructor on the left-hand side of an assignment, and what
1199you used was not one of them. See L<perlref/Assigning to References>.
1200
1201=item Can't modify reference to localized parenthesized array in list
1202assignment
1203
1204(F) Assigning to C<\local(@array)> or C<\(local @array)> is not supported, as
1205it is not clear exactly what it should do. If you meant to make @array
1206refer to some other array, use C<\@array = \@other_array>. If you want to
1207make the elements of @array aliases of the scalars referenced on the
1208right-hand side, use C<\(@array) = @scalar_refs>.
1209
1210=item Can't modify reference to parenthesized hash in list assignment
1211
1212(F) Assigning to C<\(%hash)> is not supported. If you meant to make %hash
1213refer to some other hash, use C<\%hash = \%other_hash>. If you want to
1214make the elements of %hash into aliases of the scalars referenced on the
1215right-hand side, use a hash slice: C<\@hash{@keys} = @those_scalar_refs>.
1216
5f05dabc 1217=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 1218
5f05dabc 1219(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
1220buffer.
1221
6df41af2
GS
1222=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
1223
1224(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
1225there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
1226count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
1227grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1228though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
1229once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 1230
a0d0e21e
LW
1231=item Can't open %s: %s
1232
c47ff5f1 1233(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e 1234filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
46fa9b26
FC
1235switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually
1236this is because you don't have read permission for a file which
1237you named on the command line.
1238
1239(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-e> switch, but F</dev/null> (or
1240your operating system's equivalent) could not be opened.
a0d0e21e 1241
9a869a14
RGS
1242=item Can't open a reference
1243
1244(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
2fe2bdfd 1245using the 3-arg open() syntax:
9a869a14
RGS
1246
1247 open FH, '>', $ref;
1248
1249but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1250open is not supported.
1251
a0d0e21e
LW
1252=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1253
be771a83
GS
1254(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1255You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1256as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1257">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1258
748a9306
LW
1259=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1260
be771a83
GS
1261(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1262redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1263the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1264
1265=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1266
be771a83
GS
1267(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1268redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1269command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1270
1271=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1272
be771a83
GS
1273(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1274redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1275the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1276
1277=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1278
be771a83
GS
1279(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1280redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1281for stdout.
748a9306 1282
3b1cf97d 1283=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1284
1285(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1286
fa3aa65a
JC
1287If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1288shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1289you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1290
6df41af2
GS
1291=item Can't read CRTL environ
1292
1293(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1294from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1295missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1296or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1297searched.
6df41af2 1298
f3106bc8
LM
1299=item Can't redeclare "%s" in "%s"
1300
1301(F) A "my", "our" or "state" declaration was found within another declaration,
1302such as C<my ($x, my($y), $z)> or C<our (my $x)>.
1303
6df41af2
GS
1304=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1305
1306(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1307there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1308count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1309or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1310though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1311loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1312
64977eb6 1313=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1314
be771a83
GS
1315(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1316file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1317the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1318
a0d0e21e
LW
1319=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1320
e0d4aead 1321(F) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1322probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1323
e0d4aead
TC
1324=item Can't rename in-place work file '%s' to '%s': %s
1325
1326(F) When closed implicitly, the temporary file for in-place editing
1327couldn't be renamed to the original filename.
1328
748a9306
LW
1329=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1330
be771a83
GS
1331(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1332to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1333
9415f659
KW
1334=item Can't represent character for Ox%X on this platform
1335
1336(F) There is a hard limit to how big a character code point can be due
1337to the fundamental properties of UTF-8, especially on EBCDIC
1338platforms. The given code point exceeds that. The only work-around is
1339to not use such a large code point.
1340
4f12ec0e
FC
1341=item Can't reset %ENV on this system
1342
1343(F) You called C<reset('E')> or similar, which tried to reset
1344all variables in the current package beginning with "E". In
1345the main package, that includes %ENV. Resetting %ENV is not
1346supported on some systems, notably VMS.
1347
fe13d51d 1348=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1349
1fa582fa
FC
1350(F)(P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1351opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1352package. If the method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1353
cd06dffe
GS
1354=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1355
be771a83
GS
1356(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1357temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1358is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1359
96ebfdd7
RK
1360=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1361
1362(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1363there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1364
78f9721b
SM
1365=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1366
6903afa2
FC
1367(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue
1368subroutine, but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl
1369think you meant to return only one value. You probably meant to
1370write parentheses around the call to the subroutine, which tell
1371Perl that the call should be in list context.
78f9721b 1372
a0d0e21e
LW
1373=item Can't stat script "%s"
1374
be771a83
GS
1375(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1376open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1377
a0d0e21e
LW
1378=item Can't take log of %g
1379
fb73857a 1380(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
6903afa2 1381negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1382standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1383negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1384
1385=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1386
1387(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1388negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1389with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1390
1391=item Can't undef active subroutine
1392
1393(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1394however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1395redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1396
c81225bc 1397=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1398
be771a83
GS
1399(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1400into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1401specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1402indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1403
6651ba0b
FC
1404=item Can't use '%c' after -mname
1405
1406(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-m> switch, but you put something
1407other than "=" after the module name.
1408
1f1ec7b5
KW
1409=item Can't use a hash as a reference
1410
1411(F) You tried to use a hash as a reference, as in
66a1f5ec
FC
1412C<< %foo->{"bar"} >> or C<< %$ref->{"hello"} >>. Versions of perl
1413<= 5.22.0 used to allow this syntax, but shouldn't
1414have. This was deprecated in perl 5.6.1.
1f1ec7b5
KW
1415
1416=item Can't use an array as a reference
1417
1418(F) You tried to use an array as a reference, as in
66a1f5ec
FC
1419C<< @foo->[23] >> or C<< @$ref->[99] >>. Versions of perl <= 5.22.0
1420used to allow this syntax, but shouldn't have. This
1421was deprecated in perl 5.6.1.
1f1ec7b5 1422
1db89ea5
BS
1423=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1424
e27ad1f2 1425(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1426table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1427for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1428
96ebfdd7
RK
1429=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1430
1431(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1432be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1433
6df41af2
GS
1434=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1435
be771a83
GS
1436(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1437references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1438
90b75b61 1439=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63 1440
20561843 1441(F) The first time the C<%!> hash is used, perl automatically loads the
6903afa2 1442Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1d2dff63
GS
1443provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1444
1109a392
MHM
1445=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1446
1447(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1448byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1449allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1450
e35475de
KW
1451=item Can't use 'defined(@array)' (Maybe you should just omit the defined()?)
1452
1453(F) defined() is not useful on arrays because it
1454checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
1455array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
1456
1457=item Can't use 'defined(%hash)' (Maybe you should just omit the defined()?)
1458
1459(F) C<defined()> is not usually right on hashes.
1460
1461Although C<defined %hash> is false on a plain not-yet-used hash, it
1462becomes true in several non-obvious circumstances, including iterators,
1463weak references, stash names, even remaining true after C<undef %hash>.
1464These things make C<defined %hash> fairly useless in practice, so it now
1465generates a fatal error.
1466
1467If a check for non-empty is what you wanted then just put it in boolean
1468context (see L<perldata/Scalar values>):
1469
1470 if (%hash) {
1471 # not empty
1472 }
1473
1474If you had C<defined %Foo::Bar::QUUX> to check whether such a package
1475variable exists then that's never really been reliable, and isn't
1476a good way to enquire about the features of a package, or whether
1477it's loaded, etc.
1478
6df41af2
GS
1479=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1480
c1f06047 1481(P) The parser got confused when trying to parse a C<foreach> loop.
6df41af2 1482
aab6a793 1483=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1484
be771a83
GS
1485(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1486is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1487(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1488have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1489weren't.
1490
6d3b25aa
RGS
1491=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1492
1493(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1494that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1495For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1496is inside a big-endian group.
1497
c07a80fd
PP
1498=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1499
1500(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1501You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1502and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1503Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1504lexical variable.
1505
a0d0e21e
LW
1506=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1507
1508(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1509reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1510test the type of the reference, if need be.
1511
748a9306 1512=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1513
5e634d20
FC
1514=item Can't use string ("%s"...) as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1515
b41bf23f
FC
1516(F) You've told Perl to dereference a string, something which
1517C<use strict> blocks to prevent it happening accidentally. See
1518L<perlref/"Symbolic references">. This can be triggered by an C<@> or C<$>
1519in a double-quoted string immediately before interpolating a variable,
1520for example in C<"user @$twitter_id">, which says to treat the contents
1521of C<$twitter_id> as an array reference; use a C<\> to have a literal C<@>
1522symbol followed by the contents of C<$twitter_id>: C<"user \@$twitter_id">.
a0d0e21e 1523
748a9306
LW
1524=item Can't use subscript on %s
1525
1526(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1527subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1528didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1529
6df41af2
GS
1530=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1531
75b44862
GS
1532(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1533creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1534backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1535expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1536value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1537instead.
6df41af2 1538
ae2cf9f6
DIM
1539=item Can't unweaken a nonreference
1540
1541(F) You attempted to unweaken something that was not a reference. Only
1542references can be unweakened.
1543
810b8aa5
GS
1544=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1545
1546(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1547references can be weakened.
1548
fc7debfb
FC
1549=item Can't "when" outside a topicalizer
1550
1551(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1552loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1553from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1554or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1555
5f05dabc 1556=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1557
be771a83
GS
1558(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1559with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1560Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1561
a04e6aad 1562=item Character following "\c" must be printable ASCII
f9d13529 1563
7357bd17 1564(F) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be a printable (non-control) ASCII character.
17a3df4c 1565
727b6379 1566Note that ASCII characters that don't map to control characters are
7357bd17 1567discouraged, and will generate the warning (when enabled)
d4360efa 1568L</""\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"">.
f9d13529 1569
163a633c
KW
1570=item Character following \%c must be '{' or a single-character Unicode property name in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1571
1572(F) (In the above the C<%c> is replaced by either C<p> or C<P>.) You
1573specified something that isn't a legal Unicode property name. Most
1574Unicode properties are specified by C<\p{...}>. But if the name is a
1575single character one, the braces may be omitted.
1576
f337b084 1577=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1578
1579(W pack) You said
1580
1581 pack("C", $x)
1582
1583where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1584only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1585and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1586
1587 pack("C", $x & 255)
1588
1589If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1590instead.
1591
f337b084 1592=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1593
1594(W pack) You said
1595
1596 pack("c", $x)
1597
1598where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1599is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1600and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1601
1602 pack("c", $x & 255);
1603
1604If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1605instead.
1606
f337b084
TH
1607=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1608
1609(W unpack) You tried something like
1610
1611 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1612
1a147d38 1613where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
6903afa2
FC
1614below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the
1615value modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
f337b084
TH
1616
1617 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1618
5a25739d
FC
1619=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1620
1621(W pack) You said
1622
1623 pack("U0W", $x)
1624
1625where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode
1626expects all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved
1627as if you meant:
1628
1629 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1630
f337b084
TH
1631=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1632
1633(W pack) You tried something like
1634
1635 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1636
1a147d38 1637where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1638value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1639uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1640
1641 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1642
1643=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1644
1645(W unpack) You tried something like
1646
1647 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1648
1a147d38 1649where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1650value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1651uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1652
1653 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1654
8d9d0498
FC
1655=item charnames alias definitions may not contain a sequence of multiple
1656spaces; marked by S<<-- HERE> in %s
f51551f7
FC
1657
1658(F) You defined a character name which had multiple space characters
1659in a row. Change them to single spaces. Usually these names are
1660defined in the C<:alias> import argument to C<use charnames>, but they
1661could be defined by a translator installed into C<$^H{charnames}>. See
1662L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
1663
8d9d0498
FC
1664=item charnames alias definitions may not contain trailing white-space;
1665marked by S<<-- HERE> in %s
f51551f7
FC
1666
1667(F) You defined a character name which ended in a space
1668character. Remove the trailing space(s). Usually these names are
1669defined in the C<:alias> import argument to C<use charnames>, but they
1670could be defined by a translator installed into C<$^H{charnames}>.
1671See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
1672
60121127
TC
1673=item chdir() on unopened filehandle %s
1674
1675(W unopened) You tried chdir() on a filehandle that was never opened.
1676
d4360efa 1677=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
f866a7cd 1678
d4360efa
S
1679(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
1680non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which
1681is better written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash
1682for non-word characters. Doing it the way you did is not portable
1683between ASCII and EBCDIC platforms.
f866a7cd 1684
6651ba0b
FC
1685=item Cloning substitution context is unimplemented
1686
1687(F) Creating a new thread inside the C<s///> operator is not supported.
1688
abc7ecad
SP
1689=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1690
1691(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1692a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1693
5a25739d
FC
1694=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1695
1696(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1697
541ed3a9
FC
1698=item Closure prototype called
1699
1700(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1701handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1702This subroutine cannot be called.
1703
74d1b2e4
FC
1704=item \C no longer supported in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
1705
1706(F) The \C character class used to allow a match of single byte
1707within a multi-byte utf-8 character, but was removed in v5.24 as
1708it broke encapsulation and its implementation was extremely buggy.
1709If you really need to process the individual bytes, you probably
1710want to convert your string to one where each underlying byte is
1711stored as a character, with utf8::encode().
1712
49704364
LW
1713=item Code missing after '/'
1714
6903afa2
FC
1715(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be
1716another template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 1717
c0236afe
KW
1718=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, and not portable
1719
1720(S non_unicode) You had a code point that has never been in any
1721standard, so it is likely that languages other than Perl will NOT
1722understand it. At one time, it was legal in some standards to have code
1723points up to 0x7FFF_FFFF, but not higher, and this code point is higher.
1724
1725Acceptance of these code points is a Perl extension, and you should
1726expect that nothing other than Perl can handle them; Perl itself on
1727EBCDIC platforms before v5.24 does not handle them.
1728
1729Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require larger than a 32 bit word.
1730
1731Perl also makes no guarantees that the representation of these code
1732points won't change at some point in the future, say when machines
1733become available that have larger than a 64-bit word. At that time,
1734files written by an older Perl would require conversion before being
1735readable by a newer Perl.
1736
5a25739d
FC
1737=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1738
2d88a86a 1739(S non_unicode) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum
1b64326b
FC
1740of U+10FFFF.
1741
c0236afe
KW
1742Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code points, but
1743these may not be accepted by other languages/systems. Further, even if
1744these languages/systems accept these large code points, they may have
1745chosen a different representation for them than the UTF-8-like one that
1746Perl has, which would mean files are not exchangeable between them and
1747Perl.
1748
1749On EBCDIC platforms, code points above 0x3FFF_FFFF have a different
1750representation in Perl v5.24 than before, so any file containing these
1751that was written before that version will require conversion before
1752being readable by a later Perl.
0876b9a0 1753
6df41af2
GS
1754=item %s: Command not found
1755
a892b81a 1756(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> or another shell
66a1f5ec
FC
1757instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
1758Perl yourself. The #! line at the top of your file could look like
8f721816 1759
3bcfc7b3
LM
1760 #!/usr/bin/perl
1761
1762=item %s: command not found
1763
1764(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<bash> or another shell
1765instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
1766Perl yourself. The #! line at the top of your file could look like
1767
1768 #!/usr/bin/perl
1769
1770=item %s: command not found: %s
1771
1772(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<zsh> or another shell
1773instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
1774Perl yourself. The #! line at the top of your file could look like
1775
1776 #!/usr/bin/perl
6df41af2 1777
7a2e2cd6
PP
1778=item Compilation failed in require
1779
1780(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1781Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1782encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1783
c3464db5
DD
1784=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1785
be771a83
GS
1786(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1787situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1788to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1789arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1790recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1791under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1792in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1793that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1794on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1795
69282e91 1796=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1797
be771a83
GS
1798(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1799to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1800L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1801
e21e7c6a
FC
1802=item Constant(%s): Call to &{$^H{%s}} did not return a defined value
1803
1804(F) The subroutine registered to handle constant overloading
1805(see L<overload>) or a custom charnames handler (see
1806L<charnames/CUSTOM TRANSLATORS>) returned an undefined value.
1807
1808=item Constant(%s): $^H{%s} is not defined
1809
1810(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to define an
1811overloaded constant. Perhaps you forgot to load the corresponding
f738a371 1812L<overload> pragma?
e21e7c6a 1813
779c5bc9
GS
1814=item Constant is not %s reference
1815
1816(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83 1817is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
6903afa2 1818The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
be771a83 1819usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1820See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1821
0ac016fc 1822=item Constants from lexical variables potentially modified elsewhere are
9840d1d6 1823deprecated. This will not be allowed in Perl 5.32
0ac016fc
FC
1824
1825(D deprecated) You wrote something like
1826
1827 my $var;
1828 $sub = sub () { $var };
1829
1830but $var is referenced elsewhere and could be modified after the C<sub>
1831expression is evaluated. Either it is explicitly modified elsewhere
1832(C<$var = 3>) or it is passed to a subroutine or to an operator like
1833C<printf> or C<map>, which may or may not modify the variable.
1834
1835Traditionally, Perl has captured the value of the variable at that
1836point and turned the subroutine into a constant eligible for inlining.
1837In those cases where the variable can be modified elsewhere, this
1838breaks the behavior of closures, in which the subroutine captures
1839the variable itself, rather than its value, so future changes to the
1840variable are reflected in the subroutine's return value.
1841
9840d1d6
A
1842This usage is deprecated, and will no longer be allowed in Perl 5.32,
1843making it possible to change the behavior in the future.
0ac016fc
FC
1844
1845If you intended for the subroutine to be eligible for inlining, then
1846make sure the variable is not referenced elsewhere, possibly by
1847copying it:
1848
1849 my $var2 = $var;
1850 $sub = sub () { $var2 };
1851
1852If you do want this subroutine to be a closure that reflects future
1853changes to the variable that it closes over, add an explicit C<return>:
1854
1855 my $var;
1856 $sub = sub () { return $var };
1857
4cee8e80
CS
1858=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1859
aeb94125
FC
1860(W redefine)(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously
1861been eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions">
1862for commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1863
9607fc9c
PP
1864=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1865
be771a83
GS
1866(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1867for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1868workarounds.
9607fc9c 1869
5a25739d
FC
1870=item Constant(%s) unknown
1871
1872(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting
1873to define an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the
1874character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
3ee1a09c 1875forgot to load the corresponding L<overload> pragma?
5a25739d 1876
4a873d7a
FC
1877=item :const is experimental
1878
1879(S experimental::const_attr) The "const" attribute is experimental.
1880If you want to use the feature, disable the warning with C<no warnings
1881'experimental::const_attr'>, but know that in doing so you are taking
1882the risk that your code may break in a future Perl version.
1883
b77472f9
FC
1884=item :const is not permitted on named subroutines
1885
1886(F) The "const" attribute causes an anonymous subroutine to be run and
465068b9 1887its value captured at the time that it is cloned. Named subroutines are
b77472f9
FC
1888not cloned like this, so the attribute does not make sense on them.
1889
e7ea3e70
IZ
1890=item Copy method did not return a reference
1891
6903afa2 1892(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1893L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1894
4aaa4757
FC
1895=item &CORE::%s cannot be called directly
1896
1897(F) You tried to call a subroutine in the C<CORE::> namespace
8d605c0d 1898with C<&foo> syntax or through a reference. Some subroutines
4aaa4757
FC
1899in this package cannot yet be called that way, but must be
1900called as barewords. Something like this will work:
1901
1902 BEGIN { *shove = \&CORE::push; }
1903 shove @array, 1,2,3; # pushes on to @array
1904
6798c92b
GS
1905=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1906
1907(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1908
675fa9ff
FC
1909=item Corrupted regexp opcode %d > %d
1910
1911(P) This is either an error in Perl, or, if you're using
1912one, your L<custom regular expression engine|perlreapi>. If not the
1913latter, report the problem through the L<perlbug> utility.
1914
a0d0e21e
LW
1915=item corrupted regexp pointers
1916
1917(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1918expression compiler gave it.
1919
1920=item corrupted regexp program
1921
be771a83
GS
1922(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1923valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1924
de42a5a9 1925=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1926
1927(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1928
49704364
LW
1929=item Count after length/code in unpack
1930
1931(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1932you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1933L<perlfunc/pack>.
1934
3f645a4e
FC
1935=item Declaring references is experimental
1936
1937(S experimental::declared_refs) This warning is emitted if you use
1938a reference constructor on the right-hand side of C<my>, C<state>, C<our>, or
1939C<local>. Simply suppress the warning if you want to use the feature, but
1940know that in doing so you are taking the risk of using an experimental
1941feature which may change or be removed in a future Perl version:
1942
1943 no warnings "experimental::declared_refs";
1944 use feature "declared_refs";
1945 $fooref = my \$foo;
1946
f2cccb4c
KW
1947=for comment
1948The following are used in lib/diagnostics.t for testing two =items that
1949share the same description. Changes here need to be propagated to there
1950
6651ba0b
FC
1951=item Deep recursion on anonymous subroutine
1952
a0d0e21e
LW
1953=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1954
be771a83
GS
1955(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1956100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1957infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1958which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1959
aad1d01f
NC
1960This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1961setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1962
e0e4a6e3
FC
1963=item (?(DEFINE)....) does not allow branches in regex; marked by
1964S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
bcb95744 1965
6903afa2 1966(F) You used something like C<(?(DEFINE)...|..)> which is illegal. The
bcb95744
FC
1967most likely cause of this error is that you left out a parenthesis inside
1968of the C<....> part.
1969
6e8a73f2 1970The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
bcb95744
FC
1971discovered.
1972
62658f4d
PM
1973=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1974
1975(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1976there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1977
0ffcbc25
FC
1978=item delete argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
1979
4a0af295 1980(F) The argument to C<delete> must be either a hash or array element,
0ffcbc25
FC
1981such as:
1982
1983 $foo{$bar}
1984 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
1985
1986or a hash or array slice, such as:
1987
1988 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
1989 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
1990
cc0776d6
DIM
1991or a hash key/value or array index/value slice, such as:
1992
1993 %foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
1994 %{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
1995
fc36a67e
PP
1996=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1997
be771a83
GS
1998(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1999long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
2000that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 2001
c437f7ac 2002=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional. This will be a fatal error in Perl 5.30
6d3b25aa 2003
fa816bf3
FC
2004(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>. There
2005has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
6d3b25aa 2006not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
6903afa2 2007conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
fa816bf3 2008static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
6903afa2 2009relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
6d3b25aa 2010declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 2011
6d3b25aa
RGS
2012 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
2013
2014becomes
2015
2016 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
2017
ea9d9ebc 2018Beginning with perl 5.10.0, you can also use C<state> variables to have
fa816bf3 2019lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
36fb85f3
RGS
2020
2021 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
2022
c437f7ac
A
2023This use of C<my()> in a false conditional has been deprecated since
2024Perl 5.10, and it will become a fatal error in Perl 5.30.
2025
500ab966
RGS
2026=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
2027
2028(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
6903afa2
FC
2029just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather
2030than to create a dangling reference.
500ab966 2031
3cdd684c
TP
2032=item Did not produce a valid header
2033
3de20fbe 2034See L</500 Server error>.
3cdd684c 2035
6df41af2
GS
2036=item %s did not return a true value
2037
2038(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
2039it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
2040traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
2041do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
2042
cc507455 2043=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 2044
413ff9f6
FC
2045(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
2046some such.
4633a7c4 2047
cc507455 2048=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 2049
be771a83
GS
2050(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
2051variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
2052seems superfluous.
33633739 2053
cc507455 2054=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 2055
be771a83
GS
2056(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
2057@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
2058carried away.
748a9306 2059
7e1af8bc 2060=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
2061
2062(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
075b00aa 2063you called it with no args and C<$@> was empty.
5f05dabc 2064
3cdd684c
TP
2065=item Document contains no data
2066
3de20fbe 2067See L</500 Server error>.
3cdd684c 2068
62658f4d
PM
2069=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
2070
2071(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
943fc58e 2072define a C<$VERSION>.
62658f4d 2073
49704364
LW
2074=item '/' does not take a repeat count
2075
2076(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
2077See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2078
1c99110e 2079=item do "%s" failed, '.' is no longer in @INC; did you mean do "./%s"?
2a0461a3 2080
b28683c9 2081(D deprecated) Previously C< do "somefile"; > would search the current
1c99110e
DM
2082directory for the specified file. Since perl v5.26.0, F<.> has been
2083removed from C<@INC> by default, so this is no longer true. To search the
2084current directory (and only the current directory) you can write
2085C< do "./somefile"; >.
2a0461a3 2086
95cb0d72
FC
2087=item Don't know how to get file name
2088
2089(P) C<PerlIO_getname>, a perl internal I/O function specific to VMS, was
2090somehow called on another platform. This should not happen.
2091
4021c788 2092=item Don't know how to handle magic of type \%o
a0d0e21e
LW
2093
2094(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
2095
2096=item do_study: out of memory
2097
2098(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
2099
6df41af2
GS
2100=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
2101
56da5a46
RGS
2102(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2103"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
2104name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
2105because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
2106"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
2107something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
2108subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
2109"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 2110
30b17cc1 2111=item dump() better written as CORE::dump(). dump() will no longer be available in Perl 5.30
ac206dc8 2112
30b17cc1
A
2113(D deprecated, misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function,
2114without fully qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo.
2115
4fa40147 2116Use of a unqualified C<dump()> was deprecated in Perl 5.8.0, and this
30b17cc1
A
2117will not be available in Perl 5.30.
2118
2119See L<perlfunc/dump>.
ac206dc8 2120
84d78eb7
YO
2121=item dump is not supported
2122
2123(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
2124
a0d0e21e
LW
2125=item Duplicate free() ignored
2126
be771a83
GS
2127(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
2128already been freed.
a0d0e21e 2129
1109a392
MHM
2130=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
2131
35f0cd76
FC
2132(W unpack) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a
2133type in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1109a392 2134
4633a7c4
LW
2135=item elseif should be elsif
2136
fa816bf3
FC
2137(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks
2138it's ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
2139named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
2140unlikely to be what you want.
2141
c30c479a
KW
2142=item Empty \%c in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
2143
e0e4a6e3 2144=item Empty \%c{} in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
ab13f0c7 2145
af6f566e 2146(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
6903afa2 2147described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
af6f566e 2148a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 2149
fd503f5c 2150=item ${^ENCODING} is no longer supported
a15a3d9b 2151
fd503f5c 2152(F) The special variable C<${^ENCODING}>, formerly used to implement
a15a3d9b
FC
2153the C<encoding> pragma, is no longer supported as of Perl 5.26.0.
2154
fd503f5c
DIM
2155Setting it to anything other than C<undef> is a fatal error as of Perl
21565.28.
ac641426 2157
85ab1d1d 2158=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2159
85ab1d1d 2160(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2161effective uids or gids failed.
2162
c038024b
RGS
2163=item %ENV is aliased to %s
2164
2165(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
2166aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
6903afa2 2167program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
c038024b 2168
748a9306
LW
2169=item Error converting file specification %s
2170
5f05dabc 2171(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 2172specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
2173single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
2174an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
2175conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 2176
ad19ef22 2177=item Eval-group in insecure regular expression
e4d48cc9 2178
be771a83
GS
2179(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2180expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
2181is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 2182
ad19ef22 2183=item Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
e4d48cc9 2184
be771a83
GS
2185(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
2186C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
f11307f5
FC
2187pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk,
2188it is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by using the
2189C<re 'eval'> pragma or by explicitly building the pattern from an
2190interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval(). See
2191L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 2192
ad19ef22 2193=item Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
6df41af2 2194
be771a83
GS
2195(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
2196assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
2197pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 2198
e0e4a6e3
FC
2199=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by
2200S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
1a147d38
YO
2201
2202(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
6903afa2 2203any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1a147d38 2204
6e8a73f2 2205The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
1a147d38
YO
2206discovered.
2207
fc36a67e
PP
2208=item Excessively long <> operator
2209
2210(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
2211Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
2212filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
2213variable and glob that.
2214
ed9aa3b7
SG
2215=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
2216
af8bb25a 2217(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented on some systems, e.g., Symbian
6903afa2 2218OS. See L<perlport>.
ed9aa3b7 2219
c77da5ff 2220=item %sExecution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
2221
2222(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
2223
0ffcbc25
FC
2224=item exists argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
2225
4a0af295 2226(F) The argument to C<exists> must be a hash or array element or a
0ffcbc25
FC
2227subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
2228
2229 $foo{$bar}
2230 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
2231 &do_something
2232
2233=item exists argument is not a subroutine name
2234
ccfc2567
FC
2235(F) The argument to C<exists> for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine name,
2236and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this error.
0ffcbc25 2237
a0d0e21e
LW
2238=item Exiting eval via %s
2239
be771a83
GS
2240(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
2241goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
2242
2243=item Exiting format via %s
2244
9a2ff54b 2245(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 2246goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 2247
0a753a76
PP
2248=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
2249
be771a83
GS
2250(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
2251sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
2252loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 2253
a0d0e21e
LW
2254=item Exiting subroutine via %s
2255
be771a83
GS
2256(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
2257as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2258
2259=item Exiting substitution via %s
2260
be771a83
GS
2261(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
2262as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 2263
e0e4a6e3 2264=item Expecting close bracket in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
c608e803 2265
675fa9ff 2266(F) You wrote something like
c608e803
KW
2267
2268 (?13
2269
2270to denote a capturing group of the form
2271L<C<(?I<PARNO>)>|perlre/(?PARNO) (?-PARNO) (?+PARNO) (?R) (?0)>,
2272but omitted the C<")">.
2273
e0e4a6e3 2274=item Expecting '(?flags:(?[...' in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
27350048 2275
8b6fbf55
FC
2276(F) The C<(?[...])> extended character class regular expression construct
2277only allows character classes (including character class escapes like
2278C<\d>), operators, and parentheses. The one exception is C<(?flags:...)>
2279containing at least one flag and exactly one C<(?[...])> construct.
27350048
FC
2280This allows a regular expression containing just C<(?[...])> to be
2281interpolated. If you see this error message, then you probably
2282have some other C<(?...)> construct inside your character class. See
2283L<perlrecharclass/Extended Bracketed Character Classes>.
2284
baabe3fb 2285=item Experimental aliasing via reference not enabled
1f8155a2 2286
baabe3fb 2287(F) To do aliasing via references, you must first enable the feature:
1f8155a2 2288
baabe3fb
FC
2289 no warnings "experimental::refaliasing";
2290 use feature "refaliasing";
1f8155a2
FC
2291 \$x = \$y;
2292
74d1b2e4
FC
2293=item Experimental %s on scalar is now forbidden
2294
2295(F) An experimental feature added in Perl 5.14 allowed C<each>, C<keys>,
2296C<push>, C<pop>, C<shift>, C<splice>, C<unshift>, and C<values> to be called with a
2297scalar argument. This experiment is considered unsuccessful, and
2298has been removed. The C<postderef> feature may meet your needs better.
2299
30d9c59b
Z
2300=item Experimental subroutine signatures not enabled
2301
2302(F) To use subroutine signatures, you must first enable them:
2303
caa35032 2304 no warnings "experimental::signatures";
30d9c59b
Z
2305 use feature "signatures";
2306 sub foo ($left, $right) { ... }
2307
7b8d334a
GS
2308=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
2309
be771a83
GS
2310(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
2311the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
2312usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
2313e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 2314
6df41af2
GS
2315=item %s: Expression syntax
2316
be771a83
GS
2317(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
2318Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
2319
2320=item %s failed--call queue aborted
2321
3c10abe3
AG
2322(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
2323CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
2324queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 2325
e0d4aead 2326=item Failed to close in-place work file %s: %s
502aca56
TC
2327
2328(F) Closing an output file from in-place editing, as with the C<-i>
2329command-line switch, failed.
2330
e0e4a6e3 2331=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
73b437c8 2332
98d31c73 2333(W regexp)(F) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3 2334character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
3c6ca74a
FC
2335in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". In a C<(?[...])>
2336construct, this is an error, rather than a warning. Consider quoting
e0e4a6e3 2337the "-", "\-". The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression
3c6ca74a 2338the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 2339
1b1ee2ef 2340=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 2341
be771a83
GS
2342(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
2343system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
2344details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
2345you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2346
2347=item fcntl is not implemented
2348
2349(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
2350PDP-11 or something?
2351
22846ab4
AB
2352=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
2353
2354(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
2355is not possible.
2356
f337b084
TH
2357=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
2358
d8b5cc61 2359(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string starts with a length indicator
6903afa2
FC
2360which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
2361a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
5c96f6f7 2362C<u63> as the format.
f337b084 2363
a0e213fc
A
2364=item File::Glob::glob() will disappear in perl 5.30. Use File::Glob::bsd_glob() instead.
2365
2366(D deprecated) C<< File::Glob >> has a function called C<< glob >>, which
2367just calls C<< bsd_glob >>. However, its prototype is different from the
2368prototype of C<< CORE::glob >>, and hence, C<< File::Glob::glob >> should
2369not be used.
2370
2371C<< File::Glob::glob() >> was deprecated in perl 5.8.0. A deprecation
2372message was issued from perl 5.26.0 onwards, and the function will
2373disappear in perl 5.30.0.
2374
2375Code using C<< File::Glob::glob() >> should call
2376C<< File::Glob::bsd_glob() >> instead.
2377
af8c498a 2378=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 2379
6c8d78fb
HS
2380(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
2381it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
2382"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
2383write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 2384
af8c498a 2385=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 2386
6c8d78fb
HS
2387(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
2388you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
89a1bda8
FC
2389with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with ">". If you intended only to
2390read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>. Another possibility
2391is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for
2392output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
2393
2394=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
2395
2396(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
6903afa2 2397as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
2398previously.
2399
2400=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
2401
2402(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
fa816bf3 2403as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
2404
2405=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
2406
2407(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
2408a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
2409happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
2410name.
a0d0e21e 2411
56e90b21
GS
2412=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
2413
be771a83 2414(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 2415some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
2416filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
2417same name?
56e90b21 2418
6df41af2
GS
2419=item Format not terminated
2420
2421(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
2422to the end of your file without finding such a line.
2423
a0d0e21e
LW
2424=item Format %s redefined
2425
e476b1b5 2426(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
2427
2428 {
271595cc 2429 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
2430 eval "format NAME =...";
2431 }
2432
a0d0e21e
LW
2433=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
2434
e476b1b5 2435(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
2436
2437 if ($foo = 123)
2438
2439when you meant
2440
2441 if ($foo == 123)
2442
2443(or something like that).
2444
6df41af2
GS
2445=item %s found where operator expected
2446
56da5a46
RGS
2447(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
2448If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
2449operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
2450operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 2451
a0d0e21e
LW
2452=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
2453
2454(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
2455
2456=item gethostent not implemented
2457
2458(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
2459because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
2460on the Internet.
2461
69282e91 2462=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2463
be771a83
GS
2464(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
2465socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 2466
748a9306
LW
2467=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
2468
2469(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
2470C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
2471
6df41af2
GS
2472=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
2473
be771a83
GS
2474(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
2475forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
2476L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
2477
0f539b13
BF
2478=item given is experimental
2479
675fa9ff
FC
2480(S experimental::smartmatch) C<given> depends on smartmatch, which
2481is experimental, so its behavior may change or even be removed
2482in any future release of perl. See the explanation under
2483L<perlsyn/Experimental Details on given and when>.
0f539b13 2484
68567d27
FC
2485=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name (did you forget to
2486declare "my %s"?)
6df41af2 2487
a4edf47d 2488(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 2489that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
2490declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
2491which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 2492
e476b1b5
GS
2493=item glob failed (%s)
2494
5ead438e 2495(S glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used
73c4e9dc
FC
2496for C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
2497pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
be771a83 2498nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
73c4e9dc
FC
2499resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell)
2500is broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables
2501in config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as
2502if it were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them
2503all empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
be771a83 2504think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 2505C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 2506
a0d0e21e
LW
2507=item Glob not terminated
2508
2509(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
2510a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
2511not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
2512earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 2513
b35b96b6
JH
2514=item gmtime(%f) failed
2515
2516(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that it could not handle:
2517too large, too small, or NaN. The returned value is C<undef>.
2518
bcd05b94 2519=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2520
e9200be3 2521(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was larger than
fc003d4b 2522it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
6903afa2 2523date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2524not-a-number value).
2525
bcd05b94 2526=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2527
e9200be3 2528(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was smaller than
e7a1a147 2529it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2530
6df41af2 2531=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 2532
6df41af2
GS
2533(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
2534version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
2535
2536=item goto must have label
2537
2538(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
2539unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2540
6651ba0b
FC
2541=item Goto undefined subroutine%s
2542
2543(F) You tried to call a subroutine with C<goto &sub> syntax, but
2544the indicated subroutine hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2545has since been undefined.
2546
6fbc9859 2547=item Group name must start with a non-digit word character in regex; marked by
e0e4a6e3 2548S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
1f4f6bf1
YO
2549
2550(F) Group names must follow the rules for perl identifiers, meaning
f26c79ba
FC
2551they must start with a non-digit word character. A common cause of
2552this error is using (?&0) instead of (?0). See L<perlre>.
1f4f6bf1 2553
5a25739d
FC
2554=item ()-group starts with a count
2555
2556(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is supposed to follow
2557something: a template character or a ()-group. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2558
fe13d51d 2559=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
2560
2561(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
2562
a0d0e21e
LW
2563=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
2564
be771a83
GS
2565(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
2566to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
2567created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e 2568
6df41af2
GS
2569=item %s has too many errors
2570
2571(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
2572Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
2573
61e61fbc
JH
2574=item Hexadecimal float: exponent overflow
2575
d8f2b442 2576(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point has a larger exponent
61e61fbc
JH
2577than the floating point supports.
2578
2579=item Hexadecimal float: exponent underflow
2580
d8f2b442 2581(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point has a smaller exponent
b6d9b423
JH
2582than the floating point supports. With the IEEE 754 floating point,
2583this may also mean that the subnormals (formerly known as denormals)
2584are being used, which may or may not be an error.
61e61fbc 2585
5488d373 2586=item Hexadecimal float: internal error (%s)
cf4f6003
JH
2587
2588(F) Something went horribly bad in hexadecimal float handling.
2589
61e61fbc
JH
2590=item Hexadecimal float: mantissa overflow
2591
2592(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point literal had more bits in
2593the mantissa (the part between the 0x and the exponent, also known as
2594the fraction or the significand) than the floating point supports.
2595
40bca5ae
JH
2596=item Hexadecimal float: precision loss
2597
2598(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point had internally more
2599digits than could be output. This can be caused by unsupported
2600long double formats, or by 64-bit integers not being available
2601(needed to retrieve the digits under some configurations).
2602
2603=item Hexadecimal float: unsupported long double format
2604
2605(F) You have configured Perl to use long doubles but
d8f2b442 2606the internals of the long double format are unknown;
40bca5ae
JH
2607therefore the hexadecimal float output is impossible.
2608
252aa082
JH
2609=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2610
e476b1b5 2611(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2612(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2613L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2614
8903cb82
PP
2615=item Identifier too long
2616
2617(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2618about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2619names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2620of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2621
e0e4a6e3
FC
2622=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class in regex; marked by
2623S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
fc8cd66c 2624
f3ba6905 2625(W regexp) Named Unicode character escapes (C<\N{...}>) may return a
0f44b2a5
FC
2626zero-length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character
2627class its behavior is not well defined. Check that the correct
2628escape has been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
fc8cd66c 2629
283151b7 2630=item Illegal binary digit '%c'
f675dbe5 2631
6df41af2 2632(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2633
6df41af2 2634=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2635
be771a83
GS
2636(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2637binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2638offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2639
6597eb22
FC
2640=item Illegal character after '_' in prototype for %s : %s
2641
e4d150f1
FC
2642(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype
2643declaration. The '_' in a prototype must be followed by a ';',
2644indicating the rest of the parameters are optional, or one of '@'
2645or '%', since those two will accept 0 or more final parameters.
6597eb22 2646
b913d0b8
FC
2647=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
2648
2649(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as
2650it would any other whitespace, which means you should never see
2651this error when Perl was built using standard options. For some
2652reason, your version of Perl appears to have been built without
2653this support. Talk to your Perl administrator.
2654
08ccc810
TC
2655=item Illegal operator following parameter in a subroutine signature
2656
2657(F) A parameter in a subroutine signature, was followed by something
2658other than C<=> introducing a default, C<,> or C<)>.
2659
2660 use feature 'signatures';
2661 sub foo ($=1) {} # legal
2662 sub foo ($a = 1) {} # legal
2663 sub foo ($a += 1) {} # illegal
2664 sub foo ($a == 1) {} # illegal
2665
bb6b75cd 2666=item Illegal character following sigil in a subroutine signature
d3d9da4a
DM
2667
2668(F) A parameter in a subroutine signature contained an unexpected character
d4e5761f
FC
2669following the C<$>, C<@> or C<%> sigil character. Normally the sigil
2670should be followed by the variable name or C<=> etc. Perhaps you are
d3d9da4a
DM
2671trying use a prototype while in the scope of C<use feature 'signatures'>?
2672For example:
2673
2674 sub foo ($$) {} # legal - a prototype
2675
2676 use feature 'signatures;
2677 sub foo ($$) {} # illegal - was expecting a signature
2678 sub foo ($a, $b)
2679 :prototype($$) {} # legal
2680
2681
d37a9538
ST
2682=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2683
197afce1 2684(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2e9cc7ef 2685Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
30d9c59b
Z
2686Perhaps you were trying to write a subroutine signature but didn't enable
2687that feature first (C<use feature 'signatures'>), so your signature was
2688instead interpreted as a bad prototype.
d37a9538 2689
904d85c5
RGS
2690=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2691
2692(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
6903afa2 2693you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
904d85c5 2694
8e742a20
MHM
2695=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2696
6903afa2 2697(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
8e742a20 2698
a0d0e21e
LW
2699=item Illegal division by zero
2700
be771a83
GS
2701(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2702your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2703meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2704
6df41af2
GS
2705=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2706
be771a83
GS
2707(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2708A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2709number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2710
a0d0e21e
LW
2711=item Illegal modulus zero
2712
be771a83
GS
2713(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2714numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2715
6df41af2 2716=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2717
6df41af2
GS
2718(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2719two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4 2720
283151b7 2721=item Illegal octal digit '%c'
a0d0e21e 2722
d1be9408 2723(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2724
399388f4 2725=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2726
d1be9408 2727(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2728Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2729
e0e4a6e3 2730=item Illegal pattern in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
c608e803 2731
675fa9ff 2732(F) You wrote something like
c608e803
KW
2733
2734 (?+foo)
2735
2736The C<"+"> is valid only when followed by digits, indicating a
2737capturing group. See
2738L<C<(?I<PARNO>)>|perlre/(?PARNO) (?-PARNO) (?+PARNO) (?R) (?0)>.
2739
375ed12a
JH
2740=item Illegal suidscript
2741
2742(F) The script run under suidperl was somehow illegal.
2743
fe13d51d 2744=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2745
6df41af2 2746(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2747following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2748
4003ea29
KW
2749=item Illegal user-defined property name
2750
2751(F) You specified a Unicode-like property name in a regular expression
2752pattern (using C<\p{}> or C<\P{}>) that Perl knows isn't an official
2753Unicode property, and was likely meant to be a user-defined property
2754name, but it can't be one of those, as they must begin with either C<In>
2755or C<Is>. Check the spelling. See also
2756L</Can't find Unicode property definition "%s">.
2757
6df41af2 2758=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2759
75b44862 2760(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2761internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2762delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2763
6df41af2 2764=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2765
be771a83
GS
2766(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2767name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2768didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2769ignored.
54310121 2770
6df41af2 2771=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2772
be771a83
GS
2773(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2774the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2775system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2776times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2777would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2778
be771a83
GS
2779Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2780also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2781
e0e4a6e3
FC
2782=item Incomplete expression within '(?[ ])' in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE>
2783in m/%s/
0d0b4b3b 2784
675fa9ff 2785(F) There was a syntax error within the C<(?[ ])>. This can happen if the
0d0b4b3b
KW
2786expression inside the construct was completely empty, or if there are
2787too many or few operands for the number of operators. Perl is not smart
2788enough to give you a more precise indication as to what is wrong.
2789
6fbc9859
MH
2790=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on
2791parent '%s'
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2792
2793(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2794C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2795documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2796
cdd6375d
MH
2797=item Indentation on line %d of here-doc doesn't match delimiter
2798
2799(F) You have an indented here-document where one or more of its lines
2800have whitespace at the beginning that does not match the closing
2801delimiter.
2802
2803For example, line 2 below is wrong because it does not have at least
28042 spaces, but lines 1 and 3 are fine because they have at least 2:
2805
2806 if ($something) {
2807 print <<~EOF;
2808 Line 1
2809 Line 2 not
2810 Line 3
2811 EOF
2812 }
2813
2814Note that tabs and spaces are compared strictly, meaning 1 tab will
2815not match 8 spaces.
2816
6a2ed79a 2817=item Infinite recursion in regex
1a147d38
YO
2818
2819(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
6903afa2 2820text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
1a147d38
YO
2821either consume text or fail.
2822
714f94d1
FC
2823=item Infinite recursion via empty pattern
2824
2825(F) You tried to use the empty pattern inside of a regex code block,
2826for instance C</(?{ s!!! })/>, which resulted in re-executing
2827the same pattern, which is an infinite loop which is broken by
2828throwing an exception.
2829
f99042c8 2830=item Initialization of state variables in list currently forbidden
6dbe9451 2831
f99042c8
Z
2832(F) C<state> only permits initializing a single variable, specified
2833without parentheses. So C<state $a = 42> and C<state @a = qw(a b c)> are
2834allowed, but not C<state ($a) = 42> or C<(state $a) = 42>. To initialize
2835more than one C<state> variable, initialize them one at a time.
6dbe9451 2836
2186f873
FC
2837=item %%s[%s] in scalar context better written as $%s[%s]
2838
2839(W syntax) In scalar context, you've used an array index/value slice
2840(indicated by %) to select a single element of an array. Generally
2841it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $). The difference
2842is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both in the value it
2843returns and when evaluating its argument, while C<%foo[&bar]> provides
2844a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things if you're
2845expecting only one subscript. When called in list context, it also
2846returns the index (what C<&bar> returns) in addition to the value.
2847
2848=item %%s{%s} in scalar context better written as $%s{%s}
2849
2850(W syntax) In scalar context, you've used a hash key/value slice
2851(indicated by %) to select a single element of a hash. Generally it's
2852better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $). The difference
2853is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both in the value
2854it returns and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> and
2855provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things
2856if you're expecting only one subscript. When called in list context,
2857it also returns the key in addition to the value.
2858
a0d0e21e
LW
2859=item Insecure dependency in %s
2860
8b1a09fc 2861(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2862The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2863setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2864tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2865from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2866such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2867L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2868
2869=item Insecure directory in %s
2870
be771a83
GS
2871(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2872setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2873the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2874See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2875
62f468fc 2876=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2877
2878(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2879setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2880C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2881supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2882the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2883
0e9be77f
DM
2884=item Insecure user-defined property %s
2885
2886(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2887expression that contains a call to a user-defined character property
2888function, i.e. C<\p{IsFoo}> or C<\p{InFoo}>.
2889See L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties> and L<perlsec>.
2890
b9ef414d
FC
2891=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2892
2893(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2894or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2895integers for your architecture.
2896
a7ae9550
GS
2897=item Integer overflow in %s number
2898
35928bc5 2899(S overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2900either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2901your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2902On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2903representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
29040b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2905transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2906internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2907operations.
bbce6d69 2908
fc89ca81
FC
2909=item Integer overflow in srand
2910
2911(S overflow) The number you have passed to srand is too big to fit
2912in your architecture's integer representation. The number has been
2913replaced with the largest integer supported (0xFFFFFFFF on 32-bit
2914architectures). This means you may be getting less randomness than
2915you expect, because different random seeds above the maximum will
2916return the same sequence of random numbers.
2917
46314c13
JP
2918=item Integer overflow in version
2919
18da5252
FC
2920=item Integer overflow in version %d
2921
784d71ed
FC
2922(W overflow) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for
2923the size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
f084e84f 2924because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use an
784d71ed
FC
2925element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by trying
2926to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like 100/9.
46314c13 2927
e0e4a6e3 2928=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2929
2930(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
e0e4a6e3 2931The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2932discovered.
2933
748a9306
LW
2934=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2935
be771a83
GS
2936(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2937you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2938to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2939L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2940Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2941terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2942
870978ae
FC
2943=item internal %<num>p might conflict with future printf extensions
2944
2945(S internal) Perl's internal routine that handles C<printf> and C<sprintf>
2946formatting follows a slightly different set of rules when called from
2947C or XS code. Specifically, formats consisting of digits followed
2948by "p" (e.g., "%7p") are reserved for future use. If you see this
2949message, then an XS module tried to call that routine with one such
2950reserved format.
2951
e0e4a6e3 2952=item Internal urp in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
b45f050a 2953
fa816bf3 2954(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
e0e4a6e3 2955S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
7253e4e3 2956discovered.
a0d0e21e 2957
6df41af2
GS
2958=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2959
75b44862 2960(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2961followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2962operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2963L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2964
f51551f7
FC
2965=item In '(?...)', the '(' and '?' must be adjacent in regex;
2966marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
2967
2968(F) The two-character sequence C<"(?"> in this context in a regular
2969expression pattern should be an indivisible token, with nothing
2970intervening between the C<"("> and the C<"?">, but you separated them
2971with whitespace.
2972
09bef843
SB
2973=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2974
a4a4c9e2 2975(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2976by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2977
2978=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2979
a4a4c9e2 2980(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2981recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2982
e0e4a6e3
FC
2983=item Invalid character in charnames alias definition; marked by
2984S<<-- HERE> in '%s
225fb84f
KW
2985
2986(F) You tried to create a custom alias for a character name, with
2987the C<:alias> option to C<use charnames> and the specified character in
2988the indicated name isn't valid. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2989
c8028aa6
TC
2990=item Invalid \0 character in %s for %s: %s\0%s
2991
fa3234e3
FC
2992(W syscalls) Embedded \0 characters in pathnames or other system call
2993arguments produce a warning as of 5.20. The parts after the \0 were
2994formerly ignored by system calls.
c8028aa6 2995
e0e4a6e3 2996=item Invalid character in \N{...}; marked by S<<-- HERE> in \N{%s}
a690c7c4
FC
2997
2998(F) Only certain characters are valid for character names. The
2999indicated one isn't. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
3000
c635e13b
PP
3001=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
3002
be771a83
GS
3003(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
3004L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 3005
e0e4a6e3
FC
3006=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by
3007S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
9e08bc66 3008
98d31c73 3009(W regexp)(F) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
9e08bc66
ST
3010didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
3011from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
98d31c73
FC
3012The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD)
3013instead, except within S<C<(?[ ])>>, where it is a fatal error.
e0e4a6e3 3014The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
9e08bc66
ST
3015escape was discovered.
3016
8149aa9f
FC
3017=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
3018
e0e4a6e3
FC
3019=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...} in regex; marked by
3020S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
aec0ef10 3021
8149aa9f 3022(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
74f8e9e3
FC
3023number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than
30240 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
8149aa9f 3025
6651ba0b
FC
3026=item Invalid module name %s with -%c option: contains single ':'
3027
3028(F) The module argument to perl's B<-m> and B<-M> command-line options
3029cannot contain single colons in the module name, but only in the
3030arguments after "=". In other words, B<-MFoo::Bar=:baz> is ok, but
3031B<-MFoo:Bar=baz> is not.
3032
2c7d6b9c
RGS
3033=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
3034
162a3e34
FC
3035(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")> or C<use mro 'foo'>,
3036where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO). Currently,
3037the only valid ones supported are C<dfs> and C<c3>, unless you have loaded
3038a module that is a MRO plugin. See L<mro> and L<perlmroapi>.
2c7d6b9c 3039
40e4140b
FC
3040=item Invalid negative number (%s) in chr
3041
3042(W utf8) You passed a negative number to C<chr>. Negative numbers are
abc0aa9d 3043not valid character numbers, so it returns the Unicode replacement
40e4140b
FC
3044character (U+FFFD).
3045
74d1b2e4
FC
3046=item Invalid number '%s' for -C option.
3047
3048(F) You supplied a number to the -C option that either has extra leading
3049zeroes or overflows perl's unsigned integer representation.
3050
6651ba0b
FC
3051=item invalid option -D%c, use -D'' to see choices
3052
8ff21bfe
FC
3053(S debugging) Perl was called with invalid debugger flags. Call perl
3054with the B<-D> option with no flags to see the list of acceptable values.
982c4ecb 3055See also L<perlrun/-Dletters>.
6651ba0b 3056
6e8a73f2 3057=item Invalid quantifier in {,} in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
35cd12d1
HS
3058
3059(F) The pattern looks like a {min,max} quantifier, but the min or max
3060could not be parsed as a valid number - either it has leading zeroes,
3061or it represents too big a number to cope with. The S<<-- HERE> shows
3062where in the regular expression the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
3063
e0e4a6e3 3064=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
3065
3066(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
3067greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
3068C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
e0e4a6e3 3069up to C<ff>. The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
7253e4e3 3070problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 3071
d1573ac7 3072=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
3073
3074(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
3075character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
3076
09bef843
SB
3077=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
3078
0120eecf 3079(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
3080elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
3081parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
3082See L<attributes>.
09bef843 3083
b4581f09
JH
3084=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
3085
2bfc5f71
FC
3086(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other
3087than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
b4581f09
JH
3088If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
3089list was terminated too soon.
3090
2c86d456
DG
3091=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
3092
fa816bf3 3093(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
3094A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
3095decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
3096v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 3097The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
3098See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
3099
49704364 3100=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 3101
49704364
LW
3102(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
3103See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6728c851 3104
49704364 3105(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 3106silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 3107
2c86d456
DG
3108=item Invalid version format (%s)
3109
fa816bf3 3110(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
3111A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
3112decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
fa816bf3
FC
3113v-string. If the v-string has fewer than three components, it
3114must have a leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is
3115optional. Both decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a
3116trailing "alpha" component separated by an underscore character
3117after a fractional or dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized
3118text indicates which criteria were not met. See the L<version> module
3119for more details on allowed version formats.
46314c13 3120
798ae1b7
DG
3121=item Invalid version object
3122
fa816bf3
FC
3123(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid.
3124Perhaps the internals were modified directly in some way or
3125an arbitrary reference was blessed into the "version" class.
798ae1b7 3126
cd209d9d 3127=item In '(*VERB...)', the '(' and '*' must be adjacent in regex;
e0e4a6e3 3128marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
675fa9ff 3129
cd209d9d 3130(F) The two-character sequence C<"(*"> in
675fa9ff
FC
3131this context in a regular expression pattern should be an
3132indivisible token, with nothing intervening between the C<"(">
cd209d9d 3133and the C<"*">, but you separated them.
675fa9ff 3134
a0d0e21e
LW
3135=item ioctl is not implemented
3136
3137(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
3138strange for a machine that supports C.
3139
c289d2f7
JH
3140=item ioctl() on unopened %s
3141
3142(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
34b6fd5e 3143Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 3144
fe13d51d 3145=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
3146
3147(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
34b6fd5e 3148you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO, Perl must be configured
363c40c4
SB
3149with 'useperlio'.
3150
80cbd5ad
JH
3151=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
3152
3153(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
34b6fd5e 3154neither as a system call nor an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
80cbd5ad 3155
6e8a73f2 3156=item '%s' is an unknown bound type in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
64935bc6
KW
3157
3158(F) You used C<\b{...}> or C<\B{...}> and the C<...> is not known to
3159Perl. The current valid ones are given in
3160L<perlrebackslash/\b{}, \b, \B{}, \B>.
3161
1972ac5c 3162=item %s() is deprecated on :utf8 handles. This will be a fatal error in Perl 5.30
74d1b2e4 3163
dd6d5da4 3164(D deprecated) The sysread(), recv(), syswrite() and send() operators are
74d1b2e4
FC
3165deprecated on handles that have the C<:utf8> layer, either explicitly, or
3166implicitly, eg., with the C<:encoding(UTF-16LE)> layer.
3167
3168Both sysread() and recv() currently use only the C<:utf8> flag for the stream,
3169ignoring the actual layers. Since sysread() and recv() do no UTF-8
3170validation they can end up creating invalidly encoded scalars.
3171
3172Similarly, syswrite() and send() use only the C<:utf8> flag, otherwise ignoring
3173any layers. If the flag is set, both write the value UTF-8 encoded, even if
3174the layer is some different encoding, such as the example above.
3175
3176Ideally, all of these operators would completely ignore the C<:utf8> state,
3177working only with bytes, but this would result in silently breaking existing
1972ac5c
A
3178code.
3179
3180In Perl 5.30, it will no longer be possible to use sysread(), recv(),
3181syswrite() or send() to read or send bytes from/to :utf8 handles.
74d1b2e4 3182
d4360efa 3183=item "%s" is more clearly written simply as "%s" in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
acdfc3b6 3184
d4360efa 3185(W regexp) (only under C<S<use re 'strict'>> or within C<(?[...])>)
30b17cc1 3186
3f673807
FC
3187You specified a character that has the given plainer way of writing it, and
3188which is also portable to platforms running with different character sets.
acdfc3b6 3189
37398dc1 3190=item $* is no longer supported. Its use will be fatal in Perl 5.30
a678626e
A
3191
3192(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older
3193perls, has been removed as of 5.10.0 and is no longer supported. In
3194previous versions of perl the use of C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line
3195matching within a string.
3196
3197Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
3198modifiers. You can enable C</m> for a lexical scope (even a whole file)
3199with C<use re '/m'>. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value
3200then all regular expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
3201
37398dc1
A
3202Use of this variable will be a fatal error in Perl 5.30.
3203
3204=item $# is no longer supported. Its use will be fatal in Perl 5.30
a678626e
A
3205
3206(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older
3207perls, has been removed as of 5.10.0 and is no longer supported. You
3208should use the printf/sprintf functions instead.
3209
37398dc1
A
3210Use of this variable will be a fatal error in Perl 5.30.
3211
ccf3535a 3212=item '%s' is not a code reference
6ad11d81 3213
6903afa2
FC
3214(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of
3215overload::constant needs to be a code reference. Either
3216an anonymous subroutine, or a reference to a subroutine.
6ad11d81 3217
ccf3535a 3218=item '%s' is not an overloadable type
6ad11d81 3219
04a80ee0
RGS
3220(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
3221unaware of.
6ad11d81 3222
5a25739d
FC
3223=item -i used with no filenames on the command line, reading from STDIN
3224
3225(S inplace) The C<-i> option was passed on the command line, indicating
3226that the script is intended to edit files in place, but no files were
3227given. This is usually a mistake, since editing STDIN in place doesn't
3228make sense, and can be confusing because it can make perl look like
3229it is hanging when it is really just trying to read from STDIN. You
3230should either pass a filename to edit, or remove C<-i> from the command
3231line. See L<perlrun> for more details.
3232
aec0ef10 3233=item Junk on end of regexp in regex m/%s/
a0d0e21e
LW
3234
3235(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
3236
3237=item Label not found for "last %s"
3238
be771a83
GS
3239(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
3240of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
3241L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3242
3243=item Label not found for "next %s"
3244
3245(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
3246that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
3247L<perlfunc/last>.
3248
3249=item Label not found for "redo %s"
3250
3251(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
3252that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
3253L<perlfunc/last>.
3254
85ab1d1d 3255=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 3256
85ab1d1d 3257(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
3258effective uids or gids failed.
3259
49704364
LW
3260=item length/code after end of string in unpack
3261
d7f8936a 3262(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
6903afa2
FC
3263length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
3264an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 3265
25e26107 3266=item length() used on %s (did you mean "scalar(%s)"?)
e508c8a4 3267
0d46a4e7
FC
3268(W syntax) You used length() on either an array or a hash when you
3269probably wanted a count of the items.
e508c8a4
MH
3270
3271Array size can be obtained by doing:
3272
3273 scalar(@array);
3274
3275The number of items in a hash can be obtained by doing:
3276
3277 scalar(keys %hash);
3278
f0e67a1d
Z
3279=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
3280
d4fe7078
RS
3281(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
3282(using L<lex_stuff_pvn|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn> or similar), but tried to insert a character that
3283couldn't be part of the current input. This is an inherent pitfall
3284of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the reasons to avoid it. Where
6903afa2 3285it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only plain ASCII is recommended.
f0e67a1d
Z
3286
3287=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
3288
3289(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
3290detectable way.
3291
69282e91 3292=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 3293
be771a83
GS
3294(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
3295to check the return value of your socket() call? See
3296L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 3297
6651ba0b
FC
3298=item List form of piped open not implemented
3299
3300(F) On some platforms, notably Windows, the three-or-more-arguments
3301form of C<open> does not support pipes, such as C<open($pipe, '|-', @args)>.
3302Use the two-argument C<open($pipe, '|prog arg1 arg2...')> form instead.
3303
dc6bb7ba
FC
3304=item %s: loadable library and perl binaries are mismatched (got handshake key %p, needed %p)
3305
3306(P) A dynamic loading library C<.so> or C<.dll> was being loaded into the
3307process that was built against a different build of perl than the
3308said library was compiled against. Reinstalling the XS module will
3309likely fix this error.
3310
8c6180a9
KW
3311=item Locale '%s' may not work well.%s
3312
780fcc9f 3313(W locale) You are using the named locale, which is a non-UTF-8 one, and
dae67c56
KW
3314which perl has determined is not fully compatible with what it can
3315handle. The second C<%s> gives a reason.
8c6180a9
KW
3316
3317By far the most common reason is that the locale has characters in it
3318that are represented by more than one byte. The only such locales that
3319Perl can handle are the UTF-8 locales. Most likely the specified locale
3320is a non-UTF-8 one for an East Asian language such as Chinese or
3321Japanese. If the locale is a superset of ASCII, the ASCII portion of it
780fcc9f 3322may work in Perl.
8c6180a9
KW
3323
3324Some essentially obsolete locales that aren't supersets of ASCII, mainly
3325those in ISO 646 or other 7-bit locales, such as ASMO 449, can also have
3326problems, depending on what portions of the ASCII character set get
3327changed by the locale and are also used by the program.
3328The warning message lists the determinable conflicting characters.
3329
780fcc9f
KW
3330Note that not all incompatibilities are found.
3331
3332If this happens to you, there's not much you can do except switch to use a
3333different locale or use L<Encode> to translate from the locale into
3334UTF-8; if that's impracticable, you have been warned that some things
3335may break.
3336
3337This message is output once each time a bad locale is switched into
3338within the scope of C<S<use locale>>, or on the first possibly-affected
3339operation if the C<S<use locale>> inherits a bad one. It is not raised
3340for any operations from the L<POSIX> module.
3341
a2162cd9
FC
3342=item localtime(%f) failed
3343
3344(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that it could not handle:
3345too large, too small, or NaN. The returned value is C<undef>.
3346
3347=item localtime(%f) too large
3348
3349(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was larger
3350than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
3351wrong date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
3352not-a-number value).
3353
3354=item localtime(%f) too small
3355
3356(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was smaller
3357than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
3358wrong date.
3359
58e23c8d 3360=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
3361
3362(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
6903afa2 3363handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 3364
b88df990
NC
3365=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
3366
e63e8a91
FC
3367(W imprecision) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one
3368is too large for the underlying floating point representation to store
3369accurately, hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this
3370warning because it has already switched from integers to floating point
3371when values are too large for integers, and now even floating point is
3372insufficient. You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
b88df990 3373
93fad930 3374=item lstat() on filehandle%s
2f7da168
RK
3375
3376(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
3377by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
3378instead on the filehandle.)
3379
345d70e3 3380=item lvalue attribute %s already-defined subroutine
bb3abb05 3381
345d70e3
FC
3382(W misc) Although L<attributes.pm|attributes> allows this, turning the lvalue
3383attribute on or off on a Perl subroutine that is already defined
3384does not always work properly. It may or may not do what you
3385want, depending on what code is inside the subroutine, with exact
3386details subject to change between Perl versions. Only do this
3387if you really know what you are doing.
bb3abb05 3388
885ef6f5
GG