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6e90668e 1# B::Deparse.pm
6f611a1a 2# Copyright (c) 1998, 1999, 2000 Stephen McCamant. All rights reserved.
6e90668e
SM
3# This module is free software; you can redistribute and/or modify
4# it under the same terms as Perl itself.
5
6# This is based on the module of the same name by Malcolm Beattie,
7# but essentially none of his code remains.
8
a798dbf2 9package B::Deparse;
f4a44678 10use Carp 'cluck', 'croak';
7a9b44b9 11use B qw(class main_root main_start main_cv svref_2object opnumber cstring
bd0865ec 12 OPf_WANT OPf_WANT_VOID OPf_WANT_SCALAR OPf_WANT_LIST
90c0eb26 13 OPf_KIDS OPf_REF OPf_STACKED OPf_SPECIAL OPf_MOD
ce4e655d 14 OPpLVAL_INTRO OPpOUR_INTRO OPpENTERSUB_AMPER OPpSLICE OPpCONST_BARE
3ed82cfc 15 OPpTRANS_SQUASH OPpTRANS_DELETE OPpTRANS_COMPLEMENT OPpTARGET_MY
7e80da18
RH
16 OPpCONST_ARYBASE OPpEXISTS_SUB OPpSORT_NUMERIC OPpSORT_INTEGER
17 OPpSORT_REVERSE
ce4e655d 18 SVf_IOK SVf_NOK SVf_ROK SVf_POK SVpad_OUR
6aaf4108 19 CVf_METHOD CVf_LOCKED CVf_LVALUE
fcd95d64 20 PMf_KEEP PMf_GLOBAL PMf_CONTINUE PMf_EVAL PMf_ONCE PMf_SKIPWHITE
bd0865ec 21 PMf_MULTILINE PMf_SINGLELINE PMf_FOLD PMf_EXTENDED);
c7f67cde 22$VERSION = 0.61;
a798dbf2 23use strict;
34a48b4b 24use warnings ();
a798dbf2 25
6e90668e
SM
26# Changes between 0.50 and 0.51:
27# - fixed nulled leave with live enter in sort { }
28# - fixed reference constants (\"str")
29# - handle empty programs gracefully
30# - handle infinte loops (for (;;) {}, while (1) {})
31# - differentiate between `for my $x ...' and `my $x; for $x ...'
32# - various minor cleanups
33# - moved globals into an object
34# - added `-u', like B::C
35# - package declarations using cop_stash
36# - subs, formats and code sorted by cop_seq
f6f9bdb7 37# Changes between 0.51 and 0.52:
4d1ff10f 38# - added pp_threadsv (special variables under USE_5005THREADS)
f6f9bdb7 39# - added documentation
bd0865ec 40# Changes between 0.52 and 0.53:
9d2c6865
SM
41# - many changes adding precedence contexts and associativity
42# - added `-p' and `-s' output style options
43# - various other minor fixes
bd0865ec 44# Changes between 0.53 and 0.54:
d7f5b6da
SM
45# - added support for new `for (1..100)' optimization,
46# thanks to Gisle Aas
bd0865ec 47# Changes between 0.54 and 0.55:
90be192f
SM
48# - added support for new qr// construct
49# - added support for new pp_regcreset OP
bd0865ec 50# Changes between 0.55 and 0.56:
f5aa8f4e
SM
51# - tested on base/*.t, cmd/*.t, comp/*.t, io/*.t
52# - fixed $# on non-lexicals broken in last big rewrite
53# - added temporary fix for change in opcode of OP_STRINGIFY
54# - fixed problem in 0.54's for() patch in `for (@ary)'
55# - fixed precedence in conditional of ?:
56# - tweaked list paren elimination in `my($x) = @_'
57# - made continue-block detection trickier wrt. null ops
58# - fixed various prototype problems in pp_entersub
59# - added support for sub prototypes that never get GVs
60# - added unquoting for special filehandle first arg in truncate
61# - print doubled rv2gv (a bug) as `*{*GV}' instead of illegal `**GV'
62# - added semicolons at the ends of blocks
63# - added -l `#line' declaration option -- fixes cmd/subval.t 27,28
bd0865ec
GS
64# Changes between 0.56 and 0.561:
65# - fixed multiply-declared my var in pp_truncate (thanks to Sarathy)
66# - used new B.pm symbolic constants (done by Nick Ing-Simmons)
67# Changes between 0.561 and 0.57:
68# - stylistic changes to symbolic constant stuff
69# - handled scope in s///e replacement code
70# - added unquote option for expanding "" into concats, etc.
71# - split method and proto parts of pp_entersub into separate functions
72# - various minor cleanups
f4a44678
SM
73# Changes after 0.57:
74# - added parens in \&foo (patch by Albert Dvornik)
75# Changes between 0.57 and 0.58:
76# - fixed `0' statements that weren't being printed
77# - added methods for use from other programs
78# (based on patches from James Duncan and Hugo van der Sanden)
79# - added -si and -sT to control indenting (also based on a patch from Hugo)
80# - added -sv to print something else instead of '???'
81# - preliminary version of utf8 tr/// handling
3ed82cfc
GS
82# Changes after 0.58:
83# - uses of $op->ppaddr changed to new $op->name (done by Sarathy)
84# - added support for Hugo's new OP_SETSTATE (like nextstate)
85# Changes between 0.58 and 0.59
86# - added support for Chip's OP_METHOD_NAMED
87# - added support for Ilya's OPpTARGET_MY optimization
88# - elided arrows before `()' subscripts when possible
58cccf98
SM
89# Changes between 0.59 and 0.60
90# - support for method attribues was added
91# - some warnings fixed
92# - separate recognition of constant subs
93# - rewrote continue block handling, now recoginizing for loops
94# - added more control of expanding control structures
c7f67cde
RH
95# Changes between 0.60 and 0.61 (mostly by Robin Houston)
96# - many bug-fixes
97# - support for pragmas and 'use'
98# - support for the little-used $[ variable
99# - support for __DATA__ sections
100# - UTF8 support
101# - BEGIN, CHECK, INIT and END blocks
102# - scoping of subroutine declarations fixed
103# - compile-time output from the input program can be suppressed, so that the
104# output is just the deparsed code. (a change to O.pm in fact)
105# - our() declarations
106# - *all* the known bugs are now listed in the BUGS section
107# - comprehensive test mechanism (TEST -deparse)
6e90668e
SM
108
109# Todo:
2a9e2f8a
RH
110# (See also BUGS section at the end of this file)
111#
f4a44678
SM
112# - finish tr/// changes
113# - add option for even more parens (generalize \&foo change)
90be192f 114# - left/right context
f4a44678 115# - treat top-level block specially for incremental output
58cccf98 116# - copy comments (look at real text with $^P?)
f5aa8f4e 117# - avoid semis in one-statement blocks
9d2c6865 118# - associativity of &&=, ||=, ?:
6e90668e
SM
119# - ',' => '=>' (auto-unquote?)
120# - break long lines ("\r" as discretionary break?)
f4a44678
SM
121# - configurable syntax highlighting: ANSI color, HTML, TeX, etc.
122# - more style options: brace style, hex vs. octal, quotes, ...
123# - print big ints as hex/octal instead of decimal (heuristic?)
3ed82cfc 124# - handle `my $x if 0'?
f5aa8f4e 125# - coordinate with Data::Dumper (both directions? see previous)
6e90668e
SM
126# - version using op_next instead of op_first/sibling?
127# - avoid string copies (pass arrays, one big join?)
9d2c6865 128# - here-docs?
6e90668e 129
f5aa8f4e 130# Tests that will always fail:
2a9e2f8a 131# (see t/TEST for the short list)
f5aa8f4e 132
6e90668e
SM
133# Object fields (were globals):
134#
135# avoid_local:
136# (local($a), local($b)) and local($a, $b) have the same internal
137# representation but the short form looks better. We notice we can
138# use a large-scale local when checking the list, but need to prevent
139# individual locals too. This hash holds the addresses of OPs that
140# have already had their local-ness accounted for. The same thing
141# is done with my().
142#
143# curcv:
144# CV for current sub (or main program) being deparsed
145#
8510e997
RH
146# curcvlex:
147# Cached hash of lexical variables for curcv: keys are names,
148# each value is an array of pairs, indicating the cop_seq of scopes
149# in which a var of that name is valid.
150#
34a48b4b
RH
151# curcop:
152# COP for statement being deparsed
153#
6e90668e
SM
154# curstash:
155# name of the current package for deparsed code
156#
157# subs_todo:
34a48b4b 158# array of [cop_seq, CV, is_format?] for subs and formats we still
6e90668e
SM
159# want to deparse
160#
f5aa8f4e
SM
161# protos_todo:
162# as above, but [name, prototype] for subs that never got a GV
163#
6e90668e
SM
164# subs_done, forms_done:
165# keys are addresses of GVs for subs and formats we've already
166# deparsed (or at least put into subs_todo)
9d2c6865 167#
0ca62a8e
RH
168# subs_declared
169# keys are names of subs for which we've printed declarations.
170# That means we can omit parentheses from the arguments.
171#
9d2c6865 172# parens: -p
f5aa8f4e 173# linenums: -l
bd0865ec 174# unquote: -q
9d2c6865 175# cuddle: ` ' or `\n', depending on -sC
f4a44678
SM
176# indent_size: -si
177# use_tabs: -sT
178# ex_const: -sv
9d2c6865
SM
179
180# A little explanation of how precedence contexts and associativity
181# work:
182#
183# deparse() calls each per-op subroutine with an argument $cx (short
184# for context, but not the same as the cx* in the perl core), which is
185# a number describing the op's parents in terms of precedence, whether
f5aa8f4e 186# they're inside an expression or at statement level, etc. (see
9d2c6865
SM
187# chart below). When ops with children call deparse on them, they pass
188# along their precedence. Fractional values are used to implement
189# associativity (`($x + $y) + $z' => `$x + $y + $y') and related
190# parentheses hacks. The major disadvantage of this scheme is that
191# it doesn't know about right sides and left sides, so say if you
192# assign a listop to a variable, it can't tell it's allowed to leave
193# the parens off the listop.
194
195# Precedences:
196# 26 [TODO] inside interpolation context ("")
197# 25 left terms and list operators (leftward)
198# 24 left ->
199# 23 nonassoc ++ --
200# 22 right **
201# 21 right ! ~ \ and unary + and -
202# 20 left =~ !~
203# 19 left * / % x
204# 18 left + - .
205# 17 left << >>
206# 16 nonassoc named unary operators
207# 15 nonassoc < > <= >= lt gt le ge
208# 14 nonassoc == != <=> eq ne cmp
209# 13 left &
210# 12 left | ^
211# 11 left &&
212# 10 left ||
213# 9 nonassoc .. ...
214# 8 right ?:
215# 7 right = += -= *= etc.
216# 6 left , =>
217# 5 nonassoc list operators (rightward)
218# 4 right not
219# 3 left and
220# 2 left or xor
221# 1 statement modifiers
222# 0 statement level
223
6ec152c3
RH
224# Also, lineseq may pass a fourth parameter to the pp_ routines:
225# if present, the fourth parameter is passed on by deparse.
226#
227# If present and true, it means that the op exists directly as
ce4e655d 228# part of a lineseq. Currently it's only used by scopeop to
6ec152c3
RH
229# decide whether its results need to be enclosed in a do {} block.
230
9d2c6865
SM
231# Nonprinting characters with special meaning:
232# \cS - steal parens (see maybe_parens_unop)
233# \n - newline and indent
234# \t - increase indent
235# \b - decrease indent (`outdent')
f5aa8f4e 236# \f - flush left (no indent)
9d2c6865 237# \cK - kill following semicolon, if any
6e90668e
SM
238
239sub null {
240 my $op = shift;
241 return class($op) eq "NULL";
242}
243
244sub todo {
245 my $self = shift;
34a48b4b 246 my($cv, $is_form) = @_;
e31885a0 247 return unless ($cv->FILE eq $0 || exists $self->{files}{$cv->FILE});
6e90668e
SM
248 my $seq;
249 if (!null($cv->START) and is_state($cv->START)) {
250 $seq = $cv->START->cop_seq;
251 } else {
252 $seq = 0;
253 }
34a48b4b 254 push @{$self->{'subs_todo'}}, [$seq, $cv, $is_form];
6e90668e
SM
255}
256
257sub next_todo {
258 my $self = shift;
259 my $ent = shift @{$self->{'subs_todo'}};
34a48b4b
RH
260 my $cv = $ent->[1];
261 my $gv = $cv->GV;
262 my $name = $self->gv_name($gv);
6e90668e
SM
263 if ($ent->[2]) {
264 return "format $name =\n"
e31885a0 265 . $self->deparse_format($ent->[1]). "\n";
6e90668e 266 } else {
0ca62a8e 267 $self->{'subs_declared'}{$name} = 1;
34a48b4b
RH
268 if ($name eq "BEGIN") {
269 my $use_dec = $self->begin_is_use($cv);
0e7fe0f0
RH
270 if (defined ($use_dec)) {
271 return () if 0 == length($use_dec);
272 return $use_dec;
273 }
34a48b4b 274 }
a0035eb8
RH
275 my $l = '';
276 if ($self->{'linenums'}) {
277 my $line = $gv->LINE;
278 my $file = $gv->FILE;
279 $l = "\n\f#line $line \"$file\"\n";
280 }
281 return "${l}sub $name " . $self->deparse_sub($cv);
34a48b4b
RH
282 }
283}
284
285# Return a "use" declaration for this BEGIN block, if appropriate
286sub begin_is_use {
287 my ($self, $cv) = @_;
288 my $root = $cv->ROOT;
80dc0729 289 local @$self{qw'curcv curcvlex'} = ($cv);
34a48b4b
RH
290#require B::Debug;
291#B::walkoptree($cv->ROOT, "debug");
292 my $lineseq = $root->first;
293 return if $lineseq->name ne "lineseq";
294
295 my $req_op = $lineseq->first->sibling;
296 return if $req_op->name ne "require";
297
298 my $module;
299 if ($req_op->first->private & OPpCONST_BARE) {
300 # Actually it should always be a bareword
301 $module = $self->const_sv($req_op->first)->PV;
302 $module =~ s[/][::]g;
303 $module =~ s/.pm$//;
304 }
305 else {
306 $module = const($self->const_sv($req_op->first));
307 }
308
309 my $version;
310 my $version_op = $req_op->sibling;
311 return if class($version_op) eq "NULL";
312 if ($version_op->name eq "lineseq") {
313 # We have a version parameter; skip nextstate & pushmark
314 my $constop = $version_op->first->next->next;
315
316 return unless $self->const_sv($constop)->PV eq $module;
317 $constop = $constop->sibling;
34a48b4b
RH
318 $version = $self->const_sv($constop)->int_value;
319 $constop = $constop->sibling;
320 return if $constop->name ne "method_named";
321 return if $self->const_sv($constop)->PV ne "VERSION";
322 }
323
324 $lineseq = $version_op->sibling;
325 return if $lineseq->name ne "lineseq";
326 my $entersub = $lineseq->first->sibling;
327 if ($entersub->name eq "stub") {
328 return "use $module $version ();\n" if defined $version;
329 return "use $module ();\n";
330 }
331 return if $entersub->name ne "entersub";
332
333 # See if there are import arguments
334 my $args = '';
335
6ec152c3
RH
336 my $svop = $entersub->first->sibling; # Skip over pushmark
337 return unless $self->const_sv($svop)->PV eq $module;
34a48b4b
RH
338
339 # Pull out the arguments
6ec152c3
RH
340 for ($svop=$svop->sibling; $svop->name ne "method_named";
341 $svop = $svop->sibling) {
34a48b4b 342 $args .= ", " if length($args);
6ec152c3 343 $args .= $self->deparse($svop, 6);
34a48b4b
RH
344 }
345
346 my $use = 'use';
6ec152c3 347 my $method_named = $svop;
34a48b4b
RH
348 return if $method_named->name ne "method_named";
349 my $method_name = $self->const_sv($method_named)->PV;
350
351 if ($method_name eq "unimport") {
352 $use = 'no';
353 }
354
355 # Certain pragmas are dealt with using hint bits,
356 # so we ignore them here
357 if ($module eq 'strict' || $module eq 'integer'
0e7fe0f0 358 || $module eq 'bytes' || $module eq 'warnings') {
34a48b4b
RH
359 return "";
360 }
361
362 if (defined $version && length $args) {
363 return "$use $module $version ($args);\n";
364 } elsif (defined $version) {
365 return "$use $module $version;\n";
366 } elsif (length $args) {
367 return "$use $module ($args);\n";
368 } else {
369 return "$use $module;\n";
6e90668e
SM
370 }
371}
372
6e90668e 373sub stash_subs {
34a48b4b
RH
374 my ($self, $pack) = @_;
375 my (@ret, $stash);
376 if (!defined $pack) {
377 $pack = '';
378 $stash = \%::;
f5aa8f4e 379 }
34a48b4b
RH
380 else {
381 $pack =~ s/(::)?$/::/;
382 no strict 'refs';
383 $stash = \%$pack;
384 }
385 my %stash = svref_2object($stash)->ARRAY;
386 while (my ($key, $val) = each %stash) {
387 next if $key eq 'main::'; # avoid infinite recursion
f5aa8f4e
SM
388 my $class = class($val);
389 if ($class eq "PV") {
a0035eb8
RH
390 # Just a prototype. As an ugly but fairly effective way
391 # to find out if it belongs here is to see if the AUTOLOAD
392 # (if any) for the stash was defined in one of our files.
393 my $A = $stash{"AUTOLOAD"};
394 if (defined ($A) && class($A) eq "GV" && defined($A->CV)
395 && class($A->CV) eq "CV") {
396 my $AF = $A->FILE;
397 next unless $AF eq $0 || exists $self->{'files'}{$AF};
398 }
f5aa8f4e
SM
399 push @{$self->{'protos_todo'}}, [$pack . $key, $val->PV];
400 } elsif ($class eq "IV") {
a0035eb8
RH
401 # Just a name. As above.
402 my $A = $stash{"AUTOLOAD"};
403 if (defined ($A) && class($A) eq "GV" && defined($A->CV)
404 && class($A->CV) eq "CV") {
405 my $AF = $A->FILE;
406 next unless $AF eq $0 || exists $self->{'files'}{$AF};
407 }
f5aa8f4e
SM
408 push @{$self->{'protos_todo'}}, [$pack . $key, undef];
409 } elsif ($class eq "GV") {
34a48b4b 410 if (class(my $cv = $val->CV) ne "SPECIAL") {
f5aa8f4e 411 next if $self->{'subs_done'}{$$val}++;
e31885a0 412 next if $$val != ${$cv->GV}; # Ignore imposters
8510e997 413 $self->todo($cv, 0);
f5aa8f4e 414 }
e31885a0 415 if (class(my $cv = $val->FORM) ne "SPECIAL") {
f5aa8f4e 416 next if $self->{'forms_done'}{$$val}++;
e31885a0
RH
417 next if $$val != ${$cv->GV}; # Ignore imposters
418 $self->todo($cv, 1);
f5aa8f4e 419 }
34a48b4b
RH
420 if (class($val->HV) ne "SPECIAL" && $key =~ /::$/) {
421 $self->stash_subs($pack . $key);
422 }
6e90668e
SM
423 }
424 }
425}
a798dbf2 426
f5aa8f4e
SM
427sub print_protos {
428 my $self = shift;
429 my $ar;
430 my @ret;
431 foreach $ar (@{$self->{'protos_todo'}}) {
432 my $proto = (defined $ar->[1] ? " (". $ar->[1] . ")" : "");
433 push @ret, "sub " . $ar->[0] . "$proto;\n";
434 }
435 delete $self->{'protos_todo'};
436 return @ret;
437}
438
9d2c6865
SM
439sub style_opts {
440 my $self = shift;
441 my $opts = shift;
442 my $opt;
443 while (length($opt = substr($opts, 0, 1))) {
444 if ($opt eq "C") {
445 $self->{'cuddle'} = " ";
f4a44678
SM
446 $opts = substr($opts, 1);
447 } elsif ($opt eq "i") {
448 $opts =~ s/^i(\d+)//;
449 $self->{'indent_size'} = $1;
450 } elsif ($opt eq "T") {
451 $self->{'use_tabs'} = 1;
452 $opts = substr($opts, 1);
453 } elsif ($opt eq "v") {
454 $opts =~ s/^v([^.]*)(.|$)//;
455 $self->{'ex_const'} = $1;
9d2c6865 456 }
9d2c6865
SM
457 }
458}
459
f4a44678
SM
460sub new {
461 my $class = shift;
462 my $self = bless {}, $class;
463 $self->{'subs_todo'} = [];
34a48b4b 464 $self->{'files'} = {};
f4a44678 465 $self->{'curstash'} = "main";
34a48b4b 466 $self->{'curcop'} = undef;
f4a44678
SM
467 $self->{'cuddle'} = "\n";
468 $self->{'indent_size'} = 4;
469 $self->{'use_tabs'} = 0;
793e2a70
RH
470 $self->{'expand'} = 0;
471 $self->{'unquote'} = 0;
472 $self->{'linenums'} = 0;
473 $self->{'parens'} = 0;
f4a44678 474 $self->{'ex_const'} = "'???'";
08c6f5ec
RH
475
476 $self->{'ambient_arybase'} = 0;
e31885a0 477 $self->{'ambient_warnings'} = undef; # Assume no lexical warnings
a0405c92 478 $self->{'ambient_hints'} = 0;
08c6f5ec
RH
479 $self->init();
480
f4a44678 481 while (my $arg = shift @_) {
34a48b4b
RH
482 if ($arg =~ /^-f(.*)/) {
483 $self->{'files'}{$1} = 1;
f4a44678
SM
484 } elsif ($arg eq "-p") {
485 $self->{'parens'} = 1;
486 } elsif ($arg eq "-l") {
487 $self->{'linenums'} = 1;
488 } elsif ($arg eq "-q") {
489 $self->{'unquote'} = 1;
490 } elsif (substr($arg, 0, 2) eq "-s") {
491 $self->style_opts(substr $arg, 2);
58cccf98
SM
492 } elsif ($arg =~ /^-x(\d)$/) {
493 $self->{'expand'} = $1;
f4a44678
SM
494 }
495 }
496 return $self;
497}
498
810aef70
RH
499{
500 # Mask out the bits that L<warnings::register> uses
501 my $WARN_MASK;
502 BEGIN {
503 $WARN_MASK = $warnings::Bits{all} | $warnings::DeadBits{all};
504 }
505 sub WARN_MASK () {
506 return $WARN_MASK;
507 }
34a48b4b
RH
508}
509
08c6f5ec
RH
510# Initialise the contextual information, either from
511# defaults provided with the ambient_pragmas method,
512# or from perl's own defaults otherwise.
513sub init {
514 my $self = shift;
515
516 $self->{'arybase'} = $self->{'ambient_arybase'};
e31885a0
RH
517 $self->{'warnings'} = defined ($self->{'ambient_warnings'})
518 ? $self->{'ambient_warnings'} & WARN_MASK
519 : undef;
a0405c92 520 $self->{'hints'} = $self->{'ambient_hints'} & 0xFF;
217aba5d
RH
521
522 # also a convenient place to clear out subs_declared
523 delete $self->{'subs_declared'};
08c6f5ec
RH
524}
525
a798dbf2 526sub compile {
6e90668e
SM
527 my(@args) = @_;
528 return sub {
f4a44678 529 my $self = B::Deparse->new(@args);
34a48b4b
RH
530 my @BEGINs = B::begin_av->isa("B::AV") ? B::begin_av->ARRAY : ();
531 my @INITs = B::init_av->isa("B::AV") ? B::init_av->ARRAY : ();
532 my @ENDs = B::end_av->isa("B::AV") ? B::end_av->ARRAY : ();
533 for my $block (@BEGINs, @INITs, @ENDs) {
e31885a0 534 $self->todo($block, 0);
34a48b4b
RH
535 }
536 $self->stash_subs();
6e90668e 537 $self->{'curcv'} = main_cv;
8510e997 538 $self->{'curcvlex'} = undef;
f5aa8f4e 539 print $self->print_protos;
6e90668e 540 @{$self->{'subs_todo'}} =
f4a44678
SM
541 sort {$a->[0] <=> $b->[0]} @{$self->{'subs_todo'}};
542 print $self->indent($self->deparse(main_root, 0)), "\n"
543 unless null main_root;
6e90668e
SM
544 my @text;
545 while (scalar(@{$self->{'subs_todo'}})) {
546 push @text, $self->next_todo;
547 }
6f611a1a 548 print $self->indent(join("", @text)), "\n" if @text;
e31885a0
RH
549
550 # Print __DATA__ section, if necessary
551 no strict 'refs';
552 if (defined *{$self->{'curstash'}."::DATA"}{IO}) {
553 print "__DATA__\n";
554 print readline(*{$self->{'curstash'}."::DATA"});
555 }
a798dbf2 556 }
a798dbf2
MB
557}
558
f4a44678
SM
559sub coderef2text {
560 my $self = shift;
561 my $sub = shift;
562 croak "Usage: ->coderef2text(CODEREF)" unless ref($sub) eq "CODE";
08c6f5ec
RH
563
564 $self->init();
f4a44678
SM
565 return $self->indent($self->deparse_sub(svref_2object($sub)));
566}
567
08c6f5ec
RH
568sub ambient_pragmas {
569 my $self = shift;
e31885a0 570 my ($arybase, $hint_bits, $warning_bits) = (0, 0);
08c6f5ec
RH
571
572 while (@_ > 1) {
573 my $name = shift();
574 my $val = shift();
575
576 if ($name eq 'strict') {
577 require strict;
578
579 if ($val eq 'none') {
580 $hint_bits &= ~strict::bits(qw/refs subs vars/);
581 next();
582 }
583
584 my @names;
585 if ($val eq "all") {
586 @names = qw/refs subs vars/;
587 }
588 elsif (ref $val) {
589 @names = @$val;
590 }
591 else {
a0405c92 592 @names = split' ', $val;
08c6f5ec
RH
593 }
594 $hint_bits |= strict::bits(@names);
595 }
596
597 elsif ($name eq '$[') {
598 $arybase = $val;
599 }
600
a0405c92
RH
601 elsif ($name eq 'integer'
602 || $name eq 'bytes'
603 || $name eq 'utf8') {
604 require "$name.pm";
08c6f5ec 605 if ($val) {
a0405c92
RH
606 $hint_bits |= ${$::{"${name}::"}{"hint_bits"}};
607 }
608 else {
609 $hint_bits &= ~${$::{"${name}::"}{"hint_bits"}};
610 }
611 }
612
613 elsif ($name eq 're') {
614 require re;
615 if ($val eq 'none') {
2570cdf1 616 $hint_bits &= ~re::bits(qw/taint eval/);
a0405c92
RH
617 next();
618 }
619
620 my @names;
621 if ($val eq 'all') {
2570cdf1 622 @names = qw/taint eval/;
a0405c92
RH
623 }
624 elsif (ref $val) {
625 @names = @$val;
08c6f5ec
RH
626 }
627 else {
a0405c92 628 @names = split' ',$val;
08c6f5ec 629 }
a0405c92 630 $hint_bits |= re::bits(@names);
08c6f5ec
RH
631 }
632
633 elsif ($name eq 'warnings') {
08c6f5ec 634 if ($val eq 'none') {
810aef70 635 $warning_bits = $warnings::NONE;
08c6f5ec
RH
636 next();
637 }
638
639 my @names;
640 if (ref $val) {
641 @names = @$val;
642 }
643 else {
644 @names = split/\s+/, $val;
645 }
646
810aef70 647 $warning_bits = $warnings::NONE if !defined ($warning_bits);
08c6f5ec
RH
648 $warning_bits |= warnings::bits(@names);
649 }
650
651 elsif ($name eq 'warning_bits') {
652 $warning_bits = $val;
653 }
654
655 elsif ($name eq 'hint_bits') {
656 $hint_bits = $val;
657 }
658
659 else {
660 croak "Unknown pragma type: $name";
661 }
662 }
663 if (@_) {
664 croak "The ambient_pragmas method expects an even number of args";
665 }
666
667 $self->{'ambient_arybase'} = $arybase;
668 $self->{'ambient_warnings'} = $warning_bits;
a0405c92 669 $self->{'ambient_hints'} = $hint_bits;
08c6f5ec
RH
670}
671
6e90668e
SM
672sub deparse {
673 my $self = shift;
6ec152c3 674 my($op, $cx, $flags) = @_;
34a48b4b
RH
675
676 Carp::confess("Null op in deparse") if !defined($op)
677 || class($op) eq "NULL";
3f872cb9 678 my $meth = "pp_" . $op->name;
ce4e655d
RH
679 if (is_scope($op)) {
680 return $self->$meth($op, $cx, $flags);
6ec152c3 681 }
9d2c6865 682 return $self->$meth($op, $cx);
a798dbf2
MB
683}
684
6e90668e 685sub indent {
f4a44678 686 my $self = shift;
6e90668e
SM
687 my $txt = shift;
688 my @lines = split(/\n/, $txt);
689 my $leader = "";
f4a44678 690 my $level = 0;
6e90668e
SM
691 my $line;
692 for $line (@lines) {
f4a44678
SM
693 my $cmd = substr($line, 0, 1);
694 if ($cmd eq "\t" or $cmd eq "\b") {
695 $level += ($cmd eq "\t" ? 1 : -1) * $self->{'indent_size'};
696 if ($self->{'use_tabs'}) {
697 $leader = "\t" x ($level / 8) . " " x ($level % 8);
698 } else {
699 $leader = " " x $level;
700 }
6e90668e
SM
701 $line = substr($line, 1);
702 }
f5aa8f4e
SM
703 if (substr($line, 0, 1) eq "\f") {
704 $line = substr($line, 1); # no indent
705 } else {
706 $line = $leader . $line;
707 }
9d2c6865 708 $line =~ s/\cK;?//g;
6e90668e
SM
709 }
710 return join("\n", @lines);
711}
712
6e90668e
SM
713sub deparse_sub {
714 my $self = shift;
715 my $cv = shift;
716 my $proto = "";
ce4e655d 717Carp::confess("NULL in deparse_sub") if !defined($cv) || $cv->isa("B::NULL");
34a48b4b
RH
718Carp::confess("SPECIAL in deparse_sub") if $cv->isa("B::SPECIAL");
719 local $self->{'curcop'} = $self->{'curcop'};
6e90668e
SM
720 if ($cv->FLAGS & SVf_POK) {
721 $proto = "(". $cv->PV . ") ";
722 }
6aaf4108
SC
723 if ($cv->CvFLAGS & (CVf_METHOD|CVf_LOCKED|CVf_LVALUE)) {
724 $proto .= ": ";
725 $proto .= "lvalue " if $cv->CvFLAGS & CVf_LVALUE;
726 $proto .= "locked " if $cv->CvFLAGS & CVf_LOCKED;
727 $proto .= "method " if $cv->CvFLAGS & CVf_METHOD;
728 }
729
6e90668e 730 local($self->{'curcv'}) = $cv;
8510e997 731 local($self->{'curcvlex'});
a0405c92
RH
732 local(@$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'})
733 = @$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'};
ce4e655d 734 my $body;
6e90668e 735 if (not null $cv->ROOT) {
ce4e655d
RH
736 my $lineseq = $cv->ROOT->first;
737 if ($lineseq->name eq "lineseq") {
738 my @ops;
739 for(my$o=$lineseq->first; $$o; $o=$o->sibling) {
740 push @ops, $o;
741 }
742 $body = $self->lineseq(undef, @ops).";";
743 my $scope_en = $self->find_scope_en($lineseq);
744 if (defined $scope_en) {
745 my $subs = join"", $self->seq_subs($scope_en);
746 $body .= ";\n$subs" if length($subs);
747 }
748 }
749 else {
750 $body = $self->deparse($cv->ROOT->first, 0);
751 }
de3f1649 752 }
ce4e655d
RH
753 else {
754 my $sv = $cv->const_sv;
755 if ($$sv) {
756 # uh-oh. inlinable sub... format it differently
757 return $proto . "{ " . const($sv) . " }\n";
758 } else { # XSUB? (or just a declaration)
759 return "$proto;\n";
760 }
6e90668e 761 }
ce4e655d 762 return $proto ."{\n\t$body\n\b}" ."\n";
6e90668e
SM
763}
764
765sub deparse_format {
766 my $self = shift;
767 my $form = shift;
768 my @text;
769 local($self->{'curcv'}) = $form;
8510e997 770 local($self->{'curcvlex'});
67fc2416 771 local($self->{'in_format'}) = 1;
a0405c92 772 local(@$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'})
67fc2416 773 = @$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'};
6e90668e
SM
774 my $op = $form->ROOT;
775 my $kid;
32f2ae54 776 return "\f." if $op->first->name eq 'stub';
6e90668e
SM
777 $op = $op->first->first; # skip leavewrite, lineseq
778 while (not null $op) {
779 $op = $op->sibling; # skip nextstate
780 my @exprs;
781 $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
a5b0cd91 782 push @text, "\f".$self->const_sv($kid)->PV;
6e90668e
SM
783 $kid = $kid->sibling;
784 for (; not null $kid; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 785 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 0);
6e90668e 786 }
a5b0cd91 787 push @text, "\f".join(", ", @exprs)."\n" if @exprs;
6e90668e
SM
788 $op = $op->sibling;
789 }
a5b0cd91 790 return join("", @text) . "\f.";
6e90668e
SM
791}
792
6e90668e 793sub is_scope {
a798dbf2 794 my $op = shift;
3f872cb9
GS
795 return $op->name eq "leave" || $op->name eq "scope"
796 || $op->name eq "lineseq"
797 || ($op->name eq "null" && class($op) eq "UNOP"
798 && (is_scope($op->first) || $op->first->name eq "enter"));
6e90668e
SM
799}
800
801sub is_state {
3f872cb9
GS
802 my $name = $_[0]->name;
803 return $name eq "nextstate" || $name eq "dbstate" || $name eq "setstate";
6e90668e
SM
804}
805
806sub is_miniwhile { # check for one-line loop (`foo() while $y--')
807 my $op = shift;
808 return (!null($op) and null($op->sibling)
3f872cb9
GS
809 and $op->name eq "null" and class($op) eq "UNOP"
810 and (($op->first->name =~ /^(and|or)$/
811 and $op->first->first->sibling->name eq "lineseq")
812 or ($op->first->name eq "lineseq"
6e90668e 813 and not null $op->first->first->sibling
3f872cb9 814 and $op->first->first->sibling->name eq "unstack")
6e90668e
SM
815 ));
816}
817
818sub is_scalar {
819 my $op = shift;
3f872cb9
GS
820 return ($op->name eq "rv2sv" or
821 $op->name eq "padsv" or
822 $op->name eq "gv" or # only in array/hash constructs
bd0865ec 823 $op->flags & OPf_KIDS && !null($op->first)
3f872cb9 824 && $op->first->name eq "gvsv");
6e90668e
SM
825}
826
9d2c6865
SM
827sub maybe_parens {
828 my $self = shift;
829 my($text, $cx, $prec) = @_;
830 if ($prec < $cx # unary ops nest just fine
831 or $prec == $cx and $cx != 4 and $cx != 16 and $cx != 21
832 or $self->{'parens'})
833 {
834 $text = "($text)";
835 # In a unop, let parent reuse our parens; see maybe_parens_unop
836 $text = "\cS" . $text if $cx == 16;
837 return $text;
838 } else {
839 return $text;
840 }
841}
842
843# same as above, but get around the `if it looks like a function' rule
844sub maybe_parens_unop {
845 my $self = shift;
846 my($name, $kid, $cx) = @_;
847 if ($cx > 16 or $self->{'parens'}) {
a0035eb8
RH
848 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 1);
849 if ($name eq "umask" && $kid =~ /^\d+$/) {
850 $kid = sprintf("%#o", $kid);
851 }
852 return "$name($kid)";
9d2c6865
SM
853 } else {
854 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 16);
a0035eb8
RH
855 if ($name eq "umask" && $kid =~ /^\d+$/) {
856 $kid = sprintf("%#o", $kid);
857 }
9d2c6865
SM
858 if (substr($kid, 0, 1) eq "\cS") {
859 # use kid's parens
860 return $name . substr($kid, 1);
861 } elsif (substr($kid, 0, 1) eq "(") {
862 # avoid looks-like-a-function trap with extra parens
863 # (`+' can lead to ambiguities)
864 return "$name(" . $kid . ")";
865 } else {
866 return "$name $kid";
867 }
868 }
869}
870
871sub maybe_parens_func {
872 my $self = shift;
873 my($func, $text, $cx, $prec) = @_;
874 if ($prec <= $cx or substr($text, 0, 1) eq "(" or $self->{'parens'}) {
875 return "$func($text)";
876 } else {
877 return "$func $text";
878 }
879}
880
6e90668e
SM
881sub maybe_local {
882 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 883 my($op, $cx, $text) = @_;
ce4e655d
RH
884 my $our_intro = ($op->name =~ /^(gv|rv2)[ash]v$/) ? OPpOUR_INTRO : 0;
885 if ($op->private & (OPpLVAL_INTRO|$our_intro)
886 and not $self->{'avoid_local'}{$$op}) {
887 my $our_local = ($op->private & OPpLVAL_INTRO) ? "local" : "our";
e8d3f51b 888 if (want_scalar($op)) {
ce4e655d 889 return "$our_local $text";
e8d3f51b 890 } else {
ce4e655d 891 return $self->maybe_parens_func("$our_local", $text, $cx, 16);
e8d3f51b 892 }
6e90668e
SM
893 } else {
894 return $text;
a798dbf2 895 }
a798dbf2
MB
896}
897
3ed82cfc
GS
898sub maybe_targmy {
899 my $self = shift;
900 my($op, $cx, $func, @args) = @_;
901 if ($op->private & OPpTARGET_MY) {
902 my $var = $self->padname($op->targ);
903 my $val = $func->($self, $op, 7, @args);
904 return $self->maybe_parens("$var = $val", $cx, 7);
905 } else {
906 return $func->($self, $op, $cx, @args);
907 }
908}
909
6e90668e
SM
910sub padname_sv {
911 my $self = shift;
912 my $targ = shift;
913 return (($self->{'curcv'}->PADLIST->ARRAY)[0]->ARRAY)[$targ];
914}
915
916sub maybe_my {
917 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 918 my($op, $cx, $text) = @_;
4c1f658f 919 if ($op->private & OPpLVAL_INTRO and not $self->{'avoid_local'}{$$op}) {
e8d3f51b
RH
920 if (want_scalar($op)) {
921 return "my $text";
922 } else {
923 return $self->maybe_parens_func("my", $text, $cx, 16);
924 }
6e90668e
SM
925 } else {
926 return $text;
927 }
928}
929
9d2c6865
SM
930# The following OPs don't have functions:
931
932# pp_padany -- does not exist after parsing
933# pp_rcatline -- does not exist
934
935sub pp_enter { # see also leave
936 cluck "unexpected OP_ENTER";
937 return "XXX";
938}
939
940sub pp_pushmark { # see also list
941 cluck "unexpected OP_PUSHMARK";
942 return "XXX";
943}
944
945sub pp_leavesub { # see also deparse_sub
946 cluck "unexpected OP_LEAVESUB";
947 return "XXX";
948}
949
950sub pp_leavewrite { # see also deparse_format
951 cluck "unexpected OP_LEAVEWRITE";
952 return "XXX";
953}
954
955sub pp_method { # see also entersub
956 cluck "unexpected OP_METHOD";
957 return "XXX";
958}
959
960sub pp_regcmaybe { # see also regcomp
961 cluck "unexpected OP_REGCMAYBE";
962 return "XXX";
963}
964
90be192f
SM
965sub pp_regcreset { # see also regcomp
966 cluck "unexpected OP_REGCRESET";
967 return "XXX";
968}
969
9d2c6865
SM
970sub pp_substcont { # see also subst
971 cluck "unexpected OP_SUBSTCONT";
972 return "XXX";
973}
974
975sub pp_grepstart { # see also grepwhile
976 cluck "unexpected OP_GREPSTART";
977 return "XXX";
978}
979
980sub pp_mapstart { # see also mapwhile
981 cluck "unexpected OP_MAPSTART";
982 return "XXX";
983}
984
90c0eb26
RH
985sub pp_method_named {
986 cluck "unexpected OP_METHOD_NAMED";
987 return "XXX";
988}
989
9d2c6865
SM
990sub pp_flip { # see also flop
991 cluck "unexpected OP_FLIP";
992 return "XXX";
993}
994
995sub pp_iter { # see also leaveloop
996 cluck "unexpected OP_ITER";
997 return "XXX";
998}
999
1000sub pp_enteriter { # see also leaveloop
1001 cluck "unexpected OP_ENTERITER";
1002 return "XXX";
1003}
1004
1005sub pp_enterloop { # see also leaveloop
1006 cluck "unexpected OP_ENTERLOOP";
1007 return "XXX";
1008}
1009
1010sub pp_leaveeval { # see also entereval
1011 cluck "unexpected OP_LEAVEEVAL";
1012 return "XXX";
1013}
1014
1015sub pp_entertry { # see also leavetry
1016 cluck "unexpected OP_ENTERTRY";
1017 return "XXX";
1018}
6e90668e 1019
ce4e655d
RH
1020# $root should be the op which represents the root of whatever
1021# we're sequencing here. If it's undefined, then we don't append
1022# any subroutine declarations to the deparsed ops, otherwise we
1023# append appropriate declarations.
58cccf98 1024sub lineseq {
ce4e655d 1025 my($self, $root, @ops) = @_;
58cccf98 1026 my($expr, @exprs);
ce4e655d
RH
1027
1028 my $out_cop = $self->{'curcop'};
1029 my $out_seq = defined($out_cop) ? $out_cop->cop_seq : undef;
1030 my $limit_seq;
1031 if (defined $root) {
1032 $limit_seq = $out_seq;
1033 my $nseq = $self->find_scope_st($root->sibling) if ${$root->sibling};
1034 $limit_seq = $nseq if !defined($limit_seq)
1035 or defined($nseq) && $nseq < $limit_seq;
1036 }
1037 $limit_seq = $self->{'limit_seq'}
1038 if defined($self->{'limit_seq'})
1039 && (!defined($limit_seq) || $self->{'limit_seq'} < $limit_seq);
1040 local $self->{'limit_seq'} = $limit_seq;
58cccf98 1041 for (my $i = 0; $i < @ops; $i++) {
6e90668e 1042 $expr = "";
58cccf98
SM
1043 if (is_state $ops[$i]) {
1044 $expr = $self->deparse($ops[$i], 0);
1045 $i++;
e99ebc55
RH
1046 if ($i > $#ops) {
1047 push @exprs, $expr;
1048 last;
1049 }
58cccf98 1050 }
c73811ab
RH
1051 if (!is_state $ops[$i] and (my $ls = $ops[$i+1]) and
1052 !null($ops[$i+1]) and $ops[$i+1]->name eq "lineseq")
58cccf98 1053 {
c73811ab
RH
1054 if ($ls->first && !null($ls->first) && is_state($ls->first)
1055 && (my $sib = $ls->first->sibling)) {
1056 if (!null($sib) && $sib->name eq "leaveloop") {
1057 push @exprs, $expr . $self->for_loop($ops[$i], 0);
1058 $i++;
1059 next;
1060 }
1061 }
6e90668e 1062 }
6ec152c3 1063 $expr .= $self->deparse($ops[$i], 0, (@ops != 1));
e99ebc55 1064 $expr =~ s/;\n?\z//;
f99a63a2 1065 push @exprs, $expr;
6e90668e 1066 }
ce4e655d
RH
1067 my $body = join(";\n", grep {length} @exprs);
1068 my $subs = "";
67fc2416 1069 if (defined $root && defined $limit_seq && !$self->{'in_format'}) {
ce4e655d
RH
1070 $subs = join "\n", $self->seq_subs($limit_seq);
1071 }
1072 return join(";\n", grep {length} $body, $subs);
6e90668e
SM
1073}
1074
58cccf98 1075sub scopeop {
ce4e655d 1076 my($real_block, $self, $op, $cx, $flags) = @_;
58cccf98
SM
1077 my $kid;
1078 my @kids;
a0405c92
RH
1079
1080 local(@$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'})
1081 = @$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'} if $real_block;
58cccf98
SM
1082 if ($real_block) {
1083 $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip enter
1084 if (is_miniwhile($kid)) {
1085 my $top = $kid->first;
1086 my $name = $top->name;
1087 if ($name eq "and") {
1088 $name = "while";
1089 } elsif ($name eq "or") {
1090 $name = "until";
1091 } else { # no conditional -> while 1 or until 0
1092 return $self->deparse($top->first, 1) . " while 1";
1093 }
1094 my $cond = $top->first;
1095 my $body = $cond->sibling->first; # skip lineseq
1096 $cond = $self->deparse($cond, 1);
1097 $body = $self->deparse($body, 1);
1098 return "$body $name $cond";
6e90668e 1099 }
58cccf98
SM
1100 } else {
1101 $kid = $op->first;
1102 }
1103 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
1104 push @kids, $kid;
6e90668e 1105 }
ce4e655d
RH
1106 if ($flags || $cx > 0) { # inside an expression, (a do {} while for lineseq)
1107 return "do {\n\t" . $self->lineseq($op, @kids) . "\n\b}";
9d2c6865 1108 } else {
ce4e655d 1109 my $lineseq = $self->lineseq($op, @kids);
7a9b44b9 1110 return (length ($lineseq) ? "$lineseq;" : "");
6e90668e 1111 }
6e90668e
SM
1112}
1113
ce4e655d 1114sub pp_scope { scopeop(0, @_); }
58cccf98
SM
1115sub pp_lineseq { scopeop(0, @_); }
1116sub pp_leave { scopeop(1, @_); }
9d2c6865 1117
6e90668e
SM
1118# The BEGIN {} is used here because otherwise this code isn't executed
1119# when you run B::Deparse on itself.
1120my %globalnames;
1121BEGIN { map($globalnames{$_}++, "SIG", "STDIN", "STDOUT", "STDERR", "INC",
1122 "ENV", "ARGV", "ARGVOUT", "_"); }
1123
1124sub gv_name {
1125 my $self = shift;
1126 my $gv = shift;
34a48b4b 1127Carp::confess() if $gv->isa("B::CV");
6e90668e 1128 my $stash = $gv->STASH->NAME;
d9963e60 1129 my $name = $gv->SAFENAME;
9d2c6865
SM
1130 if ($stash eq $self->{'curstash'} or $globalnames{$name}
1131 or $name =~ /^[^A-Za-z_]/)
1132 {
6e90668e
SM
1133 $stash = "";
1134 } else {
1135 $stash = $stash . "::";
a798dbf2 1136 }
d9963e60
RH
1137 if ($name =~ /^\^../) {
1138 $name = "{$name}"; # ${^WARNING_BITS} etc
6e90668e
SM
1139 }
1140 return $stash . $name;
a798dbf2
MB
1141}
1142
8510e997
RH
1143# Return the name to use for a stash variable.
1144# If a lexical with the same name is in scope, it may need to be
1145# fully-qualified.
1146sub stash_variable {
1147 my ($self, $prefix, $name) = @_;
1148
1149 return "$prefix$name" if $name =~ /::/;
1150
1151 unless ($prefix eq '$' || $prefix eq '@' ||
1152 $prefix eq '%' || $prefix eq '$#') {
1153 return "$prefix$name";
1154 }
1155
1156 my $v = ($prefix eq '$#' ? '@' : $prefix) . $name;
1157 return $prefix .$self->{'curstash'}.'::'. $name if $self->lex_in_scope($v);
1158 return "$prefix$name";
1159}
1160
1161sub lex_in_scope {
1162 my ($self, $name) = @_;
1163 $self->populate_curcvlex() if !defined $self->{'curcvlex'};
1164
6ec152c3 1165 return 0 if !defined($self->{'curcop'});
8510e997
RH
1166 my $seq = $self->{'curcop'}->cop_seq;
1167 return 0 if !exists $self->{'curcvlex'}{$name};
1168 for my $a (@{$self->{'curcvlex'}{$name}}) {
1169 my ($st, $en) = @$a;
1170 return 1 if $seq > $st && $seq <= $en;
1171 }
1172 return 0;
1173}
1174
1175sub populate_curcvlex {
1176 my $self = shift;
ce4e655d 1177 for (my $cv = $self->{'curcv'}; class($cv) eq "CV"; $cv = $cv->OUTSIDE) {
8510e997
RH
1178 my @padlist = $cv->PADLIST->ARRAY;
1179 my @ns = $padlist[0]->ARRAY;
1180
1181 for (my $i=0; $i<@ns; ++$i) {
1182 next if class($ns[$i]) eq "SPECIAL";
ce4e655d 1183 next if $ns[$i]->FLAGS & SVpad_OUR; # Skip "our" vars
0f2fe21d
RH
1184 if (class($ns[$i]) eq "PV") {
1185 # Probably that pesky lexical @_
1186 next;
1187 }
8510e997
RH
1188 my $name = $ns[$i]->PVX;
1189 my $seq_st = $ns[$i]->NVX;
1190 my $seq_en = int($ns[$i]->IVX);
1191
1192 push @{$self->{'curcvlex'}{$name}}, [$seq_st, $seq_en];
1193 }
1194 }
1195}
1196
ce4e655d
RH
1197sub find_scope_st { ((find_scope(@_))[0]); }
1198sub find_scope_en { ((find_scope(@_))[1]); }
1199
1200# Recurses down the tree, looking for pad variable introductions and COPs
1201sub find_scope {
1202 my ($self, $op, $scope_st, $scope_en) = @_;
1203Carp::cluck() if !defined $op;
1204 return ($scope_st, $scope_en) unless $op->flags & OPf_KIDS;
1205
1206 for (my $o=$op->first; $$o; $o=$o->sibling) {
1207 if ($o->name =~ /^pad.v$/ && $o->private & OPpLVAL_INTRO) {
1208 my $s = int($self->padname_sv($o->targ)->NVX);
1209 my $e = $self->padname_sv($o->targ)->IVX;
1210 $scope_st = $s if !defined($scope_st) || $s < $scope_st;
1211 $scope_en = $e if !defined($scope_en) || $e > $scope_en;
1212 }
1213 elsif (is_state($o)) {
1214 my $c = $o->cop_seq;
1215 $scope_st = $c if !defined($scope_st) || $c < $scope_st;
1216 $scope_en = $c if !defined($scope_en) || $c > $scope_en;
1217 }
1218 elsif ($o->flags & OPf_KIDS) {
1219 ($scope_st, $scope_en) =
1220 $self->find_scope($o, $scope_st, $scope_en)
34a48b4b
RH
1221 }
1222 }
ce4e655d
RH
1223
1224 return ($scope_st, $scope_en);
34a48b4b
RH
1225}
1226
1227# Returns a list of subs which should be inserted before the COP
1228sub cop_subs {
1229 my ($self, $op, $out_seq) = @_;
1230 my $seq = $op->cop_seq;
1231 # If we have nephews, then our sequence number indicates
1232 # the cop_seq of the end of some sort of scope.
1233 if (class($op->sibling) ne "NULL" && $op->sibling->flags & OPf_KIDS
ce4e655d
RH
1234 and my $nseq = $self->find_scope_st($op->sibling) ) {
1235 $seq = $nseq;
34a48b4b
RH
1236 }
1237 $seq = $out_seq if defined($out_seq) && $out_seq < $seq;
1238 return $self->seq_subs($seq);
1239}
1240
1241sub seq_subs {
1242 my ($self, $seq) = @_;
1243 my @text;
1244#push @text, "# ($seq)\n";
1245
ce4e655d 1246 return "" if !defined $seq;
34a48b4b
RH
1247 while (scalar(@{$self->{'subs_todo'}})
1248 and $seq > $self->{'subs_todo'}[0][0]) {
1249 push @text, $self->next_todo;
1250 }
1251 return @text;
1252}
1253
08c6f5ec 1254# Notice how subs and formats are inserted between statements here;
a0405c92 1255# also $[ assignments and pragmas.
6e90668e
SM
1256sub pp_nextstate {
1257 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1258 my($op, $cx) = @_;
34a48b4b 1259 $self->{'curcop'} = $op;
6e90668e 1260 my @text;
34a48b4b 1261 push @text, $self->cop_subs($op);
e99ebc55 1262 push @text, $op->label . ": " if $op->label;
11faa288 1263 my $stash = $op->stashpv;
6e90668e
SM
1264 if ($stash ne $self->{'curstash'}) {
1265 push @text, "package $stash;\n";
1266 $self->{'curstash'} = $stash;
1267 }
f5aa8f4e
SM
1268 if ($self->{'linenums'}) {
1269 push @text, "\f#line " . $op->line .
57843af0 1270 ' "' . $op->file, qq'"\n';
f5aa8f4e 1271 }
08c6f5ec 1272
7a9b44b9
RH
1273 if ($self->{'arybase'} != $op->arybase) {
1274 push @text, '$[ = '. $op->arybase .";\n";
1275 $self->{'arybase'} = $op->arybase;
1276 }
1277
1278 my $warnings = $op->warnings;
1279 my $warning_bits;
1280 if ($warnings->isa("B::SPECIAL") && $$warnings == 4) {
810aef70 1281 $warning_bits = $warnings::Bits{"all"} & WARN_MASK;
7a9b44b9 1282 }
e31885a0 1283 elsif ($warnings->isa("B::SPECIAL") && $$warnings == 5) {
810aef70 1284 $warning_bits = $warnings::NONE;
7a9b44b9 1285 }
e31885a0
RH
1286 elsif ($warnings->isa("B::SPECIAL")) {
1287 $warning_bits = undef;
1288 }
7a9b44b9 1289 else {
34a48b4b 1290 $warning_bits = $warnings->PV & WARN_MASK;
7a9b44b9
RH
1291 }
1292
e31885a0
RH
1293 if (defined ($warning_bits) and
1294 !defined($self->{warnings}) || $self->{'warnings'} ne $warning_bits) {
08c6f5ec 1295 push @text, declare_warnings($self->{'warnings'}, $warning_bits);
7a9b44b9
RH
1296 $self->{'warnings'} = $warning_bits;
1297 }
1298
a0405c92
RH
1299 if ($self->{'hints'} != $op->private) {
1300 push @text, declare_hints($self->{'hints'}, $op->private);
1301 $self->{'hints'} = $op->private;
1302 }
1303
6e90668e
SM
1304 return join("", @text);
1305}
1306
08c6f5ec
RH
1307sub declare_warnings {
1308 my ($from, $to) = @_;
6ec152c3 1309 if (($to & WARN_MASK) eq warnings::bits("all")) {
a0405c92
RH
1310 return "use warnings;\n";
1311 }
6ec152c3 1312 elsif (($to & WARN_MASK) eq "\0"x length($to)) {
a0405c92
RH
1313 return "no warnings;\n";
1314 }
1315 return "BEGIN {\${^WARNING_BITS} = ".cstring($to)."}\n";
1316}
1317
1318sub declare_hints {
1319 my ($from, $to) = @_;
a0035eb8
RH
1320 my $use = $to & ~$from;
1321 my $no = $from & ~$to;
1322 my $decls = "";
1323 for my $pragma (hint_pragmas($use)) {
1324 $decls .= "use $pragma;\n";
1325 }
1326 for my $pragma (hint_pragmas($no)) {
1327 $decls .= "no $pragma;\n";
1328 }
1329 return $decls;
1330}
1331
1332sub hint_pragmas {
1333 my ($bits) = @_;
1334 my @pragmas;
1335 push @pragmas, "integer" if $bits & 0x1;
1336 push @pragmas, "strict 'refs'" if $bits & 0x2;
1337 push @pragmas, "bytes" if $bits & 0x8;
1338 return @pragmas;
08c6f5ec
RH
1339}
1340
6e90668e 1341sub pp_dbstate { pp_nextstate(@_) }
3f872cb9 1342sub pp_setstate { pp_nextstate(@_) }
6e90668e
SM
1343
1344sub pp_unstack { return "" } # see also leaveloop
1345
1346sub baseop {
1347 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1348 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1349 return $name;
1350}
1351
e99ebc55
RH
1352sub pp_stub {
1353 my $self = shift;
1354 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
1355 if ($cx) {
1356 return "()";
1357 }
1358 else {
1359 return "();";
1360 }
1361}
6e90668e
SM
1362sub pp_wantarray { baseop(@_, "wantarray") }
1363sub pp_fork { baseop(@_, "fork") }
3ed82cfc
GS
1364sub pp_wait { maybe_targmy(@_, \&baseop, "wait") }
1365sub pp_getppid { maybe_targmy(@_, \&baseop, "getppid") }
1366sub pp_time { maybe_targmy(@_, \&baseop, "time") }
6e90668e
SM
1367sub pp_tms { baseop(@_, "times") }
1368sub pp_ghostent { baseop(@_, "gethostent") }
1369sub pp_gnetent { baseop(@_, "getnetent") }
1370sub pp_gprotoent { baseop(@_, "getprotoent") }
1371sub pp_gservent { baseop(@_, "getservent") }
1372sub pp_ehostent { baseop(@_, "endhostent") }
1373sub pp_enetent { baseop(@_, "endnetent") }
1374sub pp_eprotoent { baseop(@_, "endprotoent") }
1375sub pp_eservent { baseop(@_, "endservent") }
1376sub pp_gpwent { baseop(@_, "getpwent") }
1377sub pp_spwent { baseop(@_, "setpwent") }
1378sub pp_epwent { baseop(@_, "endpwent") }
1379sub pp_ggrent { baseop(@_, "getgrent") }
1380sub pp_sgrent { baseop(@_, "setgrent") }
1381sub pp_egrent { baseop(@_, "endgrent") }
1382sub pp_getlogin { baseop(@_, "getlogin") }
1383
1384sub POSTFIX () { 1 }
1385
9d2c6865
SM
1386# I couldn't think of a good short name, but this is the category of
1387# symbolic unary operators with interesting precedence
1388
1389sub pfixop {
1390 my $self = shift;
1391 my($op, $cx, $name, $prec, $flags) = (@_, 0);
1392 my $kid = $op->first;
1393 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, $prec);
1394 return $self->maybe_parens(($flags & POSTFIX) ? "$kid$name" : "$name$kid",
1395 $cx, $prec);
1396}
1397
1398sub pp_preinc { pfixop(@_, "++", 23) }
1399sub pp_predec { pfixop(@_, "--", 23) }
3ed82cfc
GS
1400sub pp_postinc { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "++", 23, POSTFIX) }
1401sub pp_postdec { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "--", 23, POSTFIX) }
9d2c6865
SM
1402sub pp_i_preinc { pfixop(@_, "++", 23) }
1403sub pp_i_predec { pfixop(@_, "--", 23) }
3ed82cfc
GS
1404sub pp_i_postinc { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "++", 23, POSTFIX) }
1405sub pp_i_postdec { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "--", 23, POSTFIX) }
68cc8748 1406sub pp_complement { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "~", 21) }
9d2c6865 1407
3ed82cfc
GS
1408sub pp_negate { maybe_targmy(@_, \&real_negate) }
1409sub real_negate {
9d2c6865
SM
1410 my $self = shift;
1411 my($op, $cx) = @_;
3f872cb9 1412 if ($op->first->name =~ /^(i_)?negate$/) {
9d2c6865
SM
1413 # avoid --$x
1414 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "-", 21.5);
1415 } else {
1416 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "-", 21);
1417 }
1418}
1419sub pp_i_negate { pp_negate(@_) }
1420
1421sub pp_not {
1422 my $self = shift;
1423 my($op, $cx) = @_;
1424 if ($cx <= 4) {
1425 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "not ", 4);
1426 } else {
1427 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "!", 21);
1428 }
1429}
1430
6e90668e
SM
1431sub unop {
1432 my $self = shift;
f4a44678 1433 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e 1434 my $kid;
9d2c6865 1435 if ($op->flags & OPf_KIDS) {
6e90668e 1436 $kid = $op->first;
e31885a0
RH
1437 if (defined prototype("CORE::$name")
1438 && prototype("CORE::$name") =~ /^;?\*/
1439 && $kid->name eq "rv2gv") {
1440 $kid = $kid->first;
1441 }
1442
9d2c6865 1443 return $self->maybe_parens_unop($name, $kid, $cx);
6e90668e 1444 } else {
9d2c6865 1445 return $name . ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL ? "()" : "");
6e90668e 1446 }
6e90668e
SM
1447}
1448
3ed82cfc
GS
1449sub pp_chop { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chop") }
1450sub pp_chomp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chomp") }
1451sub pp_schop { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chop") }
1452sub pp_schomp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chomp") }
6e90668e
SM
1453sub pp_defined { unop(@_, "defined") }
1454sub pp_undef { unop(@_, "undef") }
1455sub pp_study { unop(@_, "study") }
6e90668e
SM
1456sub pp_ref { unop(@_, "ref") }
1457sub pp_pos { maybe_local(@_, unop(@_, "pos")) }
1458
3ed82cfc
GS
1459sub pp_sin { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "sin") }
1460sub pp_cos { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "cos") }
1461sub pp_rand { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "rand") }
6e90668e 1462sub pp_srand { unop(@_, "srand") }
3ed82cfc
GS
1463sub pp_exp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "exp") }
1464sub pp_log { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "log") }
1465sub pp_sqrt { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "sqrt") }
1466sub pp_int { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "int") }
1467sub pp_hex { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "hex") }
1468sub pp_oct { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "oct") }
1469sub pp_abs { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "abs") }
1470
1471sub pp_length { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "length") }
1472sub pp_ord { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "ord") }
1473sub pp_chr { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chr") }
6e90668e
SM
1474
1475sub pp_each { unop(@_, "each") }
1476sub pp_values { unop(@_, "values") }
1477sub pp_keys { unop(@_, "keys") }
1478sub pp_pop { unop(@_, "pop") }
1479sub pp_shift { unop(@_, "shift") }
1480
1481sub pp_caller { unop(@_, "caller") }
1482sub pp_reset { unop(@_, "reset") }
1483sub pp_exit { unop(@_, "exit") }
1484sub pp_prototype { unop(@_, "prototype") }
1485
1486sub pp_close { unop(@_, "close") }
1487sub pp_fileno { unop(@_, "fileno") }
1488sub pp_umask { unop(@_, "umask") }
6e90668e
SM
1489sub pp_untie { unop(@_, "untie") }
1490sub pp_tied { unop(@_, "tied") }
1491sub pp_dbmclose { unop(@_, "dbmclose") }
1492sub pp_getc { unop(@_, "getc") }
1493sub pp_eof { unop(@_, "eof") }
1494sub pp_tell { unop(@_, "tell") }
1495sub pp_getsockname { unop(@_, "getsockname") }
1496sub pp_getpeername { unop(@_, "getpeername") }
1497
3ed82cfc
GS
1498sub pp_chdir { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chdir") }
1499sub pp_chroot { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chroot") }
6e90668e 1500sub pp_readlink { unop(@_, "readlink") }
3ed82cfc 1501sub pp_rmdir { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "rmdir") }
6e90668e
SM
1502sub pp_readdir { unop(@_, "readdir") }
1503sub pp_telldir { unop(@_, "telldir") }
1504sub pp_rewinddir { unop(@_, "rewinddir") }
1505sub pp_closedir { unop(@_, "closedir") }
3ed82cfc 1506sub pp_getpgrp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "getpgrp") }
6e90668e
SM
1507sub pp_localtime { unop(@_, "localtime") }
1508sub pp_gmtime { unop(@_, "gmtime") }
1509sub pp_alarm { unop(@_, "alarm") }
3ed82cfc 1510sub pp_sleep { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "sleep") }
6e90668e
SM
1511
1512sub pp_dofile { unop(@_, "do") }
1513sub pp_entereval { unop(@_, "eval") }
1514
1515sub pp_ghbyname { unop(@_, "gethostbyname") }
1516sub pp_gnbyname { unop(@_, "getnetbyname") }
1517sub pp_gpbyname { unop(@_, "getprotobyname") }
1518sub pp_shostent { unop(@_, "sethostent") }
1519sub pp_snetent { unop(@_, "setnetent") }
1520sub pp_sprotoent { unop(@_, "setprotoent") }
1521sub pp_sservent { unop(@_, "setservent") }
1522sub pp_gpwnam { unop(@_, "getpwnam") }
1523sub pp_gpwuid { unop(@_, "getpwuid") }
1524sub pp_ggrnam { unop(@_, "getgrnam") }
1525sub pp_ggrgid { unop(@_, "getgrgid") }
1526
1527sub pp_lock { unop(@_, "lock") }
1528
1529sub pp_exists {
1530 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1531 my($op, $cx) = @_;
34a48b4b
RH
1532 my $arg;
1533 if ($op->private & OPpEXISTS_SUB) {
1534 # Checking for the existence of a subroutine
1535 return $self->maybe_parens_func("exists",
1536 $self->pp_rv2cv($op->first, 16), $cx, 16);
1537 }
1538 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
1539 # Array element, not hash element
1540 return $self->maybe_parens_func("exists",
1541 $self->pp_aelem($op->first, 16), $cx, 16);
1542 }
9d2c6865
SM
1543 return $self->maybe_parens_func("exists", $self->pp_helem($op->first, 16),
1544 $cx, 16);
6e90668e
SM
1545}
1546
6e90668e
SM
1547sub pp_delete {
1548 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1549 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1550 my $arg;
1551 if ($op->private & OPpSLICE) {
34a48b4b
RH
1552 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
1553 # Deleting from an array, not a hash
1554 return $self->maybe_parens_func("delete",
1555 $self->pp_aslice($op->first, 16),
1556 $cx, 16);
1557 }
9d2c6865
SM
1558 return $self->maybe_parens_func("delete",
1559 $self->pp_hslice($op->first, 16),
1560 $cx, 16);
6e90668e 1561 } else {
34a48b4b
RH
1562 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
1563 # Deleting from an array, not a hash
1564 return $self->maybe_parens_func("delete",
1565 $self->pp_aelem($op->first, 16),
1566 $cx, 16);
1567 }
9d2c6865
SM
1568 return $self->maybe_parens_func("delete",
1569 $self->pp_helem($op->first, 16),
1570 $cx, 16);
6e90668e 1571 }
6e90668e
SM
1572}
1573
6e90668e
SM
1574sub pp_require {
1575 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1576 my($op, $cx) = @_;
3f872cb9 1577 if (class($op) eq "UNOP" and $op->first->name eq "const"
4c1f658f 1578 and $op->first->private & OPpCONST_BARE)
6e90668e 1579 {
18228111 1580 my $name = $self->const_sv($op->first)->PV;
6e90668e
SM
1581 $name =~ s[/][::]g;
1582 $name =~ s/\.pm//g;
34a48b4b 1583 return "require $name";
6e90668e 1584 } else {
9d2c6865 1585 $self->unop($op, $cx, "require");
6e90668e
SM
1586 }
1587}
1588
9d2c6865
SM
1589sub pp_scalar {
1590 my $self = shift;
1591 my($op, $cv) = @_;
1592 my $kid = $op->first;
1593 if (not null $kid->sibling) {
1594 # XXX Was a here-doc
1595 return $self->dquote($op);
1596 }
1597 $self->unop(@_, "scalar");
1598}
1599
1600
6e90668e
SM
1601sub padval {
1602 my $self = shift;
1603 my $targ = shift;
18228111 1604 #cluck "curcv was undef" unless $self->{curcv};
6e90668e
SM
1605 return (($self->{'curcv'}->PADLIST->ARRAY)[1]->ARRAY)[$targ];
1606}
1607
1608sub pp_refgen {
1609 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1610 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 1611 my $kid = $op->first;
3f872cb9 1612 if ($kid->name eq "null") {
6e90668e 1613 $kid = $kid->first;
3f872cb9
GS
1614 if ($kid->name eq "anonlist" || $kid->name eq "anonhash") {
1615 my($pre, $post) = @{{"anonlist" => ["[","]"],
1616 "anonhash" => ["{","}"]}->{$kid->name}};
6e90668e
SM
1617 my($expr, @exprs);
1618 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
1619 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 1620 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
1621 push @exprs, $expr;
1622 }
1623 return $pre . join(", ", @exprs) . $post;
1624 } elsif (!null($kid->sibling) and
3f872cb9 1625 $kid->sibling->name eq "anoncode") {
6e90668e
SM
1626 return "sub " .
1627 $self->deparse_sub($self->padval($kid->sibling->targ));
3f872cb9
GS
1628 } elsif ($kid->name eq "pushmark") {
1629 my $sib_name = $kid->sibling->name;
1630 if ($sib_name =~ /^(pad|rv2)[ah]v$/
c8c62db7
AD
1631 and not $kid->sibling->flags & OPf_REF)
1632 {
1633 # The @a in \(@a) isn't in ref context, but only when the
1634 # parens are there.
1635 return "\\(" . $self->deparse($kid->sibling, 1) . ")";
3f872cb9 1636 } elsif ($sib_name eq 'entersub') {
c8c62db7
AD
1637 my $text = $self->deparse($kid->sibling, 1);
1638 # Always show parens for \(&func()), but only with -p otherwise
1639 $text = "($text)" if $self->{'parens'}
1640 or $kid->sibling->private & OPpENTERSUB_AMPER;
1641 return "\\$text";
1642 }
1643 }
6e90668e 1644 }
9d2c6865 1645 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "\\", 20);
6e90668e
SM
1646}
1647
1648sub pp_srefgen { pp_refgen(@_) }
1649
1650sub pp_readline {
1651 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1652 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 1653 my $kid = $op->first;
3f872cb9 1654 $kid = $kid->first if $kid->name eq "rv2gv"; # <$fh>
e31885a0
RH
1655 return "<" . $self->deparse($kid, 1) . ">" if is_scalar($kid);
1656 return $self->unop($op, $cx, "readline");
6e90668e
SM
1657}
1658
bd0865ec
GS
1659# Unary operators that can occur as pseudo-listops inside double quotes
1660sub dq_unop {
1661 my $self = shift;
1662 my($op, $cx, $name, $prec, $flags) = (@_, 0, 0);
1663 my $kid;
1664 if ($op->flags & OPf_KIDS) {
1665 $kid = $op->first;
1666 # If there's more than one kid, the first is an ex-pushmark.
1667 $kid = $kid->sibling if not null $kid->sibling;
1668 return $self->maybe_parens_unop($name, $kid, $cx);
1669 } else {
1670 return $name . ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL ? "()" : "");
1671 }
1672}
1673
1674sub pp_ucfirst { dq_unop(@_, "ucfirst") }
1675sub pp_lcfirst { dq_unop(@_, "lcfirst") }
1676sub pp_uc { dq_unop(@_, "uc") }
1677sub pp_lc { dq_unop(@_, "lc") }
3ed82cfc 1678sub pp_quotemeta { maybe_targmy(@_, \&dq_unop, "quotemeta") }
bd0865ec 1679
6e90668e
SM
1680sub loopex {
1681 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1682 my ($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e 1683 if (class($op) eq "PVOP") {
9d2c6865
SM
1684 return "$name " . $op->pv;
1685 } elsif (class($op) eq "OP") {
1686 return $name;
6e90668e 1687 } elsif (class($op) eq "UNOP") {
9d2c6865
SM
1688 # Note -- loop exits are actually exempt from the
1689 # looks-like-a-func rule, but a few extra parens won't hurt
1690 return $self->maybe_parens_unop($name, $op->first, $cx);
6e90668e 1691 }
6e90668e
SM
1692}
1693
1694sub pp_last { loopex(@_, "last") }
1695sub pp_next { loopex(@_, "next") }
1696sub pp_redo { loopex(@_, "redo") }
1697sub pp_goto { loopex(@_, "goto") }
1698sub pp_dump { loopex(@_, "dump") }
1699
1700sub ftst {
1701 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1702 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e 1703 if (class($op) eq "UNOP") {
9d2c6865
SM
1704 # Genuine `-X' filetests are exempt from the LLAFR, but not
1705 # l?stat(); for the sake of clarity, give'em all parens
1706 return $self->maybe_parens_unop($name, $op->first, $cx);
7934575e 1707 } elsif (class($op) eq "SVOP") {
9d2c6865 1708 return $self->maybe_parens_func($name, $self->pp_gv($op, 1), $cx, 16);
6e90668e 1709 } else { # I don't think baseop filetests ever survive ck_ftst, but...
9d2c6865 1710 return $name;
6e90668e 1711 }
6e90668e
SM
1712}
1713
1714sub pp_lstat { ftst(@_, "lstat") }
1715sub pp_stat { ftst(@_, "stat") }
1716sub pp_ftrread { ftst(@_, "-R") }
1717sub pp_ftrwrite { ftst(@_, "-W") }
1718sub pp_ftrexec { ftst(@_, "-X") }
1719sub pp_fteread { ftst(@_, "-r") }
e31885a0
RH
1720sub pp_ftewrite { ftst(@_, "-w") }
1721sub pp_fteexec { ftst(@_, "-x") }
6e90668e
SM
1722sub pp_ftis { ftst(@_, "-e") }
1723sub pp_fteowned { ftst(@_, "-O") }
1724sub pp_ftrowned { ftst(@_, "-o") }
1725sub pp_ftzero { ftst(@_, "-z") }
1726sub pp_ftsize { ftst(@_, "-s") }
1727sub pp_ftmtime { ftst(@_, "-M") }
1728sub pp_ftatime { ftst(@_, "-A") }
1729sub pp_ftctime { ftst(@_, "-C") }
1730sub pp_ftsock { ftst(@_, "-S") }
1731sub pp_ftchr { ftst(@_, "-c") }
1732sub pp_ftblk { ftst(@_, "-b") }
1733sub pp_ftfile { ftst(@_, "-f") }
1734sub pp_ftdir { ftst(@_, "-d") }
1735sub pp_ftpipe { ftst(@_, "-p") }
1736sub pp_ftlink { ftst(@_, "-l") }
1737sub pp_ftsuid { ftst(@_, "-u") }
1738sub pp_ftsgid { ftst(@_, "-g") }
1739sub pp_ftsvtx { ftst(@_, "-k") }
1740sub pp_fttty { ftst(@_, "-t") }
1741sub pp_fttext { ftst(@_, "-T") }
1742sub pp_ftbinary { ftst(@_, "-B") }
1743
a798dbf2 1744sub SWAP_CHILDREN () { 1 }
6e90668e 1745sub ASSIGN () { 2 } # has OP= variant
7013e6ae 1746sub LIST_CONTEXT () { 4 } # Assignment is in list context
6e90668e 1747
9d2c6865
SM
1748my(%left, %right);
1749
1750sub assoc_class {
1751 my $op = shift;
3f872cb9
GS
1752 my $name = $op->name;
1753 if ($name eq "concat" and $op->first->name eq "concat") {
9d2c6865 1754 # avoid spurious `=' -- see comment in pp_concat
3f872cb9 1755 return "concat";
9d2c6865 1756 }
3f872cb9
GS
1757 if ($name eq "null" and class($op) eq "UNOP"
1758 and $op->first->name =~ /^(and|x?or)$/
9d2c6865
SM
1759 and null $op->first->sibling)
1760 {
1761 # Like all conditional constructs, OP_ANDs and OP_ORs are topped
1762 # with a null that's used as the common end point of the two
1763 # flows of control. For precedence purposes, ignore it.
1764 # (COND_EXPRs have these too, but we don't bother with
1765 # their associativity).
1766 return assoc_class($op->first);
1767 }
1768 return $name . ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED ? "=" : "");
1769}
1770
1771# Left associative operators, like `+', for which
1772# $a + $b + $c is equivalent to ($a + $b) + $c
1773
1774BEGIN {
3f872cb9
GS
1775 %left = ('multiply' => 19, 'i_multiply' => 19,
1776 'divide' => 19, 'i_divide' => 19,
1777 'modulo' => 19, 'i_modulo' => 19,
1778 'repeat' => 19,
1779 'add' => 18, 'i_add' => 18,
1780 'subtract' => 18, 'i_subtract' => 18,
1781 'concat' => 18,
1782 'left_shift' => 17, 'right_shift' => 17,
1783 'bit_and' => 13,
1784 'bit_or' => 12, 'bit_xor' => 12,
1785 'and' => 3,
1786 'or' => 2, 'xor' => 2,
9d2c6865
SM
1787 );
1788}
1789
1790sub deparse_binop_left {
1791 my $self = shift;
1792 my($op, $left, $prec) = @_;
58231d39 1793 if ($left{assoc_class($op)} && $left{assoc_class($left)}
9d2c6865
SM
1794 and $left{assoc_class($op)} == $left{assoc_class($left)})
1795 {
1796 return $self->deparse($left, $prec - .00001);
1797 } else {
1798 return $self->deparse($left, $prec);
1799 }
1800}
1801
1802# Right associative operators, like `=', for which
1803# $a = $b = $c is equivalent to $a = ($b = $c)
1804
1805BEGIN {
3f872cb9
GS
1806 %right = ('pow' => 22,
1807 'sassign=' => 7, 'aassign=' => 7,
1808 'multiply=' => 7, 'i_multiply=' => 7,
1809 'divide=' => 7, 'i_divide=' => 7,
1810 'modulo=' => 7, 'i_modulo=' => 7,
1811 'repeat=' => 7,
1812 'add=' => 7, 'i_add=' => 7,
1813 'subtract=' => 7, 'i_subtract=' => 7,
1814 'concat=' => 7,
1815 'left_shift=' => 7, 'right_shift=' => 7,
1816 'bit_and=' => 7,
1817 'bit_or=' => 7, 'bit_xor=' => 7,
1818 'andassign' => 7,
1819 'orassign' => 7,
9d2c6865
SM
1820 );
1821}
1822
1823sub deparse_binop_right {
1824 my $self = shift;
1825 my($op, $right, $prec) = @_;
58231d39 1826 if ($right{assoc_class($op)} && $right{assoc_class($right)}
9d2c6865
SM
1827 and $right{assoc_class($op)} == $right{assoc_class($right)})
1828 {
1829 return $self->deparse($right, $prec - .00001);
1830 } else {
1831 return $self->deparse($right, $prec);
1832 }
1833}
1834
a798dbf2 1835sub binop {
6e90668e 1836 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1837 my ($op, $cx, $opname, $prec, $flags) = (@_, 0);
a798dbf2
MB
1838 my $left = $op->first;
1839 my $right = $op->last;
9d2c6865
SM
1840 my $eq = "";
1841 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED && $flags & ASSIGN) {
1842 $eq = "=";
1843 $prec = 7;
1844 }
a798dbf2
MB
1845 if ($flags & SWAP_CHILDREN) {
1846 ($left, $right) = ($right, $left);
1847 }
9d2c6865 1848 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $prec);
90c0eb26
RH
1849 $left = "($left)" if $flags & LIST_CONTEXT
1850 && $left !~ /^(my|our|local|)[\@\(]/;
9d2c6865
SM
1851 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $prec);
1852 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $opname$eq $right", $cx, $prec);
1853}
1854
3ed82cfc
GS
1855sub pp_add { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "+", 18, ASSIGN) }
1856sub pp_multiply { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "*", 19, ASSIGN) }
1857sub pp_subtract { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "-",18, ASSIGN) }
1858sub pp_divide { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "/", 19, ASSIGN) }
1859sub pp_modulo { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "%", 19, ASSIGN) }
1860sub pp_i_add { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "+", 18, ASSIGN) }
1861sub pp_i_multiply { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "*", 19, ASSIGN) }
1862sub pp_i_subtract { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "-", 18, ASSIGN) }
1863sub pp_i_divide { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "/", 19, ASSIGN) }
1864sub pp_i_modulo { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "%", 19, ASSIGN) }
1865sub pp_pow { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "**", 22, ASSIGN) }
1866
1867sub pp_left_shift { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "<<", 17, ASSIGN) }
1868sub pp_right_shift { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, ">>", 17, ASSIGN) }
1869sub pp_bit_and { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "&", 13, ASSIGN) }
1870sub pp_bit_or { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "|", 12, ASSIGN) }
1871sub pp_bit_xor { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "^", 12, ASSIGN) }
9d2c6865
SM
1872
1873sub pp_eq { binop(@_, "==", 14) }
1874sub pp_ne { binop(@_, "!=", 14) }
1875sub pp_lt { binop(@_, "<", 15) }
1876sub pp_gt { binop(@_, ">", 15) }
1877sub pp_ge { binop(@_, ">=", 15) }
1878sub pp_le { binop(@_, "<=", 15) }
1879sub pp_ncmp { binop(@_, "<=>", 14) }
1880sub pp_i_eq { binop(@_, "==", 14) }
1881sub pp_i_ne { binop(@_, "!=", 14) }
1882sub pp_i_lt { binop(@_, "<", 15) }
1883sub pp_i_gt { binop(@_, ">", 15) }
1884sub pp_i_ge { binop(@_, ">=", 15) }
1885sub pp_i_le { binop(@_, "<=", 15) }
1886sub pp_i_ncmp { binop(@_, "<=>", 14) }
1887
1888sub pp_seq { binop(@_, "eq", 14) }
1889sub pp_sne { binop(@_, "ne", 14) }
1890sub pp_slt { binop(@_, "lt", 15) }
1891sub pp_sgt { binop(@_, "gt", 15) }
1892sub pp_sge { binop(@_, "ge", 15) }
1893sub pp_sle { binop(@_, "le", 15) }
1894sub pp_scmp { binop(@_, "cmp", 14) }
1895
1896sub pp_sassign { binop(@_, "=", 7, SWAP_CHILDREN) }
7013e6ae 1897sub pp_aassign { binop(@_, "=", 7, SWAP_CHILDREN | LIST_CONTEXT) }
6e90668e
SM
1898
1899# `.' is special because concats-of-concats are optimized to save copying
1900# by making all but the first concat stacked. The effect is as if the
1901# programmer had written `($a . $b) .= $c', except legal.
3ed82cfc
GS
1902sub pp_concat { maybe_targmy(@_, \&real_concat) }
1903sub real_concat {
6e90668e 1904 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1905 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1906 my $left = $op->first;
1907 my $right = $op->last;
1908 my $eq = "";
9d2c6865 1909 my $prec = 18;
3f872cb9 1910 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED and $op->first->name ne "concat") {
6e90668e 1911 $eq = "=";
9d2c6865 1912 $prec = 7;
6e90668e 1913 }
9d2c6865
SM
1914 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $prec);
1915 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $prec);
1916 return $self->maybe_parens("$left .$eq $right", $cx, $prec);
6e90668e
SM
1917}
1918
1919# `x' is weird when the left arg is a list
1920sub pp_repeat {
1921 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1922 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1923 my $left = $op->first;
1924 my $right = $op->last;
9d2c6865
SM
1925 my $eq = "";
1926 my $prec = 19;
1927 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
1928 $eq = "=";
1929 $prec = 7;
1930 }
6e90668e
SM
1931 if (null($right)) { # list repeat; count is inside left-side ex-list
1932 my $kid = $left->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
1933 my @exprs;
1934 for (; !null($kid->sibling); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 1935 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
1936 }
1937 $right = $kid;
1938 $left = "(" . join(", ", @exprs). ")";
1939 } else {
9d2c6865 1940 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $prec);
6e90668e 1941 }
9d2c6865
SM
1942 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $prec);
1943 return $self->maybe_parens("$left x$eq $right", $cx, $prec);
6e90668e
SM
1944}
1945
1946sub range {
1947 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1948 my ($op, $cx, $type) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1949 my $left = $op->first;
1950 my $right = $left->sibling;
9d2c6865
SM
1951 $left = $self->deparse($left, 9);
1952 $right = $self->deparse($right, 9);
1953 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $type $right", $cx, 9);
6e90668e
SM
1954}
1955
1956sub pp_flop {
1957 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1958 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1959 my $flip = $op->first;
1960 my $type = ($flip->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) ? "..." : "..";
9d2c6865 1961 return $self->range($flip->first, $cx, $type);
6e90668e
SM
1962}
1963
1964# one-line while/until is handled in pp_leave
1965
1966sub logop {
1967 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1968 my ($op, $cx, $lowop, $lowprec, $highop, $highprec, $blockname) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1969 my $left = $op->first;
1970 my $right = $op->first->sibling;
58cccf98
SM
1971 if ($cx == 0 and is_scope($right) and $blockname
1972 and $self->{'expand'} < 7)
1973 { # if ($a) {$b}
9d2c6865
SM
1974 $left = $self->deparse($left, 1);
1975 $right = $self->deparse($right, 0);
1976 return "$blockname ($left) {\n\t$right\n\b}\cK";
58cccf98
SM
1977 } elsif ($cx == 0 and $blockname and not $self->{'parens'}
1978 and $self->{'expand'} < 7) { # $b if $a
9d2c6865
SM
1979 $right = $self->deparse($right, 1);
1980 $left = $self->deparse($left, 1);
1981 return "$right $blockname $left";
1982 } elsif ($cx > $lowprec and $highop) { # $a && $b
1983 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $highprec);
1984 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $highprec);
1985 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $highop $right", $cx, $highprec);
1986 } else { # $a and $b
1987 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $lowprec);
1988 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $lowprec);
1989 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $lowop $right", $cx, $lowprec);
1990 }
1991}
1992
1993sub pp_and { logop(@_, "and", 3, "&&", 11, "if") }
f4a44678 1994sub pp_or { logop(@_, "or", 2, "||", 10, "unless") }
3ed82cfc
GS
1995
1996# xor is syntactically a logop, but it's really a binop (contrary to
1997# old versions of opcode.pl). Syntax is what matters here.
9d2c6865 1998sub pp_xor { logop(@_, "xor", 2, "", 0, "") }
6e90668e
SM
1999
2000sub logassignop {
2001 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2002 my ($op, $cx, $opname) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2003 my $left = $op->first;
2004 my $right = $op->first->sibling->first; # skip sassign
9d2c6865
SM
2005 $left = $self->deparse($left, 7);
2006 $right = $self->deparse($right, 7);
2007 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $opname $right", $cx, 7);
a798dbf2
MB
2008}
2009
6e90668e
SM
2010sub pp_andassign { logassignop(@_, "&&=") }
2011sub pp_orassign { logassignop(@_, "||=") }
2012
2013sub listop {
2014 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865
SM
2015 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
2016 my(@exprs);
2017 my $parens = ($cx >= 5) || $self->{'parens'};
2018 my $kid = $op->first->sibling;
2019 return $name if null $kid;
e31885a0
RH
2020 my $first;
2021 if (defined prototype("CORE::$name")
2022 && prototype("CORE::$name") =~ /^;?\*/
2023 && $kid->name eq "rv2gv") {
2024 $first = $self->deparse($kid->first, 6);
2025 }
2026 else {
2027 $first = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
2028 }
e99ebc55 2029 if ($name eq "chmod" && $first =~ /^\d+$/) {
a0035eb8 2030 $first = sprintf("%#o", $first);
e99ebc55 2031 }
9d2c6865
SM
2032 $first = "+$first" if not $parens and substr($first, 0, 1) eq "(";
2033 push @exprs, $first;
2034 $kid = $kid->sibling;
2035 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
2036 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
2037 }
2038 if ($parens) {
2039 return "$name(" . join(", ", @exprs) . ")";
2040 } else {
2041 return "$name " . join(", ", @exprs);
6e90668e 2042 }
6e90668e 2043}
a798dbf2 2044
6e90668e 2045sub pp_bless { listop(@_, "bless") }
3ed82cfc 2046sub pp_atan2 { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "atan2") }
6e90668e
SM
2047sub pp_substr { maybe_local(@_, listop(@_, "substr")) }
2048sub pp_vec { maybe_local(@_, listop(@_, "vec")) }
3ed82cfc
GS
2049sub pp_index { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "index") }
2050sub pp_rindex { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "rindex") }
2051sub pp_sprintf { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "sprintf") }
6e90668e 2052sub pp_formline { listop(@_, "formline") } # see also deparse_format
3ed82cfc 2053sub pp_crypt { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "crypt") }
6e90668e
SM
2054sub pp_unpack { listop(@_, "unpack") }
2055sub pp_pack { listop(@_, "pack") }
3ed82cfc 2056sub pp_join { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "join") }
6e90668e 2057sub pp_splice { listop(@_, "splice") }
3ed82cfc
GS
2058sub pp_push { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "push") }
2059sub pp_unshift { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "unshift") }
6e90668e
SM
2060sub pp_reverse { listop(@_, "reverse") }
2061sub pp_warn { listop(@_, "warn") }
2062sub pp_die { listop(@_, "die") }
9d2c6865
SM
2063# Actually, return is exempt from the LLAFR (see examples in this very
2064# module!), but for consistency's sake, ignore that fact
6e90668e
SM
2065sub pp_return { listop(@_, "return") }
2066sub pp_open { listop(@_, "open") }
2067sub pp_pipe_op { listop(@_, "pipe") }
2068sub pp_tie { listop(@_, "tie") }
82bafd27 2069sub pp_binmode { listop(@_, "binmode") }
6e90668e
SM
2070sub pp_dbmopen { listop(@_, "dbmopen") }
2071sub pp_sselect { listop(@_, "select") }
2072sub pp_select { listop(@_, "select") }
2073sub pp_read { listop(@_, "read") }
2074sub pp_sysopen { listop(@_, "sysopen") }
2075sub pp_sysseek { listop(@_, "sysseek") }
2076sub pp_sysread { listop(@_, "sysread") }
2077sub pp_syswrite { listop(@_, "syswrite") }
2078sub pp_send { listop(@_, "send") }
2079sub pp_recv { listop(@_, "recv") }
2080sub pp_seek { listop(@_, "seek") }
6e90668e
SM
2081sub pp_fcntl { listop(@_, "fcntl") }
2082sub pp_ioctl { listop(@_, "ioctl") }
3ed82cfc 2083sub pp_flock { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "flock") }
6e90668e
SM
2084sub pp_socket { listop(@_, "socket") }
2085sub pp_sockpair { listop(@_, "sockpair") }
2086sub pp_bind { listop(@_, "bind") }
2087sub pp_connect { listop(@_, "connect") }
2088sub pp_listen { listop(@_, "listen") }
2089sub pp_accept { listop(@_, "accept") }
2090sub pp_shutdown { listop(@_, "shutdown") }
2091sub pp_gsockopt { listop(@_, "getsockopt") }
2092sub pp_ssockopt { listop(@_, "setsockopt") }
3ed82cfc
GS
2093sub pp_chown { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "chown") }
2094sub pp_unlink { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "unlink") }
2095sub pp_chmod { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "chmod") }
2096sub pp_utime { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "utime") }
2097sub pp_rename { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "rename") }
2098sub pp_link { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "link") }
2099sub pp_symlink { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "symlink") }
2100sub pp_mkdir { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "mkdir") }
6e90668e
SM
2101sub pp_open_dir { listop(@_, "opendir") }
2102sub pp_seekdir { listop(@_, "seekdir") }
3ed82cfc
GS
2103sub pp_waitpid { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "waitpid") }
2104sub pp_system { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "system") }
2105sub pp_exec { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "exec") }
2106sub pp_kill { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "kill") }
2107sub pp_setpgrp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "setpgrp") }
2108sub pp_getpriority { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "getpriority") }
2109sub pp_setpriority { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "setpriority") }
6e90668e
SM
2110sub pp_shmget { listop(@_, "shmget") }
2111sub pp_shmctl { listop(@_, "shmctl") }
2112sub pp_shmread { listop(@_, "shmread") }
2113sub pp_shmwrite { listop(@_, "shmwrite") }
2114sub pp_msgget { listop(@_, "msgget") }
2115sub pp_msgctl { listop(@_, "msgctl") }
2116sub pp_msgsnd { listop(@_, "msgsnd") }
2117sub pp_msgrcv { listop(@_, "msgrcv") }
2118sub pp_semget { listop(@_, "semget") }
2119sub pp_semctl { listop(@_, "semctl") }
2120sub pp_semop { listop(@_, "semop") }
2121sub pp_ghbyaddr { listop(@_, "gethostbyaddr") }
2122sub pp_gnbyaddr { listop(@_, "getnetbyaddr") }
2123sub pp_gpbynumber { listop(@_, "getprotobynumber") }
2124sub pp_gsbyname { listop(@_, "getservbyname") }
2125sub pp_gsbyport { listop(@_, "getservbyport") }
2126sub pp_syscall { listop(@_, "syscall") }
2127
2128sub pp_glob {
2129 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2130 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2131 my $text = $self->dq($op->first->sibling); # skip pushmark
2132 if ($text =~ /^\$?(\w|::|\`)+$/ # could look like a readline
2133 or $text =~ /[<>]/) {
2134 return 'glob(' . single_delim('qq', '"', $text) . ')';
2135 } else {
2136 return '<' . $text . '>';
2137 }
2138}
2139
f5aa8f4e
SM
2140# Truncate is special because OPf_SPECIAL makes a bareword first arg
2141# be a filehandle. This could probably be better fixed in the core
2142# by moving the GV lookup into ck_truc.
2143
2144sub pp_truncate {
2145 my $self = shift;
2146 my($op, $cx) = @_;
2147 my(@exprs);
2148 my $parens = ($cx >= 5) || $self->{'parens'};
2149 my $kid = $op->first->sibling;
acba1d67 2150 my $fh;
f5aa8f4e
SM
2151 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
2152 # $kid is an OP_CONST
18228111 2153 $fh = $self->const_sv($kid)->PV;
f5aa8f4e
SM
2154 } else {
2155 $fh = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
2156 $fh = "+$fh" if not $parens and substr($fh, 0, 1) eq "(";
2157 }
2158 my $len = $self->deparse($kid->sibling, 6);
2159 if ($parens) {
2160 return "truncate($fh, $len)";
2161 } else {
2162 return "truncate $fh, $len";
2163 }
f5aa8f4e
SM
2164}
2165
6e90668e
SM
2166sub indirop {
2167 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2168 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2169 my($expr, @exprs);
2170 my $kid = $op->first->sibling;
2171 my $indir = "";
2172 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
2173 $indir = $kid;
2174 $indir = $indir->first; # skip rv2gv
2175 if (is_scope($indir)) {
9d2c6865 2176 $indir = "{" . $self->deparse($indir, 0) . "}";
c73811ab
RH
2177 } elsif ($indir->name eq "const" && $indir->private & OPpCONST_BARE) {
2178 $indir = $self->const_sv($indir)->PV;
6e90668e 2179 } else {
9d2c6865 2180 $indir = $self->deparse($indir, 24);
6e90668e
SM
2181 }
2182 $indir = $indir . " ";
2183 $kid = $kid->sibling;
2184 }
7e80da18
RH
2185 if ($name eq "sort" && $op->private & (OPpSORT_NUMERIC | OPpSORT_INTEGER)) {
2186 $indir = ($op->private & OPpSORT_REVERSE) ? '{$b <=> $a} '
2187 : '{$a <=> $b} ';
2188 }
2189 elsif ($name eq "sort" && $op->private & OPpSORT_REVERSE) {
2190 $indir = '{$b cmp $a} ';
2191 }
6e90668e 2192 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 2193 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
2194 push @exprs, $expr;
2195 }
3ed82cfc 2196 return $self->maybe_parens_func($name, $indir . join(", ", @exprs),
9d2c6865 2197 $cx, 5);
6e90668e
SM
2198}
2199
2200sub pp_prtf { indirop(@_, "printf") }
2201sub pp_print { indirop(@_, "print") }
2202sub pp_sort { indirop(@_, "sort") }
2203
2204sub mapop {
2205 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2206 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2207 my($expr, @exprs);
2208 my $kid = $op->first; # this is the (map|grep)start
2209 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip a pushmark
2210 my $code = $kid->first; # skip a null
2211 if (is_scope $code) {
f4a44678 2212 $code = "{" . $self->deparse($code, 0) . "} ";
6e90668e 2213 } else {
9d2c6865 2214 $code = $self->deparse($code, 24) . ", ";
6e90668e
SM
2215 }
2216 $kid = $kid->sibling;
2217 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 2218 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
2219 push @exprs, $expr if $expr;
2220 }
9d2c6865 2221 return $self->maybe_parens_func($name, $code . join(", ", @exprs), $cx, 5);
6e90668e
SM
2222}
2223
2224sub pp_mapwhile { mapop(@_, "map") }
2225sub pp_grepwhile { mapop(@_, "grep") }
2226
2227sub pp_list {
2228 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2229 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2230 my($expr, @exprs);
2231 my $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
2232 my $lop;
ce4e655d 2233 my $local = "either"; # could be local(...), my(...) or our(...)
6e90668e
SM
2234 for ($lop = $kid; !null($lop); $lop = $lop->sibling) {
2235 # This assumes that no other private flags equal 128, and that
2236 # OPs that store things other than flags in their op_private,
2237 # like OP_AELEMFAST, won't be immediate children of a list.
b8e103fc
RH
2238 #
2239 # OP_ENTERSUB can break this logic, so check for it.
2240 # I suspect that open and exit can too.
2241
2242 if (!($lop->private & (OPpLVAL_INTRO|OPpOUR_INTRO)
ce4e655d 2243 or $lop->name eq "undef")
b8e103fc
RH
2244 or $lop->name eq "entersub"
2245 or $lop->name eq "exit"
2246 or $lop->name eq "open")
6e90668e
SM
2247 {
2248 $local = ""; # or not
2249 last;
2250 }
3f872cb9 2251 if ($lop->name =~ /^pad[ash]v$/) { # my()
ce4e655d 2252 ($local = "", last) if $local eq "local" || $local eq "our";
6e90668e 2253 $local = "my";
b8e103fc
RH
2254 } elsif ($lop->name =~ /^(gv|rv2)[ash]v$/
2255 && $lop->private & OPpOUR_INTRO
2256 or $lop->name eq "null" && $lop->first->name eq "gvsv"
2257 && $lop->first->private & OPpOUR_INTRO) { # our()
ce4e655d
RH
2258 ($local = "", last) if $local eq "my" || $local eq "local";
2259 $local = "our";
3f872cb9 2260 } elsif ($lop->name ne "undef") { # local()
ce4e655d 2261 ($local = "", last) if $local eq "my" || $local eq "our";
6e90668e
SM
2262 $local = "local";
2263 }
2264 }
2265 $local = "" if $local eq "either"; # no point if it's all undefs
f5aa8f4e 2266 return $self->deparse($kid, $cx) if null $kid->sibling and not $local;
6e90668e
SM
2267 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
2268 if ($local) {
3f872cb9 2269 if (class($kid) eq "UNOP" and $kid->first->name eq "gvsv") {
6e90668e
SM
2270 $lop = $kid->first;
2271 } else {
2272 $lop = $kid;
2273 }
2274 $self->{'avoid_local'}{$$lop}++;
9d2c6865 2275 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
2276 delete $self->{'avoid_local'}{$$lop};
2277 } else {
9d2c6865 2278 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
2279 }
2280 push @exprs, $expr;
2281 }
9d2c6865
SM
2282 if ($local) {
2283 return "$local(" . join(", ", @exprs) . ")";
2284 } else {
2285 return $self->maybe_parens( join(", ", @exprs), $cx, 6);
2286 }
6e90668e
SM
2287}
2288
6f611a1a
GS
2289sub is_ifelse_cont {
2290 my $op = shift;
2291 return ($op->name eq "null" and class($op) eq "UNOP"
2292 and $op->first->name =~ /^(and|cond_expr)$/
2293 and is_scope($op->first->first->sibling));
2294}
2295
6e90668e
SM
2296sub pp_cond_expr {
2297 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2298 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2299 my $cond = $op->first;
2300 my $true = $cond->sibling;
2301 my $false = $true->sibling;
9d2c6865 2302 my $cuddle = $self->{'cuddle'};
6f611a1a 2303 unless ($cx == 0 and (is_scope($true) and $true->name ne "null") and
58cccf98
SM
2304 (is_scope($false) || is_ifelse_cont($false))
2305 and $self->{'expand'} < 7) {
f5aa8f4e 2306 $cond = $self->deparse($cond, 8);
9d2c6865
SM
2307 $true = $self->deparse($true, 8);
2308 $false = $self->deparse($false, 8);
2309 return $self->maybe_parens("$cond ? $true : $false", $cx, 8);
6f611a1a
GS
2310 }
2311
f5aa8f4e 2312 $cond = $self->deparse($cond, 1);
9d2c6865 2313 $true = $self->deparse($true, 0);
6f611a1a
GS
2314 my $head = "if ($cond) {\n\t$true\n\b}";
2315 my @elsifs;
2316 while (!null($false) and is_ifelse_cont($false)) {
2317 my $newop = $false->first;
2318 my $newcond = $newop->first;
2319 my $newtrue = $newcond->sibling;
2320 $false = $newtrue->sibling; # last in chain is OP_AND => no else
2321 $newcond = $self->deparse($newcond, 1);
2322 $newtrue = $self->deparse($newtrue, 0);
2323 push @elsifs, "elsif ($newcond) {\n\t$newtrue\n\b}";
2324 }
2325 if (!null($false)) {
2326 $false = $cuddle . "else {\n\t" .
2327 $self->deparse($false, 0) . "\n\b}\cK";
2328 } else {
2329 $false = "\cK";
6e90668e 2330 }
6f611a1a 2331 return $head . join($cuddle, "", @elsifs) . $false;
6e90668e
SM
2332}
2333
58cccf98 2334sub loop_common {
6e90668e 2335 my $self = shift;
58cccf98 2336 my($op, $cx, $init) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2337 my $enter = $op->first;
2338 my $kid = $enter->sibling;
a0405c92
RH
2339 local(@$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'})
2340 = @$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'};
6e90668e 2341 my $head = "";
9d2c6865 2342 my $bare = 0;
58cccf98
SM
2343 my $body;
2344 my $cond = undef;
3f872cb9 2345 if ($kid->name eq "lineseq") { # bare or infinite loop
6e90668e 2346 if (is_state $kid->last) { # infinite
e99ebc55 2347 $head = "while (1) "; # Can't use for(;;) if there's a continue
58cccf98 2348 $cond = "";
9d2c6865
SM
2349 } else {
2350 $bare = 1;
6e90668e 2351 }
58cccf98 2352 $body = $kid;
3f872cb9 2353 } elsif ($enter->name eq "enteriter") { # foreach
6e90668e
SM
2354 my $ary = $enter->first->sibling; # first was pushmark
2355 my $var = $ary->sibling;
f5aa8f4e
SM
2356 if ($enter->flags & OPf_STACKED
2357 and not null $ary->first->sibling->sibling)
2358 {
d7f5b6da
SM
2359 $ary = $self->deparse($ary->first->sibling, 9) . " .. " .
2360 $self->deparse($ary->first->sibling->sibling, 9);
d8d95777
GA
2361 } else {
2362 $ary = $self->deparse($ary, 1);
2363 }
6e90668e 2364 if (null $var) {
f6f9bdb7 2365 if ($enter->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) { # thread special var
9d2c6865 2366 $var = $self->pp_threadsv($enter, 1);
f6f9bdb7 2367 } else { # regular my() variable
9d2c6865 2368 $var = $self->pp_padsv($enter, 1);
f6f9bdb7
SM
2369 if ($self->padname_sv($enter->targ)->IVX ==
2370 $kid->first->first->sibling->last->cop_seq)
2371 {
2372 # If the scope of this variable closes at the last
2373 # statement of the loop, it must have been
2374 # declared here.
2375 $var = "my " . $var;
2376 }
6e90668e 2377 }
3f872cb9 2378 } elsif ($var->name eq "rv2gv") {
9d2c6865 2379 $var = $self->pp_rv2sv($var, 1);
3f872cb9 2380 } elsif ($var->name eq "gv") {
9d2c6865 2381 $var = "\$" . $self->deparse($var, 1);
6e90668e 2382 }
9d2c6865 2383 $head = "foreach $var ($ary) ";
58cccf98 2384 $body = $kid->first->first->sibling; # skip OP_AND and OP_ITER
3f872cb9 2385 } elsif ($kid->name eq "null") { # while/until
6e90668e 2386 $kid = $kid->first;
58cccf98
SM
2387 my $name = {"and" => "while", "or" => "until"}->{$kid->name};
2388 $cond = $self->deparse($kid->first, 1);
2389 $head = "$name ($cond) ";
2390 $body = $kid->first->sibling;
3f872cb9 2391 } elsif ($kid->name eq "stub") { # bare and empty
9d2c6865 2392 return "{;}"; # {} could be a hashref
6e90668e 2393 }
58cccf98
SM
2394 # If there isn't a continue block, then the next pointer for the loop
2395 # will point to the unstack, which is kid's penultimate child, except
2396 # in a bare loop, when it will point to the leaveloop. When neither of
2397 # these conditions hold, then the third-to-last child in the continue
2398 # block (or the last in a bare loop).
2399 my $cont_start = $enter->nextop;
2400 my $cont;
c73811ab 2401 if ($$cont_start != $$op && ${$cont_start->sibling} != ${$body->last}) {
58cccf98
SM
2402 if ($bare) {
2403 $cont = $body->last;
2404 } else {
2405 $cont = $body->first;
2406 while (!null($cont->sibling->sibling->sibling)) {
2407 $cont = $cont->sibling;
2408 }
2409 }
2410 my $state = $body->first;
2411 my $cuddle = $self->{'cuddle'};
2412 my @states;
2413 for (; $$state != $$cont; $state = $state->sibling) {
2414 push @states, $state;
2415 }
ce4e655d 2416 $body = $self->lineseq(undef, @states);
58cccf98
SM
2417 if (defined $cond and not is_scope $cont and $self->{'expand'} < 3) {
2418 $head = "for ($init; $cond; " . $self->deparse($cont, 1) .") ";
2419 $cont = "\cK";
2420 } else {
2421 $cont = $cuddle . "continue {\n\t" .
2422 $self->deparse($cont, 0) . "\n\b}\cK";
6e90668e 2423 }
6e90668e 2424 } else {
7a9b44b9 2425 return "" if !defined $body;
c73811ab
RH
2426 if (length $init) {
2427 $head = "for ($init; $cond;) ";
2428 }
9d2c6865 2429 $cont = "\cK";
58cccf98 2430 $body = $self->deparse($body, 0);
6e90668e 2431 }
ce4e655d 2432 $body =~ s/;?$/;\n/;
34a48b4b
RH
2433
2434 return $head . "{\n\t" . $body . "\b}" . $cont;
58cccf98
SM
2435}
2436
2437sub pp_leaveloop { loop_common(@_, "") }
2438
2439sub for_loop {
2440 my $self = shift;
2441 my($op, $cx) = @_;
2442 my $init = $self->deparse($op, 1);
c73811ab 2443 return $self->loop_common($op->sibling->first->sibling, $cx, $init);
6e90668e
SM
2444}
2445
2446sub pp_leavetry {
2447 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2448 return "eval {\n\t" . $self->pp_leave(@_) . "\n\b}";
bd0865ec 2449}
6e90668e 2450
bd0865ec
GS
2451BEGIN { eval "sub OP_CONST () {" . opnumber("const") . "}" }
2452BEGIN { eval "sub OP_STRINGIFY () {" . opnumber("stringify") . "}" }
a9760014 2453BEGIN { eval "sub OP_RV2SV () {" . opnumber("rv2sv") . "}" }
90c0eb26 2454BEGIN { eval "sub OP_LIST () {" . opnumber("list") . "}" }
f5aa8f4e 2455
a798dbf2 2456sub pp_null {
6e90668e 2457 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2458 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 2459 if (class($op) eq "OP") {
f4a44678
SM
2460 # old value is lost
2461 return $self->{'ex_const'} if $op->targ == OP_CONST;
3f872cb9 2462 } elsif ($op->first->name eq "pushmark") {
9d2c6865 2463 return $self->pp_list($op, $cx);
3f872cb9 2464 } elsif ($op->first->name eq "enter") {
9d2c6865 2465 return $self->pp_leave($op, $cx);
bd0865ec 2466 } elsif ($op->targ == OP_STRINGIFY) {
6f611a1a 2467 return $self->dquote($op, $cx);
6e90668e 2468 } elsif (!null($op->first->sibling) and
3f872cb9 2469 $op->first->sibling->name eq "readline" and
6e90668e 2470 $op->first->sibling->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
9d2c6865
SM
2471 return $self->maybe_parens($self->deparse($op->first, 7) . " = "
2472 . $self->deparse($op->first->sibling, 7),
2473 $cx, 7);
6e90668e 2474 } elsif (!null($op->first->sibling) and
3f872cb9 2475 $op->first->sibling->name eq "trans" and
6e90668e 2476 $op->first->sibling->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
9d2c6865
SM
2477 return $self->maybe_parens($self->deparse($op->first, 20) . " =~ "
2478 . $self->deparse($op->first->sibling, 20),
2479 $cx, 20);
c102638c
RH
2480 } elsif ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL && $cx == 0 && !$op->targ) {
2481 return "do {\n\t". $self->deparse($op->first, $cx) ."\n\b};";
6e90668e 2482 } else {
9d2c6865 2483 return $self->deparse($op->first, $cx);
6e90668e 2484 }
a798dbf2
MB
2485}
2486
6e90668e
SM
2487sub padname {
2488 my $self = shift;
2489 my $targ = shift;
68223ea3 2490 return $self->padname_sv($targ)->PVX;
6e90668e
SM
2491}
2492
2493sub padany {
2494 my $self = shift;
2495 my $op = shift;
2496 return substr($self->padname($op->targ), 1); # skip $/@/%
2497}
2498
2499sub pp_padsv {
2500 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865
SM
2501 my($op, $cx) = @_;
2502 return $self->maybe_my($op, $cx, $self->padname($op->targ));
6e90668e
SM
2503}
2504
2505sub pp_padav { pp_padsv(@_) }
2506sub pp_padhv { pp_padsv(@_) }
2507
9d2c6865
SM
2508my @threadsv_names;
2509
2510BEGIN {
2511 @threadsv_names = ("_", "1", "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", "7", "8", "9",
2512 "&", "`", "'", "+", "/", ".", ",", "\\", '"', ";",
2513 "^", "-", "%", "=", "|", "~", ":", "^A", "^E",
2514 "!", "@");
2515}
f6f9bdb7
SM
2516
2517sub pp_threadsv {
2518 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865
SM
2519 my($op, $cx) = @_;
2520 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx, "\$" . $threadsv_names[$op->targ]);
f6f9bdb7
SM
2521}
2522
6f611a1a 2523sub gv_or_padgv {
18228111
GS
2524 my $self = shift;
2525 my $op = shift;
6f611a1a
GS
2526 if (class($op) eq "PADOP") {
2527 return $self->padval($op->padix);
2528 } else { # class($op) eq "SVOP"
2529 return $op->gv;
18228111 2530 }
18228111
GS
2531}
2532
6e90668e
SM
2533sub pp_gvsv {
2534 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2535 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6f611a1a 2536 my $gv = $self->gv_or_padgv($op);
8510e997
RH
2537 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx, $self->stash_variable("\$",
2538 $self->gv_name($gv)));
6e90668e
SM
2539}
2540
2541sub pp_gv {
2542 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2543 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6f611a1a 2544 my $gv = $self->gv_or_padgv($op);
18228111 2545 return $self->gv_name($gv);
6e90668e
SM
2546}
2547
2548sub pp_aelemfast {
2549 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2550 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6f611a1a 2551 my $gv = $self->gv_or_padgv($op);
ce4e655d
RH
2552 my $name = $self->gv_name($gv);
2553 $name = $self->{'curstash'}."::$name"
2554 if $name !~ /::/ && $self->lex_in_scope('@'.$name);
2555
2556 return "\$" . $name . "[" .
7a9b44b9 2557 ($op->private + $self->{'arybase'}) . "]";
6e90668e
SM
2558}
2559
2560sub rv2x {
2561 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2562 my($op, $cx, $type) = @_;
90c0eb26
RH
2563
2564 if (class($op) eq 'NULL' || !$op->can("first")) {
2565 Carp::cluck("Unexpected op in pp_rv2x");
2566 return 'XXX';
2567 }
6e90668e 2568 my $kid = $op->first;
f5aa8f4e 2569 my $str = $self->deparse($kid, 0);
8510e997
RH
2570 return $self->stash_variable($type, $str) if is_scalar($kid);
2571 return $type ."{$str}";
6e90668e
SM
2572}
2573
2574sub pp_rv2sv { maybe_local(@_, rv2x(@_, "\$")) }
2575sub pp_rv2hv { maybe_local(@_, rv2x(@_, "%")) }
2576sub pp_rv2gv { maybe_local(@_, rv2x(@_, "*")) }
2577
2578# skip rv2av
2579sub pp_av2arylen {
2580 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2581 my($op, $cx) = @_;
3f872cb9 2582 if ($op->first->name eq "padav") {
9d2c6865 2583 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx, '$#' . $self->padany($op->first));
6e90668e 2584 } else {
f5aa8f4e
SM
2585 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx,
2586 $self->rv2x($op->first, $cx, '$#'));
6e90668e
SM
2587 }
2588}
2589
2590# skip down to the old, ex-rv2cv
90c0eb26
RH
2591sub pp_rv2cv {
2592 my ($self, $op, $cx) = @_;
2593 if (!null($op->first) && $op->first->name eq 'null' &&
2594 $op->first->targ eq OP_LIST)
2595 {
2596 return $self->rv2x($op->first->first->sibling, $cx, "&")
2597 }
2598 else {
2599 return $self->rv2x($op, $cx, "")
2600 }
2601}
6e90668e
SM
2602
2603sub pp_rv2av {
2604 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2605 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 2606 my $kid = $op->first;
3f872cb9 2607 if ($kid->name eq "const") { # constant list
18228111 2608 my $av = $self->const_sv($kid);
6e90668e
SM
2609 return "(" . join(", ", map(const($_), $av->ARRAY)) . ")";
2610 } else {
9d2c6865 2611 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx, $self->rv2x($op, $cx, "\@"));
6e90668e
SM
2612 }
2613 }
2614
3ed82cfc
GS
2615sub is_subscriptable {
2616 my $op = shift;
2617 if ($op->name =~ /^[ahg]elem/) {
2618 return 1;
2619 } elsif ($op->name eq "entersub") {
2620 my $kid = $op->first;
2621 return 0 unless null $kid->sibling;
2622 $kid = $kid->first;
2623 $kid = $kid->sibling until null $kid->sibling;
2624 return 0 if is_scope($kid);
2625 $kid = $kid->first;
2626 return 0 if $kid->name eq "gv";
2627 return 0 if is_scalar($kid);
2628 return is_subscriptable($kid);
2629 } else {
2630 return 0;
2631 }
2632}
6e90668e
SM
2633
2634sub elem {
2635 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2636 my ($op, $cx, $left, $right, $padname) = @_;
6e90668e 2637 my($array, $idx) = ($op->first, $op->first->sibling);
3f872cb9 2638 unless ($array->name eq $padname) { # Maybe this has been fixed
6e90668e
SM
2639 $array = $array->first; # skip rv2av (or ex-rv2av in _53+)
2640 }
3f872cb9 2641 if ($array->name eq $padname) {
6e90668e
SM
2642 $array = $self->padany($array);
2643 } elsif (is_scope($array)) { # ${expr}[0]
9d2c6865 2644 $array = "{" . $self->deparse($array, 0) . "}";
ce4e655d
RH
2645 } elsif ($array->name eq "gv") {
2646 $array = $self->gv_name($self->gv_or_padgv($array));
2647 if ($array !~ /::/) {
2648 my $prefix = ($left eq '[' ? '@' : '%');
2649 $array = $self->{curstash}.'::'.$array
2650 if $self->lex_in_scope($prefix . $array);
2651 }
6e90668e 2652 } elsif (is_scalar $array) { # $x[0], $$x[0], ...
9d2c6865 2653 $array = $self->deparse($array, 24);
6e90668e
SM
2654 } else {
2655 # $x[20][3]{hi} or expr->[20]
3ed82cfc 2656 my $arrow = is_subscriptable($array) ? "" : "->";
9d2c6865
SM
2657 return $self->deparse($array, 24) . $arrow .
2658 $left . $self->deparse($idx, 1) . $right;
6e90668e 2659 }
9d2c6865 2660 $idx = $self->deparse($idx, 1);
7a9b44b9
RH
2661
2662 # Outer parens in an array index will confuse perl
2663 # if we're interpolating in a regular expression, i.e.
2664 # /$x$foo[(-1)]/ is *not* the same as /$x$foo[-1]/
2665 #
2666 # If $self->{parens}, then an initial '(' will
2667 # definitely be paired with a final ')'. If
2668 # !$self->{parens}, the misleading parens won't
2669 # have been added in the first place.
2670 #
2671 # [You might think that we could get "(...)...(...)"
2672 # where the initial and final parens do not match
2673 # each other. But we can't, because the above would
2674 # only happen if there's an infix binop between the
2675 # two pairs of parens, and *that* means that the whole
2676 # expression would be parenthesized as well.]
2677 #
2678 $idx =~ s/^\((.*)\)$/$1/ if $self->{'parens'};
2679
098251bc
RH
2680 # Hash-element braces will autoquote a bareword inside themselves.
2681 # We need to make sure that C<$hash{warn()}> doesn't come out as
2682 # C<$hash{warn}>, which has a quite different meaning. Currently
2683 # B::Deparse will always quote strings, even if the string was a
2684 # bareword in the original (i.e. the OPpCONST_BARE flag is ignored
2685 # for constant strings.) So we can cheat slightly here - if we see
2686 # a bareword, we know that it is supposed to be a function call.
2687 #
2688 $idx =~ s/^([A-Za-z_]\w*)$/$1()/;
2689
6e90668e
SM
2690 return "\$" . $array . $left . $idx . $right;
2691}
2692
3f872cb9
GS
2693sub pp_aelem { maybe_local(@_, elem(@_, "[", "]", "padav")) }
2694sub pp_helem { maybe_local(@_, elem(@_, "{", "}", "padhv")) }
6e90668e
SM
2695
2696sub pp_gelem {
2697 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2698 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2699 my($glob, $part) = ($op->first, $op->last);
2700 $glob = $glob->first; # skip rv2gv
3f872cb9 2701 $glob = $glob->first if $glob->name eq "rv2gv"; # this one's a bug
9d2c6865
SM
2702 my $scope = is_scope($glob);
2703 $glob = $self->deparse($glob, 0);
2704 $part = $self->deparse($part, 1);
6e90668e
SM
2705 return "*" . ($scope ? "{$glob}" : $glob) . "{$part}";
2706}
2707
2708sub slice {
2709 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2710 my ($op, $cx, $left, $right, $regname, $padname) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2711 my $last;
2712 my(@elems, $kid, $array, $list);
2713 if (class($op) eq "LISTOP") {
2714 $last = $op->last;
2715 } else { # ex-hslice inside delete()
2716 for ($kid = $op->first; !null $kid->sibling; $kid = $kid->sibling) {}
2717 $last = $kid;
2718 }
2719 $array = $last;
2720 $array = $array->first
3f872cb9 2721 if $array->name eq $regname or $array->name eq "null";
6e90668e 2722 if (is_scope($array)) {
9d2c6865 2723 $array = "{" . $self->deparse($array, 0) . "}";
3f872cb9 2724 } elsif ($array->name eq $padname) {
6e90668e
SM
2725 $array = $self->padany($array);
2726 } else {
9d2c6865 2727 $array = $self->deparse($array, 24);
6e90668e
SM
2728 }
2729 $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
3f872cb9 2730 if ($kid->name eq "list") {
6e90668e
SM
2731 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip list, pushmark
2732 for (; !null $kid; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 2733 push @elems, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
2734 }
2735 $list = join(", ", @elems);
2736 } else {
9d2c6865 2737 $list = $self->deparse($kid, 1);
6e90668e
SM
2738 }
2739 return "\@" . $array . $left . $list . $right;
2740}
2741
3ed82cfc
GS
2742sub pp_aslice { maybe_local(@_, slice(@_, "[", "]", "rv2av", "padav")) }
2743sub pp_hslice { maybe_local(@_, slice(@_, "{", "}", "rv2hv", "padhv")) }
6e90668e
SM
2744
2745sub pp_lslice {
2746 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2747 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2748 my $idx = $op->first;
2749 my $list = $op->last;
2750 my(@elems, $kid);
9d2c6865
SM
2751 $list = $self->deparse($list, 1);
2752 $idx = $self->deparse($idx, 1);
2753 return "($list)" . "[$idx]";
6e90668e
SM
2754}
2755
6e90668e
SM
2756sub want_scalar {
2757 my $op = shift;
2758 return ($op->flags & OPf_WANT) == OPf_WANT_SCALAR;
2759}
2760
bd0865ec
GS
2761sub want_list {
2762 my $op = shift;
2763 return ($op->flags & OPf_WANT) == OPf_WANT_LIST;
2764}
2765
2766sub method {
6e90668e 2767 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2768 my($op, $cx) = @_;
bd0865ec
GS
2769 my $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
2770 my($meth, $obj, @exprs);
3f872cb9 2771 if ($kid->name eq "list" and want_list $kid) {
bd0865ec
GS
2772 # When an indirect object isn't a bareword but the args are in
2773 # parens, the parens aren't part of the method syntax (the LLAFR
2774 # doesn't apply), but they make a list with OPf_PARENS set that
2775 # doesn't get flattened by the append_elem that adds the method,
2776 # making a (object, arg1, arg2, ...) list where the object
2777 # usually is. This can be distinguished from
2778 # `($obj, $arg1, $arg2)->meth()' (which is legal if $arg2 is an
2779 # object) because in the later the list is in scalar context
2780 # as the left side of -> always is, while in the former
2781 # the list is in list context as method arguments always are.
2782 # (Good thing there aren't method prototypes!)
3ed82cfc 2783 $meth = $kid->sibling;
bd0865ec
GS
2784 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
2785 $obj = $kid;
6e90668e 2786 $kid = $kid->sibling;
bd0865ec 2787 for (; not null $kid; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 2788 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e 2789 }
bd0865ec
GS
2790 } else {
2791 $obj = $kid;
2792 $kid = $kid->sibling;
90c0eb26
RH
2793 for (; !null ($kid->sibling) && $kid->name ne "method_named";
2794 $kid = $kid->sibling) {
bd0865ec 2795 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e 2796 }
3ed82cfc 2797 $meth = $kid;
bd0865ec
GS
2798 }
2799 $obj = $self->deparse($obj, 24);
3ed82cfc 2800 if ($meth->name eq "method_named") {
18228111 2801 $meth = $self->const_sv($meth)->PV;
bd0865ec 2802 } else {
3ed82cfc
GS
2803 $meth = $meth->first;
2804 if ($meth->name eq "const") {
2805 # As of 5.005_58, this case is probably obsoleted by the
2806 # method_named case above
18228111 2807 $meth = $self->const_sv($meth)->PV; # needs to be bare
3ed82cfc
GS
2808 } else {
2809 $meth = $self->deparse($meth, 1);
2810 }
bd0865ec
GS
2811 }
2812 my $args = join(", ", @exprs);
2813 $kid = $obj . "->" . $meth;
145eb477 2814 if (length $args) {
bd0865ec
GS
2815 return $kid . "(" . $args . ")"; # parens mandatory
2816 } else {
2817 return $kid;
2818 }
2819}
2820
2821# returns "&" if the prototype doesn't match the args,
2822# or ("", $args_after_prototype_demunging) if it does.
2823sub check_proto {
2824 my $self = shift;
2825 my($proto, @args) = @_;
2826 my($arg, $real);
2827 my $doneok = 0;
2828 my @reals;
2829 # An unbackslashed @ or % gobbles up the rest of the args
2830 $proto =~ s/([^\\]|^)([@%])(.*)$/$1$2/;
2831 while ($proto) {
2832 $proto =~ s/^ *([\\]?[\$\@&%*]|;)//;
2833 my $chr = $1;
2834 if ($chr eq "") {
2835 return "&" if @args;
2836 } elsif ($chr eq ";") {
2837 $doneok = 1;
2838 } elsif ($chr eq "@" or $chr eq "%") {
2839 push @reals, map($self->deparse($_, 6), @args);
2840 @args = ();
6e90668e 2841 } else {
bd0865ec
GS
2842 $arg = shift @args;
2843 last unless $arg;
2844 if ($chr eq "\$") {
2845 if (want_scalar $arg) {
2846 push @reals, $self->deparse($arg, 6);
2847 } else {
2848 return "&";
2849 }
2850 } elsif ($chr eq "&") {
3f872cb9 2851 if ($arg->name =~ /^(s?refgen|undef)$/) {
bd0865ec
GS
2852 push @reals, $self->deparse($arg, 6);
2853 } else {
2854 return "&";
2855 }
2856 } elsif ($chr eq "*") {
3f872cb9
GS
2857 if ($arg->name =~ /^s?refgen$/
2858 and $arg->first->first->name eq "rv2gv")
bd0865ec
GS
2859 {
2860 $real = $arg->first->first; # skip refgen, null
3f872cb9 2861 if ($real->first->name eq "gv") {
bd0865ec
GS
2862 push @reals, $self->deparse($real, 6);
2863 } else {
2864 push @reals, $self->deparse($real->first, 6);
2865 }
2866 } else {
2867 return "&";
2868 }
2869 } elsif (substr($chr, 0, 1) eq "\\") {
2870 $chr = substr($chr, 1);
3f872cb9 2871 if ($arg->name =~ /^s?refgen$/ and
bd0865ec
GS
2872 !null($real = $arg->first) and
2873 ($chr eq "\$" && is_scalar($real->first)
2874 or ($chr eq "\@"
3f872cb9
GS
2875 && $real->first->sibling->name
2876 =~ /^(rv2|pad)av$/)
bd0865ec 2877 or ($chr eq "%"
3f872cb9
GS
2878 && $real->first->sibling->name
2879 =~ /^(rv2|pad)hv$/)
bd0865ec 2880 #or ($chr eq "&" # This doesn't work
3f872cb9 2881 # && $real->first->name eq "rv2cv")
bd0865ec 2882 or ($chr eq "*"
3f872cb9 2883 && $real->first->name eq "rv2gv")))
bd0865ec
GS
2884 {
2885 push @reals, $self->deparse($real, 6);
2886 } else {
2887 return "&";
2888 }
2889 }
2890 }
9d2c6865 2891 }
bd0865ec
GS
2892 return "&" if $proto and !$doneok; # too few args and no `;'
2893 return "&" if @args; # too many args
2894 return ("", join ", ", @reals);
2895}
2896
2897sub pp_entersub {
2898 my $self = shift;
2899 my($op, $cx) = @_;
2900 return $self->method($op, $cx) unless null $op->first->sibling;
2901 my $prefix = "";
2902 my $amper = "";
2903 my($kid, @exprs);
90c0eb26 2904 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL && !($op->flags & OPf_MOD)) {
9d2c6865
SM
2905 $prefix = "do ";
2906 } elsif ($op->private & OPpENTERSUB_AMPER) {
2907 $amper = "&";
2908 }
2909 $kid = $op->first;
2910 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip ex-list, pushmark
2911 for (; not null $kid->sibling; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
2912 push @exprs, $kid;
2913 }
bd0865ec
GS
2914 my $simple = 0;
2915 my $proto = undef;
9d2c6865
SM
2916 if (is_scope($kid)) {
2917 $amper = "&";
2918 $kid = "{" . $self->deparse($kid, 0) . "}";
3f872cb9 2919 } elsif ($kid->first->name eq "gv") {
6f611a1a 2920 my $gv = $self->gv_or_padgv($kid->first);
9d2c6865
SM
2921 if (class($gv->CV) ne "SPECIAL") {
2922 $proto = $gv->CV->PV if $gv->CV->FLAGS & SVf_POK;
2923 }
bd0865ec 2924 $simple = 1; # only calls of named functions can be prototyped
9d2c6865 2925 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 24);
90c0eb26 2926 } elsif (is_scalar ($kid->first) && $kid->first->name ne 'rv2cv') {
9d2c6865
SM
2927 $amper = "&";
2928 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 24);
2929 } else {
2930 $prefix = "";
3ed82cfc
GS
2931 my $arrow = is_subscriptable($kid->first) ? "" : "->";
2932 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 24) . $arrow;
9d2c6865 2933 }
0ca62a8e
RH
2934
2935 # Doesn't matter how many prototypes there are, if
2936 # they haven't happened yet!
2937 my $declared = exists $self->{'subs_declared'}{$kid};
e99ebc55
RH
2938 if (!$declared && defined($proto)) {
2939 # Avoid "too early to check prototype" warning
2940 ($amper, $proto) = ('&');
2941 }
0ca62a8e 2942
bd0865ec 2943 my $args;
0ca62a8e 2944 if ($declared and defined $proto and not $amper) {
bd0865ec
GS
2945 ($amper, $args) = $self->check_proto($proto, @exprs);
2946 if ($amper eq "&") {
9d2c6865
SM
2947 $args = join(", ", map($self->deparse($_, 6), @exprs));
2948 }
2949 } else {
2950 $args = join(", ", map($self->deparse($_, 6), @exprs));
6e90668e 2951 }
9d2c6865
SM
2952 if ($prefix or $amper) {
2953 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
2954 return $prefix . $amper . $kid . "(" . $args . ")";
2955 } else {
2956 return $prefix . $amper. $kid;
2957 }
6e90668e 2958 } else {
34a48b4b 2959 # glob() invocations can be translated into calls of
d1be9408 2960 # CORE::GLOBAL::glob with a second parameter, a number.
34a48b4b
RH
2961 # Reverse this.
2962 if ($kid eq "CORE::GLOBAL::glob") {
2963 $kid = "glob";
2964 $args =~ s/\s*,[^,]+$//;
2965 }
2966
2967 # It's a syntax error to call CORE::GLOBAL::foo without a prefix,
2968 # so it must have been translated from a keyword call. Translate
2969 # it back.
2970 $kid =~ s/^CORE::GLOBAL:://;
2971
0ca62a8e
RH
2972 if (!$declared) {
2973 return "$kid(" . $args . ")";
2974 } elsif (defined $proto and $proto eq "") {
9d2c6865 2975 return $kid;
ce4e655d 2976 } elsif (defined $proto and $proto eq "\$" and is_scalar($exprs[0])) {
9d2c6865 2977 return $self->maybe_parens_func($kid, $args, $cx, 16);
6f611a1a 2978 } elsif (defined($proto) && $proto or $simple) {
9d2c6865
SM
2979 return $self->maybe_parens_func($kid, $args, $cx, 5);
2980 } else {
2981 return "$kid(" . $args . ")";
2982 }
6e90668e
SM
2983 }
2984}
2985
2986sub pp_enterwrite { unop(@_, "write") }
2987
2988# escape things that cause interpolation in double quotes,
2989# but not character escapes
2990sub uninterp {
2991 my($str) = @_;
3f766ba3 2992 $str =~ s/(^|\G|[^\\])((?:\\\\)*)([\$\@]|\\[uUlLQE])/$1$2\\$3/g;
9d2c6865
SM
2993 return $str;
2994}
2995
b7dad2dc
RH
2996{
2997my $bal;
2998BEGIN {
cdf8218f
RH
2999 use re "eval";
3000 # Matches any string which is balanced with respect to {braces}
b7dad2dc 3001 $bal = qr(
cdf8218f
RH
3002 (?:
3003 [^\\{}]
3004 | \\\\
3005 | \\[{}]
3006 | \{(??{$bal})\}
3007 )*
3008 )x;
b7dad2dc
RH
3009}
3010
3011# the same, but treat $|, $), $( and $ at the end of the string differently
3012sub re_uninterp {
3013 my($str) = @_;
cdf8218f
RH
3014
3015 $str =~ s/
3016 ( ^|\G # $1
3017 | [^\\]
3018 )
3019
3020 ( # $2
3021 (?:\\\\)*
3022 )
3023
3024 ( # $3
3025 (\(\?\??\{$bal\}\)) # $4
3026 | [\$\@]
3027 (?!\||\)|\(|$)
3028 | \\[uUlLQE]
3029 )
3030
3031 /length($4) ? "$1$2$4" : "$1$2\\$3"/xeg;
3032
6e90668e
SM
3033 return $str;
3034}
3035
b7dad2dc
RH
3036# This is for regular expressions with the /x modifier
3037# We have to leave comments unmangled.
a9760014 3038sub re_uninterp_extended {
b7dad2dc
RH
3039 my($str) = @_;
3040
3041 $str =~ s/
3042 ( ^|\G # $1
3043 | [^\\]
3044 )
3045
3046 ( # $2
3047 (?:\\\\)*
3048 )
3049
3050 ( # $3
3051 ( \(\?\??\{$bal\}\) # $4 (skip over (?{}) and (??{}) blocks)
3052 | \#[^\n]* # (skip over comments)
3053 )
3054 | [\$\@]
3055 (?!\||\)|\(|$)
3056 | \\[uUlLQE]
3057 )
3058
3059 /length($4) ? "$1$2$4" : "$1$2\\$3"/xeg;
3060
a9760014
RH
3061 return $str;
3062}
b7dad2dc 3063}
a9760014 3064
6e90668e 3065# character escapes, but not delimiters that might need to be escaped
746698c5 3066sub escape_str { # ASCII, UTF8
6e90668e 3067 my($str) = @_;
746698c5 3068 $str =~ s/(.)/ord($1)>255 ? sprintf("\\x{%x}", ord($1)) : $1/eg;
6e90668e
SM
3069 $str =~ s/\a/\\a/g;
3070# $str =~ s/\cH/\\b/g; # \b means someting different in a regex
3071 $str =~ s/\t/\\t/g;
3072 $str =~ s/\n/\\n/g;
3073 $str =~ s/\e/\\e/g;
3074 $str =~ s/\f/\\f/g;
3075 $str =~ s/\r/\\r/g;
3076 $str =~ s/([\cA-\cZ])/'\\c' . chr(ord('@') + ord($1))/ge;
3077 $str =~ s/([\0\033-\037\177-\377])/'\\' . sprintf("%03o", ord($1))/ge;
3078 return $str;
3079}
3080
b7dad2dc
RH
3081# For regexes with the /x modifier.
3082# Leave whitespace unmangled.
a9760014
RH
3083sub escape_extended_re {
3084 my($str) = @_;
3085 $str =~ s/(.)/ord($1)>255 ? sprintf("\\x{%x}", ord($1)) : $1/eg;
3086 $str =~ s/([\0\033-\037\177-\377])/'\\' . sprintf("%03o", ord($1))/ge;
3087 $str =~ s/\n/\n\f/g;
3088 return $str;
3089}
3090
9d2c6865
SM
3091# Don't do this for regexen
3092sub unback {
3093 my($str) = @_;
3094 $str =~ s/\\/\\\\/g;
3095 return $str;
3096}
3097
08c6f5ec
RH
3098# Remove backslashes which precede literal control characters,
3099# to avoid creating ambiguity when we escape the latter.
3100sub re_unback {
3101 my($str) = @_;
3102
3103 # the insane complexity here is due to the behaviour of "\c\"
3104 $str =~ s/(^|[^\\]|\\c\\)(?<!\\c)\\(\\\\)*(?=[\0-\031\177-\377])/$1$2/g;
3105 return $str;
3106}
3107
6e90668e
SM
3108sub balanced_delim {
3109 my($str) = @_;
3110 my @str = split //, $str;
3111 my($ar, $open, $close, $fail, $c, $cnt);
3112 for $ar (['[',']'], ['(',')'], ['<','>'], ['{','}']) {
3113 ($open, $close) = @$ar;
3114 $fail = 0; $cnt = 0;
3115 for $c (@str) {
3116 if ($c eq $open) {
3117 $cnt++;
3118 } elsif ($c eq $close) {
3119 $cnt--;
3120 if ($cnt < 0) {
bd0865ec 3121 # qq()() isn't ")("
6e90668e
SM
3122 $fail = 1;
3123 last;
3124 }
3125 }
3126 }
3127 $fail = 1 if $cnt != 0;
3128 return ($open, "$open$str$close") if not $fail;
3129 }
3130 return ("", $str);
3131}
3132
3133sub single_delim {
3134 my($q, $default, $str) = @_;
90be192f 3135 return "$default$str$default" if $default and index($str, $default) == -1;
6e90668e
SM
3136 my($succeed, $delim);
3137 ($succeed, $str) = balanced_delim($str);
3138 return "$q$str" if $succeed;
3139 for $delim ('/', '"', '#') {
3140 return "$q$delim" . $str . $delim if index($str, $delim) == -1;
3141 }
90be192f
SM
3142 if ($default) {
3143 $str =~ s/$default/\\$default/g;
3144 return "$default$str$default";
3145 } else {
3146 $str =~ s[/][\\/]g;
3147 return "$q/$str/";
3148 }
6e90668e
SM
3149}
3150
6e90668e
SM
3151sub const {
3152 my $sv = shift;
3153 if (class($sv) eq "SPECIAL") {
bd0865ec 3154 return ('undef', '1', '0')[$$sv-1]; # sv_undef, sv_yes, sv_no
7a9b44b9
RH
3155 } elsif (class($sv) eq "NULL") {
3156 return 'undef';
6e90668e 3157 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_IOK) {
d9963e60 3158 return $sv->int_value;
6e90668e 3159 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_NOK) {
fecea806
RH
3160 # try the default stringification
3161 my $r = "".$sv->NV;
3162 if ($r =~ /e/) {
3163 # If it's in scientific notation, we might have lost information
3164 return sprintf("%.20e", $sv->NV);
3165 }
3166 return $r;
7a9b44b9 3167 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_ROK && $sv->can("RV")) {
6e90668e 3168 return "\\(" . const($sv->RV) . ")"; # constant folded
34768ba5 3169 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_POK) {
6e90668e 3170 my $str = $sv->PV;
bd0865ec 3171 if ($str =~ /[^ -~]/) { # ASCII for non-printing
9d2c6865 3172 return single_delim("qq", '"', uninterp escape_str unback $str);
6e90668e 3173 } else {
bd0865ec 3174 return single_delim("q", "'", unback $str);
6e90668e 3175 }
34768ba5
RH
3176 } else {
3177 return "undef";
a798dbf2
MB
3178 }
3179}
3180
18228111
GS
3181sub const_sv {
3182 my $self = shift;
3183 my $op = shift;
3184 my $sv = $op->sv;
3185 # the constant could be in the pad (under useithreads)
3186 $sv = $self->padval($op->targ) unless $$sv;
3187 return $sv;
3188}
3189
6e90668e
SM
3190sub pp_const {
3191 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 3192 my($op, $cx) = @_;
7e40138b
RH
3193 if ($op->private & OPpCONST_ARYBASE) {
3194 return '$[';
3195 }
4c1f658f 3196# if ($op->private & OPpCONST_BARE) { # trouble with `=>' autoquoting
18228111 3197# return $self->const_sv($op)->PV;
6e90668e 3198# }
18228111 3199 my $sv = $self->const_sv($op);
d5ae42cc
JM
3200# return const($sv);
3201 my $c = const $sv;
76ef7183 3202 return $c =~ /^-\d/ ? $self->maybe_parens($c, $cx, 21) : $c;
6e90668e
SM
3203}
3204
3205sub dq {
3206 my $self = shift;
3207 my $op = shift;
3f872cb9
GS
3208 my $type = $op->name;
3209 if ($type eq "const") {
f3402b25
RH
3210 return '$[' if $op->private & OPpCONST_ARYBASE;
3211 return uninterp(escape_str(unback($self->const_sv($op)->as_string)));
3f872cb9 3212 } elsif ($type eq "concat") {
8fed1104
RH
3213 my $first = $self->dq($op->first);
3214 my $last = $self->dq($op->last);
44c6d2a1 3215
b7dad2dc 3216 # Disambiguate "${foo}bar", "${foo}{bar}", "${foo}[1]"
44c6d2a1
RH
3217 ($last =~ /^[A-Z\\\^\[\]_?]/ &&
3218 $first =~ s/([\$@])\^$/${1}{^}/) # "${^}W" etc
3219 || ($last =~ /^[{\[\w_]/ &&
3220 $first =~ s/([\$@])([A-Za-z_]\w*)$/${1}{$2}/);
3221
8fed1104 3222 return $first . $last;
3f872cb9 3223 } elsif ($type eq "uc") {
6e90668e 3224 return '\U' . $self->dq($op->first->sibling) . '\E';
3f872cb9 3225 } elsif ($type eq "lc") {
6e90668e 3226 return '\L' . $self->dq($op->first->sibling) . '\E';
3f872cb9 3227 } elsif ($type eq "ucfirst") {
6e90668e 3228 return '\u' . $self->dq($op->first->sibling);
3f872cb9 3229 } elsif ($type eq "lcfirst") {
6e90668e 3230 return '\l' . $self->dq($op->first->sibling);
3f872cb9 3231 } elsif ($type eq "quotemeta") {
6e90668e 3232 return '\Q' . $self->dq($op->first->sibling) . '\E';
3f872cb9 3233 } elsif ($type eq "join") {
9d2c6865 3234 return $self->deparse($op->last, 26); # was join($", @ary)
a798dbf2 3235 } else {
9d2c6865 3236 return $self->deparse($op, 26);
6e90668e
SM
3237 }
3238}
3239
3240sub pp_backtick {
3241 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 3242 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
3243 # skip pushmark
3244 return single_delim("qx", '`', $self->dq($op->first->sibling));
3245}
3246
3247sub dquote {
3248 my $self = shift;
6f611a1a 3249 my($op, $cx) = @_;
3ed82cfc
GS
3250 my $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip ex-stringify, pushmark
3251 return $self->deparse($kid, $cx) if $self->{'unquote'};
3252 $self->maybe_targmy($kid, $cx,
3253 sub {single_delim("qq", '"', $self->dq($_[1]))});
6e90668e
SM
3254}
3255
bd0865ec 3256# OP_STRINGIFY is a listop, but it only ever has one arg
3ed82cfc 3257sub pp_stringify { maybe_targmy(@_, \&dquote) }
6e90668e
SM
3258
3259# tr/// and s/// (and tr[][], tr[]//, tr###, etc)
3260# note that tr(from)/to/ is OK, but not tr/from/(to)
3261sub double_delim {
3262 my($from, $to) = @_;
3263 my($succeed, $delim);
3264 if ($from !~ m[/] and $to !~ m[/]) {
3265 return "/$from/$to/";
3266 } elsif (($succeed, $from) = balanced_delim($from) and $succeed) {
3267 if (($succeed, $to) = balanced_delim($to) and $succeed) {
3268 return "$from$to";
3269 } else {
3270 for $delim ('/', '"', '#') { # note no `'' -- s''' is special
3271 return "$from$delim$to$delim" if index($to, $delim) == -1;
3272 }
3273 $to =~ s[/][\\/]g;
3274 return "$from/$to/";
3275 }
3276 } else {
3277 for $delim ('/', '"', '#') { # note no '
3278 return "$delim$from$delim$to$delim"
3279 if index($to . $from, $delim) == -1;
3280 }
3281 $from =~ s[/][\\/]g;
3282 $to =~ s[/][\\/]g;
3283 return "/$from/$to/";
3284 }
3285}
3286
2a9e2f8a 3287# Only used by tr///, so backslashes hyphens
6e90668e
SM
3288sub pchr { # ASCII
3289 my($n) = @_;
3290 if ($n == ord '\\') {
3291 return '\\\\';
2a9e2f8a
RH
3292 } elsif ($n == ord "-") {
3293 return "\\-";
6e90668e
SM
3294 } elsif ($n >= ord(' ') and $n <= ord('~')) {
3295 return chr($n);
3296 } elsif ($n == ord "\a") {
3297 return '\\a';
3298 } elsif ($n == ord "\b") {
3299 return '\\b';
3300 } elsif ($n == ord "\t") {
3301 return '\\t';
3302 } elsif ($n == ord "\n") {
3303 return '\\n';
3304 } elsif ($n == ord "\e") {
3305 return '\\e';
3306 } elsif ($n == ord "\f") {
3307 return '\\f';
3308 } elsif ($n == ord "\r") {
3309 return '\\r';
3310 } elsif ($n >= ord("\cA") and $n <= ord("\cZ")) {
3311 return '\\c' . chr(ord("@") + $n);
3312 } else {
3313# return '\x' . sprintf("%02x", $n);
3314 return '\\' . sprintf("%03o", $n);
3315 }
3316}
3317
3318sub collapse {
3319 my(@chars) = @_;
23db111c 3320 my($str, $c, $tr) = ("");
6e90668e
SM
3321 for ($c = 0; $c < @chars; $c++) {
3322 $tr = $chars[$c];
3323 $str .= pchr($tr);
3324 if ($c <= $#chars - 2 and $chars[$c + 1] == $tr + 1 and
3325 $chars[$c + 2] == $tr + 2)
3326 {
f4a44678
SM
3327 for (; $c <= $#chars-1 and $chars[$c + 1] == $chars[$c] + 1; $c++)
3328 {}
6e90668e
SM
3329 $str .= "-";
3330 $str .= pchr($chars[$c]);
3331 }
3332 }
3333 return $str;
3334}
3335
f4a44678
SM
3336sub tr_decode_byte {
3337 my($table, $flags) = @_;
2a9e2f8a 3338 my(@table) = unpack("s*", $table);
bec89253 3339 splice @table, 0x100, 1; # Number of subsequent elements
6e90668e
SM
3340 my($c, $tr, @from, @to, @delfrom, $delhyphen);
3341 if ($table[ord "-"] != -1 and
3342 $table[ord("-") - 1] == -1 || $table[ord("-") + 1] == -1)
3343 {
3344 $tr = $table[ord "-"];
3345 $table[ord "-"] = -1;
3346 if ($tr >= 0) {
3347 @from = ord("-");
3348 @to = $tr;
3349 } else { # -2 ==> delete
3350 $delhyphen = 1;
3351 }
3352 }
2a9e2f8a 3353 for ($c = 0; $c < @table; $c++) {
6e90668e
SM
3354 $tr = $table[$c];
3355 if ($tr >= 0) {
3356 push @from, $c; push @to, $tr;
3357 } elsif ($tr == -2) {
3358 push @delfrom, $c;
3359 }
3360 }
6e90668e 3361 @from = (@from, @delfrom);
f4a44678 3362 if ($flags & OPpTRANS_COMPLEMENT) {
6e90668e
SM
3363 my @newfrom = ();
3364 my %from;
3365 @from{@from} = (1) x @from;
3366 for ($c = 0; $c < 256; $c++) {
3367 push @newfrom, $c unless $from{$c};
3368 }
3369 @from = @newfrom;
3370 }
56d8b52c 3371 unless ($flags & OPpTRANS_DELETE || !@to) {
6e90668e
SM
3372 pop @to while $#to and $to[$#to] == $to[$#to -1];
3373 }
6e90668e
SM
3374 my($from, $to);
3375 $from = collapse(@from);
3376 $to = collapse(@to);
3377 $from .= "-" if $delhyphen;
f4a44678
SM
3378 return ($from, $to);
3379}
3380
3381sub tr_chr {
3382 my $x = shift;
3383 if ($x == ord "-") {
3384 return "\\-";
2a9e2f8a
RH
3385 } elsif ($x == ord "\\") {
3386 return "\\\\";
f4a44678
SM
3387 } else {
3388 return chr $x;
3389 }
3390}
3391
3392# XXX This doesn't yet handle all cases correctly either
3393
3394sub tr_decode_utf8 {
3395 my($swash_hv, $flags) = @_;
3396 my %swash = $swash_hv->ARRAY;
3397 my $final = undef;
3398 $final = $swash{'FINAL'}->IV if exists $swash{'FINAL'};
3399 my $none = $swash{"NONE"}->IV;
3400 my $extra = $none + 1;
3401 my(@from, @delfrom, @to);
3402 my $line;
3403 foreach $line (split /\n/, $swash{'LIST'}->PV) {
3404 my($min, $max, $result) = split(/\t/, $line);
3405 $min = hex $min;
3406 if (length $max) {
3407 $max = hex $max;
3408 } else {
3409 $max = $min;
3410 }
3411 $result = hex $result;
3412 if ($result == $extra) {
3413 push @delfrom, [$min, $max];
3414 } else {
3415 push @from, [$min, $max];
3416 push @to, [$result, $result + $max - $min];
3417 }
3418 }
3419 for my $i (0 .. $#from) {
3420 if ($from[$i][0] == ord '-') {
3421 unshift @from, splice(@from, $i, 1);
3422 unshift @to, splice(@to, $i, 1);
3423 last;
3424 } elsif ($from[$i][1] == ord '-') {
3425 $from[$i][1]--;
3426 $to[$i][1]--;
3427 unshift @from, ord '-';
3428 unshift @to, ord '-';
3429 last;
3430 }
3431 }
3432 for my $i (0 .. $#delfrom) {
3433 if ($delfrom[$i][0] == ord '-') {
3434 push @delfrom, splice(@delfrom, $i, 1);
3435 last;
3436 } elsif ($delfrom[$i][1] == ord '-') {
3437 $delfrom[$i][1]--;
3438 push @delfrom, ord '-';
3439 last;
3440 }
3441 }
3442 if (defined $final and $to[$#to][1] != $final) {
3443 push @to, [$final, $final];
3444 }
3445 push @from, @delfrom;
3446 if ($flags & OPpTRANS_COMPLEMENT) {
3447 my @newfrom;
3448 my $next = 0;
3449 for my $i (0 .. $#from) {
3450 push @newfrom, [$next, $from[$i][0] - 1];
3451 $next = $from[$i][1] + 1;
3452 }
3453 @from = ();
3454 for my $range (@newfrom) {
3455 if ($range->[0] <= $range->[1]) {
3456 push @from, $range;
3457 }
3458 }
3459 }
3460 my($from, $to, $diff);
3461 for my $chunk (@from) {
3462 $diff = $chunk->[1] - $chunk->[0];
3463 if ($diff > 1) {
3464 $from .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]) . "-" . tr_chr($chunk->[1]);
3465 } elsif ($diff == 1) {
3466 $from .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]) . tr_chr($chunk->[1]);
3467 } else {
3468 $from .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]);
3469 }
3470 }
3471 for my $chunk (@to) {
3472 $diff = $chunk->[1] - $chunk->[0];
3473 if ($diff > 1) {
3474 $to .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]) . "-" . tr_chr($chunk->[1]);
3475 } elsif ($diff == 1) {
3476 $to .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]) . tr_chr($chunk->[1]);
3477 } else {
3478 $to .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]);
3479 }
3480 }
3481 #$final = sprintf("%04x", $final) if defined $final;
3482 #$none = sprintf("%04x", $none) if defined $none;
3483 #$extra = sprintf("%04x", $extra) if defined $extra;
3484 #print STDERR "final: $final\n none: $none\nextra: $extra\n";
3485 #print STDERR $swash{'LIST'}->PV;
3486 return (escape_str($from), escape_str($to));
3487}
3488
3489sub pp_trans {
3490 my $self = shift;
3491 my($op, $cx) = @_;
3492 my($from, $to);
3493 if (class($op) eq "PVOP") {
3494 ($from, $to) = tr_decode_byte($op->pv, $op->private);
3495 } else { # class($op) eq "SVOP"
3496 ($from, $to) = tr_decode_utf8($op->sv->RV, $op->private);
3497 }
3498 my $flags = "";
3499 $flags .= "c" if $op->private & OPpTRANS_COMPLEMENT;
3500 $flags .= "d" if $op->private & OPpTRANS_DELETE;
3501 $to = "" if $from eq $to and $flags eq "";
3502 $flags .= "s" if $op->private & OPpTRANS_SQUASH;
6e90668e
SM
3503 return "tr" . double_delim($from, $to) . $flags;
3504}
3505
3506# Like dq(), but different
3507sub re_dq {
3508 my $self = shift;
a9760014
RH
3509 my ($op, $extended) = @_;
3510
3f872cb9
GS
3511 my $type = $op->name;
3512 if ($type eq "const") {
f3402b25 3513 return '$[' if $op->private & OPpCONST_ARYBASE;
a9760014
RH
3514 my $unbacked = re_unback($self->const_sv($op)->as_string);
3515 return re_uninterp_extended(escape_extended_re($unbacked))
3516 if $extended;
3517 return re_uninterp(escape_str($unbacked));
3f872cb9 3518 } elsif ($type eq "concat") {
a9760014
RH
3519 my $first = $self->re_dq($op->first, $extended);
3520 my $last = $self->re_dq($op->last, $extended);
b73b7152 3521
a0e66df8 3522 # Disambiguate "${foo}bar", "${foo}{bar}", "${foo}[1]"
b73b7152
JH
3523 ($last =~ /^[A-Z\\\^\[\]_?]/ &&
3524 $first =~ s/([\$@])\^$/${1}{^}/) # "${^}W" etc
3525 || ($last =~ /^[{\[\w_]/ &&
3526 $first =~ s/([\$@])([A-Za-z_]\w*)$/${1}{$2}/);
3527
a0e66df8 3528 return $first . $last;
3f872cb9 3529 } elsif ($type eq "uc") {
a9760014 3530 return '\U' . $self->re_dq($op->first->sibling, $extended) . '\E';
3f872cb9 3531 } elsif ($type eq "lc") {
a9760014 3532 return '\L' . $self->re_dq($op->first->sibling, $extended) . '\E';
3f872cb9 3533 } elsif ($type eq "ucfirst") {
a9760014 3534 return '\u' . $self->re_dq($op->first->sibling, $extended);
3f872cb9 3535 } elsif ($type eq "lcfirst") {
a9760014 3536 return '\l' . $self->re_dq($op->first->sibling, $extended);
3f872cb9 3537 } elsif ($type eq "quotemeta") {
a9760014 3538 return '\Q' . $self->re_dq($op->first->sibling, $extended) . '\E';
3f872cb9 3539 } elsif ($type eq "join") {
9d2c6865 3540 return $self->deparse($op->last, 26); # was join($", @ary)
6e90668e 3541 } else {
9d2c6865 3542 return $self->deparse($op, 26);
6e90668e
SM
3543 }
3544}
3545
a9760014
RH
3546sub pure_string {
3547 my ($self, $op) = @_;
3548 my $type = $op->name;
3549
3550 if ($type eq 'const') {
3551 return 1;
3552 }
3553 elsif ($type =~ /^[ul]c(first)?$/ || $type eq 'quotemeta') {
3554 return $self->pure_string($op->first->sibling);
3555 }
3556 elsif ($type eq 'join') {
3557 my $join_op = $op->first->sibling; # Skip pushmark
3558 return 0 unless $join_op->name eq 'null' && $join_op->targ eq OP_RV2SV;
3559
3560 my $gvop = $join_op->first;
3561 return 0 unless $gvop->name eq 'gvsv';
3562 return 0 unless '"' eq $self->gv_name($self->gv_or_padgv($gvop));
3563
3564 return 0 unless ${$join_op->sibling} eq ${$op->last};
3565 return 0 unless $op->last->name =~ /^(rv2|pad)av$/;
3566 }
3567 elsif ($type eq 'concat') {
3568 return $self->pure_string($op->first)
3569 && $self->pure_string($op->last);
3570 }
3571 elsif (is_scalar($op) || $type =~ /^[ah]elem(fast)?$/) {
3572 return 1;
3573 }
3574 else {
3575 return 0;
3576 }
3577
3578 return 1;
3579}
3580
3581sub regcomp {
6e90668e 3582 my $self = shift;
a9760014 3583 my($op, $cx, $extended) = @_;
6e90668e 3584 my $kid = $op->first;
3f872cb9
GS
3585 $kid = $kid->first if $kid->name eq "regcmaybe";
3586 $kid = $kid->first if $kid->name eq "regcreset";
a9760014
RH
3587 return ($self->re_dq($kid, $extended), 1) if $self->pure_string($kid);
3588 return ($self->deparse($kid, $cx), 0);
3589}
3590
3591sub pp_regcomp {
3592 my ($self, $op, $cx) = @_;
3593 return (($self->regcomp($op, $cx, 0))[0]);
6e90668e
SM
3594}
3595
6e90668e
SM
3596# osmic acid -- see osmium tetroxide
3597
3598my %matchwords;
3599map($matchwords{join "", sort split //, $_} = $_, 'cig', 'cog', 'cos', 'cogs',
3600 'cox', 'go', 'is', 'ism', 'iso', 'mig', 'mix', 'osmic', 'ox', 'sic',
3601 'sig', 'six', 'smog', 'so', 'soc', 'sog', 'xi');
3602
90be192f 3603sub matchop {
6e90668e 3604 my $self = shift;
90be192f 3605 my($op, $cx, $name, $delim) = @_;
6e90668e 3606 my $kid = $op->first;
9d2c6865 3607 my ($binop, $var, $re) = ("", "", "");
6e90668e 3608 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
9d2c6865
SM
3609 $binop = 1;
3610 $var = $self->deparse($kid, 20);
6e90668e
SM
3611 $kid = $kid->sibling;
3612 }
a9760014
RH
3613 my $quote = 1;
3614 my $extended = ($op->pmflags & PMf_EXTENDED);
6e90668e 3615 if (null $kid) {
a9760014
RH
3616 my $unbacked = re_unback($op->precomp);
3617 if ($extended) {
3618 $re = re_uninterp_extended(escape_extended_re($unbacked));
3619 } else {
3620 $re = re_uninterp(escape_str(re_unback($op->precomp)));
3621 }
3622 } elsif ($kid->name ne 'regcomp') {
3623 Carp::cluck("found ".$kid->name." where regcomp expected");
6e90668e 3624 } else {
a9760014 3625 ($re, $quote) = $self->regcomp($kid, 1, $extended);
6e90668e
SM
3626 }
3627 my $flags = "";
3628 $flags .= "c" if $op->pmflags & PMf_CONTINUE;
3629 $flags .= "g" if $op->pmflags & PMf_GLOBAL;
3630 $flags .= "i" if $op->pmflags & PMf_FOLD;
3631 $flags .= "m" if $op->pmflags & PMf_MULTILINE;
3632