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1=encoding utf8
2
f8109d5c 3=for comment XXX
e1165778 4This has been completed up to e57c1822.
59773fc7 5
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6=head1 NAME
7
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8perldelta - what is new for perl v5.13.8
9
10=head1 DESCRIPTION
11
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12This document describes differences between the 5.13.7 release and
13the 5.13.8 release.
3a5c9134 14
dbbe2d83 15If you are upgrading from an earlier release such as 5.13.6, first read
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16L<perl5137delta>, which describes differences between 5.13.6 and
175.13.7.
18
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19=head1 Core Enhancements
20
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21=head2 C<-d:-foo> calls C<Devel::foo::unimport>
22
23The syntax C<-dI<B<:>foo>> was extended in 5.6.1 to make C<-dI<:fooB<=bar>>>
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24equivalent to C<-MDevel::foo=bar>, which expands
25internally to C<use Devel::foo 'bar';>.
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26F<perl> now allows prefixing the module name with C<->, with the same
27semantics as C<-M>, I<i.e.>
28
29=over 4
30
31=item C<-d:-foo>
32
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33Equivalent to C<-M-Devel::foo>, expands to
34C<no Devel::foo;>, calls C<< Devel::foo->unimport() >>
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35if the method exists.
36
37=item C<-d:-foo=bar>
38
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39Equivalent to C<-M-Devel::foo=bar>, expands to C<no Devel::foo 'bar';>,
40calls C<< Devel::foo->unimport('bar') >> if the method exists.
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41
42=back
43
44This is particularly useful to suppresses the default actions of a
45C<Devel::*> module's C<import> method whilst still loading it for debugging.
46
f8109d5c 47=head2 Filehandle method calls load L<IO::File> on demand
15e6cdd9 48
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49When a method call on a filehandle would die because the method cannot
50be resolved, and L<IO::File> has not been loaded, Perl now loads L<IO::File>
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51via C<require> and attempts method resolution again:
52
53 open my $fh, ">", $file;
54 $fh->binmode(":raw"); # loads IO::File and succeeds
55
56This also works for globs like STDOUT, STDERR and STDIN:
57
58 STDOUT->autoflush(1);
59
60Because this on-demand load only happens if method resolution fails, the
f8109d5c 61legacy approach of manually loading an L<IO::File> parent class for partial
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62method support still works as expected:
63
64 use IO::Handle;
65 open my $fh, ">", $file;
66 $fh->autoflush(1); # IO::File not loaded
67
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68=head2 Full functionality for C<use feature 'unicode_strings'>
69
70This release provides full functionality for C<use feature
71'unicode_strings'>. Under its scope, all string operations executed and
72regular expressions compiled (even if executed outside its scope) have
f8109d5c 73Unicode semantics. See L<feature>.
20db7501 74
f8109d5c 75This feature avoids most forms of the "Unicode Bug" (See
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76L<perlunicode/The "Unicode Bug"> for details.) If their is a
77possibility that your code will process Unicode strings, you are
78B<strongly> encouraged to use this subpragma to avoid nasty surprises.
79
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80This availability of this should strongly affect the whole tone of
81various documents, such as L<perlunicode> and L<perluniintro>, but this
82work has not been done yet.
83
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84=head2 Exception Handling Backcompat Hack
85
86When an exception is thrown in an C<eval BLOCK>, C<$@> is now set before
87unwinding, as well as being set after unwinding as the eval block exits. This
88early setting supports code that has historically treated C<$@> during unwinding
89as an indicator of whether the unwinding was due to an exception. These modules
90had been broken by 5.13.1's change from setting C<$@> early to setting it late.
91This double setting arrangement is a stopgap until the reason for unwinding can
92be made properly introspectable. C<$@> has never been a reliable indicator of
f8109d5c 93the reason for unwinding.
ee076ba5 94
f8109d5c 95=head2 printf-like functions understand post-1980 size modifiers
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96
97Perl's printf and sprintf operators, and Perl's internal printf replacement
98function, now understand the C90 size modifiers "hh" (C<char>), "z"
99(C<size_t>), and "t" (C<ptrdiff_t>). Also, when compiled with a C99
100compiler, Perl now understands the size modifier "j" (C<intmax_t>).
101
102So, for example, on any modern machine, C<sprintf('%hhd', 257)> returns '1'.
103
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104=head2 DTrace probes now include package name
105
106The DTrace probes now include an additional argument (C<arg3>) which contains
107the package the subroutine being entered or left was compiled in.
108
109For example using the following DTrace script:
110
111 perl$target:::sub-entry
112 {
113 printf("%s::%s\n", copyinstr(arg0), copyinstr(arg3));
114 }
115
116and then running:
117
118 perl -e'sub test { }; test'
119
120DTrace will print:
121
122 main::test
123
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124=head2 Stacked labels
125
126Multiple statement labels can now appear before a single statement.
127
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128=head1 Incompatible Changes
129
f8109d5c 130=head2 C<:=> is now a syntax error
3a5c9134 131
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132Previously C<my $pi := 4;> was exactly equivalent to C<my $pi : = 4;>,
133with the C<:> being treated as the start of an attribute list, ending before
134the C<=>. The use of C<:=> to mean C<: => was deprecated in 5.12.0, and is now
135a syntax error. This will allow the future use of C<:=> as a new token.
3a5c9134 136
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137We find no Perl 5 code on CPAN using this construction, outside the core's
138tests for it, so we believe that this change will have very little impact on
139real-world codebases.
140
141If it is absolutely necessary to have empty attribute lists (for example,
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142because of a code generator) then avoid the error by adding a space before
143the C<=>.
3a5c9134 144
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145=head2 Run-time code block in regular expressions
146
147Code blocks in regular expressions (C<(?{...})> and C<(??{...})>) used not
148to inherit any pragmata (strict, warnings, etc.) if the regular expression
149was compiled at run time as happens in cases like these two:
150
151 use re 'eval';
152 $foo =~ $bar; # when $bar contains (?{...})
153 $foo =~ /$bar(?{ $finished = 1 })/;
154
155This was a bug, which has now been fixed. But it has the potential to break
156any code that was relying on this bug.
157
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158=head1 Deprecations
159
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160=head2 C<?PATTERN?> is deprecated
161
162C<?PATTERN?> (without the initial m) has been deprecated and now produces
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163a warning. This is to allow future use of C<?> in new operators.
164The match-once functionality is still available in the form of C<m?PATTERN?>.
59773fc7 165
f8109d5c 166=head2 C<sv_compile_2op()> is now deprecated
d59a8b3e 167
f8109d5c 168The C<sv_compile_2op()> API function is now deprecated. Searches suggest
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169that nothing on CPAN is using it, so this should have zero impact.
170
171It attempted to provide an API to compile code down to an optree, but failed
172to bind correctly to lexicals in the enclosing scope. It's not possible to
173fix this problem within the constraints of its parameters and return value.
174
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175=head2 Tie functions on scalars holding typeglobs
176
177Calling a tie function (C<tie>, C<tied>, C<untie>) with a scalar argument
178acts on a file handle if the scalar happens to hold a typeglob.
179
180This is a long-standing bug that will be removed in Perl 5.16, as
181there is currently no way to tie the scalar itself when it holds
182a typeglob, and no way to untie a scalar that has had a typeglob
183assigned to it.
184
185This bug was fixed in 5.13.7 but, because of the breakage it caused, the
186fix has been reverted. Now there is a deprecation warning whenever a tie
187function is used on a handle without an explicit C<*>.
188
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189=head1 Modules and Pragmata
190
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191=head2 Updated Modules and Pragmata
192
193=over 4
194
195=item *
196
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197C<Archive::Tar> has been upgraded from version 1.72 to 1.74.
198
199=item *
200
201C<autodie> has been upgraded from version 2.10 to 2.1001.
202
203=item *
204
205C<B> has been upgraded from version 1.26 to 1.27.
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206
207=item *
208
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209C<B::Concise> has been upgraded from version 0.81 to 0.82.
210
211It no longer produces mangled output with the C<-tree> option
212L<[perl #80632]|http://rt.perl.org/rt3/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=80632>.
213
214=item *
215
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216C<B::Deparse> has been upgraded from version 1.01 to 1.02.
217
218=item *
219
220C<Cwd> has been upgraded from version 3.34 to 3.35.
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221
222=item *
223
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224C<Data::Dumper> has been upgraded from version 2.130_01 to 2.130_02.
225
226=item *
227
228C<Devel::Peek> has been upgraded from version 1.05 to 1.06.
229
230=item *
0a178734 231
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232C<Devel::SelfStubber> has been upgraded from version 1.03 to 1.05.
233
234=item *
235
236C<Digest::SHA> has been upgraded from 5.48 to 5.50.
237
f8109d5c 238C<shasum> now more closely mimics C<sha1sum>/C<md5sum>, and C<Addfile>
0a178734 239accepts all POSIX filenames.
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240
241=item *
242
243C<Dumpvalue> has been upgraded from version 1.14 to 1.15.
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244
245=item *
246
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247C<DynaLoader> has been upgraded from version 1.11 to 1.12.
248
249=item *
250
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251C<Env> has been upgraded from version 1.01 to 1.02.
252
253=item *
254
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255C<ExtUtils::CBuilder> has been upgraded from 0.2703 to 0.280201.
256
257=item *
258
259C<ExtUtils::Constant> has been upgraded from 0.02 to 0.03.
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260
261=item *
262
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263C<ExtUtils::Embed> has been upgraded from 1.29 to 1.30.
264
265=item *
266
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267C<ExtUtils::ParseXS> has been upgraded from 2.2207 to 2.2208.
268
269=item *
270
271C<Fcntl> has been upgraded from 1.10 to 1.11.
272
273=item *
274
275C<feature> has been upgraded from 1.18 to 1.19.
276
277=item *
278
279C<File::CheckTree> has been upgraded from 4.4 to 4.41.
280
281=item *
282
283C<File::Glob> has been upgraded from 1.10 to 1.11.
284
285=item *
286
287C<GDBM_File> has been upgraded from 1.12 to 1.13.
288
289=item *
290
291C<Hash::Util::FieldHash> has been upgraded from 1.06 to 1.07.
292
293=item *
294
295C<I18N::Collate> has been upgraded from 1.01 to 1.02.
296
297=item *
298
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299C<if> has been upgraded from 0.06 to 0.0601.
300
301=item *
302
e1165778 303C<IO> has been upgraded from 1.25_02 to 1.25_03.
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304
305=item *
306
e1165778 307C<IPC::Cmd> has been upgraded from 0.64 to 0.66.
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308
309Resolves an issue with splitting Win32 command lines
310and documentation enhancements.
311
312=item *
313
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314C<IPC::Open3> has been upgraded from 1.07 to 1.08.
315
316=item *
317
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318C<Locale::Codes> has been upgraded from version 3.14 to 3.15.
319
320=item *
321
322C<Math::BigInt> has been upgraded from 1.99_01 to 1.99_02.
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323
324=item *
325
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326C<Memoize> has been upgraded from version 1.01_03 to 1.02.
327
328=item *
329
e1165778 330C<MIME::Base64> has been upgraded from 3.10 to 3.13.
2456140e 331
f8109d5c 332Now provides C<encode_base64url> and C<decode_base64url> functions to process
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333the base64 scheme for "URL applications".
334
335=item *
336
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337C<mro> has been upgraded from version 1.05 to 1.06.
338
339C<next::method> I<et al.> now take into account that every class inherits
340from UNIVERSAL
341L<[perl #68654]|http://rt.perl.org/rt3/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=68654>.
342
343=item *
344
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345C<NDBM_File> has been upgraded from 1.10 to 1.11.
346
347=item *
348
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349C<Net::Ping> has been upgraded from 2.36 to 2.37.
350
351=item *
352
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353C<ODBM_File> has been upgraded from 1.09 to 1.10.
354
355=item *
356
357C<Opcode> has been upgraded from 1.17 to 1.18.
358
359=item *
360
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361C<overload> has been upgraded from 1.11 to 1.12.
362
363=item *
364
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365C<PerlIO::encoding> has been upgraded from 0.13 to 0.14.
366
367=item *
368
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369C<PerlIO::scalar> has been upgraded from 0.10 to 0.11.
370
371A C<read> after a C<seek> beyond the end of the string no longer thinks it
372has data to read
373L<[perl #78716]|http://rt.perl.org/rt3/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=78716>.
374
375=item *
376
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377C<PerlIO::via> has been upgraded from 0.10 to 0.11.
378
379=item *
380
381C<POSIX> has been upgraded from 1.22 to 1.23.
382
383=item *
384
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385C<re> has been upgraded from 0.14 to 0.15.
386
387=item *
388
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389C<SDBM_File> has been upgraded from 1.08 to 1.09.
390
391=item *
392
5ebfb99c 393C<Socket> has been upgraded from 1.91 to 1.92.
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394
395It has several new functions for handling IPv6 addresses.
396
397=item *
398
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399C<Storable> has been upgraded from 2.24 to 2.25.
400
401This adds support for serialising code references that contain UTF-8 strings
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402correctly. The Storable minor version number changed as a result, meaning that
403Storable users who set C<$Storable::accept_future_minor> to a C<FALSE> value
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404will see errors (see L<Storable/FORWARD COMPATIBILITY> for more details).
405
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406Freezing no longer gets confused if the Perl stack gets reallocated
407during freezing
408L<[perl #80074]|http://rt.perl.org/rt3/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=80074>.
409
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410=item *
411
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412C<threads> has been upgraded from 1.81_02 to 1.81_03.
413
414=item *
415
416C<threads::shared> has been upgraded from 1.34 to 1.35.
417
418=item *
419
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420C<Time::HiRes> has been upgraded from 1.9721 to 1.9721_01.
421
422=item *
423
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424C<Unicode::Collate> has been upgraded from 0.67 to 0.6801.
425
426=item *
427
428C<Unicode::Normalize> has been upgraded from 1.07 to 1.08.
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429
430=item *
431
59773fc7 432C<Unicode::UCD> has been upgraded from 0.29 to 0.30.
3a5c9134 433
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434=item *
435
436C<version> has been upgraded from 0.82 to 0.86.
437
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438=item *
439
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440C<Win32> has been upgraded from 0.39 to 0.41.
441
442=item *
443
444C<XS::APItest> has been upgraded from 0.26 to 0.27.
e6f1cc4d 445
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446=back
447
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448=head2 Dual-life Modules and Pragmata
449
450These modules were formerly distributed only in the Perl core
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451distribution, and are now dual-lifed (meaning they are now also available
452separately on CPAN):
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453
454=over 4
455
456=item *
457
458C<autouse>
459
460=item *
461
f8109d5c 462C<Devel::SelfStubber>
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463
464=item *
465
466C<Dumpvalue>
467
468=item *
469
470C<Env>
471
472=item *
473
f8109d5c 474C<File::CheckTree>
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475
476=item *
477
f8109d5c 478C<I18N::Collate>
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479
480=back
481
482=head1 Diagnostics
483
484The following additions or changes have been made to diagnostic output,
485including warnings and fatal error messages. For the complete list of
486diagnostic messages, see L<perldiag>.
487
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488=head2 New Diagnostics
489
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490=over 4
491
492=item *
493
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494There is a new "Closure prototype called" error
495L<[perl #68560]|http://rt.perl.org/rt3/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=68560>.
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496
497=back
498
499=head2 Changes to Existing Diagnostics
500
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501=over 4
502
503=item *
504
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505The "Found = in conditional" warning that is emitted when a constant is
506assigned to a variable in a condition is now withheld if the constant is
507actually a subroutine or one generated by C<use constant>, since the value
508of the constant may not be known at the time the program is written
509L<[perl #77762]|http://rt.perl.org/rt3/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=77762>.
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510
511=back
512
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513=head1 Configuration and Compilation
514
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515=over 4
516
517=item *
518
51bed910
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519The C<Encode> module can now (once again) be included in a static Perl
520build. The special-case handling for this situation got broken in Perl
5215.11.0, and has now been repaired.
522
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523=back
524
525=head1 Testing
526
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527=over 4
528
529=item *
530
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531Tests for C<Fcntl>, C<File::Glob>, C<GDBM_File>, C<IPC::Open3>,
532C<NDBM_File>, C<ODBM_File>, C<Opcode>, C<PerlIO::encoding>, C<SDBM_File>,
533and C<Storable> now use the L<Test::More> framework.
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534
535=back
536
537=head1 Platform Support
538
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539=head2 Platform-Specific Notes
540
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541=over 4
542
085d0904 543=item NetBSD
3a5c9134 544
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545The NetBSD hints file has been changed to make the system's malloc the
546default.
3a5c9134 547
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548=item Windows
549
550The option to use an externally-supplied C<crypt()>, or to build with no
551C<crypt()> at all, has been removed. Perl supplies its own C<crypt()>
552implementation for Windows, and the political situation that required
553this part of the distribution to sometimes be omitted is long gone.
554
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555=back
556
557=head1 Internal Changes
558
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559=over 4
560
561=item *
562
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563The C<mg_findext()> and C<sv_unmagicext()> functions have been added to the API.
564They allow extension authors to find and remove magic attached to
833f1b93 565scalars based on both the magic type and the magic virtual table, similar to how
f8109d5c 566C<sv_magicext()> attaches magic of a certain type and with a given virtual table
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567to a scalar. This eliminates the need for extensions to walk the list of
568C<MAGIC> pointers of an C<SV> to find the magic that belongs to them.
3a5c9134 569
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570=item *
571
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572The C<parse_fullexpr()>, C<parse_listexpr()>, C<parse_termexpr()> and
573C<parse_arithexpr()> functions have been added to the API. They perform
574recursive-descent parsing of expressions at various precedence levels.
575They are expected to be used by syntax plugins.
c61b6d0f 576
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577=back
578
579=head1 Selected Bug Fixes
580
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581=over 4
582
583=item *
584
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585C<BEGIN {require 5.12.0}> now behaves as documented, rather than behaving
586identically to C<use 5.12.0;>. Previously, C<require> in a C<BEGIN> block
587was erroneously executing the C<use feature ':5.12.0'> and
588C<use strict; use warnings;> behaviour, which only C<use> was documented to
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589provide
590L<[perl #69050]|http://rt.perl.org/rt3/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=69050>.
591
592=item *
593
594C<use 5.42>
595L<[perl #69050]|http://rt.perl.org/rt3/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=69050>,
596C<use 6> and C<no 5> no longer leak memory.
597
598=item *
599
600C<eval "BEGIN{die}"> no longer leaks memory on non-threaded builds.
3a5c9134 601
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602=item *
603
604PerlIO no longer crashes when called recursively, e.g., from a signal
605handler. Now it just leaks memory
606L<[perl #75556]|http://rt.perl.org/rt3/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=75556>.
607
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608=item *
609
610Defining a constant with the same name as one of perl's special blocks
611(e.g., INIT) stopped working in 5.12.0, but has now been fixed
612L<[perl #78634]|http://rt.perl.org/rt3/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=78634>.
613
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614=item *
615
616A reference to a literal value used as a hash key (C<$hash{\"foo"}>) used
617to be stringified, even if the hash was tied
618L<[perl #79178]|http://rt.perl.org/rt3/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=79178>.
619
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620=item *
621
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622A closure containing an C<if> statement followed by a constant or variable
623is no longer treated as a constant
624L<[perl #63540]|http://rt.perl.org/rt3/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=63540>.
625
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626=item *
627
628Calling a closure prototype (what is passed to an attribute handler for a
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629closure) now results in a "Closure prototype called" error message instead
630of a crash
4d4ca6a5
FC
631L<[perl #68560]|http://rt.perl.org/rt3/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=68560>.
632
085d0904
FC
633=item *
634
635A regular expression optimisation would sometimes cause a match with a
636C<{n,m}> quantifier to fail when it should match
637L<[perl #79152]|http://rt.perl.org/rt3/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=79152>.
638
20db7501
KW
639=item *
640
f8109d5c 641What has become known as the "Unicode Bug" is mostly resolved in this release.
20db7501
KW
642Under C<use feature 'unicode_strings'>, the internal storage format of a
643string no longer affects the external semantics. There are two known
644exceptions. User-defined case changing functions, which are planned to
645be deprecated in 5.14, require utf8-encoded strings to function; and the
646character C<LATIN SMALL LETTER SHARP S> in regular expression
647case-insensitive matching has a somewhat different set of bugs depending
648on the internal storage format. Case-insensitive matching of all
649characters that have multi-character matches, as this one does, is
650problematical in Perl.
651L<[perl #58182]|http://rt.perl.org/rt3/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=58182>.
652
70bfa48a
FC
653=item *
654
655Mentioning a read-only lexical variable from the enclosing scope in a
f8109d5c 656string C<eval> no longer causes the variable to become writable
70bfa48a
FC
657L<[perl #19135]|http://rt.perl.org/rt3/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=19135>.
658
f853e70a
FC
659=item *
660
661C<state> can now be used with attributes. It used to mean the same thing as
662C<my> if attributes were present
663L<[perl #68658]|http://rt.perl.org/rt3/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=68658>.
664
37079308
FC
665=item *
666
667Expressions like C<< @$a > 3 >> no longer cause C<$a> to be mentioned in
668the "Use of uninitialized value in numeric gt" warning when C<$a> is
669undefined (since it is not part of the C<E<gt>> expression, but the operand
670of the C<@>)
671L<[perl #72090]|http://rt.perl.org/rt3/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=72090>.
672
4c9d53d5
FC
673=item *
674
675C<require> no longer causes C<caller> to return the wrong file name for
676the scope that called C<require> and other scopes higher up that had the
677same file name
678L<[perl #68712]|http://rt.perl.org/rt3/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=68712>.
679
0c7420e7
FC
680=item *
681
7cdf3308 682The ref types in the typemap for XS bindings now support magical variables
0c7420e7
FC
683L<[perl #72684]|http://rt.perl.org/rt3/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=72684>.
684
460c4bfb
FC
685=item *
686
687Match variables (e.g., C<$1>) no longer persist between calls to a sort
688subroutine
689L<[perl #76026]|http://rt.perl.org/rt3/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=76026>.
690
26de4ac8
FC
691=item *
692
f8109d5c 693The C<B> module was returning C<B::OP>s instead of C<B::LOGOP>s for C<entertry>
26de4ac8 694L<[perl #80622]|http://rt.perl.org/rt3/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=80622>.
26de4ac8
FC
695This was due to a bug in the perl core, not in C<B> itself.
696
ab7fb400
FC
697=item *
698
699Some numeric operators were converting integers to floating point,
700resulting in loss of precision on 64-bit platforms
701L<[perl #77456]|http://rt.perl.org/rt3/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=77456>.
702
836d5805
Z
703=item *
704
705The fallback behaviour of overloading on binary operators was asymmetric
706L<[perl #71286]|http://rt.perl.org/rt3/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=71286>.
707
3a5c9134
CBW
708=back
709
3a5c9134
CBW
710=head1 Acknowledgements
711
712XXX The list of people to thank goes here.
713
714=head1 Reporting Bugs
715
716If you find what you think is a bug, you might check the articles
717recently posted to the comp.lang.perl.misc newsgroup and the perl
718bug database at http://rt.perl.org/perlbug/ . There may also be
719information at http://www.perl.org/ , the Perl Home Page.
720
721If you believe you have an unreported bug, please run the L<perlbug>
722program included with your release. Be sure to trim your bug down
723to a tiny but sufficient test case. Your bug report, along with the
724output of C<perl -V>, will be sent off to perlbug@perl.org to be
725analysed by the Perl porting team.
726
727If the bug you are reporting has security implications, which make it
728inappropriate to send to a publicly archived mailing list, then please send
729it to perl5-security-report@perl.org. This points to a closed subscription
730unarchived mailing list, which includes all the core committers, who be able
731to help assess the impact of issues, figure out a resolution, and help
732co-ordinate the release of patches to mitigate or fix the problem across all
733platforms on which Perl is supported. Please only use this address for
734security issues in the Perl core, not for modules independently
735distributed on CPAN.
736
737=head1 SEE ALSO
738
739The F<Changes> file for an explanation of how to view exhaustive details
740on what changed.
741
742The F<INSTALL> file for how to build Perl.
743
744The F<README> file for general stuff.
745
746The F<Artistic> and F<Copying> files for copyright information.
747
748=cut