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more accurate require() pseudocode (from James P. Williams
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perlfunc - Perl builtin functions
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7The functions in this section can serve as terms in an expression.
8They fall into two major categories: list operators and named unary
9operators. These differ in their precedence relationship with a
10following comma. (See the precedence table in L<perlop>.) List
11operators take more than one argument, while unary operators can never
12take more than one argument. Thus, a comma terminates the argument of
13a unary operator, but merely separates the arguments of a list
14operator. A unary operator generally provides a scalar context to its
2b5ab1e7 15argument, while a list operator may provide either scalar or list
a0d0e21e 16contexts for its arguments. If it does both, the scalar arguments will
5f05dabc 17be first, and the list argument will follow. (Note that there can ever
0f31cffe 18be only one such list argument.) For instance, splice() has three scalar
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19arguments followed by a list, whereas gethostbyname() has four scalar
20arguments.
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21
22In the syntax descriptions that follow, list operators that expect a
23list (and provide list context for the elements of the list) are shown
24with LIST as an argument. Such a list may consist of any combination
25of scalar arguments or list values; the list values will be included
26in the list as if each individual element were interpolated at that
27point in the list, forming a longer single-dimensional list value.
28Elements of the LIST should be separated by commas.
29
30Any function in the list below may be used either with or without
31parentheses around its arguments. (The syntax descriptions omit the
5f05dabc 32parentheses.) If you use the parentheses, the simple (but occasionally
19799a22 33surprising) rule is this: It I<looks> like a function, therefore it I<is> a
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34function, and precedence doesn't matter. Otherwise it's a list
35operator or unary operator, and precedence does matter. And whitespace
36between the function and left parenthesis doesn't count--so you need to
37be careful sometimes:
38
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39 print 1+2+4; # Prints 7.
40 print(1+2) + 4; # Prints 3.
41 print (1+2)+4; # Also prints 3!
42 print +(1+2)+4; # Prints 7.
43 print ((1+2)+4); # Prints 7.
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44
45If you run Perl with the B<-w> switch it can warn you about this. For
46example, the third line above produces:
47
48 print (...) interpreted as function at - line 1.
49 Useless use of integer addition in void context at - line 1.
50
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51A few functions take no arguments at all, and therefore work as neither
52unary nor list operators. These include such functions as C<time>
53and C<endpwent>. For example, C<time+86_400> always means
54C<time() + 86_400>.
55
a0d0e21e 56For functions that can be used in either a scalar or list context,
54310121 57nonabortive failure is generally indicated in a scalar context by
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58returning the undefined value, and in a list context by returning the
59null list.
60
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61Remember the following important rule: There is B<no rule> that relates
62the behavior of an expression in list context to its behavior in scalar
63context, or vice versa. It might do two totally different things.
a0d0e21e 64Each operator and function decides which sort of value it would be most
2b5ab1e7 65appropriate to return in scalar context. Some operators return the
5a964f20 66length of the list that would have been returned in list context. Some
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67operators return the first value in the list. Some operators return the
68last value in the list. Some operators return a count of successful
69operations. In general, they do what you want, unless you want
70consistency.
71
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72An named array in scalar context is quite different from what would at
73first glance appear to be a list in scalar context. You can't get a list
74like C<(1,2,3)> into being in scalar context, because the compiler knows
75the context at compile time. It would generate the scalar comma operator
76there, not the list construction version of the comma. That means it
77was never a list to start with.
78
79In general, functions in Perl that serve as wrappers for system calls
f86cebdf 80of the same name (like chown(2), fork(2), closedir(2), etc.) all return
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81true when they succeed and C<undef> otherwise, as is usually mentioned
82in the descriptions below. This is different from the C interfaces,
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83which return C<-1> on failure. Exceptions to this rule are C<wait>,
84C<waitpid>, and C<syscall>. System calls also set the special C<$!>
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85variable on failure. Other functions do not, except accidentally.
86
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87=head2 Perl Functions by Category
88
89Here are Perl's functions (including things that look like
5a964f20 90functions, like some keywords and named operators)
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91arranged by category. Some functions appear in more
92than one place.
93
94=over
95
96=item Functions for SCALARs or strings
97
22fae026 98C<chomp>, C<chop>, C<chr>, C<crypt>, C<hex>, C<index>, C<lc>, C<lcfirst>,
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99C<length>, C<oct>, C<ord>, C<pack>, C<q/STRING/>, C<qq/STRING/>, C<reverse>,
100C<rindex>, C<sprintf>, C<substr>, C<tr///>, C<uc>, C<ucfirst>, C<y///>
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101
102=item Regular expressions and pattern matching
103
ab4f32c2 104C<m//>, C<pos>, C<quotemeta>, C<s///>, C<split>, C<study>, C<qr//>
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105
106=item Numeric functions
107
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108C<abs>, C<atan2>, C<cos>, C<exp>, C<hex>, C<int>, C<log>, C<oct>, C<rand>,
109C<sin>, C<sqrt>, C<srand>
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110
111=item Functions for real @ARRAYs
112
22fae026 113C<pop>, C<push>, C<shift>, C<splice>, C<unshift>
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114
115=item Functions for list data
116
ab4f32c2 117C<grep>, C<join>, C<map>, C<qw/STRING/>, C<reverse>, C<sort>, C<unpack>
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118
119=item Functions for real %HASHes
120
22fae026 121C<delete>, C<each>, C<exists>, C<keys>, C<values>
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122
123=item Input and output functions
124
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125C<binmode>, C<close>, C<closedir>, C<dbmclose>, C<dbmopen>, C<die>, C<eof>,
126C<fileno>, C<flock>, C<format>, C<getc>, C<print>, C<printf>, C<read>,
127C<readdir>, C<rewinddir>, C<seek>, C<seekdir>, C<select>, C<syscall>,
128C<sysread>, C<sysseek>, C<syswrite>, C<tell>, C<telldir>, C<truncate>,
129C<warn>, C<write>
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130
131=item Functions for fixed length data or records
132
22fae026 133C<pack>, C<read>, C<syscall>, C<sysread>, C<syswrite>, C<unpack>, C<vec>
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134
135=item Functions for filehandles, files, or directories
136
22fae026 137C<-I<X>>, C<chdir>, C<chmod>, C<chown>, C<chroot>, C<fcntl>, C<glob>,
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138C<ioctl>, C<link>, C<lstat>, C<mkdir>, C<open>, C<opendir>,
139C<readlink>, C<rename>, C<rmdir>, C<stat>, C<symlink>, C<umask>,
140C<unlink>, C<utime>
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141
142=item Keywords related to the control flow of your perl program
143
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144C<caller>, C<continue>, C<die>, C<do>, C<dump>, C<eval>, C<exit>,
145C<goto>, C<last>, C<next>, C<redo>, C<return>, C<sub>, C<wantarray>
cb1a09d0 146
54310121 147=item Keywords related to scoping
cb1a09d0 148
22fae026 149C<caller>, C<import>, C<local>, C<my>, C<package>, C<use>
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150
151=item Miscellaneous functions
152
22fae026
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153C<defined>, C<dump>, C<eval>, C<formline>, C<local>, C<my>, C<reset>,
154C<scalar>, C<undef>, C<wantarray>
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155
156=item Functions for processes and process groups
157
22fae026 158C<alarm>, C<exec>, C<fork>, C<getpgrp>, C<getppid>, C<getpriority>, C<kill>,
ab4f32c2 159C<pipe>, C<qx/STRING/>, C<setpgrp>, C<setpriority>, C<sleep>, C<system>,
22fae026 160C<times>, C<wait>, C<waitpid>
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161
162=item Keywords related to perl modules
163
22fae026 164C<do>, C<import>, C<no>, C<package>, C<require>, C<use>
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165
166=item Keywords related to classes and object-orientedness
167
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168C<bless>, C<dbmclose>, C<dbmopen>, C<package>, C<ref>, C<tie>, C<tied>,
169C<untie>, C<use>
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170
171=item Low-level socket functions
172
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173C<accept>, C<bind>, C<connect>, C<getpeername>, C<getsockname>,
174C<getsockopt>, C<listen>, C<recv>, C<send>, C<setsockopt>, C<shutdown>,
175C<socket>, C<socketpair>
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176
177=item System V interprocess communication functions
178
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179C<msgctl>, C<msgget>, C<msgrcv>, C<msgsnd>, C<semctl>, C<semget>, C<semop>,
180C<shmctl>, C<shmget>, C<shmread>, C<shmwrite>
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181
182=item Fetching user and group info
183
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184C<endgrent>, C<endhostent>, C<endnetent>, C<endpwent>, C<getgrent>,
185C<getgrgid>, C<getgrnam>, C<getlogin>, C<getpwent>, C<getpwnam>,
186C<getpwuid>, C<setgrent>, C<setpwent>
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187
188=item Fetching network info
189
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190C<endprotoent>, C<endservent>, C<gethostbyaddr>, C<gethostbyname>,
191C<gethostent>, C<getnetbyaddr>, C<getnetbyname>, C<getnetent>,
192C<getprotobyname>, C<getprotobynumber>, C<getprotoent>,
193C<getservbyname>, C<getservbyport>, C<getservent>, C<sethostent>,
194C<setnetent>, C<setprotoent>, C<setservent>
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195
196=item Time-related functions
197
22fae026 198C<gmtime>, C<localtime>, C<time>, C<times>
cb1a09d0 199
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200=item Functions new in perl5
201
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202C<abs>, C<bless>, C<chomp>, C<chr>, C<exists>, C<formline>, C<glob>,
203C<import>, C<lc>, C<lcfirst>, C<map>, C<my>, C<no>, C<prototype>, C<qx>,
204C<qw>, C<readline>, C<readpipe>, C<ref>, C<sub*>, C<sysopen>, C<tie>,
205C<tied>, C<uc>, C<ucfirst>, C<untie>, C<use>
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206
207* - C<sub> was a keyword in perl4, but in perl5 it is an
5a964f20 208operator, which can be used in expressions.
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209
210=item Functions obsoleted in perl5
211
22fae026 212C<dbmclose>, C<dbmopen>
37798a01 213
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214=back
215
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216=head2 Portability
217
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218Perl was born in Unix and can therefore access all common Unix
219system calls. In non-Unix environments, the functionality of some
220Unix system calls may not be available, or details of the available
221functionality may differ slightly. The Perl functions affected
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222by this are:
223
224C<-X>, C<binmode>, C<chmod>, C<chown>, C<chroot>, C<crypt>,
225C<dbmclose>, C<dbmopen>, C<dump>, C<endgrent>, C<endhostent>,
226C<endnetent>, C<endprotoent>, C<endpwent>, C<endservent>, C<exec>,
227C<fcntl>, C<flock>, C<fork>, C<getgrent>, C<getgrgid>, C<gethostent>,
228C<getlogin>, C<getnetbyaddr>, C<getnetbyname>, C<getnetent>,
229C<getppid>, C<getprgp>, C<getpriority>, C<getprotobynumber>,
230C<getprotoent>, C<getpwent>, C<getpwnam>, C<getpwuid>,
231C<getservbyport>, C<getservent>, C<getsockopt>, C<glob>, C<ioctl>,
232C<kill>, C<link>, C<lstat>, C<msgctl>, C<msgget>, C<msgrcv>,
2b5ab1e7 233C<msgsnd>, C<open>, C<pipe>, C<readlink>, C<rename>, C<select>, C<semctl>,
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234C<semget>, C<semop>, C<setgrent>, C<sethostent>, C<setnetent>,
235C<setpgrp>, C<setpriority>, C<setprotoent>, C<setpwent>,
236C<setservent>, C<setsockopt>, C<shmctl>, C<shmget>, C<shmread>,
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237C<shmwrite>, C<socket>, C<socketpair>, C<stat>, C<symlink>, C<syscall>,
238C<sysopen>, C<system>, C<times>, C<truncate>, C<umask>, C<unlink>,
239C<utime>, C<wait>, C<waitpid>
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240
241For more information about the portability of these functions, see
242L<perlport> and other available platform-specific documentation.
243
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244=head2 Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions
245
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246=over 8
247
22fae026 248=item I<-X> FILEHANDLE
a0d0e21e 249
22fae026 250=item I<-X> EXPR
a0d0e21e 251
22fae026 252=item I<-X>
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253
254A file test, where X is one of the letters listed below. This unary
255operator takes one argument, either a filename or a filehandle, and
256tests the associated file to see if something is true about it. If the
7660c0ab 257argument is omitted, tests C<$_>, except for C<-t>, which tests STDIN.
19799a22 258Unless otherwise documented, it returns C<1> for true and C<''> for false, or
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259the undefined value if the file doesn't exist. Despite the funny
260names, precedence is the same as any other named unary operator, and
261the argument may be parenthesized like any other unary operator. The
262operator may be any of:
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263X<-r>X<-w>X<-x>X<-o>X<-R>X<-W>X<-X>X<-O>X<-e>X<-z>X<-s>X<-f>X<-d>X<-l>X<-p>
264X<-S>X<-b>X<-c>X<-t>X<-u>X<-g>X<-k>X<-T>X<-B>X<-M>X<-A>X<-C>
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265
266 -r File is readable by effective uid/gid.
267 -w File is writable by effective uid/gid.
268 -x File is executable by effective uid/gid.
269 -o File is owned by effective uid.
270
271 -R File is readable by real uid/gid.
272 -W File is writable by real uid/gid.
273 -X File is executable by real uid/gid.
274 -O File is owned by real uid.
275
276 -e File exists.
277 -z File has zero size.
54310121 278 -s File has nonzero size (returns size).
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279
280 -f File is a plain file.
281 -d File is a directory.
282 -l File is a symbolic link.
9c4d0f16 283 -p File is a named pipe (FIFO), or Filehandle is a pipe.
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284 -S File is a socket.
285 -b File is a block special file.
286 -c File is a character special file.
287 -t Filehandle is opened to a tty.
288
289 -u File has setuid bit set.
290 -g File has setgid bit set.
291 -k File has sticky bit set.
292
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293 -T File is an ASCII text file.
294 -B File is a "binary" file (opposite of -T).
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295
296 -M Age of file in days when script started.
297 -A Same for access time.
298 -C Same for inode change time.
299
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300Example:
301
302 while (<>) {
303 chop;
304 next unless -f $_; # ignore specials
5a964f20 305 #...
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306 }
307
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308The interpretation of the file permission operators C<-r>, C<-R>,
309C<-w>, C<-W>, C<-x>, and C<-X> is by default based solely on the mode
310of the file and the uids and gids of the user. There may be other
311reasons you can't actually read, write, or execute the file. Such
312reasons may be for example network filesystem access controls, ACLs
313(access control lists), read-only filesystems, and unrecognized
314executable formats.
315
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316Also note that, for the superuser on the local filesystems, the C<-r>,
317C<-R>, C<-w>, and C<-W> tests always return 1, and C<-x> and C<-X> return 1
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318if any execute bit is set in the mode. Scripts run by the superuser
319may thus need to do a stat() to determine the actual mode of the file,
2b5ab1e7 320or temporarily set their effective uid to something else.
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321
322If you are using ACLs, there is a pragma called C<filetest> that may
323produce more accurate results than the bare stat() mode bits.
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324When under the C<use filetest 'access'> the above-mentioned filetests
325will test whether the permission can (not) be granted using the
468541a8 326access() family of system calls. Also note that the C<-x> and C<-X> may
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327under this pragma return true even if there are no execute permission
328bits set (nor any extra execute permission ACLs). This strangeness is
329due to the underlying system calls' definitions. Read the
330documentation for the C<filetest> pragma for more information.
331
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332Note that C<-s/a/b/> does not do a negated substitution. Saying
333C<-exp($foo)> still works as expected, however--only single letters
334following a minus are interpreted as file tests.
335
336The C<-T> and C<-B> switches work as follows. The first block or so of the
337file is examined for odd characters such as strange control codes or
5a964f20 338characters with the high bit set. If too many strange characters (E<gt>30%)
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339are found, it's a C<-B> file, otherwise it's a C<-T> file. Also, any file
340containing null in the first block is considered a binary file. If C<-T>
341or C<-B> is used on a filehandle, the current stdio buffer is examined
19799a22 342rather than the first block. Both C<-T> and C<-B> return true on a null
54310121 343file, or a file at EOF when testing a filehandle. Because you have to
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344read a file to do the C<-T> test, on most occasions you want to use a C<-f>
345against the file first, as in C<next unless -f $file && -T $file>.
a0d0e21e 346
19799a22 347If any of the file tests (or either the C<stat> or C<lstat> operators) are given
28757baa 348the special filehandle consisting of a solitary underline, then the stat
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349structure of the previous file test (or stat operator) is used, saving
350a system call. (This doesn't work with C<-t>, and you need to remember
351that lstat() and C<-l> will leave values in the stat structure for the
352symbolic link, not the real file.) Example:
353
354 print "Can do.\n" if -r $a || -w _ || -x _;
355
356 stat($filename);
357 print "Readable\n" if -r _;
358 print "Writable\n" if -w _;
359 print "Executable\n" if -x _;
360 print "Setuid\n" if -u _;
361 print "Setgid\n" if -g _;
362 print "Sticky\n" if -k _;
363 print "Text\n" if -T _;
364 print "Binary\n" if -B _;
365
366=item abs VALUE
367
54310121 368=item abs
bbce6d69 369
a0d0e21e 370Returns the absolute value of its argument.
7660c0ab 371If VALUE is omitted, uses C<$_>.
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372
373=item accept NEWSOCKET,GENERICSOCKET
374
f86cebdf 375Accepts an incoming socket connect, just as the accept(2) system call
19799a22 376does. Returns the packed address if it succeeded, false otherwise.
2b5ab1e7 377See the example in L<perlipc/"Sockets: Client/Server Communication">.
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378
379=item alarm SECONDS
380
54310121 381=item alarm
bbce6d69 382
a0d0e21e 383Arranges to have a SIGALRM delivered to this process after the
bbce6d69 384specified number of seconds have elapsed. If SECONDS is not specified,
7660c0ab 385the value stored in C<$_> is used. (On some machines,
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386unfortunately, the elapsed time may be up to one second less than you
387specified because of how seconds are counted.) Only one timer may be
388counting at once. Each call disables the previous timer, and an
7660c0ab 389argument of C<0> may be supplied to cancel the previous timer without
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390starting a new one. The returned value is the amount of time remaining
391on the previous timer.
392
4633a7c4 393For delays of finer granularity than one second, you may use Perl's
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394four-argument version of select() leaving the first three arguments
395undefined, or you might be able to use the C<syscall> interface to
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396access setitimer(2) if your system supports it. The Time::HiRes module
397from CPAN may also prove useful.
398
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399It is usually a mistake to intermix C<alarm> and C<sleep> calls.
400(C<sleep> may be internally implemented in your system with C<alarm>)
a0d0e21e 401
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402If you want to use C<alarm> to time out a system call you need to use an
403C<eval>/C<die> pair. You can't rely on the alarm causing the system call to
f86cebdf 404fail with C<$!> set to C<EINTR> because Perl sets up signal handlers to
19799a22 405restart system calls on some systems. Using C<eval>/C<die> always works,
5a964f20 406modulo the caveats given in L<perlipc/"Signals">.
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407
408 eval {
f86cebdf 409 local $SIG{ALRM} = sub { die "alarm\n" }; # NB: \n required
36477c24 410 alarm $timeout;
ff68c719 411 $nread = sysread SOCKET, $buffer, $size;
36477c24 412 alarm 0;
ff68c719 413 };
ff68c719 414 if ($@) {
f86cebdf 415 die unless $@ eq "alarm\n"; # propagate unexpected errors
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416 # timed out
417 }
418 else {
419 # didn't
420 }
421
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422=item atan2 Y,X
423
424Returns the arctangent of Y/X in the range -PI to PI.
425
7660c0ab 426For the tangent operation, you may use the C<POSIX::tan()>
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427function, or use the familiar relation:
428
429 sub tan { sin($_[0]) / cos($_[0]) }
430
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431=item bind SOCKET,NAME
432
433Binds a network address to a socket, just as the bind system call
19799a22 434does. Returns true if it succeeded, false otherwise. NAME should be a
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435packed address of the appropriate type for the socket. See the examples in
436L<perlipc/"Sockets: Client/Server Communication">.
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437
438=item binmode FILEHANDLE
439
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440Arranges for FILEHANDLE to be read or written in "binary" mode on
441systems whose run-time libraries force the programmer to guess
442between binary and text files. If FILEHANDLE is an expression, the
443value is taken as the name of the filehandle. binmode() should be
444called after the C<open> but before any I/O is done on the filehandle.
445The only way to reset binary mode on a filehandle is to reopen the
446file.
447
448The operating system, device drivers, C libraries, and Perl run-time
449system all conspire to let the programmer conveniently treat a
450simple, one-byte C<\n> as the line terminator, irrespective of its
451external representation. On Unix and its brethren, the native file
452representation exactly matches the internal representation, making
453everyone's lives unbelievably simpler. Consequently, L<binmode>
454has no effect under Unix, Plan9, or Mac OS, all of which use C<\n>
455to end each line. (Unix and Plan9 think C<\n> means C<\cJ> and
456C<\r> means C<\cM>, whereas the Mac goes the other way--it uses
457C<\cM> for c<\n> and C<\cJ> to mean C<\r>. But that's ok, because
458it's only one byte, and the internal and external representations
459match.)
460
461In legacy systems like MS-DOS and its embellishments, your program
462sees a C<\n> as a simple C<\cJ> (just as in Unix), but oddly enough,
463that's not what's physically stored on disk. What's worse, these
464systems refuse to help you with this; it's up to you to remember
465what to do. And you mustn't go applying binmode() with wild abandon,
466either, because if your system does care about binmode(), then using
467it when you shouldn't is just as perilous as failing to use it when
468you should.
469
470That means that on any version of Microsoft WinXX that you might
471care to name (or not), binmode() causes C<\cM\cJ> sequences on disk
472to be converted to C<\n> when read into your program, and causes
473any C<\n> in your program to be converted back to C<\cM\cJ> on
474output to disk. This sad discrepancy leads to no end of
475problems in not just the readline operator, but also when using
476seek(), tell(), and read() calls. See L<perlport> for other painful
477details. See the C<$/> and C<$\> variables in L<perlvar> for how
478to manually set your input and output line-termination sequences.
a0d0e21e 479
4633a7c4 480=item bless REF,CLASSNAME
a0d0e21e
LW
481
482=item bless REF
483
2b5ab1e7
TC
484This function tells the thingy referenced by REF that it is now an object
485in the CLASSNAME package. If CLASSNAME is omitted, the current package
19799a22 486is used. Because a C<bless> is often the last thing in a constructor,
2b5ab1e7
TC
487it returns the reference for convenience. Always use the two-argument
488version if the function doing the blessing might be inherited by a
489derived class. See L<perltoot> and L<perlobj> for more about the blessing
490(and blessings) of objects.
a0d0e21e 491
57668c4d 492Consider always blessing objects in CLASSNAMEs that are mixed case.
2b5ab1e7
TC
493Namespaces with all lowercase names are considered reserved for
494Perl pragmata. Builtin types have all uppercase names, so to prevent
495confusion, you may wish to avoid such package names as well. Make sure
496that CLASSNAME is a true value.
60ad88b8
GS
497
498See L<perlmod/"Perl Modules">.
499
a0d0e21e
LW
500=item caller EXPR
501
502=item caller
503
5a964f20 504Returns the context of the current subroutine call. In scalar context,
28757baa 505returns the caller's package name if there is a caller, that is, if
19799a22 506we're in a subroutine or C<eval> or C<require>, and the undefined value
5a964f20 507otherwise. In list context, returns
a0d0e21e 508
748a9306 509 ($package, $filename, $line) = caller;
a0d0e21e
LW
510
511With EXPR, it returns some extra information that the debugger uses to
512print a stack trace. The value of EXPR indicates how many call frames
513to go back before the current one.
514
f3aa04c2
GS
515 ($package, $filename, $line, $subroutine, $hasargs,
516 $wantarray, $evaltext, $is_require, $hints) = caller($i);
e7ea3e70 517
19799a22
GS
518Here $subroutine may be C<"(eval)"> if the frame is not a subroutine
519call, but an C<eval>. In such a case additional elements $evaltext and
7660c0ab 520C<$is_require> are set: C<$is_require> is true if the frame is created by a
19799a22 521C<require> or C<use> statement, $evaltext contains the text of the
dc848c6f 522C<eval EXPR> statement. In particular, for a C<eval BLOCK> statement,
19799a22 523$filename is C<"(eval)">, but $evaltext is undefined. (Note also that
dc848c6f 524each C<use> statement creates a C<require> frame inside an C<eval EXPR>)
f3aa04c2
GS
525frame. C<$hints> contains pragmatic hints that the caller was
526compiled with. It currently only reflects the hint corresponding to
527C<use utf8>.
748a9306
LW
528
529Furthermore, when called from within the DB package, caller returns more
7660c0ab 530detailed information: it sets the list variable C<@DB::args> to be the
54310121 531arguments with which the subroutine was invoked.
748a9306 532
7660c0ab 533Be aware that the optimizer might have optimized call frames away before
19799a22 534C<caller> had a chance to get the information. That means that C<caller(N)>
7660c0ab 535might not return information about the call frame you expect it do, for
19799a22
GS
536C<N E<gt> 1>. In particular, C<@DB::args> might have information from the
537previous time C<caller> was called.
7660c0ab 538
a0d0e21e
LW
539=item chdir EXPR
540
2b5ab1e7 541Changes the working directory to EXPR, if possible. If EXPR is omitted,
19799a22
GS
542changes to the user's home directory. Returns true upon success,
543false otherwise. See the example under C<die>.
a0d0e21e
LW
544
545=item chmod LIST
546
547Changes the permissions of a list of files. The first element of the
4633a7c4 548list must be the numerical mode, which should probably be an octal
2f9daede
TPG
549number, and which definitely should I<not> a string of octal digits:
550C<0644> is okay, C<'0644'> is not. Returns the number of files
dc848c6f 551successfully changed. See also L</oct>, if all you have is a string.
a0d0e21e
LW
552
553 $cnt = chmod 0755, 'foo', 'bar';
554 chmod 0755, @executables;
f86cebdf
GS
555 $mode = '0644'; chmod $mode, 'foo'; # !!! sets mode to
556 # --w----r-T
2f9daede
TPG
557 $mode = '0644'; chmod oct($mode), 'foo'; # this is better
558 $mode = 0644; chmod $mode, 'foo'; # this is best
a0d0e21e
LW
559
560=item chomp VARIABLE
561
562=item chomp LIST
563
564=item chomp
565
2b5ab1e7
TC
566This safer version of L</chop> removes any trailing string
567that corresponds to the current value of C<$/> (also known as
28757baa
PP
568$INPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR in the C<English> module). It returns the total
569number of characters removed from all its arguments. It's often used to
570remove the newline from the end of an input record when you're worried
2b5ab1e7
TC
571that the final record may be missing its newline. When in paragraph
572mode (C<$/ = "">), it removes all trailing newlines from the string.
4c5a6083
GS
573When in slurp mode (C<$/ = undef>) or fixed-length record mode (C<$/> is
574a reference to an integer or the like, see L<perlvar>) chomp() won't
19799a22
GS
575remove anything.
576If VARIABLE is omitted, it chomps C<$_>. Example:
a0d0e21e
LW
577
578 while (<>) {
579 chomp; # avoid \n on last field
580 @array = split(/:/);
5a964f20 581 # ...
a0d0e21e
LW
582 }
583
584You can actually chomp anything that's an lvalue, including an assignment:
585
586 chomp($cwd = `pwd`);
587 chomp($answer = <STDIN>);
588
589If you chomp a list, each element is chomped, and the total number of
590characters removed is returned.
591
592=item chop VARIABLE
593
594=item chop LIST
595
596=item chop
597
598Chops off the last character of a string and returns the character
599chopped. It's used primarily to remove the newline from the end of an
600input record, but is much more efficient than C<s/\n//> because it neither
7660c0ab 601scans nor copies the string. If VARIABLE is omitted, chops C<$_>.
a0d0e21e
LW
602Example:
603
604 while (<>) {
605 chop; # avoid \n on last field
606 @array = split(/:/);
5a964f20 607 #...
a0d0e21e
LW
608 }
609
610You can actually chop anything that's an lvalue, including an assignment:
611
612 chop($cwd = `pwd`);
613 chop($answer = <STDIN>);
614
615If you chop a list, each element is chopped. Only the value of the
19799a22 616last C<chop> is returned.
a0d0e21e 617
19799a22 618Note that C<chop> returns the last character. To return all but the last
748a9306
LW
619character, use C<substr($string, 0, -1)>.
620
a0d0e21e
LW
621=item chown LIST
622
623Changes the owner (and group) of a list of files. The first two
19799a22
GS
624elements of the list must be the I<numeric> uid and gid, in that
625order. A value of -1 in either position is interpreted by most
626systems to leave that value unchanged. Returns the number of files
627successfully changed.
a0d0e21e
LW
628
629 $cnt = chown $uid, $gid, 'foo', 'bar';
630 chown $uid, $gid, @filenames;
631
54310121 632Here's an example that looks up nonnumeric uids in the passwd file:
a0d0e21e
LW
633
634 print "User: ";
19799a22 635 chomp($user = <STDIN>);
5a964f20 636 print "Files: ";
19799a22 637 chomp($pattern = <STDIN>);
a0d0e21e
LW
638
639 ($login,$pass,$uid,$gid) = getpwnam($user)
640 or die "$user not in passwd file";
641
5a964f20 642 @ary = glob($pattern); # expand filenames
a0d0e21e
LW
643 chown $uid, $gid, @ary;
644
54310121 645On most systems, you are not allowed to change the ownership of the
4633a7c4
LW
646file unless you're the superuser, although you should be able to change
647the group to any of your secondary groups. On insecure systems, these
648restrictions may be relaxed, but this is not a portable assumption.
19799a22
GS
649On POSIX systems, you can detect this condition this way:
650
651 use POSIX qw(sysconf _PC_CHOWN_RESTRICTED);
652 $can_chown_giveaway = not sysconf(_PC_CHOWN_RESTRICTED);
4633a7c4 653
a0d0e21e
LW
654=item chr NUMBER
655
54310121 656=item chr
bbce6d69 657
a0d0e21e 658Returns the character represented by that NUMBER in the character set.
a0ed51b3 659For example, C<chr(65)> is C<"A"> in either ASCII or Unicode, and
2b5ab1e7
TC
660chr(0x263a) is a Unicode smiley face (but only within the scope of
661a C<use utf8>). For the reverse, use L</ord>.
662See L<utf8> for more about Unicode.
a0d0e21e 663
7660c0ab 664If NUMBER is omitted, uses C<$_>.
bbce6d69 665
a0d0e21e
LW
666=item chroot FILENAME
667
54310121 668=item chroot
bbce6d69 669
5a964f20 670This function works like the system call by the same name: it makes the
4633a7c4 671named directory the new root directory for all further pathnames that
7660c0ab 672begin with a C<"/"> by your process and all its children. (It doesn't
28757baa 673change your current working directory, which is unaffected.) For security
4633a7c4 674reasons, this call is restricted to the superuser. If FILENAME is
19799a22 675omitted, does a C<chroot> to C<$_>.
a0d0e21e
LW
676
677=item close FILEHANDLE
678
6a518fbc
TP
679=item close
680
19799a22 681Closes the file or pipe associated with the file handle, returning true
a0d0e21e 682only if stdio successfully flushes buffers and closes the system file
19799a22 683descriptor. Closes the currently selected filehandle if the argument
6a518fbc 684is omitted.
fb73857a
PP
685
686You don't have to close FILEHANDLE if you are immediately going to do
19799a22
GS
687another C<open> on it, because C<open> will close it for you. (See
688C<open>.) However, an explicit C<close> on an input file resets the line
689counter (C<$.>), while the implicit close done by C<open> does not.
fb73857a 690
19799a22
GS
691If the file handle came from a piped open C<close> will additionally
692return false if one of the other system calls involved fails or if the
fb73857a 693program exits with non-zero status. (If the only problem was that the
2b5ab1e7
TC
694program exited non-zero C<$!> will be set to C<0>.) Closing a pipe
695also waits for the process executing on the pipe to complete, in case you
696want to look at the output of the pipe afterwards, and
697implicitly puts the exit status value of that command into C<$?>.
5a964f20 698
73689b13
GS
699Prematurely closing the read end of a pipe (i.e. before the process
700writing to it at the other end has closed it) will result in a
701SIGPIPE being delivered to the writer. If the other end can't
702handle that, be sure to read all the data before closing the pipe.
703
fb73857a 704Example:
a0d0e21e 705
fb73857a
PP
706 open(OUTPUT, '|sort >foo') # pipe to sort
707 or die "Can't start sort: $!";
5a964f20 708 #... # print stuff to output
fb73857a
PP
709 close OUTPUT # wait for sort to finish
710 or warn $! ? "Error closing sort pipe: $!"
711 : "Exit status $? from sort";
712 open(INPUT, 'foo') # get sort's results
713 or die "Can't open 'foo' for input: $!";
a0d0e21e 714
5a964f20
TC
715FILEHANDLE may be an expression whose value can be used as an indirect
716filehandle, usually the real filehandle name.
a0d0e21e
LW
717
718=item closedir DIRHANDLE
719
19799a22 720Closes a directory opened by C<opendir> and returns the success of that
5a964f20
TC
721system call.
722
723DIRHANDLE may be an expression whose value can be used as an indirect
724dirhandle, usually the real dirhandle name.
a0d0e21e
LW
725
726=item connect SOCKET,NAME
727
728Attempts to connect to a remote socket, just as the connect system call
19799a22 729does. Returns true if it succeeded, false otherwise. NAME should be a
4633a7c4
LW
730packed address of the appropriate type for the socket. See the examples in
731L<perlipc/"Sockets: Client/Server Communication">.
a0d0e21e 732
cb1a09d0
AD
733=item continue BLOCK
734
735Actually a flow control statement rather than a function. If there is a
98293880
JH
736C<continue> BLOCK attached to a BLOCK (typically in a C<while> or
737C<foreach>), it is always executed just before the conditional is about to
738be evaluated again, just like the third part of a C<for> loop in C. Thus
cb1a09d0
AD
739it can be used to increment a loop variable, even when the loop has been
740continued via the C<next> statement (which is similar to the C C<continue>
741statement).
742
98293880 743C<last>, C<next>, or C<redo> may appear within a C<continue>
19799a22
GS
744block. C<last> and C<redo> will behave as if they had been executed within
745the main block. So will C<next>, but since it will execute a C<continue>
1d2dff63
GS
746block, it may be more entertaining.
747
748 while (EXPR) {
749 ### redo always comes here
750 do_something;
751 } continue {
752 ### next always comes here
753 do_something_else;
754 # then back the top to re-check EXPR
755 }
756 ### last always comes here
757
758Omitting the C<continue> section is semantically equivalent to using an
19799a22 759empty one, logically enough. In that case, C<next> goes directly back
1d2dff63
GS
760to check the condition at the top of the loop.
761
a0d0e21e
LW
762=item cos EXPR
763
5a964f20 764Returns the cosine of EXPR (expressed in radians). If EXPR is omitted,
7660c0ab 765takes cosine of C<$_>.
a0d0e21e 766
7660c0ab 767For the inverse cosine operation, you may use the C<POSIX::acos()>
28757baa
PP
768function, or use this relation:
769
770 sub acos { atan2( sqrt(1 - $_[0] * $_[0]), $_[0] ) }
771
a0d0e21e
LW
772=item crypt PLAINTEXT,SALT
773
f86cebdf 774Encrypts a string exactly like the crypt(3) function in the C library
4633a7c4
LW
775(assuming that you actually have a version there that has not been
776extirpated as a potential munition). This can prove useful for checking
777the password file for lousy passwords, amongst other things. Only the
778guys wearing white hats should do this.
a0d0e21e 779
19799a22 780Note that C<crypt> is intended to be a one-way function, much like breaking
11155c91
CS
781eggs to make an omelette. There is no (known) corresponding decrypt
782function. As a result, this function isn't all that useful for
783cryptography. (For that, see your nearby CPAN mirror.)
2f9daede 784
e71965be
RS
785When verifying an existing encrypted string you should use the encrypted
786text as the salt (like C<crypt($plain, $crypted) eq $crypted>). This
19799a22 787allows your code to work with the standard C<crypt> and with more
e71965be
RS
788exotic implementations. When choosing a new salt create a random two
789character string whose characters come from the set C<[./0-9A-Za-z]>
790(like C<join '', ('.', '/', 0..9, 'A'..'Z', 'a'..'z')[rand 64, rand 64]>).
791
a0d0e21e
LW
792Here's an example that makes sure that whoever runs this program knows
793their own password:
794
795 $pwd = (getpwuid($<))[1];
a0d0e21e
LW
796
797 system "stty -echo";
798 print "Password: ";
e71965be 799 chomp($word = <STDIN>);
a0d0e21e
LW
800 print "\n";
801 system "stty echo";
802
e71965be 803 if (crypt($word, $pwd) ne $pwd) {
a0d0e21e
LW
804 die "Sorry...\n";
805 } else {
806 print "ok\n";
54310121 807 }
a0d0e21e 808
9f8f0c9d 809Of course, typing in your own password to whoever asks you
748a9306 810for it is unwise.
a0d0e21e 811
19799a22
GS
812The L<crypt> function is unsuitable for encrypting large quantities
813of data, not least of all because you can't get the information
814back. Look at the F<by-module/Crypt> and F<by-module/PGP> directories
815on your favorite CPAN mirror for a slew of potentially useful
816modules.
817
aa689395 818=item dbmclose HASH
a0d0e21e 819
19799a22 820[This function has been largely superseded by the C<untie> function.]
a0d0e21e 821
aa689395 822Breaks the binding between a DBM file and a hash.
a0d0e21e 823
19799a22 824=item dbmopen HASH,DBNAME,MASK
a0d0e21e 825
19799a22 826[This function has been largely superseded by the C<tie> function.]
a0d0e21e 827
7b8d334a 828This binds a dbm(3), ndbm(3), sdbm(3), gdbm(3), or Berkeley DB file to a
19799a22
GS
829hash. HASH is the name of the hash. (Unlike normal C<open>, the first
830argument is I<not> a filehandle, even though it looks like one). DBNAME
aa689395
PP
831is the name of the database (without the F<.dir> or F<.pag> extension if
832any). If the database does not exist, it is created with protection
19799a22
GS
833specified by MASK (as modified by the C<umask>). If your system supports
834only the older DBM functions, you may perform only one C<dbmopen> in your
aa689395 835program. In older versions of Perl, if your system had neither DBM nor
19799a22 836ndbm, calling C<dbmopen> produced a fatal error; it now falls back to
aa689395
PP
837sdbm(3).
838
839If you don't have write access to the DBM file, you can only read hash
840variables, not set them. If you want to test whether you can write,
19799a22 841either use file tests or try setting a dummy hash entry inside an C<eval>,
aa689395 842which will trap the error.
a0d0e21e 843
19799a22
GS
844Note that functions such as C<keys> and C<values> may return huge lists
845when used on large DBM files. You may prefer to use the C<each>
a0d0e21e
LW
846function to iterate over large DBM files. Example:
847
848 # print out history file offsets
849 dbmopen(%HIST,'/usr/lib/news/history',0666);
850 while (($key,$val) = each %HIST) {
851 print $key, ' = ', unpack('L',$val), "\n";
852 }
853 dbmclose(%HIST);
854
cb1a09d0 855See also L<AnyDBM_File> for a more general description of the pros and
184e9718 856cons of the various dbm approaches, as well as L<DB_File> for a particularly
cb1a09d0 857rich implementation.
4633a7c4 858
2b5ab1e7
TC
859You can control which DBM library you use by loading that library
860before you call dbmopen():
861
862 use DB_File;
863 dbmopen(%NS_Hist, "$ENV{HOME}/.netscape/history.db")
864 or die "Can't open netscape history file: $!";
865
a0d0e21e
LW
866=item defined EXPR
867
54310121 868=item defined
bbce6d69 869
2f9daede
TPG
870Returns a Boolean value telling whether EXPR has a value other than
871the undefined value C<undef>. If EXPR is not present, C<$_> will be
872checked.
873
874Many operations return C<undef> to indicate failure, end of file,
875system error, uninitialized variable, and other exceptional
876conditions. This function allows you to distinguish C<undef> from
877other values. (A simple Boolean test will not distinguish among
7660c0ab 878C<undef>, zero, the empty string, and C<"0">, which are all equally
2f9daede 879false.) Note that since C<undef> is a valid scalar, its presence
19799a22 880doesn't I<necessarily> indicate an exceptional condition: C<pop>
2f9daede
TPG
881returns C<undef> when its argument is an empty array, I<or> when the
882element to return happens to be C<undef>.
883
f10b0346
GS
884You may also use C<defined(&func)> to check whether subroutine C<&func>
885has ever been defined. The return value is unaffected by any forward
886declarations of C<&foo>.
887
888Use of C<defined> on aggregates (hashes and arrays) is deprecated. It
889used to report whether memory for that aggregate has ever been
890allocated. This behavior may disappear in future versions of Perl.
891You should instead use a simple test for size:
892
893 if (@an_array) { print "has array elements\n" }
894 if (%a_hash) { print "has hash members\n" }
2f9daede
TPG
895
896When used on a hash element, it tells you whether the value is defined,
dc848c6f 897not whether the key exists in the hash. Use L</exists> for the latter
2f9daede 898purpose.
a0d0e21e
LW
899
900Examples:
901
902 print if defined $switch{'D'};
903 print "$val\n" while defined($val = pop(@ary));
904 die "Can't readlink $sym: $!"
905 unless defined($value = readlink $sym);
a0d0e21e 906 sub foo { defined &$bar ? &$bar(@_) : die "No bar"; }
2f9daede 907 $debugging = 0 unless defined $debugging;
a0d0e21e 908
19799a22 909Note: Many folks tend to overuse C<defined>, and then are surprised to
7660c0ab 910discover that the number C<0> and C<""> (the zero-length string) are, in fact,
2f9daede 911defined values. For example, if you say
a5f75d66
AD
912
913 "ab" =~ /a(.*)b/;
914
7660c0ab 915The pattern match succeeds, and C<$1> is defined, despite the fact that it
a5f75d66 916matched "nothing". But it didn't really match nothing--rather, it
2b5ab1e7 917matched something that happened to be zero characters long. This is all
a5f75d66 918very above-board and honest. When a function returns an undefined value,
2f9daede 919it's an admission that it couldn't give you an honest answer. So you
19799a22 920should use C<defined> only when you're questioning the integrity of what
7660c0ab 921you're trying to do. At other times, a simple comparison to C<0> or C<""> is
2f9daede
TPG
922what you want.
923
dc848c6f 924See also L</undef>, L</exists>, L</ref>.
2f9daede 925
a0d0e21e
LW
926=item delete EXPR
927
aa689395
PP
928Deletes the specified key(s) and their associated values from a hash.
929For each key, returns the deleted value associated with that key, or
930the undefined value if there was no such key. Deleting from C<$ENV{}>
931modifies the environment. Deleting from a hash tied to a DBM file
19799a22 932deletes the entry from the DBM file. (But deleting from a C<tie>d hash
5f05dabc 933doesn't necessarily return anything.)
a0d0e21e 934
aa689395 935The following deletes all the values of a hash:
a0d0e21e 936
5f05dabc
PP
937 foreach $key (keys %HASH) {
938 delete $HASH{$key};
a0d0e21e
LW
939 }
940
5f05dabc
PP
941And so does this:
942
943 delete @HASH{keys %HASH}
944
2b5ab1e7
TC
945But both of these are slower than just assigning the empty list
946or undefining it:
947
948 %hash = (); # completely empty %hash
949 undef %hash; # forget %hash every existed
950
951Note that the EXPR can be arbitrarily complicated as long as the final
952operation is a hash element lookup or hash slice:
a0d0e21e
LW
953
954 delete $ref->[$x][$y]{$key};
5f05dabc 955 delete @{$ref->[$x][$y]}{$key1, $key2, @morekeys};
a0d0e21e
LW
956
957=item die LIST
958
19799a22
GS
959Outside an C<eval>, prints the value of LIST to C<STDERR> and
960exits with the current value of C<$!> (errno). If C<$!> is C<0>,
961exits with the value of C<($? E<gt>E<gt> 8)> (backtick `command`
962status). If C<($? E<gt>E<gt> 8)> is C<0>, exits with C<255>. Inside
963an C<eval(),> the error message is stuffed into C<$@> and the
964C<eval> is terminated with the undefined value. This makes
965C<die> the way to raise an exception.
a0d0e21e
LW
966
967Equivalent examples:
968
969 die "Can't cd to spool: $!\n" unless chdir '/usr/spool/news';
54310121 970 chdir '/usr/spool/news' or die "Can't cd to spool: $!\n"
a0d0e21e
LW
971
972If the value of EXPR does not end in a newline, the current script line
973number and input line number (if any) are also printed, and a newline
883faa13
GS
974is supplied. Note that the "input line number" (also known as "chunk")
975is subject to whatever notion of "line" happens to be currently in
976effect, and is also available as the special variable C<$.>.
977See L<perlvar/"$/"> and L<perlvar/"$.">.
978
979Hint: sometimes appending C<", stopped"> to your message
7660c0ab 980will cause it to make better sense when the string C<"at foo line 123"> is
a0d0e21e
LW
981appended. Suppose you are running script "canasta".
982
983 die "/etc/games is no good";
984 die "/etc/games is no good, stopped";
985
986produce, respectively
987
988 /etc/games is no good at canasta line 123.
989 /etc/games is no good, stopped at canasta line 123.
990
2b5ab1e7 991See also exit(), warn(), and the Carp module.
a0d0e21e 992
7660c0ab
A
993If LIST is empty and C<$@> already contains a value (typically from a
994previous eval) that value is reused after appending C<"\t...propagated">.
fb73857a
PP
995This is useful for propagating exceptions:
996
997 eval { ... };
998 die unless $@ =~ /Expected exception/;
999
7660c0ab 1000If C<$@> is empty then the string C<"Died"> is used.
fb73857a 1001
52531d10
GS
1002die() can also be called with a reference argument. If this happens to be
1003trapped within an eval(), $@ contains the reference. This behavior permits
1004a more elaborate exception handling implementation using objects that
1005maintain arbitary state about the nature of the exception. Such a scheme
1006is sometimes preferable to matching particular string values of $@ using
1007regular expressions. Here's an example:
1008
1009 eval { ... ; die Some::Module::Exception->new( FOO => "bar" ) };
1010 if ($@) {
1011 if (ref($@) && UNIVERSAL::isa($@,"Some::Module::Exception")) {
1012 # handle Some::Module::Exception
1013 }
1014 else {
1015 # handle all other possible exceptions
1016 }
1017 }
1018
19799a22 1019Because perl will stringify uncaught exception messages before displaying
52531d10
GS
1020them, you may want to overload stringification operations on such custom
1021exception objects. See L<overload> for details about that.
1022
19799a22
GS
1023You can arrange for a callback to be run just before the C<die>
1024does its deed, by setting the C<$SIG{__DIE__}> hook. The associated
1025handler will be called with the error text and can change the error
1026message, if it sees fit, by calling C<die> again. See
1027L<perlvar/$SIG{expr}> for details on setting C<%SIG> entries, and
1028L<"eval BLOCK"> for some examples. Although this feature was meant
1029to be run only right before your program was to exit, this is not
1030currently the case--the C<$SIG{__DIE__}> hook is currently called
1031even inside eval()ed blocks/strings! If one wants the hook to do
1032nothing in such situations, put
fb73857a
PP
1033
1034 die @_ if $^S;
1035
19799a22
GS
1036as the first line of the handler (see L<perlvar/$^S>). Because
1037this promotes strange action at a distance, this counterintuitive
1038behavior may be fixed in a future release.
774d564b 1039
a0d0e21e
LW
1040=item do BLOCK
1041
1042Not really a function. Returns the value of the last command in the
1043sequence of commands indicated by BLOCK. When modified by a loop
98293880
JH
1044modifier, executes the BLOCK once before testing the loop condition.
1045(On other statements the loop modifiers test the conditional first.)
a0d0e21e 1046
4968c1e4 1047C<do BLOCK> does I<not> count as a loop, so the loop control statements
2b5ab1e7
TC
1048C<next>, C<last>, or C<redo> cannot be used to leave or restart the block.
1049See L<perlsyn> for alternative strategies.
4968c1e4 1050
a0d0e21e
LW
1051=item do SUBROUTINE(LIST)
1052
1053A deprecated form of subroutine call. See L<perlsub>.
1054
1055=item do EXPR
1056
1057Uses the value of EXPR as a filename and executes the contents of the
1058file as a Perl script. Its primary use is to include subroutines
1059from a Perl subroutine library.
1060
1061 do 'stat.pl';
1062
1063is just like
1064
fb73857a 1065 scalar eval `cat stat.pl`;
a0d0e21e 1066
2b5ab1e7
TC
1067except that it's more efficient and concise, keeps track of the current
1068filename for error messages, searches the @INC libraries, and updates
1069C<%INC> if the file is found. See L<perlvar/Predefined Names> for these
1070variables. It also differs in that code evaluated with C<do FILENAME>
1071cannot see lexicals in the enclosing scope; C<eval STRING> does. It's the
1072same, however, in that it does reparse the file every time you call it,
1073so you probably don't want to do this inside a loop.
a0d0e21e 1074
8e30cc93 1075If C<do> cannot read the file, it returns undef and sets C<$!> to the
2b5ab1e7 1076error. If C<do> can read the file but cannot compile it, it
8e30cc93
G
1077returns undef and sets an error message in C<$@>. If the file is
1078successfully compiled, C<do> returns the value of the last expression
1079evaluated.
1080
a0d0e21e 1081Note that inclusion of library modules is better done with the
19799a22 1082C<use> and C<require> operators, which also do automatic error checking
4633a7c4 1083and raise an exception if there's a problem.
a0d0e21e 1084
5a964f20
TC
1085You might like to use C<do> to read in a program configuration
1086file. Manual error checking can be done this way:
1087
1088 # read in config files: system first, then user
f86cebdf 1089 for $file ("/share/prog/defaults.rc",
2b5ab1e7
TC
1090 "$ENV{HOME}/.someprogrc")
1091 {
5a964f20 1092 unless ($return = do $file) {
f86cebdf
GS
1093 warn "couldn't parse $file: $@" if $@;
1094 warn "couldn't do $file: $!" unless defined $return;
1095 warn "couldn't run $file" unless $return;
5a964f20
TC
1096 }
1097 }
1098
a0d0e21e
LW
1099=item dump LABEL
1100
1614b0e3
JD
1101=item dump
1102
19799a22
GS
1103This function causes an immediate core dump. See also the B<-u>
1104command-line switch in L<perlrun>, which does the same thing.
1105Primarily this is so that you can use the B<undump> program (not
1106supplied) to turn your core dump into an executable binary after
1107having initialized all your variables at the beginning of the
1108program. When the new binary is executed it will begin by executing
1109a C<goto LABEL> (with all the restrictions that C<goto> suffers).
1110Think of it as a goto with an intervening core dump and reincarnation.
1111If C<LABEL> is omitted, restarts the program from the top.
1112
1113B<WARNING>: Any files opened at the time of the dump will I<not>
1114be open any more when the program is reincarnated, with possible
1115resulting confusion on the part of Perl.
1116
1117This function is now largely obsolete, partly because it's very
1118hard to convert a core file into an executable, and because the
1119real compiler backends for generating portable bytecode and compilable
1120C code have superseded it.
1121
1122If you're looking to use L<dump> to speed up your program, consider
1123generating bytecode or native C code as described in L<perlcc>. If
1124you're just trying to accelerate a CGI script, consider using the
1125C<mod_perl> extension to B<Apache>, or the CPAN module, Fast::CGI.
1126You might also consider autoloading or selfloading, which at least
1127make your program I<appear> to run faster.
5a964f20 1128
aa689395
PP
1129=item each HASH
1130
5a964f20 1131When called in list context, returns a 2-element list consisting of the
aa689395 1132key and value for the next element of a hash, so that you can iterate over
5a964f20 1133it. When called in scalar context, returns the key for only the "next"
7660c0ab 1134element in the hash. (Note: Keys may be C<"0"> or C<"">, which are logically
2f9daede
TPG
1135false; you may wish to avoid constructs like C<while ($k = each %foo) {}>
1136for this reason.)
1137
ab192400
GS
1138Entries are returned in an apparently random order. The actual random
1139order is subject to change in future versions of perl, but it is guaranteed
19799a22 1140to be in the same order as either the C<keys> or C<values> function
ab192400
GS
1141would produce on the same (unmodified) hash.
1142
1143When the hash is entirely read, a null array is returned in list context
19799a22
GS
1144(which when assigned produces a false (C<0>) value), and C<undef> in
1145scalar context. The next call to C<each> after that will start iterating
1146again. There is a single iterator for each hash, shared by all C<each>,
1147C<keys>, and C<values> function calls in the program; it can be reset by
2f9daede
TPG
1148reading all the elements from the hash, or by evaluating C<keys HASH> or
1149C<values HASH>. If you add or delete elements of a hash while you're
1150iterating over it, you may get entries skipped or duplicated, so don't.
aa689395 1151
f86cebdf 1152The following prints out your environment like the printenv(1) program,
aa689395 1153only in a different order:
a0d0e21e
LW
1154
1155 while (($key,$value) = each %ENV) {
1156 print "$key=$value\n";
1157 }
1158
19799a22 1159See also C<keys>, C<values> and C<sort>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1160
1161=item eof FILEHANDLE
1162
4633a7c4
LW
1163=item eof ()
1164
a0d0e21e
LW
1165=item eof
1166
1167Returns 1 if the next read on FILEHANDLE will return end of file, or if
1168FILEHANDLE is not open. FILEHANDLE may be an expression whose value
5a964f20 1169gives the real filehandle. (Note that this function actually
19799a22 1170reads a character and then C<ungetc>s it, so isn't very useful in an
748a9306 1171interactive context.) Do not read from a terminal file (or call
19799a22 1172C<eof(FILEHANDLE)> on it) after end-of-file is reached. File types such
748a9306
LW
1173as terminals may lose the end-of-file condition if you do.
1174
1175An C<eof> without an argument uses the last file read as argument.
2b5ab1e7 1176Using C<eof()> with empty parentheses is very different. It indicates
19799a22
GS
1177the pseudo file formed of the files listed on the command line,
1178i.e., C<eof()> is reasonable to use inside a C<while (E<lt>E<gt>)>
1179loop to detect the end of only the last file. Use C<eof(ARGV)> or
1180C<eof> without the parentheses to test I<each> file in a while
1181(E<lt>E<gt>) loop. Examples:
a0d0e21e 1182
748a9306
LW
1183 # reset line numbering on each input file
1184 while (<>) {
5a964f20 1185 next if /^\s*#/; # skip comments
748a9306 1186 print "$.\t$_";
5a964f20
TC
1187 } continue {
1188 close ARGV if eof; # Not eof()!
748a9306
LW
1189 }
1190
a0d0e21e
LW
1191 # insert dashes just before last line of last file
1192 while (<>) {
5a964f20 1193 if (eof()) { # check for end of current file
a0d0e21e 1194 print "--------------\n";
2b5ab1e7 1195 close(ARGV); # close or last; is needed if we
748a9306 1196 # are reading from the terminal
a0d0e21e
LW
1197 }
1198 print;
1199 }
1200
a0d0e21e 1201Practical hint: you almost never need to use C<eof> in Perl, because the
3b02c43c
GS
1202input operators return false values when they run out of data, or if there
1203was an error.
a0d0e21e
LW
1204
1205=item eval EXPR
1206
1207=item eval BLOCK
1208
c7cc6f1c
GS
1209In the first form, the return value of EXPR is parsed and executed as if it
1210were a little Perl program. The value of the expression (which is itself
5a964f20 1211determined within scalar context) is first parsed, and if there weren't any
c7cc6f1c 1212errors, executed in the context of the current Perl program, so that any
5f05dabc 1213variable settings or subroutine and format definitions remain afterwards.
c7cc6f1c
GS
1214Note that the value is parsed every time the eval executes. If EXPR is
1215omitted, evaluates C<$_>. This form is typically used to delay parsing
1216and subsequent execution of the text of EXPR until run time.
1217
1218In the second form, the code within the BLOCK is parsed only once--at the
1219same time the code surrounding the eval itself was parsed--and executed
1220within the context of the current Perl program. This form is typically
1221used to trap exceptions more efficiently than the first (see below), while
1222also providing the benefit of checking the code within BLOCK at compile
1223time.
1224
1225The final semicolon, if any, may be omitted from the value of EXPR or within
1226the BLOCK.
1227
1228In both forms, the value returned is the value of the last expression
5a964f20 1229evaluated inside the mini-program; a return statement may be also used, just
c7cc6f1c 1230as with subroutines. The expression providing the return value is evaluated
5a964f20 1231in void, scalar, or list context, depending on the context of the eval itself.
c7cc6f1c 1232See L</wantarray> for more on how the evaluation context can be determined.
a0d0e21e 1233
19799a22
GS
1234If there is a syntax error or runtime error, or a C<die> statement is
1235executed, an undefined value is returned by C<eval>, and C<$@> is set to the
a0d0e21e 1236error message. If there was no error, C<$@> is guaranteed to be a null
19799a22 1237string. Beware that using C<eval> neither silences perl from printing
c7cc6f1c
GS
1238warnings to STDERR, nor does it stuff the text of warning messages into C<$@>.
1239To do either of those, you have to use the C<$SIG{__WARN__}> facility. See
1240L</warn> and L<perlvar>.
a0d0e21e 1241
19799a22
GS
1242Note that, because C<eval> traps otherwise-fatal errors, it is useful for
1243determining whether a particular feature (such as C<socket> or C<symlink>)
a0d0e21e
LW
1244is implemented. It is also Perl's exception trapping mechanism, where
1245the die operator is used to raise exceptions.
1246
1247If the code to be executed doesn't vary, you may use the eval-BLOCK
1248form to trap run-time errors without incurring the penalty of
1249recompiling each time. The error, if any, is still returned in C<$@>.
1250Examples:
1251
54310121 1252 # make divide-by-zero nonfatal
a0d0e21e
LW
1253 eval { $answer = $a / $b; }; warn $@ if $@;
1254
1255 # same thing, but less efficient
1256 eval '$answer = $a / $b'; warn $@ if $@;
1257
1258 # a compile-time error
5a964f20 1259 eval { $answer = }; # WRONG
a0d0e21e
LW
1260
1261 # a run-time error
1262 eval '$answer ='; # sets $@
1263
2b5ab1e7
TC
1264Due to the current arguably broken state of C<__DIE__> hooks, when using
1265the C<eval{}> form as an exception trap in libraries, you may wish not
1266to trigger any C<__DIE__> hooks that user code may have installed.
1267You can use the C<local $SIG{__DIE__}> construct for this purpose,
1268as shown in this example:
774d564b
PP
1269
1270 # a very private exception trap for divide-by-zero
f86cebdf
GS
1271 eval { local $SIG{'__DIE__'}; $answer = $a / $b; };
1272 warn $@ if $@;
774d564b
PP
1273
1274This is especially significant, given that C<__DIE__> hooks can call
19799a22 1275C<die> again, which has the effect of changing their error messages:
774d564b
PP
1276
1277 # __DIE__ hooks may modify error messages
1278 {
f86cebdf
GS
1279 local $SIG{'__DIE__'} =
1280 sub { (my $x = $_[0]) =~ s/foo/bar/g; die $x };
c7cc6f1c
GS
1281 eval { die "foo lives here" };
1282 print $@ if $@; # prints "bar lives here"
774d564b
PP
1283 }
1284
19799a22 1285Because this promotes action at a distance, this counterintuitive behavior
2b5ab1e7
TC
1286may be fixed in a future release.
1287
19799a22 1288With an C<eval>, you should be especially careful to remember what's
a0d0e21e
LW
1289being looked at when:
1290
1291 eval $x; # CASE 1
1292 eval "$x"; # CASE 2
1293
1294 eval '$x'; # CASE 3
1295 eval { $x }; # CASE 4
1296
5a964f20 1297 eval "\$$x++"; # CASE 5
a0d0e21e
LW
1298 $$x++; # CASE 6
1299
2f9daede 1300Cases 1 and 2 above behave identically: they run the code contained in
19799a22 1301the variable $x. (Although case 2 has misleading double quotes making
2f9daede 1302the reader wonder what else might be happening (nothing is).) Cases 3
7660c0ab 1303and 4 likewise behave in the same way: they run the code C<'$x'>, which
19799a22 1304does nothing but return the value of $x. (Case 4 is preferred for
2f9daede
TPG
1305purely visual reasons, but it also has the advantage of compiling at
1306compile-time instead of at run-time.) Case 5 is a place where
19799a22 1307normally you I<would> like to use double quotes, except that in this
2f9daede
TPG
1308particular situation, you can just use symbolic references instead, as
1309in case 6.
a0d0e21e 1310
4968c1e4 1311C<eval BLOCK> does I<not> count as a loop, so the loop control statements
2b5ab1e7 1312C<next>, C<last>, or C<redo> cannot be used to leave or restart the block.
4968c1e4 1313
a0d0e21e
LW
1314=item exec LIST
1315
8bf3b016
GS
1316=item exec PROGRAM LIST
1317
19799a22
GS
1318The C<exec> function executes a system command I<and never returns>--
1319use C<system> instead of C<exec> if you want it to return. It fails and
1320returns false only if the command does not exist I<and> it is executed
fb73857a 1321directly instead of via your system's command shell (see below).
a0d0e21e 1322
19799a22
GS
1323Since it's a common mistake to use C<exec> instead of C<system>, Perl
1324warns you if there is a following statement which isn't C<die>, C<warn>,
1325or C<exit> (if C<-w> is set - but you always do that). If you
1326I<really> want to follow an C<exec> with some other statement, you
55d729e4
GS
1327can use one of these styles to avoid the warning:
1328
5a964f20
TC
1329 exec ('foo') or print STDERR "couldn't exec foo: $!";
1330 { exec ('foo') }; print STDERR "couldn't exec foo: $!";
55d729e4 1331
5a964f20 1332If there is more than one argument in LIST, or if LIST is an array
f86cebdf 1333with more than one value, calls execvp(3) with the arguments in LIST.
5a964f20
TC
1334If there is only one scalar argument or an array with one element in it,
1335the argument is checked for shell metacharacters, and if there are any,
1336the entire argument is passed to the system's command shell for parsing
1337(this is C</bin/sh -c> on Unix platforms, but varies on other platforms).
1338If there are no shell metacharacters in the argument, it is split into
19799a22
GS
1339words and passed directly to C<execvp>, which is more efficient.
1340Examples:
a0d0e21e 1341
19799a22
GS
1342 exec '/bin/echo', 'Your arguments are: ', @ARGV;
1343 exec "sort $outfile | uniq";
a0d0e21e
LW
1344
1345If you don't really want to execute the first argument, but want to lie
1346to the program you are executing about its own name, you can specify
1347the program you actually want to run as an "indirect object" (without a
1348comma) in front of the LIST. (This always forces interpretation of the
54310121 1349LIST as a multivalued list, even if there is only a single scalar in
a0d0e21e
LW
1350the list.) Example:
1351
1352 $shell = '/bin/csh';
1353 exec $shell '-sh'; # pretend it's a login shell
1354
1355or, more directly,
1356
1357 exec {'/bin/csh'} '-sh'; # pretend it's a login shell
1358
bb32b41a
GS
1359When the arguments get executed via the system shell, results will
1360be subject to its quirks and capabilities. See L<perlop/"`STRING`">
1361for details.
1362
19799a22
GS
1363Using an indirect object with C<exec> or C<system> is also more
1364secure. This usage (which also works fine with system()) forces
1365interpretation of the arguments as a multivalued list, even if the
1366list had just one argument. That way you're safe from the shell
1367expanding wildcards or splitting up words with whitespace in them.
5a964f20
TC
1368
1369 @args = ( "echo surprise" );
1370
2b5ab1e7 1371 exec @args; # subject to shell escapes
f86cebdf 1372 # if @args == 1
2b5ab1e7 1373 exec { $args[0] } @args; # safe even with one-arg list
5a964f20
TC
1374
1375The first version, the one without the indirect object, ran the I<echo>
1376program, passing it C<"surprise"> an argument. The second version
1377didn't--it tried to run a program literally called I<"echo surprise">,
1378didn't find it, and set C<$?> to a non-zero value indicating failure.
1379
19799a22 1380Note that C<exec> will not call your C<END> blocks, nor will it call
7660c0ab
A
1381any C<DESTROY> methods in your objects.
1382
a0d0e21e
LW
1383=item exists EXPR
1384
19799a22 1385Returns true if the specified hash key exists in its hash, even
a0d0e21e
LW
1386if the corresponding value is undefined.
1387
2b5ab1e7
TC
1388 print "Exists\n" if exists $array{$key};
1389 print "Defined\n" if defined $array{$key};
1390 print "True\n" if $array{$key};
a0d0e21e 1391
19799a22 1392A hash element can be true only if it's defined, and defined if
a0d0e21e
LW
1393it exists, but the reverse doesn't necessarily hold true.
1394
1395Note that the EXPR can be arbitrarily complicated as long as the final
1396operation is a hash key lookup:
1397
2b5ab1e7
TC
1398 if (exists $ref->{A}->{B}->{$key}) { }
1399 if (exists $hash{A}{B}{$key}) { }
1400
1401Although the last element will not spring into existence just because
1402its existence was tested, intervening ones will. Thus C<$ref-E<gt>{"A"}>
1403and C<$ref-E<gt>{"A"}-E<gt>{"B"}> will spring into existence due to the
1404existence test for a $key element. This happens anywhere the arrow
1405operator is used, including even
5a964f20 1406
2b5ab1e7
TC
1407 undef $ref;
1408 if (exists $ref->{"Some key"}) { }
1409 print $ref; # prints HASH(0x80d3d5c)
1410
1411This surprising autovivification in what does not at first--or even
1412second--glance appear to be an lvalue context may be fixed in a future
5a964f20 1413release.
a0d0e21e 1414
e0478e5a
MS
1415See L<perlref/"Pseudo-hashes"> for specifics on how exists() acts when
1416used on a pseudo-hash.
1417
a0d0e21e
LW
1418=item exit EXPR
1419
2b5ab1e7 1420Evaluates EXPR and exits immediately with that value. Example:
a0d0e21e
LW
1421
1422 $ans = <STDIN>;
1423 exit 0 if $ans =~ /^[Xx]/;
1424
19799a22 1425See also C<die>. If EXPR is omitted, exits with C<0> status. The only
2b5ab1e7
TC
1426universally recognized values for EXPR are C<0> for success and C<1>
1427for error; other values are subject to interpretation depending on the
1428environment in which the Perl program is running. For example, exiting
142969 (EX_UNAVAILABLE) from a I<sendmail> incoming-mail filter will cause
1430the mailer to return the item undelivered, but that's not true everywhere.
a0d0e21e 1431
19799a22
GS
1432Don't use C<exit> to abort a subroutine if there's any chance that
1433someone might want to trap whatever error happened. Use C<die> instead,
1434which can be trapped by an C<eval>.
28757baa 1435
19799a22 1436The exit() function does not always exit immediately. It calls any
2b5ab1e7 1437defined C<END> routines first, but these C<END> routines may not
19799a22 1438themselves abort the exit. Likewise any object destructors that need to
2b5ab1e7
TC
1439be called are called before the real exit. If this is a problem, you
1440can call C<POSIX:_exit($status)> to avoid END and destructor processing.
87275199 1441See L<perlmod> for details.
5a964f20 1442
a0d0e21e
LW
1443=item exp EXPR
1444
54310121 1445=item exp
bbce6d69 1446
2b5ab1e7 1447Returns I<e> (the natural logarithm base) to the power of EXPR.
a0d0e21e
LW
1448If EXPR is omitted, gives C<exp($_)>.
1449
1450=item fcntl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR
1451
f86cebdf 1452Implements the fcntl(2) function. You'll probably have to say
a0d0e21e
LW
1453
1454 use Fcntl;
1455
0ade1984 1456first to get the correct constant definitions. Argument processing and
19799a22 1457value return works just like C<ioctl> below.
a0d0e21e
LW
1458For example:
1459
1460 use Fcntl;
5a964f20
TC
1461 fcntl($filehandle, F_GETFL, $packed_return_buffer)
1462 or die "can't fcntl F_GETFL: $!";
1463
19799a22
GS
1464You don't have to check for C<defined> on the return from C<fnctl>.
1465Like C<ioctl>, it maps a C<0> return from the system call into C<"0
1466but true"> in Perl. This string is true in boolean context and C<0>
2b5ab1e7
TC
1467in numeric context. It is also exempt from the normal B<-w> warnings
1468on improper numeric conversions.
5a964f20 1469
19799a22 1470Note that C<fcntl> will produce a fatal error if used on a machine that
2b5ab1e7
TC
1471doesn't implement fcntl(2). See the Fcntl module or your fcntl(2)
1472manpage to learn what functions are available on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
1473
1474=item fileno FILEHANDLE
1475
2b5ab1e7
TC
1476Returns the file descriptor for a filehandle, or undefined if the
1477filehandle is not open. This is mainly useful for constructing
19799a22 1478bitmaps for C<select> and low-level POSIX tty-handling operations.
2b5ab1e7
TC
1479If FILEHANDLE is an expression, the value is taken as an indirect
1480filehandle, generally its name.
5a964f20
TC
1481
1482You can use this to find out whether two handles refer to the
1483same underlying descriptor:
1484
1485 if (fileno(THIS) == fileno(THAT)) {
1486 print "THIS and THAT are dups\n";
1487 }
a0d0e21e
LW
1488
1489=item flock FILEHANDLE,OPERATION
1490
19799a22
GS
1491Calls flock(2), or an emulation of it, on FILEHANDLE. Returns true
1492for success, false on failure. Produces a fatal error if used on a
2b5ab1e7 1493machine that doesn't implement flock(2), fcntl(2) locking, or lockf(3).
19799a22 1494C<flock> is Perl's portable file locking interface, although it locks
2b5ab1e7
TC
1495only entire files, not records.
1496
1497Two potentially non-obvious but traditional C<flock> semantics are
1498that it waits indefinitely until the lock is granted, and that its locks
1499B<merely advisory>. Such discretionary locks are more flexible, but offer
19799a22
GS
1500fewer guarantees. This means that files locked with C<flock> may be
1501modified by programs that do not also use C<flock>. See L<perlport>,
2b5ab1e7
TC
1502your port's specific documentation, or your system-specific local manpages
1503for details. It's best to assume traditional behavior if you're writing
1504portable programs. (But if you're not, you should as always feel perfectly
1505free to write for your own system's idiosyncrasies (sometimes called
1506"features"). Slavish adherence to portability concerns shouldn't get
1507in the way of your getting your job done.)
a3cb178b 1508
8ebc5c01
PP
1509OPERATION is one of LOCK_SH, LOCK_EX, or LOCK_UN, possibly combined with
1510LOCK_NB. These constants are traditionally valued 1, 2, 8 and 4, but
68dc0745
PP
1511you can use the symbolic names if import them from the Fcntl module,
1512either individually, or as a group using the ':flock' tag. LOCK_SH
1513requests a shared lock, LOCK_EX requests an exclusive lock, and LOCK_UN
1514releases a previously requested lock. If LOCK_NB is added to LOCK_SH or
19799a22 1515LOCK_EX then C<flock> will return immediately rather than blocking
68dc0745
PP
1516waiting for the lock (check the return status to see if you got it).
1517
2b5ab1e7
TC
1518To avoid the possibility of miscoordination, Perl now flushes FILEHANDLE
1519before locking or unlocking it.
8ebc5c01 1520
f86cebdf 1521Note that the emulation built with lockf(3) doesn't provide shared
8ebc5c01 1522locks, and it requires that FILEHANDLE be open with write intent. These
2b5ab1e7 1523are the semantics that lockf(3) implements. Most if not all systems
f86cebdf 1524implement lockf(3) in terms of fcntl(2) locking, though, so the
8ebc5c01
PP
1525differing semantics shouldn't bite too many people.
1526
19799a22
GS
1527Note also that some versions of C<flock> cannot lock things over the
1528network; you would need to use the more system-specific C<fcntl> for
f86cebdf
GS
1529that. If you like you can force Perl to ignore your system's flock(2)
1530function, and so provide its own fcntl(2)-based emulation, by passing
8ebc5c01
PP
1531the switch C<-Ud_flock> to the F<Configure> program when you configure
1532perl.
4633a7c4
LW
1533
1534Here's a mailbox appender for BSD systems.
a0d0e21e 1535
7e1af8bc 1536 use Fcntl ':flock'; # import LOCK_* constants
a0d0e21e
LW
1537
1538 sub lock {
7e1af8bc 1539 flock(MBOX,LOCK_EX);
a0d0e21e
LW
1540 # and, in case someone appended
1541 # while we were waiting...
1542 seek(MBOX, 0, 2);
1543 }
1544
1545 sub unlock {
7e1af8bc 1546 flock(MBOX,LOCK_UN);
a0d0e21e
LW
1547 }
1548
1549 open(MBOX, ">>/usr/spool/mail/$ENV{'USER'}")
1550 or die "Can't open mailbox: $!";
1551
1552 lock();
1553 print MBOX $msg,"\n\n";
1554 unlock();
1555
2b5ab1e7
TC
1556On systems that support a real flock(), locks are inherited across fork()
1557calls, whereas those that must resort to the more capricious fcntl()
1558function lose the locks, making it harder to write servers.
1559
cb1a09d0 1560See also L<DB_File> for other flock() examples.
a0d0e21e
LW
1561
1562=item fork
1563
2b5ab1e7
TC
1564Does a fork(2) system call to create a new process running the
1565same program at the same point. It returns the child pid to the
1566parent process, C<0> to the child process, or C<undef> if the fork is
1567unsuccessful. File descriptors (and sometimes locks on those descriptors)
1568are shared, while everything else is copied. On most systems supporting
1569fork(), great care has gone into making it extremely efficient (for
1570example, using copy-on-write technology on data pages), making it the
1571dominant paradigm for multitasking over the last few decades.
5a964f20 1572
45bc9206 1573All files opened for output are flushed before forking the child process.
a0d0e21e 1574
19799a22 1575If you C<fork> without ever waiting on your children, you will
2b5ab1e7
TC
1576accumulate zombies. On some systems, you can avoid this by setting
1577C<$SIG{CHLD}> to C<"IGNORE">. See also L<perlipc> for more examples of
1578forking and reaping moribund children.
cb1a09d0 1579
28757baa
PP
1580Note that if your forked child inherits system file descriptors like
1581STDIN and STDOUT that are actually connected by a pipe or socket, even
2b5ab1e7 1582if you exit, then the remote server (such as, say, a CGI script or a
19799a22 1583backgrounded job launched from a remote shell) won't think you're done.
2b5ab1e7 1584You should reopen those to F</dev/null> if it's any issue.
28757baa 1585
cb1a09d0
AD
1586=item format
1587
19799a22 1588Declare a picture format for use by the C<write> function. For
cb1a09d0
AD
1589example:
1590
54310121 1591 format Something =
cb1a09d0
AD
1592 Test: @<<<<<<<< @||||| @>>>>>
1593 $str, $%, '$' . int($num)
1594 .
1595
1596 $str = "widget";
184e9718 1597 $num = $cost/$quantity;
cb1a09d0
AD
1598 $~ = 'Something';
1599 write;
1600
1601See L<perlform> for many details and examples.
1602
8903cb82 1603=item formline PICTURE,LIST
a0d0e21e 1604
5a964f20 1605This is an internal function used by C<format>s, though you may call it,
a0d0e21e
LW
1606too. It formats (see L<perlform>) a list of values according to the
1607contents of PICTURE, placing the output into the format output
7660c0ab 1608accumulator, C<$^A> (or C<$ACCUMULATOR> in English).
19799a22 1609Eventually, when a C<write> is done, the contents of
a0d0e21e 1610C<$^A> are written to some filehandle, but you could also read C<$^A>
7660c0ab 1611yourself and then set C<$^A> back to C<"">. Note that a format typically
19799a22 1612does one C<formline> per line of form, but the C<formline> function itself
748a9306 1613doesn't care how many newlines are embedded in the PICTURE. This means
4633a7c4 1614that the C<~> and C<~~> tokens will treat the entire PICTURE as a single line.
748a9306
LW
1615You may therefore need to use multiple formlines to implement a single
1616record format, just like the format compiler.
1617
19799a22 1618Be careful if you put double quotes around the picture, because an C<@>
748a9306 1619character may be taken to mean the beginning of an array name.
19799a22 1620C<formline> always returns true. See L<perlform> for other examples.
a0d0e21e
LW
1621
1622=item getc FILEHANDLE
1623
1624=item getc
1625
1626Returns the next character from the input file attached to FILEHANDLE,
2b5ab1e7
TC
1627or the undefined value at end of file, or if there was an error.
1628If FILEHANDLE is omitted, reads from STDIN. This is not particularly
1629efficient. However, it cannot be used by itself to fetch single
1630characters without waiting for the user to hit enter. For that, try
1631something more like:
4633a7c4
LW
1632
1633 if ($BSD_STYLE) {
1634 system "stty cbreak </dev/tty >/dev/tty 2>&1";
1635 }
1636 else {
54310121 1637 system "stty", '-icanon', 'eol', "\001";
4633a7c4
LW
1638 }
1639
1640 $key = getc(STDIN);
1641
1642 if ($BSD_STYLE) {
1643 system "stty -cbreak </dev/tty >/dev/tty 2>&1";
1644 }
1645 else {
5f05dabc 1646 system "stty", 'icanon', 'eol', '^@'; # ASCII null
4633a7c4
LW
1647 }
1648 print "\n";
1649
54310121
PP
1650Determination of whether $BSD_STYLE should be set
1651is left as an exercise to the reader.
cb1a09d0 1652
19799a22 1653The C<POSIX::getattr> function can do this more portably on
2b5ab1e7
TC
1654systems purporting POSIX compliance. See also the C<Term::ReadKey>
1655module from your nearest CPAN site; details on CPAN can be found on
1656L<perlmodlib/CPAN>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1657
1658=item getlogin
1659
5a964f20
TC
1660Implements the C library function of the same name, which on most
1661systems returns the current login from F</etc/utmp>, if any. If null,
19799a22 1662use C<getpwuid>.
a0d0e21e 1663
f86702cc 1664 $login = getlogin || getpwuid($<) || "Kilroy";
a0d0e21e 1665
19799a22
GS
1666Do not consider C<getlogin> for authentication: it is not as
1667secure as C<getpwuid>.
4633a7c4 1668
a0d0e21e
LW
1669=item getpeername SOCKET
1670
1671Returns the packed sockaddr address of other end of the SOCKET connection.
1672
4633a7c4
LW
1673 use Socket;
1674 $hersockaddr = getpeername(SOCK);
19799a22 1675 ($port, $iaddr) = sockaddr_in($hersockaddr);
4633a7c4
LW
1676 $herhostname = gethostbyaddr($iaddr, AF_INET);
1677 $herstraddr = inet_ntoa($iaddr);
a0d0e21e
LW
1678
1679=item getpgrp PID
1680
47e29363 1681Returns the current process group for the specified PID. Use
7660c0ab 1682a PID of C<0> to get the current process group for the
4633a7c4 1683current process. Will raise an exception if used on a machine that
f86cebdf 1684doesn't implement getpgrp(2). If PID is omitted, returns process
19799a22 1685group of current process. Note that the POSIX version of C<getpgrp>
7660c0ab 1686does not accept a PID argument, so only C<PID==0> is truly portable.
a0d0e21e
LW
1687
1688=item getppid
1689
1690Returns the process id of the parent process.
1691
1692=item getpriority WHICH,WHO
1693
4633a7c4
LW
1694Returns the current priority for a process, a process group, or a user.
1695(See L<getpriority(2)>.) Will raise a fatal exception if used on a
f86cebdf 1696machine that doesn't implement getpriority(2).
a0d0e21e
LW
1697
1698=item getpwnam NAME
1699
1700=item getgrnam NAME
1701
1702=item gethostbyname NAME
1703
1704=item getnetbyname NAME
1705
1706=item getprotobyname NAME
1707
1708=item getpwuid UID
1709
1710=item getgrgid GID
1711
1712=item getservbyname NAME,PROTO
1713
1714=item gethostbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE
1715
1716=item getnetbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE
1717
1718=item getprotobynumber NUMBER
1719
1720=item getservbyport PORT,PROTO
1721
1722=item getpwent
1723
1724=item getgrent
1725
1726=item gethostent
1727
1728=item getnetent
1729
1730=item getprotoent
1731
1732=item getservent
1733
1734=item setpwent
1735
1736=item setgrent
1737
1738=item sethostent STAYOPEN
1739
1740=item setnetent STAYOPEN
1741
1742=item setprotoent STAYOPEN
1743
1744=item setservent STAYOPEN
1745
1746=item endpwent
1747
1748=item endgrent
1749
1750=item endhostent
1751
1752=item endnetent
1753
1754=item endprotoent
1755
1756=item endservent
1757
1758These routines perform the same functions as their counterparts in the
5a964f20 1759system library. In list context, the return values from the
a0d0e21e
LW
1760various get routines are as follows:
1761
1762 ($name,$passwd,$uid,$gid,
6ee623d5 1763 $quota,$comment,$gcos,$dir,$shell,$expire) = getpw*
a0d0e21e
LW
1764 ($name,$passwd,$gid,$members) = getgr*
1765 ($name,$aliases,$addrtype,$length,@addrs) = gethost*
1766 ($name,$aliases,$addrtype,$net) = getnet*
1767 ($name,$aliases,$proto) = getproto*
1768 ($name,$aliases,$port,$proto) = getserv*
1769
1770(If the entry doesn't exist you get a null list.)
1771
5a964f20 1772In scalar context, you get the name, unless the function was a
a0d0e21e
LW
1773lookup by name, in which case you get the other thing, whatever it is.
1774(If the entry doesn't exist you get the undefined value.) For example:
1775
5a964f20
TC
1776 $uid = getpwnam($name);
1777 $name = getpwuid($num);
1778 $name = getpwent();
1779 $gid = getgrnam($name);
1780 $name = getgrgid($num;
1781 $name = getgrent();
1782 #etc.
a0d0e21e 1783
19799a22 1784In I<getpw*()> the fields $quota, $comment, and $expire are
2b5ab1e7 1785special cases in the sense that in many systems they are unsupported.
19799a22
GS
1786If the $quota is unsupported, it is an empty scalar. If it is
1787supported, it usually encodes the disk quota. If the $comment
2b5ab1e7
TC
1788field is unsupported, it is an empty scalar. If it is supported it
1789usually encodes some administrative comment about the user. In some
19799a22
GS
1790systems the $quota field may be $change or $age, fields that have
1791to do with password aging. In some systems the $comment field may
1792be $class. The $expire field, if present, encodes the expiration
2b5ab1e7
TC
1793period of the account or the password. For the availability and the
1794exact meaning of these fields in your system, please consult your
1795getpwnam(3) documentation and your F<pwd.h> file. You can also find
19799a22
GS
1796out from within Perl what your $quota and $comment fields mean
1797and whether you have the $expire field by using the C<Config> module
2b5ab1e7
TC
1798and the values C<d_pwquota>, C<d_pwage>, C<d_pwchange>, C<d_pwcomment>,
1799and C<d_pwexpire>. Shadow password files are only supported if your
1800vendor has implemented them in the intuitive fashion that calling the
1801regular C library routines gets the shadow versions if you're running
1802under privilege. Those that incorrectly implement a separate library
1803call are not supported.
6ee623d5 1804
19799a22 1805The $members value returned by I<getgr*()> is a space separated list of
a0d0e21e
LW
1806the login names of the members of the group.
1807
1808For the I<gethost*()> functions, if the C<h_errno> variable is supported in
1809C, it will be returned to you via C<$?> if the function call fails. The
7660c0ab 1810C<@addrs> value returned by a successful call is a list of the raw
a0d0e21e
LW
1811addresses returned by the corresponding system library call. In the
1812Internet domain, each address is four bytes long and you can unpack it
1813by saying something like:
1814
1815 ($a,$b,$c,$d) = unpack('C4',$addr[0]);
1816
2b5ab1e7
TC
1817The Socket library makes this slightly easier:
1818
1819 use Socket;
1820 $iaddr = inet_aton("127.1"); # or whatever address
1821 $name = gethostbyaddr($iaddr, AF_INET);
1822
1823 # or going the other way
19799a22 1824 $straddr = inet_ntoa($iaddr);
2b5ab1e7 1825
19799a22
GS
1826If you get tired of remembering which element of the return list
1827contains which return value, by-name interfaces are provided
1828in standard modules: C<File::stat>, C<Net::hostent>, C<Net::netent>,
1829C<Net::protoent>, C<Net::servent>, C<Time::gmtime>, C<Time::localtime>,
1830and C<User::grent>. These override the normal built-ins, supplying
1831versions that return objects with the appropriate names
1832for each field. For example:
5a964f20
TC
1833
1834 use File::stat;
1835 use User::pwent;
1836 $is_his = (stat($filename)->uid == pwent($whoever)->uid);
1837
1838Even though it looks like they're the same method calls (uid),
19799a22
GS
1839they aren't, because a C<File::stat> object is different from
1840a C<User::pwent> object.
5a964f20 1841
a0d0e21e
LW
1842=item getsockname SOCKET
1843
19799a22
GS
1844Returns the packed sockaddr address of this end of the SOCKET connection,
1845in case you don't know the address because you have several different
1846IPs that the connection might have come in on.
a0d0e21e 1847
4633a7c4
LW
1848 use Socket;
1849 $mysockaddr = getsockname(SOCK);
19799a22
GS
1850 ($port, $myaddr) = sockaddr_in($mysockaddr);
1851 printf "Connect to %s [%s]\n",
1852 scalar gethostbyaddr($myaddr, AF_INET),
1853 inet_ntoa($myaddr);
a0d0e21e
LW
1854
1855=item getsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME
1856
5a964f20 1857Returns the socket option requested, or undef if there is an error.
a0d0e21e
LW
1858
1859=item glob EXPR
1860
0a753a76
PP
1861=item glob
1862
2b5ab1e7
TC
1863Returns the value of EXPR with filename expansions such as the
1864standard Unix shell F</bin/csh> would do. This is the internal function
1865implementing the C<E<lt>*.cE<gt>> operator, but you can use it directly.
1866If EXPR is omitted, C<$_> is used. The C<E<lt>*.cE<gt>> operator is
1867discussed in more detail in L<perlop/"I/O Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
1868
1869=item gmtime EXPR
1870
19799a22 1871Converts a time as returned by the time function to a 9-element list
54310121 1872with the time localized for the standard Greenwich time zone.
4633a7c4 1873Typically used as follows:
a0d0e21e 1874
54310121 1875 # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
a0d0e21e
LW
1876 ($sec,$min,$hour,$mday,$mon,$year,$wday,$yday,$isdst) =
1877 gmtime(time);
1878
19799a22
GS
1879All list elements are numeric, and come straight out of a struct tm.
1880In particular this means that $mon has the range C<0..11> and $wday
1881has the range C<0..6> with sunday as day C<0>. Also, $year is the
1882number of years since 1900, that is, $year is C<123> in year 2023,
2b5ab1e7
TC
1883I<not> simply the last two digits of the year. If you assume it is,
1884then you create non-Y2K-compliant programs--and you wouldn't want to do
1885that, would you?
2f9daede
TPG
1886
1887If EXPR is omitted, does C<gmtime(time())>.
a0d0e21e 1888
f86cebdf 1889In scalar context, returns the ctime(3) value:
0a753a76
PP
1890
1891 $now_string = gmtime; # e.g., "Thu Oct 13 04:54:34 1994"
1892
19799a22 1893Also see the C<timegm> function provided by the C<Time::Local> module,
f86cebdf 1894and the strftime(3) function available via the POSIX module.
7660c0ab 1895
2b5ab1e7
TC
1896This scalar value is B<not> locale dependent (see L<perllocale>), but
1897is instead a Perl builtin. Also see the C<Time::Local> module, and the
1898strftime(3) and mktime(3) functions available via the POSIX module. To
7660c0ab
A
1899get somewhat similar but locale dependent date strings, set up your
1900locale environment variables appropriately (please see L<perllocale>)
1901and try for example:
1902
1903 use POSIX qw(strftime);
2b5ab1e7 1904 $now_string = strftime "%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Y", gmtime;
7660c0ab 1905
2b5ab1e7
TC
1906Note that the C<%a> and C<%b> escapes, which represent the short forms
1907of the day of the week and the month of the year, may not necessarily
1908be three characters wide in all locales.
0a753a76 1909
a0d0e21e
LW
1910=item goto LABEL
1911
748a9306
LW
1912=item goto EXPR
1913
a0d0e21e
LW
1914=item goto &NAME
1915
7660c0ab 1916The C<goto-LABEL> form finds the statement labeled with LABEL and resumes
a0d0e21e 1917execution there. It may not be used to go into any construct that
7660c0ab 1918requires initialization, such as a subroutine or a C<foreach> loop. It
0a753a76 1919also can't be used to go into a construct that is optimized away,
19799a22 1920or to get out of a block or subroutine given to C<sort>.
0a753a76 1921It can be used to go almost anywhere else within the dynamic scope,
a0d0e21e 1922including out of subroutines, but it's usually better to use some other
19799a22 1923construct such as C<last> or C<die>. The author of Perl has never felt the
7660c0ab 1924need to use this form of C<goto> (in Perl, that is--C is another matter).
a0d0e21e 1925
7660c0ab
A
1926The C<goto-EXPR> form expects a label name, whose scope will be resolved
1927dynamically. This allows for computed C<goto>s per FORTRAN, but isn't
748a9306
LW
1928necessarily recommended if you're optimizing for maintainability:
1929
1930 goto ("FOO", "BAR", "GLARCH")[$i];
1931
6cb9131c
GS
1932The C<goto-&NAME> form is quite different from the other forms of C<goto>.
1933In fact, it isn't a goto in the normal sense at all, and doesn't have
1934the stigma associated with other gotos. Instead, it
1935substitutes a call to the named subroutine for the currently running
1936subroutine. This is used by C<AUTOLOAD> subroutines that wish to load
1937another subroutine and then pretend that the other subroutine had been
1938called in the first place (except that any modifications to C<@_>
1939in the current subroutine are propagated to the other subroutine.)
1940After the C<goto>, not even C<caller> will be able to tell that this
1941routine was called first.
1942
1943NAME needn't be the name of a subroutine; it can be a scalar variable
1944containing a code reference, or a block which evaluates to a code
1945reference.
a0d0e21e
LW
1946
1947=item grep BLOCK LIST
1948
1949=item grep EXPR,LIST
1950
2b5ab1e7
TC
1951This is similar in spirit to, but not the same as, grep(1) and its
1952relatives. In particular, it is not limited to using regular expressions.
2f9daede 1953
a0d0e21e 1954Evaluates the BLOCK or EXPR for each element of LIST (locally setting
7660c0ab 1955C<$_> to each element) and returns the list value consisting of those
19799a22
GS
1956elements for which the expression evaluated to true. In scalar
1957context, returns the number of times the expression was true.
a0d0e21e
LW
1958
1959 @foo = grep(!/^#/, @bar); # weed out comments
1960
1961or equivalently,
1962
1963 @foo = grep {!/^#/} @bar; # weed out comments
1964
2b5ab1e7
TC
1965Note that, because C<$_> is a reference into the list value, it can
1966be used to modify the elements of the array. While this is useful and
1967supported, it can cause bizarre results if the LIST is not a named array.
1968Similarly, grep returns aliases into the original list, much as a for
1969loop's index variable aliases the list elements. That is, modifying an
19799a22
GS
1970element of a list returned by grep (for example, in a C<foreach>, C<map>
1971or another C<grep>) actually modifies the element in the original list.
2b5ab1e7 1972This is usually something to be avoided when writing clear code.
a0d0e21e 1973
19799a22 1974See also L</map> for a list composed of the results of the BLOCK or EXPR.
38325410 1975
a0d0e21e
LW
1976=item hex EXPR
1977
54310121 1978=item hex
bbce6d69 1979
2b5ab1e7
TC
1980Interprets EXPR as a hex string and returns the corresponding value.
1981(To convert strings that might start with either 0, 0x, or 0b, see
1982L</oct>.) If EXPR is omitted, uses C<$_>.
2f9daede
TPG
1983
1984 print hex '0xAf'; # prints '175'
1985 print hex 'aF'; # same
a0d0e21e 1986
19799a22 1987Hex strings may only represent integers. Strings that would cause
c6edd1b7 1988integer overflow trigger a warning.
19799a22 1989
a0d0e21e
LW
1990=item import
1991
19799a22 1992There is no builtin C<import> function. It is just an ordinary
4633a7c4 1993method (subroutine) defined (or inherited) by modules that wish to export
19799a22 1994names to another module. The C<use> function calls the C<import> method
54310121 1995for the package used. See also L</use()>, L<perlmod>, and L<Exporter>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1996
1997=item index STR,SUBSTR,POSITION
1998
1999=item index STR,SUBSTR
2000
2b5ab1e7
TC
2001The index function searches for one string within another, but without
2002the wildcard-like behavior of a full regular-expression pattern match.
2003It returns the position of the first occurrence of SUBSTR in STR at
2004or after POSITION. If POSITION is omitted, starts searching from the
2005beginning of the string. The return value is based at C<0> (or whatever
2006you've set the C<$[> variable to--but don't do that). If the substring
2007is not found, returns one less than the base, ordinarily C<-1>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2008
2009=item int EXPR
2010
54310121 2011=item int
bbce6d69 2012
7660c0ab 2013Returns the integer portion of EXPR. If EXPR is omitted, uses C<$_>.
2b5ab1e7
TC
2014You should not use this function for rounding: one because it truncates
2015towards C<0>, and two because machine representations of floating point
2016numbers can sometimes produce counterintuitive results. For example,
2017C<int(-6.725/0.025)> produces -268 rather than the correct -269; that's
2018because it's really more like -268.99999999999994315658 instead. Usually,
19799a22 2019the C<sprintf>, C<printf>, or the C<POSIX::floor> and C<POSIX::ceil>
2b5ab1e7 2020functions will serve you better than will int().
a0d0e21e
LW
2021
2022=item ioctl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR
2023
2b5ab1e7 2024Implements the ioctl(2) function. You'll probably first have to say
a0d0e21e 2025
4633a7c4 2026 require "ioctl.ph"; # probably in /usr/local/lib/perl/ioctl.ph
a0d0e21e 2027
2b5ab1e7 2028to get the correct function definitions. If F<ioctl.ph> doesn't
a0d0e21e 2029exist or doesn't have the correct definitions you'll have to roll your
4633a7c4 2030own, based on your C header files such as F<E<lt>sys/ioctl.hE<gt>>.
5a964f20 2031(There is a Perl script called B<h2ph> that comes with the Perl kit that
54310121 2032may help you in this, but it's nontrivial.) SCALAR will be read and/or
4633a7c4 2033written depending on the FUNCTION--a pointer to the string value of SCALAR
19799a22 2034will be passed as the third argument of the actual C<ioctl> call. (If SCALAR
4633a7c4
LW
2035has no string value but does have a numeric value, that value will be
2036passed rather than a pointer to the string value. To guarantee this to be
19799a22
GS
2037true, add a C<0> to the scalar before using it.) The C<pack> and C<unpack>
2038functions may be needed to manipulate the values of structures used by
2039C<ioctl>.
a0d0e21e 2040
19799a22 2041The return value of C<ioctl> (and C<fcntl>) is as follows:
a0d0e21e
LW
2042
2043 if OS returns: then Perl returns:
2044 -1 undefined value
2045 0 string "0 but true"
2046 anything else that number
2047
19799a22 2048Thus Perl returns true on success and false on failure, yet you can
a0d0e21e
LW
2049still easily determine the actual value returned by the operating
2050system:
2051
2b5ab1e7 2052 $retval = ioctl(...) || -1;
a0d0e21e
LW
2053 printf "System returned %d\n", $retval;
2054
c2611fb3 2055The special string "C<0> but true" is exempt from B<-w> complaints
5a964f20
TC
2056about improper numeric conversions.
2057
19799a22
GS
2058Here's an example of setting a filehandle named C<REMOTE> to be
2059non-blocking at the system level. You'll have to negotiate C<$|>
2060on your own, though.
2061
2062 use Fcntl qw(F_GETFL F_SETFL O_NONBLOCK);
2063
2064 $flags = fcntl(REMOTE, F_GETFL, 0)
2065 or die "Can't get flags for the socket: $!\n";
2066
2067 $flags = fcntl(REMOTE, F_SETFL, $flags | O_NONBLOCK)
2068 or die "Can't set flags for the socket: $!\n";
2069
a0d0e21e
LW
2070=item join EXPR,LIST
2071
2b5ab1e7
TC
2072Joins the separate strings of LIST into a single string with fields
2073separated by the value of EXPR, and returns that new string. Example:
a0d0e21e 2074
2b5ab1e7 2075 $rec = join(':', $login,$passwd,$uid,$gid,$gcos,$home,$shell);
a0d0e21e 2076
eb6e2d6f
GS
2077Beware that unlike C<split>, C<join> doesn't take a pattern as its
2078first argument. Compare L</split>.
a0d0e21e 2079
aa689395
PP
2080=item keys HASH
2081
19799a22 2082Returns a list consisting of all the keys of the named hash. (In
1d2dff63 2083scalar context, returns the number of keys.) The keys are returned in
ab192400
GS
2084an apparently random order. The actual random order is subject to
2085change in future versions of perl, but it is guaranteed to be the same
19799a22 2086order as either the C<values> or C<each> function produces (given
ab192400
GS
2087that the hash has not been modified). As a side effect, it resets
2088HASH's iterator.
a0d0e21e 2089
aa689395 2090Here is yet another way to print your environment:
a0d0e21e
LW
2091
2092 @keys = keys %ENV;
2093 @values = values %ENV;
19799a22 2094 while (@keys) {
a0d0e21e
LW
2095 print pop(@keys), '=', pop(@values), "\n";
2096 }
2097
2098or how about sorted by key:
2099
2100 foreach $key (sort(keys %ENV)) {
2101 print $key, '=', $ENV{$key}, "\n";
2102 }
2103
19799a22 2104To sort a hash by value, you'll need to use a C<sort> function.
aa689395 2105Here's a descending numeric sort of a hash by its values:
4633a7c4 2106
5a964f20 2107 foreach $key (sort { $hash{$b} <=> $hash{$a} } keys %hash) {
4633a7c4
LW
2108 printf "%4d %s\n", $hash{$key}, $key;
2109 }
2110
19799a22 2111As an lvalue C<keys> allows you to increase the number of hash buckets
aa689395
PP
2112allocated for the given hash. This can gain you a measure of efficiency if
2113you know the hash is going to get big. (This is similar to pre-extending
2114an array by assigning a larger number to $#array.) If you say
55497cff
PP
2115
2116 keys %hash = 200;
2117
ab192400
GS
2118then C<%hash> will have at least 200 buckets allocated for it--256 of them,
2119in fact, since it rounds up to the next power of two. These
55497cff
PP
2120buckets will be retained even if you do C<%hash = ()>, use C<undef
2121%hash> if you want to free the storage while C<%hash> is still in scope.
2122You can't shrink the number of buckets allocated for the hash using
19799a22 2123C<keys> in this way (but you needn't worry about doing this by accident,
55497cff
PP
2124as trying has no effect).
2125
19799a22 2126See also C<each>, C<values> and C<sort>.
ab192400 2127
b350dd2f 2128=item kill SIGNAL, LIST
a0d0e21e 2129
b350dd2f 2130Sends a signal to a list of processes. Returns the number of
517db077
GS
2131processes successfully signaled (which is not necessarily the
2132same as the number actually killed).
a0d0e21e
LW
2133
2134 $cnt = kill 1, $child1, $child2;
2135 kill 9, @goners;
2136
b350dd2f
GS
2137If SIGNAL is zero, no signal is sent to the process. This is a
2138useful way to check that the process is alive and hasn't changed
2139its UID. See L<perlport> for notes on the portability of this
2140construct.
2141
2142Unlike in the shell, if SIGNAL is negative, it kills
4633a7c4
LW
2143process groups instead of processes. (On System V, a negative I<PROCESS>
2144number will also kill process groups, but that's not portable.) That
2145means you usually want to use positive not negative signals. You may also
da0045b7 2146use a signal name in quotes. See L<perlipc/"Signals"> for details.
a0d0e21e
LW
2147
2148=item last LABEL
2149
2150=item last
2151
2152The C<last> command is like the C<break> statement in C (as used in
2153loops); it immediately exits the loop in question. If the LABEL is
2154omitted, the command refers to the innermost enclosing loop. The
2155C<continue> block, if any, is not executed:
2156
4633a7c4
LW
2157 LINE: while (<STDIN>) {
2158 last LINE if /^$/; # exit when done with header
5a964f20 2159 #...
a0d0e21e
LW
2160 }
2161
4968c1e4 2162C<last> cannot be used to exit a block which returns a value such as
2b5ab1e7
TC
2163C<eval {}>, C<sub {}> or C<do {}>, and should not be used to exit
2164a grep() or map() operation.
4968c1e4 2165
6c1372ed
GS
2166Note that a block by itself is semantically identical to a loop
2167that executes once. Thus C<last> can be used to effect an early
2168exit out of such a block.
2169
98293880
JH
2170See also L</continue> for an illustration of how C<last>, C<next>, and
2171C<redo> work.
1d2dff63 2172
a0d0e21e
LW
2173=item lc EXPR
2174
54310121 2175=item lc
bbce6d69 2176
a0d0e21e 2177Returns an lowercased version of EXPR. This is the internal function
7660c0ab 2178implementing the C<\L> escape in double-quoted strings.
19799a22
GS
2179Respects current LC_CTYPE locale if C<use locale> in force. See L<perllocale>
2180and L<utf8>.
a0d0e21e 2181
7660c0ab 2182If EXPR is omitted, uses C<$_>.
bbce6d69 2183
a0d0e21e
LW
2184=item lcfirst EXPR
2185
54310121 2186=item lcfirst
bbce6d69 2187
a0d0e21e 2188Returns the value of EXPR with the first character lowercased. This is
7660c0ab 2189the internal function implementing the C<\l> escape in double-quoted strings.
a0ed51b3 2190Respects current LC_CTYPE locale if C<use locale> in force. See L<perllocale>.
a0d0e21e 2191
7660c0ab 2192If EXPR is omitted, uses C<$_>.
bbce6d69 2193
a0d0e21e
LW
2194=item length EXPR
2195
54310121 2196=item length
bbce6d69 2197
a0ed51b3 2198Returns the length in characters of the value of EXPR. If EXPR is
2b5ab1e7
TC
2199omitted, returns length of C<$_>. Note that this cannot be used on
2200an entire array or hash to find out how many elements these have.
2201For that, use C<scalar @array> and C<scalar keys %hash> respectively.
a0d0e21e
LW
2202
2203=item link OLDFILE,NEWFILE
2204
19799a22
GS
2205Creates a new filename linked to the old filename. Returns true for
2206success, false otherwise.
a0d0e21e
LW
2207
2208=item listen SOCKET,QUEUESIZE
2209
19799a22
GS
2210Does the same thing that the listen system call does. Returns true if
2211it succeeded, false otherwise. See the example in L<perlipc/"Sockets: Client/Server Communication">.
a0d0e21e
LW
2212
2213=item local EXPR
2214
19799a22 2215You really probably want to be using C<my> instead, because C<local> isn't
2b5ab1e7
TC
2216what most people think of as "local". See L<perlsub/"Private Variables
2217via my()"> for details.
2218
5a964f20
TC
2219A local modifies the listed variables to be local to the enclosing
2220block, file, or eval. If more than one value is listed, the list must
2221be placed in parentheses. See L<perlsub/"Temporary Values via local()">
2222for details, including issues with tied arrays and hashes.
a0d0e21e 2223
a0d0e21e
LW
2224=item localtime EXPR
2225
19799a22 2226Converts a time as returned by the time function to a 9-element list
5f05dabc 2227with the time analyzed for the local time zone. Typically used as
a0d0e21e
LW
2228follows:
2229
54310121 2230 # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
a0d0e21e
LW
2231 ($sec,$min,$hour,$mday,$mon,$year,$wday,$yday,$isdst) =
2232 localtime(time);
2233
19799a22
GS
2234All list elements are numeric, and come straight out of a struct tm.
2235In particular this means that $mon has the range C<0..11> and $wday
2236has the range C<0..6> with sunday as day C<0>. Also, $year is the
2237number of years since 1900, that is, $year is C<123> in year 2023,
2b5ab1e7
TC
2238and I<not> simply the last two digits of the year. If you assume it is,
2239then you create non-Y2K-compliant programs--and you wouldn't want to do
2240that, would you?
54310121
PP
2241
2242If EXPR is omitted, uses the current time (C<localtime(time)>).
a0d0e21e 2243
f86cebdf 2244In scalar context, returns the ctime(3) value:
a0d0e21e 2245
5f05dabc 2246 $now_string = localtime; # e.g., "Thu Oct 13 04:54:34 1994"
a0d0e21e 2247
a3cb178b 2248This scalar value is B<not> locale dependent, see L<perllocale>, but
68f8bed4
JH
2249instead a Perl builtin. Also see the C<Time::Local> module
2250(to convert the second, minutes, hours, ... back to seconds since the
2251stroke of midnight the 1st of January 1970, the value returned by
2252time()), and the strftime(3) and mktime(3) function available via the
2253POSIX module. To get somewhat similar but locale dependent date
2254strings, set up your locale environment variables appropriately
2255(please see L<perllocale>) and try for example:
a3cb178b 2256
5a964f20 2257 use POSIX qw(strftime);
2b5ab1e7 2258 $now_string = strftime "%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Y", localtime;
a3cb178b
GS
2259
2260Note that the C<%a> and C<%b>, the short forms of the day of the week
2261and the month of the year, may not necessarily be three characters wide.
a0d0e21e 2262
19799a22
GS
2263=item lock
2264
2265 lock I<THING>
2266
2267This function places an advisory lock on a variable, subroutine,
2268or referenced object contained in I<THING> until the lock goes out
2269of scope. This is a built-in function only if your version of Perl
2270was built with threading enabled, and if you've said C<use Threads>.
2271Otherwise a user-defined function by this name will be called. See
2272L<Thread>.
2273
a0d0e21e
LW
2274=item log EXPR
2275
54310121 2276=item log
bbce6d69 2277
2b5ab1e7
TC
2278Returns the natural logarithm (base I<e>) of EXPR. If EXPR is omitted,
2279returns log of C<$_>. To get the log of another base, use basic algebra:
19799a22 2280The base-N log of a number is equal to the natural log of that number
2b5ab1e7
TC
2281divided by the natural log of N. For example:
2282
2283 sub log10 {
2284 my $n = shift;
2285 return log($n)/log(10);
2286 }
2287
2288See also L</exp> for the inverse operation.
a0d0e21e
LW
2289
2290=item lstat FILEHANDLE
2291
2292=item lstat EXPR
2293
54310121 2294=item lstat
bbce6d69 2295
19799a22 2296Does the same thing as the C<stat> function (including setting the
5a964f20
TC
2297special C<_> filehandle) but stats a symbolic link instead of the file
2298the symbolic link points to. If symbolic links are unimplemented on
19799a22 2299your system, a normal C<stat> is done.
a0d0e21e 2300
7660c0ab 2301If EXPR is omitted, stats C<$_>.
bbce6d69 2302
a0d0e21e
LW
2303=item m//
2304
2305The match operator. See L<perlop>.
2306
2307=item map BLOCK LIST
2308
2309=item map EXPR,LIST
2310
19799a22
GS
2311Evaluates the BLOCK or EXPR for each element of LIST (locally setting
2312C<$_> to each element) and returns the list value composed of the
2313results of each such evaluation. In scalar context, returns the
2314total number of elements so generated. Evaluates BLOCK or EXPR in
2315list context, so each element of LIST may produce zero, one, or
2316more elements in the returned value.
dd99ebda 2317
a0d0e21e
LW
2318 @chars = map(chr, @nums);
2319
2320translates a list of numbers to the corresponding characters. And
2321
4633a7c4 2322 %hash = map { getkey($_) => $_ } @array;
a0d0e21e
LW
2323
2324is just a funny way to write
2325
2326 %hash = ();
2327 foreach $_ (@array) {
4633a7c4 2328 $hash{getkey($_)} = $_;
a0d0e21e
LW
2329 }
2330
2b5ab1e7
TC
2331Note that, because C<$_> is a reference into the list value, it can
2332be used to modify the elements of the array. While this is useful and
2333supported, it can cause bizarre results if the LIST is not a named array.
2334Using a regular C<foreach> loop for this purpose would be clearer in
2335most cases. See also L</grep> for an array composed of those items of
2336the original list for which the BLOCK or EXPR evaluates to true.
fb73857a 2337
19799a22 2338=item mkdir FILENAME,MASK
a0d0e21e 2339
0591cd52 2340Creates the directory specified by FILENAME, with permissions
19799a22
GS
2341specified by MASK (as modified by C<umask>). If it succeeds it
2342returns true, otherwise it returns false and sets C<$!> (errno).
0591cd52 2343
19799a22 2344In general, it is better to create directories with permissive MASK,
0591cd52 2345and let the user modify that with their C<umask>, than it is to supply
19799a22 2346a restrictive MASK and give the user no way to be more permissive.
0591cd52
NT
2347The exceptions to this rule are when the file or directory should be
2348kept private (mail files, for instance). The perlfunc(1) entry on
19799a22 2349C<umask> discusses the choice of MASK in more detail.
a0d0e21e
LW
2350
2351=item msgctl ID,CMD,ARG
2352
f86cebdf 2353Calls the System V IPC function msgctl(2). You'll probably have to say
0ade1984
JH
2354
2355 use IPC::SysV;
2356
7660c0ab
A
2357first to get the correct constant definitions. If CMD is C<IPC_STAT>,
2358then ARG must be a variable which will hold the returned C<msqid_ds>
19799a22
GS
2359structure. Returns like C<ioctl>: the undefined value for error, C<"0 but
2360true"> for zero, or the actual return value otherwise. See also
2361C<IPC::SysV> and C<IPC::Semaphore> documentation.
a0d0e21e
LW
2362
2363=item msgget KEY,FLAGS
2364
f86cebdf 2365Calls the System V IPC function msgget(2). Returns the message queue
7660c0ab 2366id, or the undefined value if there is an error. See also C<IPC::SysV>
19799a22 2367and C<IPC::Msg> documentation.
a0d0e21e
LW
2368
2369=item msgsnd ID,MSG,FLAGS
2370
2371Calls the System V IPC function msgsnd to send the message MSG to the
2372message queue ID. MSG must begin with the long integer message type,
19799a22
GS
2373which may be created with C<pack("l", $type)>. Returns true if
2374successful, or false if there is an error. See also C<IPC::SysV>
7660c0ab 2375and C<IPC::SysV::Msg> documentation.
a0d0e21e
LW
2376
2377=item msgrcv ID,VAR,SIZE,TYPE,FLAGS
2378
2379Calls the System V IPC function msgrcv to receive a message from
2380message queue ID into variable VAR with a maximum message size of
0ade1984
JH
2381SIZE. Note that if a message is received, the message type will be
2382the first thing in VAR, and the maximum length of VAR is SIZE plus the
19799a22 2383size of the message type. Returns true if successful, or false if
7660c0ab 2384there is an error. See also C<IPC::SysV> and C<IPC::SysV::Msg> documentation.
a0d0e21e
LW
2385
2386=item my EXPR
2387
09bef843
SB
2388=item my EXPR : ATTRIBUTES
2389
19799a22
GS
2390A C<my> declares the listed variables to be local (lexically) to the
2391enclosing block, file, or C<eval>. If
5f05dabc 2392more than one value is listed, the list must be placed in parentheses. See
cb1a09d0 2393L<perlsub/"Private Variables via my()"> for details.
4633a7c4 2394
a0d0e21e
LW
2395=item next LABEL
2396
2397=item next
2398
2399The C<next> command is like the C<continue> statement in C; it starts
2400the next iteration of the loop:
2401
4633a7c4
LW
2402 LINE: while (<STDIN>) {
2403 next LINE if /^#/; # discard comments
5a964f20 2404 #...
a0d0e21e
LW
2405 }
2406
2407Note that if there were a C<continue> block on the above, it would get
2408executed even on discarded lines. If the LABEL is omitted, the command
2409refers to the innermost enclosing loop.
2410
4968c1e4 2411C<next> cannot be used to exit a block which returns a value such as
2b5ab1e7
TC
2412C<eval {}>, C<sub {}> or C<do {}>, and should not be used to exit
2413a grep() or map() operation.
4968c1e4 2414
6c1372ed
GS
2415Note that a block by itself is semantically identical to a loop
2416that executes once. Thus C<next> will exit such a block early.
2417
98293880
JH
2418See also L</continue> for an illustration of how C<last>, C<next>, and
2419C<redo> work.
1d2dff63 2420
a0d0e21e
LW
2421=item no Module LIST
2422
7660c0ab 2423See the L</use> function, which C<no> is the opposite of.
a0d0e21e
LW
2424
2425=item oct EXPR
2426
54310121 2427=item oct
bbce6d69 2428
4633a7c4 2429Interprets EXPR as an octal string and returns the corresponding
4f19785b
WSI
2430value. (If EXPR happens to start off with C<0x>, interprets it as a
2431hex string. If EXPR starts off with C<0b>, it is interpreted as a
2432binary string.) The following will handle decimal, binary, octal, and
4633a7c4 2433hex in the standard Perl or C notation:
a0d0e21e
LW
2434
2435 $val = oct($val) if $val =~ /^0/;
2436
19799a22
GS
2437If EXPR is omitted, uses C<$_>. To go the other way (produce a number
2438in octal), use sprintf() or printf():
2439
2440 $perms = (stat("filename"))[2] & 07777;
2441 $oct_perms = sprintf "%lo", $perms;
2442
2443The oct() function is commonly used when a string such as C<644> needs
2444to be converted into a file mode, for example. (Although perl will
2445automatically convert strings into numbers as needed, this automatic
2446conversion assumes base 10.)
a0d0e21e 2447
6170680b
IZ
2448=item open FILEHANDLE,MODE,EXPR
2449
a0d0e21e
LW
2450=item open FILEHANDLE,EXPR
2451
2452=item open FILEHANDLE
2453
2454Opens the file whose filename is given by EXPR, and associates it with
5f05dabc
PP
2455FILEHANDLE. If FILEHANDLE is an expression, its value is used as the
2456name of the real filehandle wanted. If EXPR is omitted, the scalar
2457variable of the same name as the FILEHANDLE contains the filename.
19799a22
GS
2458(Note that lexical variables--those declared with C<my>--will not work
2459for this purpose; so if you're using C<my>, specify EXPR in your call
2b5ab1e7
TC
2460to open.) See L<perlopentut> for a kinder, gentler explanation of opening
2461files.
5f05dabc 2462
6170680b
IZ
2463If MODE is C<'E<lt>'> or nothing, the file is opened for input.
2464If MODE is C<'E<gt>'>, the file is truncated and opened for
2465output, being created if necessary. If MODE is C<'E<gt>E<gt>'>,
fbb426e4 2466the file is opened for appending, again being created if necessary.
7660c0ab
A
2467You can put a C<'+'> in front of the C<'E<gt>'> or C<'E<lt>'> to indicate that
2468you want both read and write access to the file; thus C<'+E<lt>'> is almost
2469always preferred for read/write updates--the C<'+E<gt>'> mode would clobber the
5a964f20
TC
2470file first. You can't usually use either read-write mode for updating
2471textfiles, since they have variable length records. See the B<-i>
0591cd52
NT
2472switch in L<perlrun> for a better approach. The file is created with
2473permissions of C<0666> modified by the process' C<umask> value.
5a964f20 2474
f86cebdf 2475These various prefixes correspond to the fopen(3) modes of C<'r'>, C<'r+'>, C<'w'>,
7660c0ab 2476C<'w+'>, C<'a'>, and C<'a+'>.
5f05dabc 2477
6170680b
IZ
2478In the 2-arguments (and 1-argument) form of the call the mode and
2479filename should be concatenated (in this order), possibly separated by
2480spaces. It is possible to omit the mode if the mode is C<'E<lt>'>.
2481
7660c0ab 2482If the filename begins with C<'|'>, the filename is interpreted as a
5a964f20 2483command to which output is to be piped, and if the filename ends with a
f244e06d
GS
2484C<'|'>, the filename is interpreted as a command which pipes output to
2485us. See L<perlipc/"Using open() for IPC">
19799a22 2486for more examples of this. (You are not allowed to C<open> to a command
5a964f20
TC
2487that pipes both in I<and> out, but see L<IPC::Open2>, L<IPC::Open3>,
2488and L<perlipc/"Bidirectional Communication"> for alternatives.)
cb1a09d0 2489
6170680b
IZ
2490If MODE is C<'|-'>, the filename is interpreted as a
2491command to which output is to be piped, and if MODE is
2492C<'-|'>, the filename is interpreted as a command which pipes output to
2493us. In the 2-arguments (and 1-argument) form one should replace dash
2494(C<'-'>) with the command. See L<perlipc/"Using open() for IPC">
2495for more examples of this. (You are not allowed to C<open> to a command
2496that pipes both in I<and> out, but see L<IPC::Open2>, L<IPC::Open3>,
2497and L<perlipc/"Bidirectional Communication"> for alternatives.)
2498
2499In the 2-arguments (and 1-argument) form opening C<'-'> opens STDIN
2500and opening C<'E<gt>-'> opens STDOUT.
2501
2502Open returns
19799a22 2503nonzero upon success, the undefined value otherwise. If the C<open>
4633a7c4 2504involved a pipe, the return value happens to be the pid of the
54310121 2505subprocess.
cb1a09d0
AD
2506
2507If you're unfortunate enough to be running Perl on a system that
2508distinguishes between text files and binary files (modern operating
2509systems don't care), then you should check out L</binmode> for tips for
19799a22 2510dealing with this. The key distinction between systems that need C<binmode>
5a964f20
TC
2511and those that don't is their text file formats. Systems like Unix, MacOS, and
2512Plan9, which delimit lines with a single character, and which encode that
19799a22 2513character in C as C<"\n">, do not need C<binmode>. The rest need it.
cb1a09d0 2514
fb73857a 2515When opening a file, it's usually a bad idea to continue normal execution
19799a22
GS
2516if the request failed, so C<open> is frequently used in connection with
2517C<die>. Even if C<die> won't do what you want (say, in a CGI script,
fb73857a 2518where you want to make a nicely formatted error message (but there are
5a964f20 2519modules that can help with that problem)) you should always check
19799a22 2520the return value from opening a file. The infrequent exception is when
fb73857a
PP
2521working with an unopened filehandle is actually what you want to do.
2522
cb1a09d0 2523Examples:
a0d0e21e
LW
2524
2525 $ARTICLE = 100;
2526 open ARTICLE or die "Can't find article $ARTICLE: $!\n";
2527 while (<ARTICLE>) {...
2528
6170680b 2529 open(LOG, '>>/usr/spool/news/twitlog'); # (log is reserved)
fb73857a 2530 # if the open fails, output is discarded
a0d0e21e 2531
6170680b 2532 open(DBASE, '+<', 'dbase.mine') # open for update
fb73857a 2533 or die "Can't open 'dbase.mine' for update: $!";
cb1a09d0 2534
6170680b
IZ
2535 open(DBASE, '+<dbase.mine') # ditto
2536 or die "Can't open 'dbase.mine' for update: $!";
2537
2538 open(ARTICLE, '-|', "caesar <$article") # decrypt article
fb73857a 2539 or die "Can't start caesar: $!";
a0d0e21e 2540
6170680b
IZ
2541 open(ARTICLE, "caesar <$article |") # ditto
2542 or die "Can't start caesar: $!";
2543
2544 open(EXTRACT, "|sort >/tmp/Tmp$$") # $$ is our process id
fb73857a 2545 or die "Can't start sort: $!";
a0d0e21e
LW
2546
2547 # process argument list of files along with any includes
2548
2549 foreach $file (@ARGV) {
2550 process($file, 'fh00');
2551 }
2552
2553 sub process {
5a964f20 2554 my($filename, $input) = @_;
a0d0e21e
LW
2555 $input++; # this is a string increment
2556 unless (open($input, $filename)) {
2557 print STDERR "Can't open $filename: $!\n";
2558 return;
2559 }
2560
5a964f20 2561 local $_;
a0d0e21e
LW
2562 while (<$input>) { # note use of indirection
2563 if (/^#include "(.*)"/) {
2564 process($1, $input);
2565 next;
2566 }
5a964f20 2567 #... # whatever
a0d0e21e
LW
2568 }
2569 }
2570
2571You may also, in the Bourne shell tradition, specify an EXPR beginning
7660c0ab 2572with C<'E<gt>&'>, in which case the rest of the string is interpreted as the
5a964f20 2573name of a filehandle (or file descriptor, if numeric) to be
6170680b
IZ
2574duped and opened. You may use C<&> after C<E<gt>>, C<E<gt>E<gt>>,
2575C<E<lt>>, C<+E<gt>>, C<+E<gt>E<gt>>, and C<+E<lt>>. The
a0d0e21e 2576mode you specify should match the mode of the original filehandle.
184e9718 2577(Duping a filehandle does not take into account any existing contents of
6170680b
IZ
2578stdio buffers.) Duping file handles is not yet supported for 3-argument
2579open().
2580
a0d0e21e
LW
2581Here is a script that saves, redirects, and restores STDOUT and
2582STDERR:
2583
2584 #!/usr/bin/perl
5a964f20
TC
2585 open(OLDOUT, ">&STDOUT");
2586 open(OLDERR, ">&STDERR");
a0d0e21e 2587
6170680b
IZ
2588 open(STDOUT, '>', "foo.out") || die "Can't redirect stdout";
2589 open(STDERR, ">&STDOUT") || die "Can't dup stdout";
a0d0e21e
LW
2590
2591 select(STDERR); $| = 1; # make unbuffered
2592 select(STDOUT); $| = 1; # make unbuffered
2593
2594 print STDOUT "stdout 1\n"; # this works for
2595 print STDERR "stderr 1\n"; # subprocesses too
2596
2597 close(STDOUT);
2598 close(STDERR);
2599
5a964f20
TC
2600 open(STDOUT, ">&OLDOUT");
2601 open(STDERR, ">&OLDERR");
a0d0e21e
LW
2602
2603 print STDOUT "stdout 2\n";
2604 print STDERR "stderr 2\n";
2605
7660c0ab 2606If you specify C<'E<lt>&=N'>, where C<N> is a number, then Perl will do an
19799a22 2607equivalent of C's C<fdopen> of that file descriptor; this is more
4633a7c4 2608parsimonious of file descriptors. For example:
a0d0e21e
LW
2609
2610 open(FILEHANDLE, "<&=$fd")
2611
4af147f6
CS
2612Note that this feature depends on the fdopen() C library function.
2613On many UNIX systems, fdopen() is known to fail when file descriptors
2614exceed a certain value, typically 255. If you need more file
2615descriptors than that, consider rebuilding Perl to use the C<sfio>
2616library.
2617
6170680b
IZ
2618If you open a pipe on the command C<'-'>, i.e., either C<'|-'> or C<'-|'>
2619with 2-arguments (or 1-argument) form of open(), then
a0d0e21e 2620there is an implicit fork done, and the return value of open is the pid
7660c0ab 2621of the child within the parent process, and C<0> within the child
184e9718 2622process. (Use C<defined($pid)> to determine whether the open was successful.)
a0d0e21e
LW
2623The filehandle behaves normally for the parent, but i/o to that
2624filehandle is piped from/to the STDOUT/STDIN of the child process.
2625In the child process the filehandle isn't opened--i/o happens from/to
2626the new STDOUT or STDIN. Typically this is used like the normal
2627piped open when you want to exercise more control over just how the
2628pipe command gets executed, such as when you are running setuid, and
54310121 2629don't want to have to scan shell commands for metacharacters.
6170680b 2630The following triples are more or less equivalent:
a0d0e21e
LW
2631
2632 open(FOO, "|tr '[a-z]' '[A-Z]'");
6170680b
IZ
2633 open(FOO, '|-', "tr '[a-z]' '[A-Z]'");
2634 open(FOO, '|-') || exec 'tr', '[a-z]', '[A-Z]';
a0d0e21e
LW
2635
2636 open(FOO, "cat -n '$file'|");
6170680b
IZ
2637 open(FOO, '-|', "cat -n '$file'");
2638 open(FOO, '-|') || exec 'cat', '-n', $file;
a0d0e21e 2639
4633a7c4
LW
2640See L<perlipc/"Safe Pipe Opens"> for more examples of this.
2641
45bc9206
GS
2642NOTE: On any operation that may do a fork, all files opened for output
2643are flushed before the fork is attempted. On systems that support a
2644close-on-exec flag on files, the flag will be set for the newly opened
2645file descriptor as determined by the value of $^F. See L<perlvar/$^F>.
a0d0e21e 2646
0dccf244
CS
2647Closing any piped filehandle causes the parent process to wait for the
2648child to finish, and returns the status value in C<$?>.
2649
6170680b
IZ
2650The filename passed to 2-argument (or 1-argument) form of open()
2651will have leading and trailing
f86cebdf 2652whitespace deleted, and the normal redirection characters
5a964f20
TC
2653honored. This property, known as "magic open",
2654can often be used to good effect. A user could specify a filename of
7660c0ab 2655F<"rsh cat file |">, or you could change certain filenames as needed:
5a964f20
TC
2656
2657 $filename =~ s/(.*\.gz)\s*$/gzip -dc < $1|/;
2658 open(FH, $filename) or die "Can't open $filename: $!";
2659
6170680b
IZ
2660Use 3-argument form to open a file with arbitrary weird characters in it,
2661
2662 open(FOO, '<', $file);
2663
2664otherwise it's necessary to protect any leading and trailing whitespace:
5a964f20
TC
2665
2666 $file =~ s#^(\s)#./$1#;
2667 open(FOO, "< $file\0");
2668
6170680b
IZ
2669(this may not work on some bizzare filesystems). One should
2670conscientiously choose between the the I<magic> and 3-arguments form
2671of open():
2672
2673 open IN, $ARGV[0];
2674
2675will allow the user to specify an argument of the form C<"rsh cat file |">,
2676but will not work on a filename which happens to have a trailing space, while
2677
2678 open IN, '<', $ARGV[0];
2679
2680will have exactly the opposite restrictions.
2681
19799a22 2682If you want a "real" C C<open> (see L<open(2)> on your system), then you
6170680b
IZ
2683should use the C<sysopen> function, which involves no such magic (but
2684may use subtly different filemodes than Perl open(), which is mapped
2685to C fopen()). This is
5a964f20
TC
2686another way to protect your filenames from interpretation. For example:
2687
2688 use IO::Handle;
2689 sysopen(HANDLE, $path, O_RDWR|O_CREAT|O_EXCL)
2690 or die "sysopen $path: $!";
2691 $oldfh = select(HANDLE); $| = 1; select($oldfh);
2692 print HANDLE "stuff $$\n");
2693 seek(HANDLE, 0, 0);
2694 print "File contains: ", <HANDLE>;
2695
7660c0ab
A
2696Using the constructor from the C<IO::Handle> package (or one of its
2697subclasses, such as C<IO::File> or C<IO::Socket>), you can generate anonymous
5a964f20
TC
2698filehandles that have the scope of whatever variables hold references to
2699them, and automatically close whenever and however you leave that scope:
c07a80fd 2700
5f05dabc 2701 use IO::File;
5a964f20 2702 #...
c07a80fd
PP
2703 sub read_myfile_munged {
2704 my $ALL = shift;
5f05dabc 2705 my $handle = new IO::File;
c07a80fd
PP
2706 open($handle, "myfile") or die "myfile: $!";
2707 $first = <$handle>
2708 or return (); # Automatically closed here.
2709 mung $first or die "mung failed"; # Or here.
2710 return $first, <$handle> if $ALL; # Or here.
2711 $first; # Or here.
2712 }
2713
b687b08b 2714See L</seek> for some details about mixing reading and writing.
a0d0e21e
LW
2715
2716=item opendir DIRHANDLE,EXPR
2717
19799a22
GS
2718Opens a directory named EXPR for processing by C<readdir>, C<telldir>,
2719C<seekdir>, C<rewinddir>, and C<closedir>. Returns true if successful.
a0d0e21e
LW
2720DIRHANDLEs have their own namespace separate from FILEHANDLEs.
2721
2722=item ord EXPR
2723
54310121 2724=item ord
bbce6d69 2725
a0ed51b3 2726Returns the numeric (ASCII or Unicode) value of the first character of EXPR. If
7660c0ab 2727EXPR is omitted, uses C<$_>. For the reverse, see L</chr>.
2b5ab1e7 2728See L<utf8> for more about Unicode.
a0d0e21e 2729
77ca0c92
LW
2730=item our EXPR
2731
2732An C<our> declares the listed variables to be valid globals within
2733the enclosing block, file, or C<eval>. That is, it has the same
2734scoping rules as a "my" declaration, but does not create a local
2735variable. If more than one value is listed, the list must be placed
2736in parentheses. The C<our> declaration has no semantic effect unless
2737"use strict vars" is in effect, in which case it lets you use the
2738declared global variable without qualifying it with a package name.
2739(But only within the lexical scope of the C<our> declaration. In this
2740it differs from "use vars", which is package scoped.)
2741
a0d0e21e
LW
2742=item pack TEMPLATE,LIST
2743
2b6c5635
GS
2744Takes a LIST of values and converts it into a string using the rules
2745given by the TEMPLATE. The resulting string is the concatenation of
2746the converted values. Typically, each converted value looks
2747like its machine-level representation. For example, on 32-bit machines
2748a converted integer may be represented by a sequence of 4 bytes.
2749
2750The TEMPLATE is a
a0d0e21e
LW
2751sequence of characters that give the order and type of values, as
2752follows:
2753
5a929a98 2754 a A string with arbitrary binary data, will be null padded.
a0d0e21e 2755 A An ascii string, will be space padded.
5a929a98
VU
2756 Z A null terminated (asciz) string, will be null padded.
2757
2b6c5635
GS
2758 b A bit string (ascending bit order inside each byte, like vec()).
2759 B A bit string (descending bit order inside each byte).
a0d0e21e
LW
2760 h A hex string (low nybble first).
2761 H A hex string (high nybble first).
2762
2763 c A signed char value.
a0ed51b3 2764 C An unsigned char value. Only does bytes. See U for Unicode.
96e4d5b1 2765
a0d0e21e
LW
2766 s A signed short value.
2767 S An unsigned short value.
96e4d5b1 2768 (This 'short' is _exactly_ 16 bits, which may differ from
851646ae
JH
2769 what a local C compiler calls 'short'. If you want
2770 native-length shorts, use the '!' suffix.)
96e4d5b1 2771
a0d0e21e
LW
2772 i A signed integer value.
2773 I An unsigned integer value.
19799a22 2774 (This 'integer' is _at_least_ 32 bits wide. Its exact
f86cebdf
GS
2775 size depends on what a local C compiler calls 'int',
2776 and may even be larger than the 'long' described in
2777 the next item.)
96e4d5b1 2778
a0d0e21e
LW
2779 l A signed long value.
2780 L An unsigned long value.
96e4d5b1 2781 (This 'long' is _exactly_ 32 bits, which may differ from
851646ae
JH
2782 what a local C compiler calls 'long'. If you want
2783 native-length longs, use the '!' suffix.)
a0d0e21e 2784
5d11dd56
G
2785 n An unsigned short in "network" (big-endian) order.
2786 N An unsigned long in "network" (big-endian) order.
2787 v An unsigned short in "VAX" (little-endian) order.
2788 V An unsigned long in "VAX" (little-endian) order.
96e4d5b1
PP
2789 (These 'shorts' and 'longs' are _exactly_ 16 bits and
2790 _exactly_ 32 bits, respectively.)
a0d0e21e 2791
dae0da7a
JH
2792 q A signed quad (64-bit) value.
2793 Q An unsigned quad value.
851646ae
JH
2794 (Quads are available only if your system supports 64-bit
2795 integer values _and_ if Perl has been compiled to support those.
dae0da7a
JH
2796 Causes a fatal error otherwise.)
2797
a0d0e21e
LW
2798 f A single-precision float in the native format.
2799 d A double-precision float in the native format.
2800
2801 p A pointer to a null-terminated string.
2802 P A pointer to a structure (fixed-length string).
2803
2804 u A uuencoded string.
a0ed51b3
LW
2805 U A Unicode character number. Encodes to UTF-8 internally.
2806 Works even if C<use utf8> is not in effect.
a0d0e21e 2807
96e4d5b1 2808 w A BER compressed integer. Its bytes represent an unsigned
f86cebdf
GS
2809 integer in base 128, most significant digit first, with as
2810 few digits as possible. Bit eight (the high bit) is set
2811 on each byte except the last.
def98dd4 2812
a0d0e21e
LW
2813 x A null byte.
2814 X Back up a byte.
2815 @ Null fill to absolute position.
2816
5a929a98
VU
2817The following rules apply:
2818
2819=over 8
2820
2821=item *
2822
5a964f20 2823Each letter may optionally be followed by a number giving a repeat
5a929a98
VU
2824count. With all types except C<"a">, C<"A">, C<"Z">, C<"b">, C<"B">, C<"h">,
2825C<"H">, and C<"P"> the pack function will gobble up that many values from
2826the LIST. A C<*> for the repeat count means to use however many items are
2b6c5635
GS
2827left, except for C<"@">, C<"x">, C<"X">, where it is equivalent
2828to C<"0">, and C<"u">, where it is equivalent to 1 (or 45, what is the
2829same).
2830
2831When used with C<"Z">, C<*> results in the addition of a trailing null
2832byte (so the packed result will be one longer than the byte C<length>
2833of the item).
2834
2835The repeat count for C<"u"> is interpreted as the maximal number of bytes
2836to encode per line of output, with 0 and 1 replaced by 45.
5a929a98
VU
2837
2838=item *
2839
2b5ab1e7 2840The C<"a">, C<"A">, and C<"Z"> types gobble just one value, but pack it as a
5a929a98
VU
2841string of length count, padding with nulls or spaces as necessary. When
2842unpacking, C<"A"> strips trailing spaces and nulls, C<"Z"> strips everything
2b6c5635
GS
2843after the first null, and C<"a"> returns data verbatim. When packing,
2844C<"a">, and C<"Z"> are equivalent.
2845
2846If the value-to-pack is too long, it is truncated. If too long and an
2847explicit count is provided, C<"Z"> packs only C<$count-1> bytes, followed
2848by a null byte. Thus C<"Z"> always packs a trailing null byte under
2849all circumstances.
5a929a98
VU
2850
2851=item *
2852
2853Likewise, the C<"b"> and C<"B"> fields pack a string that many bits long.
2b6c5635
GS
2854Each byte of the input field generates 1 bit of the result basing on
2855the least-signifant bit of each input byte, i.e., on C<ord($byte)%2>.
2856In particular, bytes C<"0"> and C<"1"> generate bits 0 and 1.
2857
2858Starting from the beginning of the input string, each 8-tuple of bytes
2859is converted to 1 byte of output. If the length of the input string
2860is not divisible by 8, the remainder is packed as if padded by 0s.
2861Similarly, during unpack()ing the "extra" bits are ignored.
2862
2863If the input string is longer than needed, extra bytes are ignored.
2864A C<*> for the repeat count of pack() means to use all the bytes of
2865the input field. On unpack()ing the bits are converted to a string
2866of C<"0">s and C<"1">s.
5a929a98
VU
2867
2868=item *
2869
851646ae
JH
2870The C<"h"> and C<"H"> fields pack a string that many nybbles (4-bit groups,
2871representable as hexadecimal digits, 0-9a-f) long.
5a929a98
VU
2872
2873=item *
2874
2875The C<"p"> type packs a pointer to a null-terminated string. You are
2876responsible for ensuring the string is not a temporary value (which can
2877potentially get deallocated before you get around to using the packed result).
2878The C<"P"> type packs a pointer to a structure of the size indicated by the
19799a22 2879length. A NULL pointer is created if the corresponding value for C<"p"> or
2b6c5635 2880C<"P"> is C<undef>, similarly for unpack().
5a929a98
VU
2881
2882=item *
2883
17f4a12d 2884The C<"/"> character allows packing and unpacking of strings where the
43192e07 2885packed structure contains a byte count followed by the string itself.
17f4a12d 2886You write I<length-item>C</>I<string-item>.
43192e07
IP
2887
2888The I<length-item> can be any C<pack> template letter,
2889and describes how the length value is packed.
2890The ones likely to be of most use are integer-packing ones like
2891C<"n"> (for Java strings), C<"w"> (for ASN.1 or SNMP)
2892and C<"N"> (for Sun XDR).
2893
2894The I<string-item> must, at present, be C<"A*">, C<"a*"> or C<"Z*">.
2895For C<unpack> the length of the string is obtained from the I<length-item>,
2896but if you put in the '*' it will be ignored.
2897
17f4a12d
IZ
2898 unpack 'C/a', "\04Gurusamy"; gives 'Guru'
2899 unpack 'a3/A* A*', '007 Bond J '; gives (' Bond','J')
2900 pack 'n/a* w/a*','hello,','world'; gives "\000\006hello,\005world"
43192e07
IP
2901
2902The I<length-item> is not returned explicitly from C<unpack>.
2903
2904Adding a count to the I<length-item> letter
2905is unlikely to do anything useful,
2906unless that letter is C<"A">, C<"a"> or C<"Z">.
2907Packing with a I<length-item> of C<"a"> or C<"Z">
2908may introduce C<"\000"> characters,
2909which Perl does not regard as legal in numeric strings.
2910
2911=item *
2912
ef54e1a4 2913The integer types C<"s">, C<"S">, C<"l">, and C<"L"> may be
851646ae
JH
2914immediately followed by a C<"!"> suffix to signify native shorts or
2915longs--as you can see from above for example a bare C<"l"> does mean
2916exactly 32 bits, the native C<long> (as seen by the local C compiler)
2917may be larger. This is an issue mainly in 64-bit platforms. You can
2918see whether using C<"!"> makes any difference by
726ea183 2919
4d0c1c44
GS
2920 print length(pack("s")), " ", length(pack("s!")), "\n";
2921 print length(pack("l")), " ", length(pack("l!")), "\n";
ef54e1a4 2922
4d0c1c44 2923C<"i!"> and C<"I!"> also work but only because of completeness;
ef54e1a4
JH
2924they are identical to C<"i"> and C<"I">.
2925
19799a22
GS
2926The actual sizes (in bytes) of native shorts, ints, longs, and long
2927longs on the platform where Perl was built are also available via
2928L<Config>:
2929
2930 use Config;
2931 print $Config{shortsize}, "\n";
2932 print $Config{intsize}, "\n";
2933 print $Config{longsize}, "\n";
2934 print $Config{longlongsize}, "\n";
ef54e1a4 2935
5074e145 2936(The C<$Config{longlongsize}> will be undefine if your system does
851646ae
JH
2937not support long longs.)
2938
ef54e1a4
JH
2939=item *
2940
2941The integer formats C<"s">, C<"S">, C<"i">, C<"I">, C<"l">, and C<"L">
2942are inherently non-portable between processors and operating systems
2943because they obey the native byteorder and endianness. For example a
140cb37e 29444-byte integer 0x12345678 (305419896 decimal) be ordered natively
ef54e1a4
JH
2945(arranged in and handled by the CPU registers) into bytes as
2946
719a3cf5
JH
2947 0x12 0x34 0x56 0x78 # little-endian
2948 0x78 0x56 0x34 0x12 # big-endian
ef54e1a4 2949
5d11dd56 2950Basically, the Intel, Alpha, and VAX CPUs are little-endian, while
719a3cf5
JH
2951everybody else, for example Motorola m68k/88k, PPC, Sparc, HP PA,
2952Power, and Cray are big-endian. MIPS can be either: Digital used it
19799a22 2953in little-endian mode; SGI uses it in big-endian mode.
719a3cf5 2954
19799a22 2955The names `big-endian' and `little-endian' are comic references to
ef54e1a4
JH
2956the classic "Gulliver's Travels" (via the paper "On Holy Wars and a
2957Plea for Peace" by Danny Cohen, USC/ISI IEN 137, April 1, 1980) and
19799a22 2958the egg-eating habits of the Lilliputians.
ef54e1a4 2959
140cb37e 2960Some systems may have even weirder byte orders such as
ef54e1a4
JH
2961
2962 0x56 0x78 0x12 0x34
2963 0x34 0x12 0x78 0x56
2964
2965You can see your system's preference with
2966
2967 print join(" ", map { sprintf "%#02x", $_ }
2968 unpack("C*",pack("L",0x12345678))), "\n";
2969
d99ad34e 2970The byteorder on the platform where Perl was built is also available
726ea183 2971via L<Config>:
ef54e1a4
JH
2972
2973 use Config;
2974 print $Config{byteorder}, "\n";
2975
d99ad34e
JH
2976Byteorders C<'1234'> and C<'12345678'> are little-endian, C<'4321'>
2977and C<'87654321'> are big-endian.
719a3cf5 2978
d99ad34e
JH
2979If you want portable packed integers use the formats C<"n">, C<"N">,
2980C<"v">, and C<"V">, their byte endianness and size is known.
851646ae 2981See also L<perlport>.
ef54e1a4
JH
2982
2983=item *
2984
5a929a98
VU
2985Real numbers (floats and doubles) are in the native machine format only;
2986due to the multiplicity of floating formats around, and the lack of a
2987standard "network" representation, no facility for interchange has been
2988made. This means that packed floating point data written on one machine
2989may not be readable on another - even if both use IEEE floating point
2990arithmetic (as the endian-ness of the memory representation is not part
851646ae 2991of the IEEE spec). See also L<perlport>.
5a929a98
VU
2992
2993Note that Perl uses doubles internally for all numeric calculation, and
2994converting from double into float and thence back to double again will
2995lose precision (i.e., C<unpack("f", pack("f", $foo)>) will not in general
19799a22 2996equal $foo).
5a929a98 2997
851646ae
JH
2998=item *
2999
3000You must yourself do any alignment or padding by inserting for example
9ccd05c0
JH
3001enough C<'x'>es while packing. There is no way to pack() and unpack()
3002could know where the bytes are going to or coming from. Therefore
3003C<pack> (and C<unpack>) handle their output and input as flat
3004sequences of bytes.
851646ae 3005
17f4a12d
IZ
3006=item *
3007
3008A comment in a TEMPLATE starts with C<#> and goes to the end of line.
3009
2b6c5635
GS
3010=item *
3011
3012If TEMPLATE requires more arguments to pack() than actually given, pack()
3013assumes additional C<""> arguments. If TEMPLATE requires less arguments
3014to pack() than actually given, extra arguments are ignored.
3015
5a929a98 3016=back
a0d0e21e
LW
3017
3018Examples:
3019
a0ed51b3 3020 $foo = pack("CCCC",65,66,67,68);
a0d0e21e 3021 # foo eq "ABCD"
a0ed51b3 3022 $foo = pack("C4",65,66,67,68);
a0d0e21e 3023 # same thing
a0ed51b3
LW
3024 $foo = pack("U4",0x24b6,0x24b7,0x24b8,0x24b9);
3025 # same thing with Unicode circled letters
a0d0e21e
LW
3026
3027 $foo = pack("ccxxcc",65,66,67,68);
3028 # foo eq "AB\0\0CD"
3029
9ccd05c0
JH
3030 # note: the above examples featuring "C" and "c" are true
3031 # only on ASCII and ASCII-derived systems such as ISO Latin 1
3032 # and UTF-8. In EBCDIC the first example would be
3033 # $foo = pack("CCCC",193,194,195,196);
3034
a0d0e21e
LW
3035 $foo = pack("s2",1,2);
3036 # "\1\0\2\0" on little-endian
3037 # "\0\1\0\2" on big-endian
3038
3039 $foo = pack("a4","abcd","x","y","z");
3040 # "abcd"
3041
3042 $foo = pack("aaaa","abcd","x","y","z");
3043 # "axyz"
3044
3045 $foo = pack("a14","abcdefg");
3046 # "abcdefg\0\0\0\0\0\0\0"
3047
3048 $foo = pack("i9pl", gmtime);
3049 # a real struct tm (on my system anyway)
3050
5a929a98
VU
3051 $utmp_template = "Z8 Z8 Z16 L";
3052 $utmp = pack($utmp_template, @utmp1);
3053 # a struct utmp (BSDish)
3054
3055 @utmp2 = unpack($utmp_template, $utmp);
3056 # "@utmp1" eq "@utmp2"
3057
a0d0e21e
LW
3058 sub bintodec {
3059 unpack("N", pack("B32", substr("0" x 32 . shift, -32)));
3060 }
3061
851646ae
JH
3062 $foo = pack('sx2l', 12, 34);
3063 # short 12, two zero bytes padding, long 34
3064 $bar = pack('s@4l', 12, 34);
3065 # short 12, zero fill to position 4, long 34
3066 # $foo eq $bar
3067
5a929a98 3068The same template may generally also be used in unpack().
a0d0e21e 3069
5a964f20
TC
3070=item package
3071
cb1a09d0
AD
3072=item package NAMESPACE
3073
3074Declares the compilation unit as being in the given namespace. The scope
2b5ab1e7 3075of the package declaration is from the declaration itself through the end
19799a22 3076of the enclosing block, file, or eval (the same as the C<my> operator).
2b5ab1e7
TC
3077All further unqualified dynamic identifiers will be in this namespace.
3078A package statement affects only dynamic variables--including those
19799a22
GS
3079you've used C<local> on--but I<not> lexical variables, which are created
3080with C<my>. Typically it would be the first declaration in a file to
2b5ab1e7
TC
3081be included by the C<require> or C<use> operator. You can switch into a
3082package in more than one place; it merely influences which symbol table
3083is used by the compiler for the rest of that block. You can refer to
3084variables and filehandles in other packages by prefixing the identifier
3085with the package name and a double colon: C<$Package::Variable>.
3086If the package name is null, the C<main> package as assumed. That is,
3087C<$::sail> is equivalent to C<$main::sail> (as well as to C<$main'sail>,
3088still seen in older code).
cb1a09d0 3089
5a964f20
TC
3090If NAMESPACE is omitted, then there is no current package, and all
3091identifiers must be fully qualified or lexicals. This is stricter
3092than C<use strict>, since it also extends to function names.
3093
cb1a09d0
AD
3094See L<perlmod/"Packages"> for more information about packages, modules,
3095and classes. See L<perlsub> for other scoping issues.
3096
a0d0e21e
LW
3097=item pipe READHANDLE,WRITEHANDLE
3098
3099Opens a pair of connected pipes like the corresponding system call.
3100Note that if you set up a loop of piped processes, deadlock can occur
3101unless you are very careful. In addition, note that Perl's pipes use
184e9718 3102stdio buffering, so you may need to set C<$|> to flush your WRITEHANDLE
a0d0e21e
LW
3103after each command, depending on the application.
3104
7e1af8bc 3105See L<IPC::Open2>, L<IPC::Open3>, and L<perlipc/"Bidirectional Communication">
4633a7c4
LW
3106for examples of such things.
3107
4771b018
GS
3108On systems that support a close-on-exec flag on files, the flag will be set
3109for the newly opened file descriptors as determined by the value of $^F.
3110See L<perlvar/$^F>.
3111
a0d0e21e
LW
3112=item pop ARRAY
3113
54310121 3114=item pop
28757baa 3115
a0d0e21e 3116Pops and returns the last value of the array, shortening the array by
19799a22 3117one element. Has an effect similar to
a0d0e21e 3118
19799a22 3119 $ARRAY[$#ARRAY--]
a0d0e21e 3120
19799a22
GS
3121If there are no elements in the array, returns the undefined value
3122(although this may happen at other times as well). If ARRAY is
3123omitted, pops the C<@ARGV> array in the main program, and the C<@_>
3124array in subroutines, just like C<shift>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3125
3126=item pos SCALAR
3127
54310121 3128=item pos
bbce6d69 3129
4633a7c4 3130Returns the offset of where the last C<m//g> search left off for the variable
7660c0ab 3131is in question (C<$_> is used when the variable is not specified). May be
44a8e56a
PP
3132modified to change that offset. Such modification will also influence
3133the C<\G> zero-width assertion in regular expressions. See L<perlre> and
3134L<perlop>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3135
3136=item print FILEHANDLE LIST
3137
3138=item print LIST
3139
3140=item print
3141
19799a22
GS
3142Prints a string or a list of strings. Returns true if successful.
3143FILEHANDLE may be a scalar variable name, in which case the variable
3144contains the name of or a reference to the filehandle, thus introducing
3145one level of indirection. (NOTE: If FILEHANDLE is a variable and
3146the next token is a term, it may be misinterpreted as an operator
2b5ab1e7 3147unless you interpose a C<+> or put parentheses around the arguments.)
19799a22
GS
3148If FILEHANDLE is omitted, prints by default to standard output (or
3149to the last selected output channel--see L</select>). If LIST is
3150also omitted, prints C<$_> to the currently selected output channel.
3151To set the default output channel to something other than STDOUT
3152use the select operation. The current value of C<$,> (if any) is
3153printed between each LIST item. The current value of C<$\> (if
3154any) is printed after the entire LIST has been printed. Because
3155print takes a LIST, anything in the LIST is evaluated in list
3156context, and any subroutine that you call will have one or more of
3157its expressions evaluated in list context. Also be careful not to
3158follow the print keyword with a left parenthesis unless you want
3159the corresponding right parenthesis to terminate the arguments to
3160the print--interpose a C<+> or put parentheses around all the
3161arguments.
a0d0e21e 3162
4633a7c4 3163Note that if you're storing FILEHANDLES in an array or other expression,
da0045b7 3164you will have to use a block returning its value instead:
4633a7c4
LW
3165
3166 print { $files[$i] } "stuff\n";
3167 print { $OK ? STDOUT : STDERR } "stuff\n";
3168
5f05dabc 3169=item printf FILEHANDLE FORMAT, LIST
a0d0e21e 3170
5f05dabc 3171=item printf FORMAT, LIST
a0d0e21e 3172
7660c0ab 3173Equivalent to C<print FILEHANDLE sprintf(FORMAT, LIST)>, except that C<$\>
a3cb178b 3174(the output record separator) is not appended. The first argument
19799a22 3175of the list will be interpreted as the C<printf> format. If C<use locale> is
a034a98d
DD
3176in effect, the character used for the decimal point in formatted real numbers
3177is affected by the LC_NUMERIC locale. See L<perllocale>.
a0d0e21e 3178
19799a22
GS
3179Don't fall into the trap of using a C<printf> when a simple
3180C<print> would do. The C<print> is more efficient and less
28757baa
PP
3181error prone.
3182
da0045b7
PP
3183=item prototype FUNCTION
3184
3185Returns the prototype of a function as a string (or C<undef> if the
5f05dabc
PP
3186function has no prototype). FUNCTION is a reference to, or the name of,
3187the function whose prototype you want to retrieve.
da0045b7 3188
2b5ab1e7
TC
3189If FUNCTION is a string starting with C<CORE::>, the rest is taken as a
3190name for Perl builtin. If the builtin is not I<overridable> (such as
ab4f32c2 3191C<qw//>) or its arguments cannot be expressed by a prototype (such as
19799a22 3192C<system>) returns C<undef> because the builtin does not really behave
2b5ab1e7
TC
3193like a Perl function. Otherwise, the string describing the equivalent
3194prototype is returned.
b6c543e3 3195
a0d0e21e
LW
3196=item push ARRAY,LIST
3197
3198Treats ARRAY as a stack, and pushes the values of LIST
3199onto the end of ARRAY. The length of ARRAY increases by the length of
3200LIST. Has the same effect as
3201
3202 for $value (LIST) {
3203 $ARRAY[++$#ARRAY] = $value;
3204 }
3205
3206but is more efficient. Returns the new number of elements in the array.
3207
3208=item q/STRING/
3209
3210=item qq/STRING/
3211
8782bef2
GB
3212=item qr/STRING/
3213
a0d0e21e
LW
3214=item qx/STRING/
3215
3216=item qw/STRING/
3217
4b6a7270 3218Generalized quotes. See L<perlop/"Regexp Quote-Like Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
3219
3220=item quotemeta EXPR
3221
54310121 3222=item quotemeta
bbce6d69 3223
68dc0745 3224Returns the value of EXPR with all non-alphanumeric
a034a98d
DD
3225characters backslashed. (That is, all characters not matching
3226C</[A-Za-z_0-9]/> will be preceded by a backslash in the
3227returned string, regardless of any locale settings.)
3228This is the internal function implementing
7660c0ab 3229the C<\Q> escape in double-quoted strings.
a0d0e21e 3230
7660c0ab 3231If EXPR is omitted, uses C<$_>.
bbce6d69 3232
a0d0e21e
LW
3233=item rand EXPR
3234
3235=item rand
3236
7660c0ab 3237Returns a random fractional number greater than or equal to C<0> and less
3e3baf6d 3238than the value of EXPR. (EXPR should be positive.) If EXPR is
19799a22
GS
3239omitted, the value C<1> is used. Automatically calls C<srand> unless
3240C<srand> has already been called. See also C<srand>.
a0d0e21e 3241
2f9daede 3242(Note: If your rand function consistently returns numbers that are too
a0d0e21e 3243large or too small, then your version of Perl was probably compiled
2f9daede 3244with the wrong number of RANDBITS.)
a0d0e21e
LW
3245
3246=item read FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET
3247
3248=item read FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH
3249
3250Attempts to read LENGTH bytes of data into variable SCALAR from the
3b02c43c
GS
3251specified FILEHANDLE. Returns the number of bytes actually read,
3252C<0> at end of file, or undef if there was an error. SCALAR will be grown
3253or shrunk to the length actually read. An OFFSET may be specified to
3254place the read data at some other place than the beginning of the
f86cebdf 3255string. This call is actually implemented in terms of stdio's fread(3)
19799a22 3256call. To get a true read(2) system call, see C<sysread>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3257
3258=item readdir DIRHANDLE
3259
19799a22 3260Returns the next directory entry for a directory opened by C<opendir>.
5a964f20 3261If used in list context, returns all the rest of the entries in the
a0d0e21e 3262directory. If there are no more entries, returns an undefined value in
5a964f20 3263scalar context or a null list in list context.
a0d0e21e 3264
19799a22 3265If you're planning to filetest the return values out of a C<readdir>, you'd
5f05dabc 3266better prepend the directory in question. Otherwise, because we didn't
19799a22 3267C<chdir> there, it would have been testing the wrong file.
cb1a09d0
AD
3268
3269 opendir(DIR, $some_dir) || die "can't opendir $some_dir: $!";
3270 @dots = grep { /^\./ && -f "$some_dir/$_" } readdir(DIR);
3271 closedir DIR;
3272
84902520
TB
3273=item readline EXPR
3274
fbad3eb5
GS
3275Reads from the filehandle whose typeglob is contained in EXPR. In scalar
3276context, each call reads and returns the next line, until end-of-file is
3277reached, whereupon the subsequent call returns undef. In list context,
3278reads until end-of-file is reached and returns a list of lines. Note that
3279the notion of "line" used here is however you may have defined it
3280with C<$/> or C<$INPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR>). See L<perlvar/"$/">.
3281
2b5ab1e7 3282When C<$/> is set to C<undef>, when readline() is in scalar
449bc448
GS
3283context (i.e. file slurp mode), and when an empty file is read, it
3284returns C<''> the first time, followed by C<undef> subsequently.
fbad3eb5 3285
84902520
TB
3286This is the internal function implementing the C<E<lt>EXPRE<gt>>
3287operator, but you can use it directly. The C<E<lt>EXPRE<gt>>
3288operator is discussed in more detail in L<perlop/"I/O Operators">.
3289
5a964f20
TC
3290 $line = <STDIN>;
3291 $line = readline(*STDIN); # same thing
3292
a0d0e21e
LW
3293=item readlink EXPR
3294
54310121 3295=item readlink
bbce6d69 3296
a0d0e21e
LW
3297Returns the value of a symbolic link, if symbolic links are
3298implemented. If not, gives a fatal error. If there is some system
184e9718 3299error, returns the undefined value and sets C<$!> (errno). If EXPR is
7660c0ab 3300omitted, uses C<$_>.
a0d0e21e 3301
84902520
TB
3302=item readpipe EXPR
3303