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f1300be0 1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
b0a63d58 2It is written in the POD format (see F<pod/perlpod.pod>) which is specially
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3designed to be readable as is.
4
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5=head1 NAME
6
cb8c159f 7INSTALL - Build and Installation guide for perl 5.
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8
9=head1 SYNOPSIS
10
7df75831 11First, make sure you have an up-to-date version of Perl. If you
ce80d64e 12didn't get your Perl source from CPAN, check the latest version at
b0a63d58 13L<http://www.cpan.org/src/>. Perl uses a version scheme where even-numbered
08854360 14subreleases (like 5.8.x and 5.10.x) are stable maintenance releases and
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15odd-numbered subreleases (like 5.7.x and 5.9.x) are unstable
16development releases. Development releases should not be used in
17production environments. Fixes and new features are first carefully
18tested in development releases and only if they prove themselves to be
19worthy will they be migrated to the maintenance releases.
3ce0d271 20
7df75831 21The basic steps to build and install perl 5 on a Unix system with all
dd3196cd 22the defaults are to run, from a freshly unpacked source tree:
8e07c86e 23
491517e0 24 sh Configure -de
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25 make
26 make test
27 make install
36477c24 28
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29Each of these is explained in further detail below.
30
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31The above commands will install Perl to F</usr/local> (or some other
32platform-specific directory -- see the appropriate file in F<hints/>.)
7df75831 33If that's not okay with you, you can run Configure interactively, by
ff52061e 34just typing "sh Configure" (without the -de args). You can also specify
b0a63d58 35any prefix location by adding C<"-Dprefix='/some/dir'"> to Configure's args.
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36To explicitly name the perl binary, use the command
37"make install PERLNAME=myperl".
491517e0 38
668cbedd 39Building perl from source requires an ANSI compliant C compiler.
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40A minimum of C89 is required. Some features available in C99 will
41be probed for and used when found. The perl build process does not
42rely on anything more than C89.
43
ff52061e 44These options, and many more, are explained in further detail below.
7f678428 45
e0ddbfb2 46If you're building perl from a git repository, you should also consult
b0a63d58 47the documentation in F<pod/perlgit.pod> for information on that special
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48circumstance.
49
8d74ce1c 50If you have problems, corrections, or questions, please see
ff52061e 51L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
8d74ce1c 52
7beaa944 53For information on what's new in this release, see the
b0a63d58 54F<pod/perldelta.pod> file. For more information about how to find more
9519d2ec 55specific detail about changes, see the Changes file.
c3edaffb 56
1ec51d55 57=head1 DESCRIPTION
edb1cbcb 58
c3edaffb 59This document is written in pod format as an easy way to indicate its
b0a63d58 60structure. The pod format is described in F<pod/perlpod.pod>, but you can
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61read it as is with any pager or editor. Headings and items are marked
62by lines beginning with '='. The other mark-up used is
63
64 B<text> embolden text, used for switches, programs or commands
65 C<code> literal code
66 L<name> A link (cross reference) to name
ce80d64e 67 F<file> A filename
1ec51d55 68
c42e3e15 69Although most of the defaults are probably fine for most users,
ce80d64e 70you should probably at least skim through this document before
1ec51d55 71proceeding.
c3edaffb 72
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73In addition to this file, check if there is a README file specific to
74your operating system, since it may provide additional or different
75instructions for building Perl. If there is a hint file for your
b0a63d58 76system (in the F<hints/> directory) you might also want to read it
dd3196cd 77for even more information.
c42e3e15 78
ce80d64e 79For additional information about porting Perl, see the section on
b0a63d58 80L<"Porting information"> below, and look at the files in the F<Porting/>
ce80d64e 81directory.
d56c5707 82
ce80d64e 83=head1 PRELIMINARIES
c42e3e15 84
ce80d64e 85=head2 Changes and Incompatibilities
c42e3e15 86
b0a63d58 87Please see F<pod/perldelta.pod> for a description of the changes and
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88potential incompatibilities introduced with this release. A few of
89the most important issues are listed below, but you should refer
b0a63d58 90to F<pod/perldelta.pod> for more detailed information.
c42e3e15 91
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92B<WARNING:> This version is not binary compatible with earlier versions
93of Perl. If you have built extensions (i.e. modules that include C code)
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94using an earlier version of Perl, you will need to rebuild and reinstall
95those extensions.
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96
97Pure perl modules without XS or C code should continue to work fine
dd3196cd 98without reinstallation. See the discussion below on
7df75831 99L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl 5"> for more details.
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100
101The standard extensions supplied with Perl will be handled automatically.
102
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103On a related issue, old modules may possibly be affected by the changes
104in the Perl language in the current release. Please see
b0a63d58 105F<pod/perldelta.pod> for a description of what's changed. See your
ce80d64e 106installed copy of the perllocal.pod file for a (possibly incomplete)
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107list of locally installed modules. Also see the L<CPAN> module's
108C<autobundle> function for one way to make a "bundle" of your currently
109installed modules.
16dc217a 110
aa689395 111=head1 Run Configure
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112
113Configure will figure out various things about your system. Some
114things Configure will figure out for itself, other things it will ask
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115you about. To accept the default, just press RETURN. The default is
116almost always okay. It is normal for some things to be "NOT found",
117since Configure often searches for many different ways of performing
118the same function.
119
ce80d64e 120At any Configure prompt, you can type &-d and Configure will use the
d6baa268 121defaults from then on.
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122
123After it runs, Configure will perform variable substitution on all the
1ec51d55 124*.SH files and offer to run make depend.
8e07c86e 125
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126The results of a Configure run are stored in the config.sh and Policy.sh
127files.
128
ce80d64e 129=head2 Common Configure options
844fc9f4 130
ce80d64e 131Configure supports a number of useful options. Run
844fc9f4 132
ce80d64e 133 Configure -h
d6baa268 134
b0a63d58 135to get a listing. See the F<Porting/Glossary> file for a complete list of
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136Configure variables you can set and their definitions.
137
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138=over 4
139
08854360 140=item C compiler
d6baa268 141
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142To compile with gcc, if it's not the default compiler on your
143system, you should run
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144
145 sh Configure -Dcc=gcc
146
08854360 147This is the preferred way to specify gcc (or any another alternative
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148compiler) so that the hints files can set appropriate defaults.
149
d6baa268 150=item Installation prefix
4633a7c4 151
8e07c86e 152By default, for most systems, perl will be installed in
b0a63d58 153F</usr/local/>{F<bin>, F<lib>, F<man>}. (See L<"Installation Directories">
7df75831 154and L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl 5"> below for
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155further details.)
156
157You can specify a different 'prefix' for the default installation
ce80d64e 158directory when Configure prompts you, or by using the Configure command
b0a63d58 159line option C<-Dprefix='/some/directory'>, e.g.
8e07c86e 160
25f94b33 161 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl
4633a7c4 162
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163If your prefix contains the string "perl", then the suggested
164directory structure is simplified. For example, if you use
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165C<prefix=/opt/perl>, then Configure will suggest F</opt/perl/lib> instead of
166F</opt/perl/lib/perl5/>. Again, see L<"Installation Directories"> below
167for more details. Do not include a trailing slash, (i.e. F</opt/perl/>)
bc70e9ec 168or you may experience odd test failures.
8e07c86e 169
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170NOTE: You must not specify an installation directory that is the same
171as or below your perl source directory. If you do, installperl will
172attempt infinite recursion.
84902520 173
b0a63d58 174=item F</usr/bin/perl>
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175
176It may seem obvious, but Perl is useful only when users can easily
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177find it. It's often a good idea to have both F</usr/bin/perl> and
178F</usr/local/bin/perl> be symlinks to the actual binary. Be especially
d6baa268 179careful, however, not to overwrite a version of perl supplied by your
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180vendor unless you are sure you know what you are doing. If you insist
181on replacing your vendor's perl, useful information on how it was
182configured may be found with
183
184 perl -V:config_args
185
186(Check the output carefully, however, since this doesn't preserve
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187spaces in arguments to Configure. For that, you have to look carefully
188at config_arg1, config_arg2, etc.)
d6baa268 189
b0a63d58 190By default, Configure will not try to link F</usr/bin/perl> to the current
ce80d64e 191version of perl. You can turn on that behavior by running
d6baa268 192
7d56c962 193 Configure -Dinstallusrbinperl
d6baa268 194
7d56c962 195or by answering 'yes' to the appropriate Configure prompt.
d6baa268 196
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197In any case, system administrators are strongly encouraged to put
198(symlinks to) perl and its accompanying utilities, such as perldoc,
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199into a directory typically found along a user's PATH, or in another
200obvious and convenient place.
201
71c4561b 202=item Building a development release
04d420f9 203
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204For development releases (odd subreleases, like 5.9.x) if you want to
205use Configure -d, you will also need to supply -Dusedevel to Configure,
206because the default answer to the question "do you really want to
207Configure a development version?" is "no". The -Dusedevel skips that
208sanity check.
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209
210=back
8e07c86e 211
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212If you are willing to accept all the defaults, and you want terse
213output, you can run
214
215 sh Configure -des
216
dd3196cd 217=head2 Altering Configure variables for C compiler switches etc.
46bb10fb 218
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219For most users, most of the Configure defaults are fine, or can easily
220be set on the Configure command line. However, if Configure doesn't
221have an option to do what you want, you can change Configure variables
222after the platform hints have been run by using Configure's -A switch.
223For example, here's how to add a couple of extra flags to C compiler
224invocations:
46bb10fb 225
08854360 226 sh Configure -Accflags="-DPERL_EXTERNAL_GLOB -DNO_HASH_SEED"
46bb10fb 227
5247441a 228To clarify, those ccflags values are not Configure options; if passed to
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229Configure directly, they won't do anything useful (they will define a
230variable in config.sh, but without taking any action based upon it).
231But when passed to the compiler, those flags will activate #ifdefd code.
5247441a 232
ce80d64e 233For more help on Configure switches, run
46bb10fb 234
ce80d64e 235 sh Configure -h
46bb10fb 236
ce80d64e 237=head2 Major Configure-time Build Options
46bb10fb 238
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239There are several different ways to Configure and build perl for your
240system. For most users, the defaults are sensible and will work.
241Some users, however, may wish to further customize perl. Here are
242some of the main things you can change.
46bb10fb 243
ce80d64e 244=head3 Threads
cc65bb49 245
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246On some platforms, perl can be compiled with support for threads. To
247enable this, run
4633a7c4 248
ce80d64e 249 sh Configure -Dusethreads
4633a7c4 250
ce80d64e 251The default is to compile without thread support.
cc65bb49 252
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253Perl used to have two different internal threads implementations. The
254current model (available internally since 5.6, and as a user-level module
255since 5.8) is called interpreter-based implementation (ithreads), with
256one interpreter per thread, and explicit sharing of data. The (deprecated)
2575.005 version (5005threads) was removed for release 5.10.
d6baa268 258
ce80d64e 259The 'threads' module is for use with the ithreads implementation. The
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260'Thread' module emulates the old 5005threads interface on top of the
261current ithreads model.
d6baa268 262
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263When using threads, perl uses a dynamically-sized buffer for some of
264the thread-safe library calls, such as those in the getpw*() family.
265This buffer starts small, but it will keep growing until the result
266fits. To get a fixed upper limit, you should compile Perl with
267PERL_REENTRANT_MAXSIZE defined to be the number of bytes you want. One
268way to do this is to run Configure with
08854360 269C<-Accflags=-DPERL_REENTRANT_MAXSIZE=65536>.
d6baa268 270
08854360 271=head3 Large file support
b367e8b0 272
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273Since Perl 5.6.0, Perl has supported large files (files larger than
2742 gigabytes), and in many common platforms like Linux or Solaris this
275support is on by default.
d6baa268 276
ce80d64e 277This is both good and bad. It is good in that you can use large files,
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278seek(), stat(), and -s them. It is bad in that if you are interfacing
279Perl using some extension, the components you are connecting to must also
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280be large file aware: if Perl thinks files can be large but the other
281parts of the software puzzle do not understand the concept, bad things
08854360 282will happen.
d6baa268 283
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284There's also one known limitation with the current large files
285implementation: unless you also have 64-bit integers (see the next
286section), you cannot use the printf/sprintf non-decimal integer formats
287like C<%x> to print filesizes. You can use C<%d>, though.
d6baa268 288
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289If you want to compile perl without large file support, use
290
291 sh Configure -Uuselargefiles
292
08854360 293=head3 64 bit support
d6baa268 294
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295If your platform does not run natively at 64 bits, but can simulate
296them with compiler flags and/or C<long long> or C<int64_t>,
ce80d64e 297you can build a perl that uses 64 bits.
d6baa268 298
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299There are actually two modes of 64-bitness: the first one is achieved
300using Configure -Duse64bitint and the second one using Configure
301-Duse64bitall. The difference is that the first one is minimal and
302the second one maximal. The first works in more places than the second.
d6baa268 303
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304The C<use64bitint> option does only as much as is required to get
30564-bit integers into Perl (this may mean, for example, using "long
306longs") while your memory may still be limited to 2 gigabytes (because
307your pointers could still be 32-bit). Note that the name C<64bitint>
308does not imply that your C compiler will be using 64-bit C<int>s (it
309might, but it doesn't have to). The C<use64bitint> simply means that
310you will be able to have 64 bit-wide scalar values.
d6baa268 311
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312The C<use64bitall> option goes all the way by attempting to switch
313integers (if it can), longs (and pointers) to being 64-bit. This may
314create an even more binary incompatible Perl than -Duse64bitint: the
315resulting executable may not run at all in a 32-bit box, or you may
316have to reboot/reconfigure/rebuild your operating system to be 64-bit
317aware.
d6baa268 318
08854360 319Natively 64-bit systems need neither -Duse64bitint nor -Duse64bitall.
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320On these systems, it might be the default compilation mode, and there
321is currently no guarantee that passing no use64bitall option to the
322Configure process will build a 32bit perl. Implementing -Duse32bit*
1ed7425e 323options is planned for a future release of perl.
d6baa268 324
ce80d64e 325=head3 Long doubles
d6baa268 326
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327In some systems you may be able to use long doubles to enhance the
328range and precision of your double precision floating point numbers
329(that is, Perl's numbers). Use Configure -Duselongdouble to enable
330this support (if it is available).
d6baa268 331
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332Note that the exact format and range of long doubles varies:
333the most common is the x86 80-bit (64 bits of mantissa) format,
334but there are others, with different mantissa and exponent ranges.
335
ce80d64e 336=head3 "more bits"
b367e8b0 337
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338You can "Configure -Dusemorebits" to turn on both the 64-bit support
339and the long double support.
b367e8b0 340
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341=head3 quadmath
342
b7ce25dd 343One option for more precision is that gcc 4.6 and later have a library
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344called quadmath, which implements the IEEE 754 quadruple precision
345(128-bit, 113 bits of mantissa) floating point numbers. The library
346works at least on x86 and ia64 platforms. It may be part of your gcc
347installation, or you may need to install it separately.
348
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349With "Configure -Dusequadmath" you can try enabling its use, but note
350the compiler dependency, you may need to also add "-Dcc=...".
84e6cb05 351At C level the type is called C<__float128> (note, not "long double"),
b7ce25dd 352but Perl source knows it as NV. (This is not "long doubles".)
257c99f5 353
ce80d64e 354=head3 Algorithmic Complexity Attacks on Hashes
504f80c1 355
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356Perl 5.18 reworked the measures used to secure its hash function
357from algorithmic complexity attacks. By default it will build with
358all of these measures enabled along with support for controlling and
359disabling them via environment variables.
360
361You can override various aspects of this feature by defining various
362symbols during configure. An example might be:
363
f0c21bde 364 sh Configure -Accflags=-DPERL_HASH_FUNC_SIPHASH
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365
366B<Unless stated otherwise these options are considered experimental or
367insecure and are not recommended for production use.>
368
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369Since Perl 5.18 we have included support for multiple hash functions,
370although from time to time we change which functions we support,
371and which function is default (currently SBOX+STADTX on 64 bit builds
372and SBOX+ZAPHOD32 for 32 bit builds). You can choose a different
373algorithm by defining one of the following symbols during configure.
374Note that there security implications of which hash function you choose
375to use. The functions are listed roughly by how secure they are believed
376to be, with the one believed to be most secure at release time being PERL_HASH_FUNC_SIPHASH.
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377
378 PERL_HASH_FUNC_SIPHASH
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379 PERL_HASH_FUNC_SIPHASH13
380 PERL_HASH_FUNC_ZAPHOD32
381 PERL_HASH_FUNC_STADTX
382
383In addition, these, (or custom hash functions), may be "fronted" by the
384SBOX32 hash function for keys under a chosen size. This hash function is
385special in that it has proven theoretical security properties, and is very
386fast to hash, but which by nature is restricted to a maximum key length,
387and which has rather expensive setup costs (relatively speaking), both in
388terms of performance and more importantly in terms of memory. SBOX32
389requires 1k of storage per character it can hash, and it must populate that
390storage with 256 32-bit random values as well. In practice the RNG we use
391for seeding the SBOX32 storage is very efficient and populating the table
ab473f03 392required for hashing even fairly long keys is negligible as we only do it
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393during startup. By default we build with SBOX32 enabled, but you change that
394by setting
395
396 PERL_HASH_USE_SBOX32_ALSO
397
398to zero in configure. By default Perl will use SBOX32 to hash strings 24 bytes
399or shorter, you can change this length by setting
400
401 SBOX32_MAX_LEN
402
403to the desired length, with the maximum length being 256.
404
405As of Perl 5.18 the order returned by keys(), values(), and each() is
406non-deterministic and distinct per hash, and the insert order for
407colliding keys is randomized as well, and perl allows for controlling this
408by the PERL_PERTURB_KEYS environment setting. You can disable this behavior
409entirely with the define
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410
411 PERL_PERTURB_KEYS_DISABLED
412
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413You can disable the environment variable checks and compile time specify
414the type of key traversal randomization to be used by defining one of these:
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415
416 PERL_PERTURB_KEYS_RANDOM
417 PERL_PERTURB_KEYS_DETERMINISTIC
418
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419Since Perl 5.18 the seed used for the hash function is randomly selected
420at process start, which can be overridden by specifying a seed by setting
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421the PERL_HASH_SEED environment variable.
422
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423You can change this behavior so that your perl is built with a hard coded
424seed with the define
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425
426 NO_HASH_SEED
427
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428Note that if you do this you should modify the code in hv_func.h to specify
429your own key. In the future this define may be renamed and replaced with one
430that requires you to specify the key to use.
504f80c1 431
99111b89 432B<NOTE WELL: Perl has never guaranteed any ordering of the hash keys>, and the
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433ordering has already changed several times during the lifetime of Perl
4345. Also, the ordering of hash keys has always been, and continues to
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435be, affected by the insertion order regardless of whether you build with
436or without the randomization features. Note that because of this
437and especially with randomization that the key order of a hash is *undefined*
438and that things like Data::Dumper, for example, may produce different output
439between different runs of Perl, since Data::Dumper serializes the key in the
440native order for the hash. The use of the Data::Dumper C<Sortkeys> option is
441recommended if you are comparing dumps between different invocations of perl.
504f80c1 442
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443See L<perlrun/PERL_HASH_SEED> and L<perlrun/PERL_PERTURB_KEYS> for
444details on the environment variables, and L<perlsec/Algorithmic
445Complexity Attacks> for further security details.
e6b54db6 446
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447The C<PERL_HASH_SEED> and PERL_PERTURB_KEYS> environment variables can
448be disabled by building configuring perl with
449C<-Accflags=-DNO_PERL_HASH_ENV>.
450
451The C<PERL_HASH_SEED_DEBUG> environment variable can be disabled by
452configuring perl with C<-Accflags=-DNO_PERL_HASH_SEED_DEBUG>.
453
ce80d64e 454=head3 SOCKS
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455
456Perl can be configured to be 'socksified', that is, to use the SOCKS
457TCP/IP proxy protocol library. SOCKS is used to give applications
458access to transport layer network proxies. Perl supports only SOCKS
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459Version 5. The corresponding Configure option is -Dusesocks.
460You can find more about SOCKS from wikipedia at
461L<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SOCKS>.
1b9c9cf5 462
ce80d64e 463=head3 Dynamic Loading
d6baa268 464
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465By default, Configure will compile perl to use dynamic loading.
466If you want to force perl to be compiled completely
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467statically, you can either choose this when Configure prompts you or
468you can use the Configure command line option -Uusedl.
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469With this option, you won't be able to use any new extension
470(XS) module without recompiling perl itself.
d6baa268 471
ce80d64e 472=head3 Building a shared Perl library
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473
474Currently, for most systems, the main perl executable is built by
475linking the "perl library" libperl.a with perlmain.o, your static
8ba4bff0 476extensions, and various extra libraries, such as -lm.
c3edaffb 477
08854360 478On systems that support dynamic loading, it may be possible to
9d67150a 479replace libperl.a with a shared libperl.so. If you anticipate building
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480several different perl binaries (e.g. by embedding libperl into
481different programs, or by using the optional compiler extension), then
9d67150a 482you might wish to build a shared libperl.so so that all your binaries
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483can share the same library.
484
485The disadvantages are that there may be a significant performance
9d67150a 486penalty associated with the shared libperl.so, and that the overall
aa689395 487mechanism is still rather fragile with respect to different versions
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488and upgrades.
489
490In terms of performance, on my test system (Solaris 2.5_x86) the perl
9d67150a 491test suite took roughly 15% longer to run with the shared libperl.so.
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492Your system and typical applications may well give quite different
493results.
494
495The default name for the shared library is typically something like
08854360 496libperl.so.5.8.8 (for Perl 5.8.8), or libperl.so.588, or simply
9d67150a 497libperl.so. Configure tries to guess a sensible naming convention
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498based on your C library name. Since the library gets installed in a
499version-specific architecture-dependent directory, the exact name
500isn't very important anyway, as long as your linker is happy.
501
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502You can elect to build a shared libperl by
503
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504 sh Configure -Duseshrplib
505
506To build a shared libperl, the environment variable controlling shared
507library search (LD_LIBRARY_PATH in most systems, DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH for
f05550c0 508Darwin, LD_LIBRARY_PATH/SHLIB_PATH
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509for HP-UX, LIBPATH for AIX, PATH for Cygwin) must be set up to include
510the Perl build directory because that's where the shared libperl will
511be created. Configure arranges makefile to have the correct shared
512library search settings. You can find the name of the environment
513variable Perl thinks works in your your system by
514
515 grep ldlibpthname config.sh
516
517However, there are some special cases where manually setting the
518shared library path might be required. For example, if you want to run
519something like the following with the newly-built but not-yet-installed
520./perl:
521
a070ca95 522 ./perl -I. -MTestInit t/misc/failing_test.t
08854360 523
ce80d64e 524or
08854360 525
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526 ./perl -Ilib ~/my_mission_critical_test
527
528then you need to set up the shared library path explicitly.
529You can do this with
530
531 LD_LIBRARY_PATH=`pwd`:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH; export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
532
533for Bourne-style shells, or
534
535 setenv LD_LIBRARY_PATH `pwd`
536
537for Csh-style shells. (This procedure may also be needed if for some
538unexpected reason Configure fails to set up makefile correctly.) (And
539again, it may be something other than LD_LIBRARY_PATH for you, see above.)
540
541You can often recognize failures to build/use a shared libperl from error
542messages complaining about a missing libperl.so (or libperl.sl in HP-UX),
543for example:
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544
545 18126:./miniperl: /sbin/loader: Fatal Error: cannot map libperl.so
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546
547There is also an potential problem with the shared perl library if you
548want to have more than one "flavor" of the same version of perl (e.g.
549with and without -DDEBUGGING). For example, suppose you build and
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550install a standard Perl 5.10.0 with a shared library. Then, suppose you
551try to build Perl 5.10.0 with -DDEBUGGING enabled, but everything else
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552the same, including all the installation directories. How can you
553ensure that your newly built perl will link with your newly built
554libperl.so.8 rather with the installed libperl.so.8? The answer is
555that you might not be able to. The installation directory is encoded
556in the perl binary with the LD_RUN_PATH environment variable (or
557equivalent ld command-line option). On Solaris, you can override that
558with LD_LIBRARY_PATH; on Linux, you can only override at runtime via
559LD_PRELOAD, specifying the exact filename you wish to be used; and on
560Digital Unix, you can override LD_LIBRARY_PATH by setting the
561_RLD_ROOT environment variable to point to the perl build directory.
562
563In other words, it is generally not a good idea to try to build a perl
564with a shared library if $archlib/CORE/$libperl already exists from a
565previous build.
566
567A good workaround is to specify a different directory for the
568architecture-dependent library for your -DDEBUGGING version of perl.
569You can do this by changing all the *archlib* variables in config.sh to
570point to your new architecture-dependent library.
571
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572=head3 Environment access
573
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574Perl often needs to write to the program's environment, such as when
575C<%ENV> is assigned to. Many implementations of the C library function
576C<putenv()> leak memory, so where possible perl will manipulate the
577environment directly to avoid these leaks. The default is now to perform
578direct manipulation whenever perl is running as a stand alone interpreter,
579and to call the safe but potentially leaky C<putenv()> function when the
580perl interpreter is embedded in another application. You can force perl
581to always use C<putenv()> by compiling with
582C<-Accflags="-DPERL_USE_SAFE_PUTENV">, see section L</"Altering Configure
583variables for C compiler switches etc.">. You can force an embedded perl
584to use direct manipulation by setting C<PL_use_safe_putenv = 0;> after
585the C<perl_construct()> call.
575e1338 586
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587=head2 Installation Directories
588
589The installation directories can all be changed by answering the
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590appropriate questions in Configure. For convenience, all the installation
591questions are near the beginning of Configure. Do not include trailing
592slashes on directory names. At any point during the Configure process,
593you can answer a question with &-d and Configure will use the defaults
594from then on. Alternatively, you can
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595
596 grep '^install' config.sh
597
598after Configure has run to verify the installation paths.
599
600The defaults are intended to be reasonable and sensible for most
601people building from sources. Those who build and distribute binary
602distributions or who export perl to a range of systems will probably
603need to alter them. If you are content to just accept the defaults,
604you can safely skip the next section.
605
606The directories set up by Configure fall into three broad categories.
607
608=over 4
609
610=item Directories for the perl distribution
611
70bcccc1 612By default, Configure will use the following directories for 5.31.2.
ce80d64e 613$version is the full perl version number, including subversion, e.g.
8891dd8d 6145.12.3, and $archname is a string like sun4-sunos,
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615determined by Configure. The full definitions of all Configure
616variables are in the file Porting/Glossary.
617
618 Configure variable Default value
619 $prefixexp /usr/local
620 $binexp $prefixexp/bin
621 $scriptdirexp $prefixexp/bin
622 $privlibexp $prefixexp/lib/perl5/$version
623 $archlibexp $prefixexp/lib/perl5/$version/$archname
624 $man1direxp $prefixexp/man/man1
625 $man3direxp $prefixexp/man/man3
626 $html1direxp (none)
627 $html3direxp (none)
628
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629$prefixexp is generated from $prefix, with ~ expansion done to convert
630home directories into absolute paths. Similarly for the other variables
631listed. As file system calls do not do this, you should always reference
632the ...exp variables, to support users who build perl in their home
633directory.
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634
635Actually, Configure recognizes the SVR3-style
636/usr/local/man/l_man/man1 directories, if present, and uses those
637instead. Also, if $prefix contains the string "perl", the library
638directories are simplified as described below. For simplicity, only
639the common style is shown here.
640
641=item Directories for site-specific add-on files
642
643After perl is installed, you may later wish to add modules (e.g. from
644CPAN) or scripts. Configure will set up the following directories to
645be used for installing those add-on modules and scripts.
646
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647 Configure Default
648 variable value
649 $siteprefixexp $prefixexp
650 $sitebinexp $siteprefixexp/bin
651 $sitescriptexp $siteprefixexp/bin
652 $sitelibexp $siteprefixexp/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version
653 $sitearchexp
654 $siteprefixexp/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version/$archname
655 $siteman1direxp $siteprefixexp/man/man1
656 $siteman3direxp $siteprefixexp/man/man3
657 $sitehtml1direxp (none)
658 $sitehtml3direxp (none)
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659
660By default, ExtUtils::MakeMaker will install architecture-independent
661modules into $sitelib and architecture-dependent modules into $sitearch.
662
663=item Directories for vendor-supplied add-on files
664
665Lastly, if you are building a binary distribution of perl for
666distribution, Configure can optionally set up the following directories
667for you to use to distribute add-on modules.
668
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669 Configure Default
670 variable value
671 $vendorprefixexp (none)
672
673 (The next ones are set only if vendorprefix is set.)
674
675 $vendorbinexp $vendorprefixexp/bin
676 $vendorscriptexp $vendorprefixexp/bin
677 $vendorlibexp $vendorprefixexp/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version
678 $vendorarchexp
679 $vendorprefixexp/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version/$archname
680 $vendorman1direxp $vendorprefixexp/man/man1
681 $vendorman3direxp $vendorprefixexp/man/man3
682 $vendorhtml1direxp (none)
683 $vendorhtml3direxp (none)
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684
685These are normally empty, but may be set as needed. For example,
686a vendor might choose the following settings:
687
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688 $prefix /usr
689 $siteprefix /usr/local
690 $vendorprefix /usr
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691
692This would have the effect of setting the following:
693
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694 $binexp /usr/bin
695 $scriptdirexp /usr/bin
696 $privlibexp /usr/lib/perl5/$version
697 $archlibexp /usr/lib/perl5/$version/$archname
698 $man1direxp /usr/man/man1
699 $man3direxp /usr/man/man3
700
701 $sitebinexp /usr/local/bin
702 $sitescriptexp /usr/local/bin
703 $sitelibexp /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version
704 $sitearchexp /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version/$archname
705 $siteman1direxp /usr/local/man/man1
706 $siteman3direxp /usr/local/man/man3
707
708 $vendorbinexp /usr/bin
709 $vendorscriptexp /usr/bin
710 $vendorlibexp /usr/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version
711 $vendorarchexp /usr/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version/$archname
712 $vendorman1direxp /usr/man/man1
713 $vendorman3direxp /usr/man/man3
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714
715Note how in this example, the vendor-supplied directories are in the
668cbedd 716/usr hierarchy, while the directories reserved for the end user are in
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717the /usr/local hierarchy.
718
719The entire installed library hierarchy is installed in locations with
720version numbers, keeping the installations of different versions distinct.
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721However, later installations of Perl can still be configured to search
722the installed libraries corresponding to compatible earlier versions.
723See L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl 5"> below for more
724details on how Perl can be made to search older version directories.
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725
726Of course you may use these directories however you see fit. For
727example, you may wish to use $siteprefix for site-specific files that
728are stored locally on your own disk and use $vendorprefix for
729site-specific files that are stored elsewhere on your organization's
730network. One way to do that would be something like
731
979b4168 732 sh Configure -Dsiteprefix=/usr/local -Dvendorprefix=/usr/share/perl
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733
734=item otherlibdirs
735
736As a final catch-all, Configure also offers an $otherlibdirs
737variable. This variable contains a colon-separated list of additional
738directories to add to @INC. By default, it will be empty.
739Perl will search these directories (including architecture and
740version-specific subdirectories) for add-on modules and extensions.
741
742For example, if you have a bundle of perl libraries from a previous
743installation, perhaps in a strange place:
744
f0c21bde 745 sh Configure -Dotherlibdirs=/usr/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.1
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746
747=item APPLLIB_EXP
748
749There is one other way of adding paths to @INC at perl build time, and
750that is by setting the APPLLIB_EXP C pre-processor token to a colon-
751separated list of directories, like this
752
753 sh Configure -Accflags='-DAPPLLIB_EXP=\"/usr/libperl\"'
754
755The directories defined by APPLLIB_EXP get added to @INC I<first>,
756ahead of any others, and so provide a way to override the standard perl
757modules should you, for example, want to distribute fixes without
758touching the perl distribution proper. And, like otherlib dirs,
759version and architecture specific subdirectories are also searched, if
760present, at run time. Of course, you can still search other @INC
761directories ahead of those in APPLLIB_EXP by using any of the standard
762run-time methods: $PERLLIB, $PERL5LIB, -I, use lib, etc.
763
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764=item default_inc_excludes_dot
765
988217a0 766Since version 5.26.0, default perl builds no longer includes C<'.'> as the
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767last element of @INC. The old behaviour can restored using
768
f0c21bde 769 sh Configure -Udefault_inc_excludes_dot
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770
771Note that this is likely to make programs run under such a perl
772interpreter less secure.
773
785aa5e3 774=item usesitecustomize
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775
776Run-time customization of @INC can be enabled with:
777
36de116d 778 sh Configure -Dusesitecustomize
20ef40cf 779
785aa5e3
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780which will define USE_SITECUSTOMIZE and $Config{usesitecustomize}.
781When enabled, this makes perl run F<$sitelibexp/sitecustomize.pl> before
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782anything else. This script can then be set up to add additional
783entries to @INC.
784
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785=item Man Pages
786
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787By default, man pages will be installed in $man1dir and $man3dir, which
788are normally /usr/local/man/man1 and /usr/local/man/man3. If you
789want to use a .3pm suffix for perl man pages, you can do that with
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790
791 sh Configure -Dman3ext=3pm
792
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793You can disable installation of man pages completely using
794
795 sh Configure -Dman1dir=none -Dman3dir=none
796
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797=item HTML pages
798
799Currently, the standard perl installation does not do anything with
800HTML documentation, but that may change in the future. Further, some
801add-on modules may wish to install HTML documents. The html Configure
802variables listed above are provided if you wish to specify where such
803documents should be placed. The default is "none", but will likely
804eventually change to something useful based on user feedback.
805
806=back
807
808Some users prefer to append a "/share" to $privlib and $sitelib
809to emphasize that those directories can be shared among different
810architectures.
811
812Note that these are just the defaults. You can actually structure the
813directories any way you like. They don't even have to be on the same
814filesystem.
c3edaffb 815
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816Further details about the installation directories, maintenance and
817development subversions, and about supporting multiple versions are
7df75831 818discussed in L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl 5"> below.
10c7e831 819
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820If you specify a prefix that contains the string "perl", then the
821library directory structure is slightly simplified. Instead of
822suggesting $prefix/lib/perl5/, Configure will suggest $prefix/lib.
2bf2710f 823
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824Thus, for example, if you Configure with
825-Dprefix=/opt/perl, then the default library directories for 5.9.0 are
2bf2710f 826
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827 Configure variable Default value
828 $privlib /opt/perl/lib/5.9.0
829 $archlib /opt/perl/lib/5.9.0/$archname
830 $sitelib /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/5.9.0
831 $sitearch /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/5.9.0/$archname
2bf2710f 832
ce80d64e 833=head2 Changing the installation directory
c3edaffb 834
ce80d64e 835Configure distinguishes between the directory in which perl (and its
7df75831 836associated files) should be installed, and the directory in which it
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837will eventually reside. For most sites, these two are the same; for
838sites that use AFS, this distinction is handled automatically.
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839However, sites that use package management software such as rpm or
840dpkg, or users building binary packages for distribution may also
841wish to install perl into a different directory before moving perl
842to its final destination. There are two ways to do that:
843
844=over 4
845
846=item installprefix
c3edaffb 847
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848To install perl under the /tmp/perl5 directory, use the following
849command line:
c3edaffb 850
7df75831 851 sh Configure -Dinstallprefix=/tmp/perl5
c3edaffb 852
ce80d64e 853(replace /tmp/perl5 by a directory of your choice).
2bf2710f 854
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855Beware, though, that if you go to try to install new add-on
856modules, they too will get installed in under '/tmp/perl5' if you
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857follow this example. That's why it's usually better to use DESTDIR,
858as shown in the next section.
c3edaffb 859
7df75831 860=item DESTDIR
9d67150a 861
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862If you need to install perl on many identical systems, it is convenient
863to compile it once and create an archive that can be installed on
864multiple systems. Suppose, for example, that you want to create an
865archive that can be installed in /opt/perl. One way to do that is by
866using the DESTDIR variable during C<make install>. The DESTDIR is
867automatically prepended to all the installation paths. Thus you
868simply do:
830717a7 869
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870 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl -des
871 make
872 make test
873 make install DESTDIR=/tmp/perl5
874 cd /tmp/perl5/opt/perl
875 tar cvf /tmp/perl5-archive.tar .
9d67150a 876
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877=back
878
32878f30 879=head2 Relocatable @INC
880
881To create a relocatable perl tree, use the following command line:
882
883 sh Configure -Duserelocatableinc
884
885Then the paths in @INC (and everything else in %Config) can be
886optionally located via the path of the perl executable.
887
888That means that, if the string ".../" is found at the start of any
889path, it's substituted with the directory of $^X. So, the relocation
890can be configured on a per-directory basis, although the default with
891"-Duserelocatableinc" is that everything is relocated. The initial
892install is done to the original configured prefix.
893
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894This option is not compatible with the building of a shared libperl
895("-Duseshrplib"), because in that case perl is linked with an hard-coded
896rpath that points at the libperl.so, that cannot be relocated.
897
ce80d64e 898=head2 Site-wide Policy settings
55479bb6 899
ce80d64e 900After Configure runs, it stores a number of common site-wide "policy"
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901answers (such as installation directories) in the Policy.sh file.
902If you want to build perl on another system using the same policy
903defaults, simply copy the Policy.sh file to the new system's perl build
904directory, and Configure will use it. This will work even if Policy.sh was
a0a8d9d3 905generated for another version of Perl, or on a system with a
da1b4322 906different architecture and/or operating system. However, in such cases,
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907you should review the contents of the file before using it: for
908example, your new target may not keep its man pages in the same place
909as the system on which the file was generated.
55479bb6 910
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911Alternatively, if you wish to change some or all of those policy
912answers, you should
c3edaffb 913
ce80d64e 914 rm -f Policy.sh
aa689395 915
ce80d64e 916to ensure that Configure doesn't re-use them.
2ae324a7 917
ce80d64e 918Further information is in the Policy_sh.SH file itself.
aa689395 919
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920If the generated Policy.sh file is unsuitable, you may freely edit it
921to contain any valid shell commands. It will be run just after the
922platform-specific hints files.
aa689395 923
ce80d64e 924=head2 Disabling older versions of Perl
aa689395 925
ce80d64e 926Configure will search for binary compatible versions of previously
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927installed perl binaries in the tree that is specified as target tree,
928and these will be used as locations to search for modules by the perl
929being built. The list of perl versions found will be put in the Configure
930variable inc_version_list.
86058a2d 931
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932To disable this use of older perl modules, even completely valid pure
933perl modules, you can specify to not include the paths found:
b2a6d19e 934
ce80d64e 935 sh Configure -Dinc_version_list=none ...
d6baa268 936
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937If you do want to use modules from some previous perl versions, the
938variable must contain a space separated list of directories under the
939site_perl directory, and has to include architecture-dependent
940directories separately, eg.
274ca399 941
4683a5d7 942 sh Configure -Dinc_version_list="5.16.0/x86_64-linux 5.16.0" ...
274ca399 943
ce80d64e 944When using the newer perl, you can add these paths again in the
668cbedd 945PERL5LIB environment variable or with perl's -I runtime option.
86058a2d 946
ce80d64e 947=head2 Building Perl outside of the source directory
86058a2d 948
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949Sometimes it is desirable to build Perl in a directory different from
950where the sources are, for example if you want to keep your sources
951read-only, or if you want to share the sources between different binary
952architectures. You can do this (if your file system supports symbolic
953links) by
06c896bb 954
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955 mkdir /tmp/perl/build/directory
956 cd /tmp/perl/build/directory
957 sh /path/to/perl/source/Configure -Dmksymlinks ...
06c896bb 958
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959This will create in /tmp/perl/build/directory a tree of symbolic links
960pointing to files in /path/to/perl/source. The original files are left
961unaffected. After Configure has finished you can just say
06c896bb 962
ce80d64e 963 make
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964 make test
965 make install
06c896bb 966
ce80d64e 967as usual, and Perl will be built in /tmp/perl/build/directory.
aa689395 968
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969=head2 Building a debugging perl
970
971You can run perl scripts under the perl debugger at any time with
3fe9a6f1 972B<perl -d your_script>. If, however, you want to debug perl itself,
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973you probably want to have support for perl internal debugging code
974(activated by adding -DDEBUGGING to ccflags), and/or support for the
f075db89 975system debugger by adding -g to the optimisation flags.
eaf812ae 976
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977A perl compiled with the DEBUGGING C preprocessor macro will support the
978C<-D> perl command-line switch, have assertions enabled, and have many
979extra checks compiled into the code; but will execute much more slowly
980(typically 2-3x) and the binary will be much larger (typically 2-3x).
08854360 981
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982As a convenience, debugging code (-DDEBUGGING) and debugging symbols (-g)
983can be enabled jointly or separately using a Configure switch, also
984(somewhat confusingly) named -DDEBUGGING. For a more eye appealing call,
985-DEBUGGING is defined to be an alias for -DDEBUGGING. For both, the -U
986calls are also supported, in order to be able to overrule the hints or
987Policy.sh settings.
eaf812ae 988
7df75831 989Here are the DEBUGGING modes:
3bf462b8 990
7df75831 991=over 4
3bf462b8 992
f075db89 993=item Configure -DDEBUGGING
eaf812ae 994
f075db89 995=item Configure -DEBUGGING
eaf812ae 996
f075db89 997=item Configure -DEBUGGING=both
eaf812ae 998
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999Sets both -DDEBUGGING in the ccflags, and adds -g to optimize.
1000
1001You can actually specify -g and -DDEBUGGING independently (see below),
1002but usually it's convenient to have both.
eaf812ae 1003
f075db89 1004=item Configure -DEBUGGING=-g
eaf812ae 1005
f075db89 1006=item Configure -Doptimize=-g
7df75831 1007
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1008Adds -g to optimize, but does not set -DDEBUGGING.
1009
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1010(Note: Your system may actually require something like cc -g2.
1011Check your man pages for cc(1) and also any hint file for your system.)
1012
f075db89 1013=item Configure -DEBUGGING=none
eaf812ae 1014
f075db89 1015=item Configure -UDEBUGGING
7df75831 1016
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1017Removes -g from optimize, and -DDEBUGGING from ccflags.
1018
1019=back
1020
3bf462b8 1021If you are using a shared libperl, see the warnings about multiple
ef460fb9 1022versions of perl under L</Building a shared Perl library>.
3bf462b8 1023
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1024Note that a perl built with -DDEBUGGING will be much bigger and will run
1025much, much more slowly than a standard perl.
1db12997
DM
1026
1027=head2 DTrace support
1028
979b4168 1029On platforms where DTrace is available, it may be enabled by
ab97e755
MB
1030using the -Dusedtrace option to Configure. DTrace probes are available
1031for subroutine entry (sub-entry) and subroutine exit (sub-exit). Here's a
1db12997
DM
1032simple D script that uses them:
1033
1034 perl$target:::sub-entry, perl$target:::sub-return {
1035 printf("%s %s (%s:%d)\n", probename == "sub-entry" ? "->" : "<-",
1036 copyinstr(arg0), copyinstr(arg1), arg2);
1037 }
1038
1039
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1040=head2 Extensions
1041
80c1f5de 1042Perl ships with a number of standard extensions. These are contained
b0a63d58 1043in the F<ext/> subdirectory.
80c1f5de 1044
8d74ce1c
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1045By default, Configure will offer to build every extension which appears
1046to be supported. For example, Configure will offer to build GDBM_File
7df75831 1047only if it is able to find the gdbm library.
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1048
1049To disable certain extensions so that they are not built, use the
1050-Dnoextensions=... and -Donlyextensions=... options. They both accept
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DM
1051a space-separated list of extensions, such as C<IPC/SysV>. The extensions
1052listed in
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1053C<noextensions> are removed from the list of extensions to build, while
1054the C<onlyextensions> is rather more severe and builds only the listed
1055extensions. The latter should be used with extreme caution since
1056certain extensions are used by many other extensions and modules:
1057examples of such modules include Fcntl and IO. The order of processing
1058these options is first C<only> (if present), then C<no> (if present).
8d74ce1c
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1059
1060Of course, you may always run Configure interactively and select only
1061the extensions you want.
1062
7df75831
RGS
1063If you unpack any additional extensions in the ext/ directory before
1064running Configure, then Configure will offer to build those additional
1065extensions as well. Most users probably shouldn't have to do this --
1066it is usually easier to build additional extensions later after perl
1067has been installed. However, if you wish to have those additional
1068extensions statically linked into the perl binary, then this offers a
1069convenient way to do that in one step. (It is not necessary, however;
1070you can build and install extensions just fine even if you don't have
1071dynamic loading. See lib/ExtUtils/MakeMaker.pm for more details.)
1072Another way of specifying extra modules is described in
1073L<"Adding extra modules to the build"> below.
8d74ce1c 1074
dd3196cd 1075If you re-use an old config.sh but change your system (e.g. by
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1076adding libgdbm) Configure will still offer your old choices of extensions
1077for the default answer, but it will also point out the discrepancy to
1078you.
1079
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1080=head2 Including locally-installed libraries
1081
7df75831
RGS
1082Perl comes with interfaces to number of libraries, including threads,
1083dbm, ndbm, gdbm, and Berkeley db. For the *db* extension, if
8d74ce1c 1084Configure can find the appropriate header files and libraries, it will
7df75831 1085automatically include that extension. The threading extension needs
27021420 1086to be specified explicitly (see L</Threads>).
7df75831
RGS
1087
1088Those libraries are not distributed with perl. If your header (.h) files
1089for those libraries are not in a directory normally searched by your C
1090compiler, then you will need to include the appropriate -I/your/directory
1091option when prompted by Configure. If your libraries are not in a
1092directory normally searched by your C compiler and linker, then you will
1093need to include the appropriate -L/your/directory option when prompted
1094by Configure. See the examples below.
8d74ce1c 1095
ce80d64e 1096=head3 Examples
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1097
1098=over 4
1099
1100=item gdbm in /usr/local
1101
1102Suppose you have gdbm and want Configure to find it and build the
d6baa268 1103GDBM_File extension. This example assumes you have gdbm.h
8d74ce1c
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1104installed in /usr/local/include/gdbm.h and libgdbm.a installed in
1105/usr/local/lib/libgdbm.a. Configure should figure all the
1106necessary steps out automatically.
1107
1108Specifically, when Configure prompts you for flags for
7df75831
RGS
1109your C compiler, you should include -I/usr/local/include, if it's
1110not here yet. Similarly, when Configure prompts you for linker flags,
1111you should include -L/usr/local/lib.
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1112
1113If you are using dynamic loading, then when Configure prompts you for
1114linker flags for dynamic loading, you should again include
1115-L/usr/local/lib.
1116
d6baa268
JH
1117Again, this should all happen automatically. This should also work if
1118you have gdbm installed in any of (/usr/local, /opt/local, /usr/gnu,
1119/opt/gnu, /usr/GNU, or /opt/GNU).
8d74ce1c 1120
e8b9ce60
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1121=item BerkeleyDB in /usr/local/BerkeleyDB
1122
668cbedd 1123The version of BerkeleyDB distributed by Oracle installs in a
e8b9ce60
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1124version-specific directory by default, typically something like
1125/usr/local/BerkeleyDB.4.7. To have Configure find that, you need to add
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MB
1126-I/usr/local/BerkeleyDB.4.7/include to cc flags, as in the previous
1127example, and you will also have to take extra steps to help Configure
1128find -ldb. Specifically, when Configure prompts you for library
1129directories, add /usr/local/BerkeleyDB.4.7/lib to the list. Also, you
1130will need to add appropriate linker flags to tell the runtime linker
1131where to find the BerkeleyDB shared libraries.
e8b9ce60
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1132
1133It is possible to specify this from the command line (all on one
8d74ce1c
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1134line):
1135
979b4168
KW
1136 sh Configure -de \
1137 -Dlocincpth='/usr/local/BerkeleyDB.4.7/include \
1138 /usr/local/include' \
1139 -Dloclibpth='/usr/local/BerkeleyDB.4.7/lib /usr/local/lib' \
1140 -Aldflags='-R/usr/local/BerkeleyDB.4.7/lib'
8d74ce1c
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1141
1142locincpth is a space-separated list of include directories to search.
1143Configure will automatically add the appropriate -I directives.
1144
1145loclibpth is a space-separated list of library directories to search.
e8b9ce60 1146Configure will automatically add the appropriate -L directives.
8d74ce1c 1147
e8b9ce60
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1148The addition to ldflags is so that the dynamic linker knows where to find
1149the BerkeleyDB libraries. For Linux and Solaris, the -R option does that.
1150Other systems may use different flags. Use the appropriate flag for your
1151system.
8d74ce1c
AD
1152
1153=back
1154
b76ca5cc
BF
1155=head2 Specifying a logical root directory
1156
1157If you are cross-compiling, or are using a compiler which has it's own
1158headers and libraries in a nonstandard location, and your compiler
ab97e755
MB
1159understands the C<--sysroot> option, you can use the C<-Dsysroot> option
1160to specify the logical root directory under which all libraries and
1161headers are searched for. This patch adjusts Configure to search under
1162$sysroot, instead of /.
1163
b76ca5cc
BF
1164--sysroot is added to ccflags and friends so that make in
1165ExtUtils::MakeMaker, and other extensions, will use it.
1166
ce80d64e
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1167=head2 Overriding an old config.sh
1168
dd3196cd
RGS
1169If you want to use an old config.sh produced by a previous run of
1170Configure, but override some of the items with command line options, you
1171need to use B<Configure -O>.
ce80d64e
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1172
1173=head2 GNU-style configure
1174
1175If you prefer the GNU-style configure command line interface, you can
1176use the supplied configure.gnu command, e.g.
1177
1178 CC=gcc ./configure.gnu
1179
1180The configure.gnu script emulates a few of the more common configure
1181options. Try
1182
1183 ./configure.gnu --help
1184
1185for a listing.
1186
1187(The file is called configure.gnu to avoid problems on systems
1188that would not distinguish the files "Configure" and "configure".)
1189
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1190=head2 Malloc Issues
1191
1192Perl relies heavily on malloc(3) to grow data structures as needed,
1193so perl's performance can be noticeably affected by the performance of
1194the malloc function on your system. The perl source is shipped with a
1195version of malloc that has been optimized for the typical requests from
1196perl, so there's a chance that it may be both faster and use less memory
1197than your system malloc.
1198
1199However, if your system already has an excellent malloc, or if you are
1200experiencing difficulties with extensions that use third-party libraries
1201that call malloc, then you should probably use your system's malloc.
1202(Or, you might wish to explore the malloc flags discussed below.)
1203
1204=over 4
1205
1206=item Using the system malloc
1207
1208To build without perl's malloc, you can use the Configure command
1209
1210 sh Configure -Uusemymalloc
1211
1212or you can answer 'n' at the appropriate interactive Configure prompt.
1213
73d6d1b0
RGS
1214Note that Perl's malloc isn't always used by default; that actually
1215depends on your system. For example, on Linux and FreeBSD (and many more
1216systems), Configure chooses to use the system's malloc by default.
1217See the appropriate file in the F<hints/> directory to see how the
1218default is set.
1219
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1220=item -DPERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC
1221
1222NOTE: This flag is enabled automatically on some platforms if you just
7df75831 1223run Configure to accept all the defaults.
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1224
1225Perl's malloc family of functions are normally called Perl_malloc(),
1226Perl_realloc(), Perl_calloc() and Perl_mfree().
1227These names do not clash with the system versions of these functions.
1228
1229If this flag is enabled, however, Perl's malloc family of functions
1230will have the same names as the system versions. This may be required
1231sometimes if you have libraries that like to free() data that may have
1232been allocated by Perl_malloc() and vice versa.
1233
1234Note that enabling this option may sometimes lead to duplicate symbols
1235from the linker for malloc et al. In such cases, the system probably
1236does not allow its malloc functions to be fully replaced with custom
1237versions.
1238
1239=item -DPERL_DEBUGGING_MSTATS
1240
1241This flag enables debugging mstats, which is required to use the
1242Devel::Peek::mstat() function. You cannot enable this unless you are
1243using Perl's malloc, so a typical Configure command would be
1244
7df75831 1245 sh Configure -Accflags=-DPERL_DEBUGGING_MSTATS -Dusemymalloc
ce80d64e
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1246
1247to enable this option.
1248
1249=back
1250
8e07c86e
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1251=head2 What if it doesn't work?
1252
8d74ce1c 1253If you run into problems, try some of the following ideas.
ff52061e 1254If none of them help, then see L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
8d74ce1c 1255
8e07c86e
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1256=over 4
1257
25f94b33
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1258=item Running Configure Interactively
1259
1260If Configure runs into trouble, remember that you can always run
1261Configure interactively so that you can check (and correct) its
1262guesses.
1263
1264All the installation questions have been moved to the top, so you don't
aa689395 1265have to wait for them. Once you've handled them (and your C compiler and
1ec51d55 1266flags) you can type &-d at the next Configure prompt and Configure
25f94b33
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1267will use the defaults from then on.
1268
1269If you find yourself trying obscure command line incantations and
1270config.over tricks, I recommend you run Configure interactively
1271instead. You'll probably save yourself time in the long run.
1272
aa689395 1273=item Hint files
8e07c86e 1274
a0a8d9d3
DD
1275Hint files tell Configure about a number of things:
1276
1277=over 4
1278
1279=item o
1280
1281The peculiarities or conventions of particular platforms -- non-standard
1282library locations and names, default installation locations for binaries,
1283and so on.
1284
1285=item o
1286
1287The deficiencies of the platform -- for example, library functions that,
1288although present, are too badly broken to be usable; or limits on
1289resources that are generously available on most platforms.
1290
1291=item o
1292
ab97e755
MB
1293How best to optimize for the platform, both in terms of binary size
1294and/or speed, and for Perl feature support. Because of wide variations in
1295the implementation of shared libraries and of threading, for example,
1296Configure often needs hints in order to be able to use these features.
a0a8d9d3
DD
1297
1298=back
1299
1300The perl distribution includes many system-specific hints files
1301in the hints/ directory. If one of them matches your system, Configure
1302will offer to use that hint file. Unless you have a very good reason
1303not to, you should accept its offer.
8e07c86e
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1304
1305Several of the hint files contain additional important information.
ab97e755
MB
1306If you have any problems, it is a good idea to read the relevant hint
1307file for further information. See hints/solaris_2.sh for an extensive
1308example. More information about writing good hints is in the
1309hints/README.hints file, which also explains hint files known as
1310callback-units.
a0a8d9d3
DD
1311
1312Note that any hint file is read before any Policy file, meaning that
1313Policy overrides hints -- see L</Site-wide Policy settings>.
8e07c86e 1314
73d6d1b0 1315=item WHOA THERE!!!
edb1cbcb 1316
ab97e755
MB
1317If you are re-using an old config.sh, it's possible that Configure
1318detects different values from the ones specified in this file. You will
1319almost always want to keep the previous value, unless you have changed
1320something on your system.
edb1cbcb
PP
1321
1322For example, suppose you have added libgdbm.a to your system
1323and you decide to reconfigure perl to use GDBM_File. When you run
1324Configure again, you will need to add -lgdbm to the list of libraries.
bfb7748a
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1325Now, Configure will find your gdbm include file and library and will
1326issue a message:
edb1cbcb
PP
1327
1328 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
1329 The previous value for $i_gdbm on this machine was "undef"!
1330 Keep the previous value? [y]
1331
1ec51d55 1332In this case, you do not want to keep the previous value, so you
c3edaffb 1333should answer 'n'. (You'll also have to manually add GDBM_File to
edb1cbcb
PP
1334the list of dynamic extensions to build.)
1335
8e07c86e
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1336=item Changing Compilers
1337
1338If you change compilers or make other significant changes, you should
1ec51d55 1339probably not re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it or
dd3196cd 1340rename it, then rerun Configure with the options you want to use.
8e07c86e 1341
c3edaffb 1342=item Propagating your changes to config.sh
8e07c86e 1343
1ec51d55
CS
1344If you make any changes to config.sh, you should propagate
1345them to all the .SH files by running
1346
1347 sh Configure -S
1348
1349You will then have to rebuild by running
9d67150a
PP
1350
1351 make depend
1352 make
8e07c86e 1353
48370efc
JH
1354=item config.over and config.arch
1355
668cbedd 1356You can also supply a shell script config.over to override
48370efc
JH
1357Configure's guesses. It will get loaded up at the very end, just
1358before config.sh is created. You have to be careful with this,
1359however, as Configure does no checking that your changes make sense.
1360This file is usually good for site-specific customizations.
1361
1362There is also another file that, if it exists, is loaded before the
1363config.over, called config.arch. This file is intended to be per
1364architecture, not per site, and usually it's the architecture-specific
1365hints file that creates the config.arch.
8e07c86e
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1366
1367=item config.h
1368
1ec51d55
CS
1369Many of the system dependencies are contained in config.h.
1370Configure builds config.h by running the config_h.SH script.
1371The values for the variables are taken from config.sh.
8e07c86e 1372
1ec51d55
CS
1373If there are any problems, you can edit config.h directly. Beware,
1374though, that the next time you run Configure, your changes will be
8e07c86e
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1375lost.
1376
1377=item cflags
1378
1379If you have any additional changes to make to the C compiler command
1ec51d55 1380line, they can be made in cflags.SH. For instance, to turn off the
5729ffdd
NC
1381optimizer on toke.c, find the switch structure marked 'or customize here',
1382and add a line for toke.c ahead of the catch-all *) so that it now reads:
1383
1384 : or customize here
1385
1386 case "$file" in
1387 toke) optimize='-g' ;;
1388 *) ;;
1389
ab97e755
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1390You should not edit the generated file cflags directly, as your changes
1391will be lost the next time you run Configure, or if you edit config.sh.
8e07c86e 1392
f5b3b617
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1393To explore various ways of changing ccflags from within a hint file,
1394see the file hints/README.hints.
1395
1396To change the C flags for all the files, edit config.sh and change either
1397$ccflags or $optimize, and then re-run
1ec51d55
CS
1398
1399 sh Configure -S
1400 make depend
8e07c86e 1401
aa689395 1402=item No sh
8e07c86e 1403
c42e3e15
GS
1404If you don't have sh, you'll have to copy the sample file
1405Porting/config.sh to config.sh and edit your config.sh to reflect your
1406system's peculiarities. See Porting/pumpkin.pod for more information.
8e07c86e
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1407You'll probably also have to extensively modify the extension building
1408mechanism.
1409
c3edaffb
PP
1410=item Porting information
1411
e6f03d26 1412Specific information for the OS/2, Plan 9, VMS and Win32 ports is in the
1ec51d55
CS
1413corresponding README files and subdirectories. Additional information,
1414including a glossary of all those config.sh variables, is in the Porting
ce80d64e 1415subdirectory. Porting/Glossary should especially come in handy.
c3edaffb 1416
7f678428 1417Ports for other systems may also be available. You should check out
b0a63d58 1418L<http://www.cpan.org/ports> for current information on ports to
7f678428
PP
1419various other operating systems.
1420
ce80d64e 1421If you plan to port Perl to a new architecture, study carefully the
491517e0 1422section titled "Philosophical Issues in Patching and Porting Perl"
c222ef46 1423in the file Porting/pumpkin.pod and the file pod/perlgit.pod.
491517e0
JA
1424Study also how other non-UNIX ports have solved problems.
1425
8e07c86e
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1426=back
1427
ce80d64e 1428=head2 Adding extra modules to the build
fadf0ef5
JH
1429
1430You can specify extra modules or module bundles to be fetched from the
1431CPAN and installed as part of the Perl build. Either use the -Dextras=...
1432command line parameter to Configure, for example like this:
1433
d3df0cfd 1434 Configure -Dextras="Bundle::LWP DBI"
fadf0ef5
JH
1435
1436or answer first 'y' to the question 'Install any extra modules?' and
d3df0cfd 1437then answer "Bundle::LWP DBI" to the 'Extras?' question.
ab97e755
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1438The module or the bundle names are as for the CPAN module 'install'
1439command. This will only work if those modules are to be built as dynamic
a522f097
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1440extensions. If you wish to include those extra modules as static
1441extensions, see L<"Extensions"> above.
fadf0ef5
JH
1442
1443Notice that because the CPAN module will be used to fetch the extra
1444modules, you will need access to the CPAN, either via the Internet,
1445or via a local copy such as a CD-ROM or a local CPAN mirror. If you
1446do not, using the extra modules option will die horribly.
1447
1448Also notice that you yourself are responsible for satisfying any extra
ab97e755
MB
1449dependencies such as external headers or libraries BEFORE trying the
1450build. For example: you will need to have the Foo database specific
fadf0ef5
JH
1451headers and libraries installed for the DBD::Foo module. The Configure
1452process or the Perl build process will not help you with these.
1453
ce80d64e 1454=head2 suidperl
03739d21 1455
172dd959
JV
1456suidperl was an optional component of earlier releases of perl. It is no
1457longer available. Instead, use a tool specifically designed to handle
1458changes in privileges, such as B<sudo>.
03739d21 1459
8e07c86e
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1460=head1 make depend
1461
bfb7748a
AD
1462This will look for all the includes. The output is stored in makefile.
1463The only difference between Makefile and makefile is the dependencies at
1464the bottom of makefile. If you have to make any changes, you should edit
ce80d64e 1465makefile, not Makefile, since the Unix make command reads makefile first.
bfb7748a
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1466(On non-Unix systems, the output may be stored in a different file.
1467Check the value of $firstmakefile in your config.sh if in doubt.)
8e07c86e
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1468
1469Configure will offer to do this step for you, so it isn't listed
1470explicitly above.
1471
1472=head1 make
1473
1474This will attempt to make perl in the current directory.
1475
8d410bc4
YST
1476=head2 Expected errors
1477
f5b5f377 1478These error reports are normal, and can be ignored:
8d410bc4
YST
1479
1480 ...
1481 make: [extra.pods] Error 1 (ignored)
1482 ...
1483 make: [extras.make] Error 1 (ignored)
1484
8d74ce1c
AD
1485=head2 What if it doesn't work?
1486
8e07c86e 1487If you can't compile successfully, try some of the following ideas.
7f678428 1488If none of them help, and careful reading of the error message and
8d74ce1c 1489the relevant manual pages on your system doesn't help,
ff52061e 1490then see L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
8e07c86e
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1491
1492=over 4
1493
1ec51d55 1494=item hints
8e07c86e
AD
1495
1496If you used a hint file, try reading the comments in the hint file
1497for further tips and information.
1498
1ec51d55 1499=item extensions
8e07c86e 1500
1ec51d55 1501If you can successfully build miniperl, but the process crashes
ce80d64e 1502during the building of extensions, run
c3edaffb 1503
3a6175e1 1504 make minitest
c3edaffb
PP
1505
1506to test your version of miniperl.
1507
e57fd563
PP
1508=item locale
1509
bfb7748a
AD
1510If you have any locale-related environment variables set, try unsetting
1511them. I have some reports that some versions of IRIX hang while
1512running B<./miniperl configpm> with locales other than the C locale.
1513See the discussion under L<"make test"> below about locales and the
ab97e755
MB
1514whole L<perllocale/"LOCALE PROBLEMS"> section in the file
1515pod/perllocale.pod. The latter is especially useful if you see something
1516like this
3e6e419a
JH
1517
1518 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
1519 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
1520 LC_ALL = "En_US",
1521 LANG = (unset)
1522 are supported and installed on your system.
1523 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
1524
1525at Perl startup.
e57fd563 1526
06aa495b
DM
1527=item other environment variables
1528
1529Configure does not check for environment variables that can sometimes
1530have a major influence on how perl is built or tested. For example,
1531OBJECT_MODE on AIX determines the way the compiler and linker deal with
1532their objects, but this is a variable that only influences build-time
1533behaviour, and should not affect the perl scripts that are eventually
1534executed by the perl binary. Other variables, like PERL_UNICODE,
adbb55c0 1535PERL5LIB, and PERL5OPT will influence the behaviour of the test suite.
06aa495b
DM
1536So if you are getting strange test failures, you may want to try
1537retesting with the various PERL variables unset.
1538
1ec51d55 1539=item LD_LIBRARY_PATH
c3edaffb
PP
1540
1541If you run into dynamic loading problems, check your setting of
aa689395
PP
1542the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable. If you're creating a static
1543Perl library (libperl.a rather than libperl.so) it should build
c3edaffb 1544fine with LD_LIBRARY_PATH unset, though that may depend on details
668cbedd 1545of your local setup.
c3edaffb 1546
aa689395 1547=item nm extraction
c3edaffb
PP
1548
1549If Configure seems to be having trouble finding library functions,
1550try not using nm extraction. You can do this from the command line
1551with
1552
1553 sh Configure -Uusenm
1554
1555or by answering the nm extraction question interactively.
1ec51d55 1556If you have previously run Configure, you should not reuse your old
c3edaffb
PP
1557config.sh.
1558
bfb7748a
AD
1559=item umask not found
1560
1561If the build processes encounters errors relating to umask(), the problem
1562is probably that Configure couldn't find your umask() system call.
1563Check your config.sh. You should have d_umask='define'. If you don't,
1564this is probably the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above. Also,
1565try reading the hints file for your system for further information.
1566
3fe9a6f1
PP
1567=item do_aspawn
1568
1569If you run into problems relating to do_aspawn or do_spawn, the
1570problem is probably that Configure failed to detect your system's
bfb7748a
AD
1571fork() function. Follow the procedure in the previous item
1572on L<"nm extraction">.
3fe9a6f1 1573
84902520
TB
1574=item __inet_* errors
1575
1576If you receive unresolved symbol errors during Perl build and/or test
1577referring to __inet_* symbols, check to see whether BIND 8.1 is
1578installed. It installs a /usr/local/include/arpa/inet.h that refers to
1579these symbols. Versions of BIND later than 8.1 do not install inet.h
1580in that location and avoid the errors. You should probably update to a
6d240721 1581newer version of BIND (and remove the files the old one left behind).
ab97e755
MB
1582If you can't, you can either link with the updated resolver library
1583provided with BIND 8.1 or rename /usr/local/bin/arpa/inet.h during the
1584Perl build and test process to avoid the problem.
6d240721 1585
73d6d1b0 1586=item .*_r() prototype NOT found
6d240721
JH
1587
1588On a related note, if you see a bunch of complaints like the above about
ab97e755
MB
1589reentrant functions -- specifically networking-related ones -- being
1590present but without prototypes available, check to see if BIND 8.1 (or
1591possibly other BIND 8 versions) is (or has been) installed. They install
1592header files such as netdb.h into places such as /usr/local/include (or
1593into another directory as specified at build/install time), at least
1594optionally. Remove them or put them in someplace that isn't in the C
1595preprocessor's header file include search path (determined by -I options
1596plus defaults, normally /usr/include).
84902520 1597
d6baa268
JH
1598=item #error "No DATAMODEL_NATIVE specified"
1599
1600This is a common error when trying to build perl on Solaris 2.6 with a
1601gcc installation from Solaris 2.5 or 2.5.1. The Solaris header files
1602changed, so you need to update your gcc installation. You can either
1603rerun the fixincludes script from gcc or take the opportunity to
1604update your gcc installation.
1605
aa689395 1606=item Optimizer
c3edaffb 1607
9d67150a 1608If you can't compile successfully, try turning off your compiler's
aa689395 1609optimizer. Edit config.sh and change the line
9d67150a
PP
1610
1611 optimize='-O'
1612
bfb7748a 1613to
9d67150a
PP
1614
1615 optimize=' '
1616
1617then propagate your changes with B<sh Configure -S> and rebuild
1618with B<make depend; make>.
1619
4bbc1586 1620=item Missing functions and Undefined symbols
9d67150a 1621
4bbc1586
AD
1622If the build of miniperl fails with a long list of missing functions or
1623undefined symbols, check the libs variable in the config.sh file. It
1624should look something like
1625
1626 libs='-lsocket -lnsl -ldl -lm -lc'
1627
1628The exact libraries will vary from system to system, but you typically
1629need to include at least the math library -lm. Normally, Configure
1630will suggest the correct defaults. If the libs variable is empty, you
1631need to start all over again. Run
1632
1633 make distclean
1634
1635and start from the very beginning. This time, unless you are sure of
1636what you are doing, accept the default list of libraries suggested by
1637Configure.
1638
0ff780f4
MB
1639If the libs variable is missing -lm, there is a chance that libm.so.1
1640is available, but the required (symbolic) link to libm.so is missing.
1641(same could be the case for other libraries like libcrypt.so). You
1642should check your installation for packages that create that link, and
1643if no package is installed that supplies that link or you cannot install
1644them, make the symbolic link yourself e.g.:
1645
c7121961
FC
1646 $ rpm -qf /usr/lib64/libm.so
1647 glibc-devel-2.15-22.17.1.x86_64
1648 $ ls -lgo /usr/lib64/libm.so
1649 lrwxrwxrwx 1 16 Jan 7 2013 /usr/lib64/libm.so -> /lib64/libm.so.6
0ff780f4 1650
c7121961 1651 or
0ff780f4 1652
c7121961 1653 $ sudo ln -s /lib64/libm.so.6 /lib64/libm.so
0ff780f4 1654
4bbc1586
AD
1655If the libs variable looks correct, you might have the
1656L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above.
1657
668cbedd 1658If you still have missing routines or undefined symbols, you probably
0ff780f4
MB
1659need to add some library or other, make a symbolic link like described
1660above, or you need to undefine some feature that Configure thought was
1661there but is defective or incomplete. If you used a hint file, see if
1662it has any relevant advice. You can also look through through config.h
1663for likely suspects.
8e07c86e 1664
1ec51d55 1665=item toke.c
8e07c86e 1666
1ec51d55
CS
1667Some compilers will not compile or optimize the larger files (such as
1668toke.c) without some extra switches to use larger jump offsets or
1669allocate larger internal tables. You can customize the switches for
ab97e755
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1670each file in cflags.SH. It's okay to insert rules for specific files
1671into makefile since a default rule only takes effect in the absence of a
8e07c86e
AD
1672specific rule.
1673
7f678428 1674=item Missing dbmclose
8e07c86e 1675
c3edaffb
PP
1676SCO prior to 3.2.4 may be missing dbmclose(). An upgrade to 3.2.4
1677that includes libdbm.nfs (which includes dbmclose()) may be available.
8e07c86e 1678
1bb125e2
MB
1679=item error: too few arguments to function 'dbmclose'
1680
1681Building ODBM_File on some (Open)SUSE distributions might run into this
1682error, as the header file is broken. There are two ways to deal with this
1683
1684 1. Disable the use of ODBM_FILE
1685
f0c21bde 1686 sh Configure ... -Dnoextensions=ODBM_File
1bb125e2
MB
1687
1688 2. Fix the header file, somewhat like this:
1689
1690 --- a/usr/include/dbm.h 2010-03-24 08:54:59.000000000 +0100
1691 +++ b/usr/include/dbm.h 2010-03-24 08:55:15.000000000 +0100
1692 @@ -59,4 +59,4 @@ extern datum firstkey __P((void));
1693
1694 extern datum nextkey __P((datum key));
1695
1696 -extern int dbmclose __P((DBM *));
1697 +extern int dbmclose __P((void));
1698
44666fef 1699=item Warning (mostly harmless): No library found for -lsomething
7f678428
PP
1700
1701If you see such a message during the building of an extension, but
1702the extension passes its tests anyway (see L<"make test"> below),
1703then don't worry about the warning message. The extension
1704Makefile.PL goes looking for various libraries needed on various
aa689395 1705systems; few systems will need all the possible libraries listed.
74b7c41f 1706Most users will see warnings for the ones they don't have. The
44666fef 1707phrase 'mostly harmless' is intended to reassure you that nothing
74b7c41f 1708unusual is happening, and the build process is continuing.
7f678428
PP
1709
1710On the other hand, if you are building GDBM_File and you get the
1711message
1712
44666fef 1713 Warning (mostly harmless): No library found for -lgdbm
7f678428
PP
1714
1715then it's likely you're going to run into trouble somewhere along
1716the line, since it's hard to see how you can use the GDBM_File
1717extension without the -lgdbm library.
1718
1719It is true that, in principle, Configure could have figured all of
1720this out, but Configure and the extension building process are not
1721quite that tightly coordinated.
1722
aa689395
PP
1723=item sh: ar: not found
1724
1725This is a message from your shell telling you that the command 'ar'
1726was not found. You need to check your PATH environment variable to
1727make sure that it includes the directory with the 'ar' command. This
1ec51d55 1728is a common problem on Solaris, where 'ar' is in the /usr/ccs/bin
aa689395
PP
1729directory.
1730
1731=item db-recno failure on tests 51, 53 and 55
1732
1733Old versions of the DB library (including the DB library which comes
1734with FreeBSD 2.1) had broken handling of recno databases with modified
1735bval settings. Upgrade your DB library or OS.
1736
6087ac44
JH
1737=item Bad arg length for semctl, is XX, should be ZZZ
1738
c935ba53 1739If you get this error message from the F<cpan/IPC-SysV/t/sem.t> test, your
ab97e755 1740System V IPC may be broken. The XX typically is 20, and that is what ZZZ
6087ac44
JH
1741also should be. Consider upgrading your OS, or reconfiguring your OS
1742to include the System V semaphores.
1743
c935ba53 1744=item cpan/IPC-SysV/t/sem........semget: No space left on device
220f3621
GS
1745
1746Either your account or the whole system has run out of semaphores. Or
1747both. Either list the semaphores with "ipcs" and remove the unneeded
1748ones (which ones these are depends on your system and applications)
1749with "ipcrm -s SEMAPHORE_ID_HERE" or configure more semaphores to your
1750system.
1751
d6baa268
JH
1752=item GNU binutils
1753
1754If you mix GNU binutils (nm, ld, ar) with equivalent vendor-supplied
1755tools you may be in for some trouble. For example creating archives
1756with an old GNU 'ar' and then using a new current vendor-supplied 'ld'
1757may lead into linking problems. Either recompile your GNU binutils
1758under your current operating system release, or modify your PATH not
1759to include the GNU utils before running Configure, or specify the
1760vendor-supplied utilities explicitly to Configure, for example by
1761Configure -Dar=/bin/ar.
1762
16dc217a
GS
1763=item THIS PACKAGE SEEMS TO BE INCOMPLETE
1764
1765The F<Configure> program has not been able to find all the files which
1766make up the complete Perl distribution. You may have a damaged source
1767archive file (in which case you may also have seen messages such as
1768C<gzip: stdin: unexpected end of file> and C<tar: Unexpected EOF on
1769archive file>), or you may have obtained a structurally-sound but
1770incomplete archive. In either case, try downloading again from the
1771official site named at the start of this document. If you do find
1772that any site is carrying a corrupted or incomplete source code
1773archive, please report it to the site's maintainer.
1774
16dc217a
GS
1775=item invalid token: ##
1776
ce80d64e
AD
1777You are using a non-ANSI-compliant C compiler. To compile Perl, you
1778need to use a compiler that supports ANSI C. If there is a README
1779file for your system, it may have further details on your compiler
1780options.
16dc217a 1781
1ec51d55 1782=item Miscellaneous
8e07c86e 1783
7df75831 1784Some additional things that have been reported:
8e07c86e
AD
1785
1786Genix may need to use libc rather than libc_s, or #undef VARARGS.
1787
1788NCR Tower 32 (OS 2.01.01) may need -W2,-Sl,2000 and #undef MKDIR.
1789
668cbedd 1790UTS may need one or more of -K or -g, and #undef LSTAT.
8e07c86e 1791
c935ba53 1792FreeBSD can fail the F<cpan/IPC-SysV/t/sem.t> test if SysV IPC has not been
5cda700b 1793configured in the kernel. Perl tries to detect this, though, and
ce80d64e 1794you will get a message telling you what to do.
6087ac44 1795
6c8d78fb
HS
1796Building Perl on a system that has also BIND (headers and libraries)
1797installed may run into troubles because BIND installs its own netdb.h
1798and socket.h, which may not agree with the operating system's ideas of
1799the same files. Similarly, including -lbind may conflict with libc's
1800view of the world. You may have to tweak -Dlocincpth and -Dloclibpth
1801to avoid the BIND.
1802
8e07c86e
AD
1803=back
1804
58a21a9b
JH
1805=head2 Cross-compilation
1806
e7a3c61b 1807Perl can be cross-compiled. It is just not trivial, cross-compilation
30bba555 1808rarely is. Perl is routinely cross-compiled for several platforms: as of
ae2a00c5 1809June 2019, these include Android, Blackberry 10,
79c32fc2 1810ARM Linux, and Solaris. Previous versions of
30bba555
BF
1811Perl also provided support for Open Zaurus, Symbian, and
1812the IBM OS/400, but it's unknown if those ports are still functional.
ab97e755
MB
1813These platforms are known as the B<target> platforms, while the systems
1814where the compilation takes place are the B<host> platforms.
e7a3c61b
JH
1815
1816What makes the situation difficult is that first of all,
1817cross-compilation environments vary significantly in how they are set
1818up and used, and secondly because the primary way of configuring Perl
1819(using the rather large Unix-tool-dependent Configure script) is not
1820awfully well suited for cross-compilation. However, starting from
30bba555
BF
1821version 5.18.0, the Configure script also knows two ways of supporting
1822cross-compilation, so please keep reading.
e7a3c61b
JH
1823
1824See the following files for more information about compiling Perl for
1825the particular platforms:
1826
1827=over 4
1828
30bba555 1829=item Android
e7a3c61b 1830
ab97e755
MB
1831L<"Cross-compilation" in README.android or
1832perlandroid|perlandroid/Cross-compilation>
e7a3c61b 1833
30bba555 1834=item Blackberry
e7a3c61b 1835
30bba555 1836L<"Cross-compilation" in README.qnx or perlqnx|perlqnx/Cross-compilation>
e7a3c61b 1837
30bba555 1838=item Solaris
e7a3c61b 1839
ab97e755
MB
1840L<"CROSS-COMPILATION" in README.solaris or
1841perlsolaris|perlsolaris/CROSS-COMPILATION>
30bba555
BF
1842
1843=item Linux
1844
1845This document; See below.
e7a3c61b
JH
1846
1847=back
1848
1849Packaging and transferring either the core Perl modules or CPAN
1850modules to the target platform is also left up to the each
1851cross-compilation environment. Often the cross-compilation target
1852platforms are somewhat limited in diskspace: see the section
ef460fb9 1853L</Minimizing the Perl installation> to learn more of the minimal set
e7a3c61b
JH
1854of files required for a functional Perl installation.
1855
1856For some cross-compilation environments the Configure option
ef460fb9 1857C<-Dinstallprefix=...> might be handy, see L</Changing the installation
e7a3c61b
JH
1858directory>.
1859
30bba555 1860About the cross-compilation support of Configure: There's two forms.
ab97e755
MB
1861The more common one requires some way of transferring and running
1862executables in the target system, such as an ssh connection; this is the
1863C<./Configure -Dusecrosscompile -Dtargethost=...> route. The second
1864method doesn't need access to the target system, but requires you to
1865provide a config.sh, and and a canned Makefile; the rest of this section
1866describes the former.
e7a3c61b 1867
30bba555 1868This cross-compilation setup of Configure has successfully been used in
ab97e755
MB
1869a wide variety of setups, such as a 64-bit OS X host for an Android ARM
1870target, or an amd64 Linux host targeting x86 Solaris, or even Windows.
e7a3c61b
JH
1871
1872To run Configure in cross-compilation mode the basic switch that
30bba555 1873has to be used is C<-Dusecrosscompile>:
58a21a9b
JH
1874
1875 sh ./Configure -des -Dusecrosscompile -D...
1876
1877This will make the cpp symbol USE_CROSS_COMPILE and the %Config
30bba555 1878symbol C<usecrosscompile> available.
58a21a9b
JH
1879
1880During the Configure and build, certain helper scripts will be created
1881into the Cross/ subdirectory. The scripts are used to execute a
1882cross-compiled executable, and to transfer files to and from the
1883target host. The execution scripts are named F<run-*> and the
1884transfer scripts F<to-*> and F<from-*>. The part after the dash is
1885the method to use for remote execution and transfer: by default the
1886methods are B<ssh> and B<scp>, thus making the scripts F<run-ssh>,
1887F<to-scp>, and F<from-scp>.
1888
1889To configure the scripts for a target host and a directory (in which
1890the execution will happen and which is to and from where the transfer
1891happens), supply Configure with
1892
1893 -Dtargethost=so.me.ho.st -Dtargetdir=/tar/get/dir
1894
1895The targethost is what e.g. ssh will use as the hostname, the targetdir
93bc48fa
JH
1896must exist (the scripts won't create it), the targetdir defaults to /tmp.
1897You can also specify a username to use for ssh/rsh logins
58a21a9b
JH
1898
1899 -Dtargetuser=luser
1900
30bba555 1901but in case you don't, "root" will be used. Similarly, you can specify
ab97e755
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1902a non-standard (i.e. not 22) port for the connection, if applicable,
1903through
30bba555
BF
1904
1905 -Dtargetport=2222
58a21a9b 1906
30bba555
BF
1907If the name of C<cc> has the usual GNU C semantics for cross
1908compilers, that is, CPU-OS-gcc, the target architecture (C<targetarch>),
1909plus names of the C<ar>, C<nm>, and C<ranlib> will also be automatically
1910chosen to be CPU-OS-ar and so on.
1911(The C<ld> requires more thought and will be chosen later by Configure
1912as appropriate). This will also aid in guessing the proper
1913operating system name for the target, which has other repercussions, like
ab97e755
MB
1914better defaults and possibly critical fixes for the platform. If
1915Configure isn't guessing the OS name properly, you may need to either add
1916a hint file redirecting Configure's guess, or modify Configure to make
1917the correct choice.
30bba555
BF
1918
1919If your compiler doesn't follow that convention, you will also need to
1920specify which target environment to use, as well as C<ar> and friends:
58a21a9b
JH
1921
1922 -Dtargetarch=arm-linux
30bba555
BF
1923 -Dcc=mycrossgcc
1924 -Dar=...
1925
1926Additionally, a cross-compilation toolchain will usually install it's own
ab97e755 1927logical system root somewhere -- that is, it'll create a directory
a95b3d6a
KW
1928somewhere which includes subdirectories like C<'include'> or C<'lib'>. For
1929example, you may end up with F</skiff/local/arm-linux>, where
1930F</skiff/local/arm-linux/bin> holds the binaries for cross-compilation,
1931F</skiff/local/arm-linux/include> has the headers, and
1932F</skiff/local/arm-linux/lib> has the library files.
30bba555
BF
1933If this is the case, and you are using a compiler that understands
1934C<--sysroot>, like gcc or clang, you'll want to specify the
1935C<-Dsysroot> option for Configure:
1936
1937 -Dsysroot=/skiff/local/arm-linux
1938
1939However, if your don't have a suitable directory to pass to C<-Dsysroot>,
1940you will also need to specify which target environment to use:
1941
58a21a9b
JH
1942 -Dusrinc=/skiff/local/arm-linux/include
1943 -Dincpth=/skiff/local/arm-linux/include
1944 -Dlibpth=/skiff/local/arm-linux/lib
1945
58a21a9b
JH
1946In addition to the default execution/transfer methods you can also
1947choose B<rsh> for execution, and B<rcp> or B<cp> for transfer,
1948for example:
1949
1950 -Dtargetrun=rsh -Dtargetto=rcp -Dtargetfrom=cp
1951
1952Putting it all together:
1953
1954 sh ./Configure -des -Dusecrosscompile \
93bc48fa 1955 -Dtargethost=so.me.ho.st \
30bba555 1956 -Dtargetdir=/tar/get/dir \
58a21a9b
JH
1957 -Dtargetuser=root \
1958 -Dtargetarch=arm-linux \
1959 -Dcc=arm-linux-gcc \
30bba555 1960 -Dsysroot=/skiff/local/arm-linux \
58a21a9b
JH
1961 -D...
1962
e7a3c61b 1963or if you are happy with the defaults:
93bc48fa
JH
1964
1965 sh ./Configure -des -Dusecrosscompile \
1966 -Dtargethost=so.me.ho.st \
1967 -Dcc=arm-linux-gcc \
1968 -D...
1969
e7a3c61b
JH
1970Another example where the cross-compiler has been installed under
1971F</usr/local/arm/2.95.5>:
1972
1973 sh ./Configure -des -Dusecrosscompile \
1974 -Dtargethost=so.me.ho.st \
1975 -Dcc=/usr/local/arm/2.95.5/bin/arm-linux-gcc \
30bba555
BF
1976 -Dsysroot=/usr/local/arm/2.95.5
1977
1978There is also a C<targetenv> option for Configure which can be used
1979to modify the environment of the target just before testing begins
1980during 'make test'. For example, if the target system has a nonstandard
1981/tmp location, you could do this:
1982
1983 -Dtargetenv="export TMPDIR=/other/tmp;"
1984
ab97e755
MB
1985If you are planning on cross-compiling to several platforms, or some
1986other thing that would involve running Configure several times, there are
1987two options that can be used to speed things up considerably.
30bba555
BF
1988As a bit of background, when you
1989call Configure with C<-Dusecrosscompile>, it begins by actually partially
1990building a miniperl on the host machine, as well as the generate_uudmap
1991binary, and we end up using that during the build.
ab97e755
MB
1992So instead of building that new perl every single time, you can build it
1993just once in a separate directory, and then pass the resulting binaries
1994to Configure like this:
30bba555
BF
1995
1996 -Dhostperl=/path/to/second/build/dir/miniperl
1997 -Dhostgenerate=/path/to/second/build/dir/generate_uudmap
1998
1999Much less commonly, if you are cross-compiling from an ASCII host to an
2000EBCDIC target, or vise versa, you'll have to pass C<-Uhostgenerate> to
2001Configure, to signify that you want to build a generate_uudmap binary
2002that, during make, will be run on the target system.
e7a3c61b 2003
8e07c86e
AD
2004=head1 make test
2005
d6baa268
JH
2006This will run the regression tests on the perl you just made. If
2007'make test' doesn't say "All tests successful" then something went
36bded94 2008wrong.
84902520 2009
84902520 2010Note that you can't run the tests in background if this disables
fb73857a
PP
2011opening of /dev/tty. You can use 'make test-notty' in that case but
2012a few tty tests will be skipped.
c3edaffb 2013
c4f23d77
AD
2014=head2 What if make test doesn't work?
2015
1ec51d55 2016If make test bombs out, just cd to the t directory and run ./TEST
36bded94 2017by hand to see if it makes any difference.
8e07c86e 2018
36bded94
AD
2019One way to get more detailed information about failed tests and
2020individual subtests is to run the harness from the t directory:
aa689395 2021
785aa5e3 2022 cd t ; ./perl harness <list of tests>
aa689395 2023
fb73857a 2024(this assumes that most basic tests succeed, since harness uses
785aa5e3
RGS
2025complicated constructs). If no list of tests is provided, harness
2026will run all tests.
10c7e831 2027
36bded94
AD
2028If individual tests fail, you can often run them by hand (from the main
2029perl directory), e.g.,
2030
524a2f33 2031 ./perl -I. -MTestInit t/op/groups.t
36bded94 2032
fb73857a 2033You should also read the individual tests to see if there are any helpful
10c7e831
JH
2034comments that apply to your system. You may also need to setup your
2035shared library path if you get errors like:
2036
2037 /sbin/loader: Fatal Error: cannot map libperl.so
2038
36bded94
AD
2039The file t/README in the t subdirectory contains more information about
2040running and modifying tests.
2041
10c7e831 2042See L</"Building a shared Perl library"> earlier in this document.
c3edaffb 2043
c4f23d77
AD
2044=over 4
2045
2046=item locale
2047
1ec51d55 2048Note: One possible reason for errors is that some external programs
c07a80fd 2049may be broken due to the combination of your environment and the way
785aa5e3 2050'make test' exercises them. For example, this may happen if you have
1ec51d55
CS
2051one or more of these environment variables set: LC_ALL LC_CTYPE
2052LC_COLLATE LANG. In some versions of UNIX, the non-English locales
e57fd563
PP
2053are known to cause programs to exhibit mysterious errors.
2054
2055If you have any of the above environment variables set, please try
aa689395
PP
2056
2057 setenv LC_ALL C
2058
2059(for C shell) or
2060
2061 LC_ALL=C;export LC_ALL
2062
1ec51d55
CS
2063for Bourne or Korn shell) from the command line and then retry
2064make test. If the tests then succeed, you may have a broken program that
aa689395 2065is confusing the testing. Please run the troublesome test by hand as
e57fd563 2066shown above and see whether you can locate the program. Look for
1ec51d55
CS
2067things like: exec, `backquoted command`, system, open("|...") or
2068open("...|"). All these mean that Perl is trying to run some
e57fd563 2069external program.
eed2e782 2070
0740bb5b
AD
2071=item Timing problems
2072
c29923ff
JH
2073Several tests in the test suite check timing functions, such as
2074sleep(), and see if they return in a reasonable amount of time.
9341413f
JH
2075If your system is quite busy and doesn't respond quickly enough,
2076these tests might fail. If possible, try running the tests again
2077with the system under a lighter load. These timing-sensitive
2078and load-sensitive tests include F<t/op/alarm.t>,
d0b0e707
TH
2079F<dist/Time-HiRes/t/alarm.t>, F<dist/Time-HiRes/t/clock.t>,
2080F<dist/Time-HiRes/t/itimer.t>, F<dist/Time-HiRes/t/usleep.t>,
1543af16 2081F<dist/threads-shared/t/waithires.t>,
c935ba53 2082F<dist/threads-shared/t/stress.t>, F<lib/Benchmark.t>,
9341413f 2083F<lib/Memoize/t/expmod_t.t>, and F<lib/Memoize/t/speed.t>.
0740bb5b 2084
f89caa8d
RGS
2085You might also experience some failures in F<t/op/stat.t> if you build
2086perl on an NFS filesystem, if the remote clock and the system clock are
2087different.
2088
c4f23d77
AD
2089=item Out of memory
2090
2091On some systems, particularly those with smaller amounts of RAM, some
2092of the tests in t/op/pat.t may fail with an "Out of memory" message.
7970f296
GS
2093For example, on my SparcStation IPC with 12 MB of RAM, in perl5.5.670,
2094test 85 will fail if run under either t/TEST or t/harness.
c4f23d77
AD
2095
2096Try stopping other jobs on the system and then running the test by itself:
2097
524a2f33 2098 ./perl -I. -MTestInit t/op/pat.t
c4f23d77
AD
2099
2100to see if you have any better luck. If your perl still fails this
2101test, it does not necessarily mean you have a broken perl. This test
2102tries to exercise the regular expression subsystem quite thoroughly,
2103and may well be far more demanding than your normal usage.
2104
a55bb48b
AD
2105=item libgcc_s.so.1: cannot open shared object file
2106
2107This message has been reported on gcc-3.2.3 and earlier installed with
2108a non-standard prefix. Setting the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable
2109(or equivalent) to include gcc's lib/ directory with the libgcc_s.so.1
2110shared library should fix the problem.
2111
4f76e5ba
AD
2112=item Failures from lib/File/Temp/t/security saying "system possibly insecure"
2113
2114First, such warnings are not necessarily serious or indicative of a
2115real security threat. That being said, they bear investigating.
2116
2117Note that each of the tests is run twice. The first time is in the
2118directory returned by File::Spec->tmpdir() (often /tmp on Unix
2119systems), and the second time in the directory from which the test was
2120run (usually the 't' directory, if the test was run as part of 'make
2121test').
2122
2123The tests may fail for the following reasons:
2124
2125(1) If the directory the tests are being run in is owned by somebody
2126other than the user running the tests, or by root (uid 0).
2127
2128This failure can happen if the Perl source code distribution is
668cbedd 2129unpacked in such a way that the user IDs in the distribution package
4f76e5ba
AD
2130are used as-is. Some tar programs do this.
2131
2132(2) If the directory the tests are being run in is writable by group or
2133by others, and there is no sticky bit set for the directory. (With
2134UNIX/POSIX semantics, write access to a directory means the right to
2135add or remove files in that directory. The 'sticky bit' is a feature
2136used in some UNIXes to give extra protection to files: if the bit is
2137set for a directory, no one but the owner (or root) can remove that
2138file even if the permissions would otherwise allow file removal by
2139others.)
2140
2141This failure may or may not be a real problem: it depends on the
2142permissions policy used on this particular system. This failure can
2143also happen if the system either doesn't support the sticky bit (this
2144is the case with many non-UNIX platforms: in principle File::Temp
2145should know about these platforms and skip the tests), or if the system
2146supports the sticky bit but for some reason or reasons it is not being
2147used. This is, for example, the case with HP-UX: as of HP-UX release
214811.00, the sticky bit is very much supported, but HP-UX doesn't use it
2149on its /tmp directory as shipped. Also, as with the permissions, some
2150local policy might dictate that the stickiness is not used.
781948c1 2151
b2b23189
JH
2152(3) If the system supports the POSIX 'chown giveaway' feature and if
2153any of the parent directories of the temporary file back to the root
2154directory are 'unsafe', using the definitions given above in (1) and
4f76e5ba
AD
2155(2). For Unix systems, this is usually not an issue if you are
2156building on a local disk. See the documentation for the File::Temp
2157module for more information about 'chown giveaway'.
781948c1
JH
2158
2159See the documentation for the File::Temp module for more information
4f76e5ba 2160about the various security aspects of temporary files.
781948c1 2161
c4f23d77
AD
2162=back
2163
5ee651a9 2164The core distribution can now run its regression tests in parallel on
ab97e755
MB
2165Unix-like platforms. Instead of running C<make test>, set C<TEST_JOBS>
2166in your environment to the number of tests to run in parallel, and run
5ee651a9
NC
2167C<make test_harness>. On a Bourne-like shell, this can be done as
2168
2169 TEST_JOBS=3 make test_harness # Run 3 tests in parallel
2170
ab97e755
MB
2171An environment variable is used, rather than parallel make itself,
2172because L<TAP::Harness> needs to be able to schedule individual
2173non-conflicting test scripts itself, and there is no standard interface
2174to C<make> utilities to interact with their job schedulers.
5ee651a9 2175
8e07c86e
AD
2176=head1 make install
2177
2178This will put perl into the public directory you specified to
ab97e755
MB
2179Configure; by default this is /usr/local/bin. It will also try to put
2180the man pages in a reasonable place. It will not nroff the man pages,
2181however. You may need to be root to run B<make install>. If you are not
2182root, you must still have permission to install into the directories
ce80d64e
AD
2183in question and you should ignore any messages about chown not working.
2184
19f4563d 2185If "make install" just says "'install' is up to date" or something
ce80d64e
AD
2186similar, you may be on a case-insensitive filesystems such as Mac's HFS+,
2187and you should say "make install-all". (This confusion is brought to you
2188by the Perl distribution having a file called INSTALL.)
8e07c86e 2189
dd64f1c3
AD
2190=head2 Installing perl under different names
2191
2192If you want to install perl under a name other than "perl" (for example,
2193when installing perl with special features enabled, such as debugging),
2194indicate the alternate name on the "make install" line, such as:
2195
2196 make install PERLNAME=myperl
2197
beb13193 2198You can separately change the base used for versioned names (like
be8498a1 2199"perl5.8.9") by setting PERLNAME_VERBASE, like
beb13193
RS
2200
2201 make install PERLNAME=perl5 PERLNAME_VERBASE=perl
2202
ab97e755
MB
2203This can be useful if you have to install perl as "perl5" (e.g. to avoid
2204conflicts with an ancient version in /usr/bin supplied by your vendor).
be8498a1 2205Without this the versioned binary would be called "perl55.8.8".
beb13193 2206
ce80d64e
AD
2207=head2 Installing perl under a different directory
2208
2209You can install perl under a different destination directory by using
2210the DESTDIR variable during C<make install>, with a command like
2211
2212 make install DESTDIR=/tmp/perl5
2213
2214DESTDIR is automatically prepended to all the installation paths. See
7df75831 2215the example in L<"DESTDIR"> above.
ce80d64e 2216
dd64f1c3
AD
2217=head2 Installed files
2218
8e07c86e
AD
2219If you want to see exactly what will happen without installing
2220anything, you can run
4633a7c4 2221
8e07c86e
AD
2222 ./perl installperl -n
2223 ./perl installman -n
2224
1ec51d55 2225make install will install the following:
8e07c86e 2226
d56c5707
JH
2227 binaries
2228
8e07c86e 2229 perl,
be8498a1 2230 perl5.n.n where 5.n.n is the current release number. This
8e07c86e 2231 will be a link to perl.
d56c5707
JH
2232
2233 scripts
2234
979b4168
KW
2235 cppstdin This is used by the deprecated switch perl -P,
2236 if your cc -E can't read from stdin.
979b4168
KW
2237 corelist Shows versions of modules that come with
2238 different
668cbedd
KW
2239 versions of perl.
2240 cpan The CPAN shell.
668cbedd 2241 enc2xs Encoding module generator.
979b4168
KW
2242 h2ph Extract constants and simple macros from C
2243 headers.
8e07c86e 2244 h2xs Converts C .h header files to Perl extensions.
73d6d1b0
RGS
2245 instmodsh A shell to examine installed modules.
2246 libnetcfg Configure libnet.
24b3df7f 2247 perlbug Tool to report bugs in Perl.
8e07c86e 2248 perldoc Tool to read perl's pod documentation.
668cbedd 2249 perlivp Perl Installation Verification Procedure.
73d6d1b0 2250 piconv A Perl implementation of the encoding conversion
668cbedd
KW
2251 utility iconv.
2252 pl2pm Convert Perl 4 .pl files to Perl 5 .pm modules.
8e07c86e 2253 pod2html, Converters from perl's pod documentation format
d56c5707
JH
2254 pod2man,
2255 pod2text,
d56c5707 2256 pod2usage
668cbedd
KW
2257 podchecker POD syntax checker.
2258 podselect Prints sections of POD documentation.
2259 prove A command-line tool for running tests.
2260 psed A Perl implementation of sed.
2261 ptar A Perl implementation of tar.
2262 ptardiff A diff for tar archives.
2263 ptargrep A grep for tar archives.
668cbedd
KW
2264 shasum A tool to print or check SHA checksums.
2265 splain Describe Perl warnings and errors.
2266 xsubpp Compiler to convert Perl XS code into C code.
979b4168 2267 zipdetails display the internal structure of zip files
8e07c86e 2268
d56c5707
JH
2269 library files
2270
2271 in $privlib and $archlib specified to
8e07c86e 2272 Configure, usually under /usr/local/lib/perl5/.
d56c5707
JH
2273
2274 documentation
2275
d6baa268
JH
2276 man pages in $man1dir, usually /usr/local/man/man1.
2277 module man
2278 pages in $man3dir, usually /usr/local/man/man3.
8e07c86e
AD
2279 pod/*.pod in $privlib/pod/.
2280
33cceb07 2281installperl will also create the directories listed above
d6baa268 2282in L<"Installation Directories">.
4633a7c4 2283
d56c5707 2284Perl's *.h header files and the libperl library are also installed
d6baa268 2285under $archlib so that any user may later build new modules, run the
56c6f531
JH
2286optional Perl compiler, or embed the perl interpreter into another
2287program even if the Perl source is no longer available.
8e07c86e 2288
6baaafe3 2289=head2 Installing with a version-specific suffix
33cceb07 2290
6baaafe3
DC
2291Sometimes you only want to install the perl distribution with a
2292version-specific suffix. For example, you may wish to install a newer
2293version of perl alongside an already installed production version.
d56c5707
JH
2294To only install the version-specific parts of the perl installation, run
2295
2296 Configure -Dversiononly
2297
2298or answer 'y' to the appropriate Configure prompt. Alternatively,
2299you can just manually run
2300
2301 ./perl installperl -v
2302
2303and skip installman altogether.
33cceb07 2304
d56c5707
JH
2305See also L<"Maintaining completely separate versions"> for another
2306approach.
2307
f4ce0e6d
RGS
2308=head1 cd /usr/include; h2ph *.h sys/*.h
2309
2310Some perl scripts need to be able to obtain information from the
2311system header files. This command will convert the most commonly used
2312header files in /usr/include into files that can be easily interpreted
2313by perl. These files will be placed in the architecture-dependent
2314library ($archlib) directory you specified to Configure.
2315
668cbedd 2316Note: Due to differences in the C and perl languages, the conversion
f4ce0e6d
RGS
2317of the header files is not perfect. You will probably have to
2318hand-edit some of the converted files to get them to parse correctly.
2319For example, h2ph breaks spectacularly on type casting and certain
2320structures.
2321
2322=head1 installhtml --help
2323
2324Some sites may wish to make perl documentation available in HTML
2325format. The installhtml utility can be used to convert pod
2326documentation into linked HTML files and install them.
2327
2328Currently, the supplied ./installhtml script does not make use of the
2329html Configure variables. This should be fixed in a future release.
2330
2331The following command-line is an example of one used to convert
2332perl documentation:
2333
2334 ./installhtml \
2335 --podroot=. \
2336 --podpath=lib:ext:pod:vms \
2337 --recurse \
2338 --htmldir=/perl/nmanual \
2339 --htmlroot=/perl/nmanual \
2340 --splithead=pod/perlipc \
2341 --splititem=pod/perlfunc \
f4ce0e6d
RGS
2342 --verbose
2343
2344See the documentation in installhtml for more details. It can take
2345many minutes to execute a large installation and you should expect to
2346see warnings like "no title", "unexpected directive" and "cannot
2347resolve" as the files are processed. We are aware of these problems
2348(and would welcome patches for them).
2349
2350You may find it helpful to run installhtml twice. That should reduce
2351the number of "cannot resolve" warnings.
2352
2353=head1 cd pod && make tex && (process the latex files)
2354
2355Some sites may also wish to make the documentation in the pod/ directory
2356available in TeX format. Type
2357
2358 (cd pod && make tex && <process the latex files>)
2359
2360=head1 Starting all over again
2361
668cbedd 2362If you wish to rebuild perl from the same build directory, you should
f4ce0e6d
RGS
2363clean it out with the command
2364
2365 make distclean
2366
2367or
2368
2369 make realclean
2370
2371The only difference between the two is that make distclean also removes
dd8235d9 2372your old config.sh and Policy.sh files. (A plain 'make clean' is now
54f6f377 2373equivalent to 'make realclean'.)
f4ce0e6d
RGS
2374
2375If you are upgrading from a previous version of perl, or if you
2376change systems or compilers or make other significant changes, or if
668cbedd 2377you are experiencing difficulties building perl, you should not reuse
f4ce0e6d
RGS
2378your old config.sh.
2379
2380If your reason to reuse your old config.sh is to save your particular
2381installation choices, then you can probably achieve the same effect by
2382using the Policy.sh file. See the section on L<"Site-wide Policy
2383settings"> above.
2384
ff52061e
RGS
2385=head1 Reporting Problems
2386
2387Wherever possible please use the perlbug tool supplied with this Perl
2388to report problems, as it automatically includes summary configuration
2389information about your perl, which may help us track down problems far
2390more quickly. But first you should read the advice in this file,
2391carefully re-read the error message and check the relevant manual pages
32356571
DC
2392on your system, as these may help you find an immediate solution.
2393Once you've exhausted the documentation, please report bugs to us using
2394the 'perlbug' tool.
ff52061e
RGS
2395
2396The perlbug tool is installed along with perl, so after you have
2397completed C<make install> it should be possible to run it with plain
2398C<perlbug>. If the install fails, or you want to report problems with
2399C<make test> without installing perl, then you can use C<make nok> to
2400run perlbug to report the problem, or run it by hand from this source
2401directory with C<./perl -Ilib utils/perlbug>
2402
2403If the build fails too early to run perlbug uninstalled, then please
2404B<run> the C<./myconfig> shell script, and mail its output along with
2405an accurate description of your problem to perlbug@perl.org
2406
2407If Configure itself fails, and does not generate a config.sh file
2408(needed to run C<./myconfig>), then please mail perlbug@perl.org the
2409description of how Configure fails along with details of your system
668cbedd 2410-- for example the output from running C<uname -a>
ff52061e
RGS
2411
2412Please try to make your message brief but clear. Brief, clear bug
2413reports tend to get answered more quickly. Please don't worry if your
668cbedd 2414written English is not great -- what matters is how well you describe
ff52061e
RGS
2415the important technical details of the problem you have encountered,
2416not whether your grammar and spelling is flawless.
2417
2418Trim out unnecessary information. Do not include large files (such as
2419config.sh or a complete Configure or make log) unless absolutely
2420necessary. Do not include a complete transcript of your build
2421session. Just include the failing commands, the relevant error
2422messages, and whatever preceding commands are necessary to give the
668cbedd 2423appropriate context. Plain text should usually be sufficient -- fancy
ff52061e
RGS
2424attachments or encodings may actually reduce the number of people who
2425read your message. Your message will get relayed to over 400
2426subscribers around the world so please try to keep it brief but clear.
2427
87c118b9
DM
2428If the bug you are reporting has security implications which make it
2429inappropriate to send to a publicly archived mailing list, then see
2430L<perlsec/SECURITY VULNERABILITY CONTACT INFORMATION>
2431for details of how to report the issue.
5acb7768 2432
ff52061e
RGS
2433If you are unsure what makes a good bug report please read "How to
2434report Bugs Effectively" by Simon Tatham:
b0a63d58 2435L<http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/bugs.html>
ff52061e 2436
7df75831 2437=head1 Coexistence with earlier versions of perl 5
4633a7c4 2438
70bcccc1 2439Perl 5.31.2 is not binary compatible with earlier versions of Perl.
cc65bb49 2440In other words, you will have to recompile your XS modules.
14eee2f1 2441
ab97e755
MB
2442In general, you can usually safely upgrade from one version of Perl
2443(e.g. 5.X.Y) to another similar minor version (e.g. 5.X.(Y+1))) without
33cceb07 2444re-compiling all of your extensions. You can also safely leave the old
ab97e755
MB
2445version around in case the new version causes you problems for some
2446reason.
693762b4 2447
be8498a1
RGS
2448Usually, most extensions will probably not need to be recompiled to be
2449used with a newer version of Perl. Here is how it is supposed to work.
ce80d64e 2450(These examples assume you accept all the Configure defaults.)
693762b4 2451
33cceb07
RGS
2452Suppose you already have version 5.8.7 installed. The directories
2453searched by 5.8.7 are typically like:
d6baa268 2454
33cceb07
RGS
2455 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.8.7/$archname
2456 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.8.7
2457 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.7/$archname
2458 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.7
d6baa268 2459
33cceb07
RGS
2460Now, suppose you install version 5.8.8. The directories
2461searched by version 5.8.8 will be:
d6baa268 2462
33cceb07
RGS
2463 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.8.8/$archname
2464 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.8.8
2465 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.8/$archname
2466 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.8
d6baa268 2467
33cceb07
RGS
2468 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.7/$archname
2469 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.7
c42e3e15 2470 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/
bfb7748a 2471
c42e3e15 2472Notice the last three entries -- Perl understands the default structure
d6baa268 2473of the $sitelib directories and will look back in older, compatible
33cceb07
RGS
2474directories. This way, modules installed under 5.8.7 will continue
2475to be usable by 5.8.7 but will also accessible to 5.8.8. Further,
d6baa268 2476suppose that you upgrade a module to one which requires features
33cceb07
RGS
2477present only in 5.8.8. That new module will get installed into
2478/usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.8 and will be available to 5.8.8,
2479but will not interfere with the 5.8.7 version.
bfb7748a 2480
c42e3e15 2481The last entry, /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/, is there so that
fe23a901 24825.6.0 and above will look for 5.004-era pure perl modules.
d6baa268 2483
33cceb07
RGS
2484Lastly, suppose you now install 5.10.0, which is not binary compatible
2485with 5.8.x. The directories searched by 5.10.0 (if you don't change the
fe23a901
RF
2486Configure defaults) will be:
2487
33cceb07
RGS
2488 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.10.0/$archname
2489 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.10.0
2490 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.10.0/$archname
2491 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.10.0
d6baa268 2492
33cceb07 2493 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.8
d6baa268 2494
33cceb07 2495 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.7
fe23a901 2496
d6baa268 2497 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/
bfb7748a 2498
cc65bb49
AD
2499Note that the earlier $archname entries are now gone, but pure perl
2500modules from earlier versions will still be found.
2501
0a08c020
GS
2502This way, you can choose to share compatible extensions, but also upgrade
2503to a newer version of an extension that may be incompatible with earlier
2504versions, without breaking the earlier versions' installations.
693762b4
AD
2505
2506=head2 Maintaining completely separate versions
4633a7c4 2507
1ec51d55 2508Many users prefer to keep all versions of perl in completely
d6baa268 2509separate directories. This guarantees that an update to one version
0a08c020
GS
2510won't interfere with another version. (The defaults guarantee this for
2511libraries after 5.6.0, but not for executables. TODO?) One convenient
2512way to do this is by using a separate prefix for each version, such as
d52d4e46 2513
70bcccc1 2514 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl5.31.2
d52d4e46 2515
70bcccc1 2516and adding /opt/perl5.31.2/bin to the shell PATH variable. Such users
d52d4e46
PP
2517may also wish to add a symbolic link /usr/local/bin/perl so that
2518scripts can still start with #!/usr/local/bin/perl.
2519
693762b4 2520Others might share a common directory for maintenance sub-versions
33cceb07 2521(e.g. 5.10 for all 5.10.x versions), but change directory with
693762b4
AD
2522each major version.
2523
6877a1cf
AD
2524If you are installing a development subversion, you probably ought to
2525seriously consider using a separate directory, since development
2526subversions may not have all the compatibility wrinkles ironed out
2527yet.
2528
f2966be6 2529=head2 Upgrading from 5.31.1 or earlier
693762b4 2530
f2966be6 2531B<Perl 5.31.2 may not be binary compatible with Perl 5.31.1 or
4683a5d7 2532earlier Perl releases.> Perl modules having binary parts
e655887d 2533(meaning that a C compiler is used) will have to be recompiled to be
70bcccc1
KE
2534used with 5.31.2. If you find you do need to rebuild an extension with
25355.31.2, you may safely do so without disturbing the older
7df75831 2536installations. (See L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl 5">
e655887d 2537above.)
c42e3e15
GS
2538
2539See your installed copy of the perllocal.pod file for a (possibly
2540incomplete) list of locally installed modules. Note that you want
cc65bb49 2541perllocal.pod, not perllocale.pod, for installed module information.
693762b4 2542
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2543=head1 Minimizing the Perl installation
2544
2545The following section is meant for people worrying about squeezing the
2546Perl installation into minimal systems (for example when installing
2547operating systems, or in really small filesystems).
2548
c8214fdf 2549Leaving out as many extensions as possible is an obvious way:
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2550Encode, with its big conversion tables, consumes a lot of
2551space. On the other hand, you cannot throw away everything. The
2552Fcntl module is pretty essential. If you need to do network
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2553programming, you'll appreciate the Socket module, and so forth: it all
2554depends on what do you need to do.
2555
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2556In the following we offer two different slimmed down installation
2557recipes. They are informative, not normative: the choice of files
2558depends on what you need.
2559
2560Firstly, the bare minimum to run this script
2561
2562 use strict;
2563 use warnings;
2564 foreach my $f (</*>) {
2565 print("$f\n");
2566 }
2567
70bcccc1 2568in Linux with perl-5.31.2 is as follows (under $Config{prefix}):
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2569
2570 ./bin/perl
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2571 ./lib/perl5/5.31.2/strict.pm
2572 ./lib/perl5/5.31.2/warnings.pm
2573 ./lib/perl5/5.31.2/i686-linux/File/Glob.pm
2574 ./lib/perl5/5.31.2/feature.pm
2575 ./lib/perl5/5.31.2/XSLoader.pm
2576 ./lib/perl5/5.31.2/i686-linux/auto/File/Glob/Glob.so
8ebf57cf 2577
ab97e755
MB
2578Secondly, for perl-5.10.1, the Debian perl-base package contains 591
2579files, (of which 510 are for lib/unicore) totaling about 3.5MB in its
2580i386 version. Omitting the lib/unicore/* files for brevity, the
2581remaining files are:
8ebf57cf 2582
bfe08c74 2583 /usr/bin/perl
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2584 /usr/bin/perl5.10.1
2585 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Config.pm
2586 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Config_git.pl
2587 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Config_heavy.pl
2588 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Cwd.pm
2589 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/DynaLoader.pm
2590 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Errno.pm
2591 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Fcntl.pm
2592 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/File/Glob.pm
2593 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Hash/Util.pm
2594 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO.pm
2595 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/File.pm
2596 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Handle.pm
2597 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Pipe.pm
2598 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Seekable.pm
2599 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Select.pm
2600 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Socket.pm
2601 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Socket/INET.pm
2602 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Socket/UNIX.pm
2603 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/List/Util.pm
2604 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/POSIX.pm
2605 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Scalar/Util.pm
2606 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Socket.pm
2607 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/XSLoader.pm
2608 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/Cwd/Cwd.so
2609 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/DynaLoader/autosplit.ix
2610 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/DynaLoader/dl_expandspec.al
2611 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/DynaLoader/dl_find_symbol_anywhere.al
2612 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/DynaLoader/dl_findfile.al
2613 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/Fcntl/Fcntl.so
2614 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/File/Glob/Glob.so
2615 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/Hash/Util/Util.so
2616 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/IO/IO.so
2617 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/List/Util/Util.so
2618 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/POSIX/POSIX.so
2619 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/POSIX/autosplit.ix
2620 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/POSIX/load_imports.al
2621 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/Socket/Socket.so
2622 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/lib.pm
2623 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/re.pm
8ebf57cf 2624 /usr/share/doc/perl/AUTHORS.gz
bfe08c74 2625 /usr/share/doc/perl/Documentation
00930d57 2626 /usr/share/doc/perl/README.Debian
8ebf57cf 2627 /usr/share/doc/perl/changelog.Debian.gz
bfe08c74 2628 /usr/share/doc/perl/copyright
00930d57 2629 /usr/share/lintian/overrides/perl-base
8ebf57cf 2630 /usr/share/man/man1/perl.1.gz
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2631 /usr/share/man/man1/perl5.10.1.1.gz
2632 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/AutoLoader.pm
2633 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Carp.pm
2634 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Carp/Heavy.pm
2635 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Exporter.pm
2636 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Exporter/Heavy.pm
2637 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/File/Spec.pm
2638 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/File/Spec/Unix.pm
2639 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/FileHandle.pm
2640 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Getopt/Long.pm
2641 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/IPC/Open2.pm
2642 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/IPC/Open3.pm
2643 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/SelectSaver.pm
2644 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Symbol.pm
2645 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Text/ParseWords.pm
2646 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Text/Tabs.pm
2647 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Text/Wrap.pm
2648 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Tie/Hash.pm
2649 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/attributes.pm
2650 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/base.pm
2651 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/bytes.pm
2652 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/bytes_heavy.pl
2653 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/constant.pm
2654 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/fields.pm
2655 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/integer.pm
2656 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/locale.pm
2657 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/overload.pm
2658 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/strict.pm
2659 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/unicore/*
2660 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/utf8.pm
2661 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/utf8_heavy.pl
2662 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/vars.pm
2663 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/warnings.pm
2664 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/warnings/register.pm
8ebf57cf 2665
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2666A nice trick to find out the minimal set of Perl library files you will
2667need to run a Perl program is
2668
a0a8d9d3 2669 perl -e 'do "prog.pl"; END { print "$_\n" for sort keys %INC }'
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2670
2671(this will not find libraries required in runtime, unfortunately, but
2672it's a minimal set) and if you want to find out all the files you can
2673use something like the below
2674
979b4168
KW
2675 strace perl -le 'do "x.pl"' 2>&1 \
2676 | perl -nle '/^open\(\"(.+?)"/ && print $1'
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2677
2678(The 'strace' is Linux-specific, other similar utilities include 'truss'
2679and 'ktrace'.)
2680
c19ccd8c
RGS
2681=head2 C<-DNO_MATHOMS>
2682
2683If you configure perl with C<-Accflags=-DNO_MATHOMS>, the functions from
2684F<mathoms.c> will not be compiled in. Those functions are no longer used
2685by perl itself; for source compatibility reasons, though, they weren't
2686completely removed.
2687
d6295071
TC
2688=head2 C<-DNO_PERL_INTERNAL_RAND_SEED>
2689X<PERL_INTERNAL_RAND_SEED>
2690
2691If you configure perl with C<-Accflags=-DNO_PERL_INTERNAL_RAND_SEED>,
ab473f03 2692perl will ignore the C<PERL_INTERNAL_RAND_SEED> environment variable.
d6295071 2693
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2694=head1 DOCUMENTATION
2695
bfb7748a 2696Read the manual entries before running perl. The main documentation
b0a63d58 2697is in the F<pod/> subdirectory and should have been installed during the
8e07c86e 2698build process. Type B<man perl> to get started. Alternatively, you
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2699can type B<perldoc perl> to use the supplied perldoc script. This is
2700sometimes useful for finding things in the library modules.
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2701
2702=head1 AUTHOR
2703
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2704Original author: Andy Dougherty doughera@lafayette.edu , borrowing very
2705heavily from the original README by Larry Wall, with lots of helpful
2706feedback and additions from the perl5-porters@perl.org folks.
fb73857a 2707
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2708If you have problems, corrections, or questions, please see
2709L<"Reporting Problems"> above.
2710
2711=head1 REDISTRIBUTION
2712
2713This document is part of the Perl package and may be distributed under
d6baa268 2714the same terms as perl itself, with the following additional request:
f5b3b617 2715If you are distributing a modified version of perl (perhaps as part of
d6baa268 2716a larger package) please B<do> modify these installation instructions
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DH
2717and the contact information to match your distribution. Additional
2718information for packagers is in F<PACKAGING>.