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README.aix for Perl 5.12"
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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
2It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is specially
3designed to be readable as is.
4
5=head1 NAME
6
f19b8045 7README.aix - Perl version 5 on IBM AIX (UNIX) systems
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8
9=head1 DESCRIPTION
10
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11This document describes various features of IBM's UNIX operating
12system AIX that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just Perl)
a318903f 13is compiled and/or runs.
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14
15=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on AIX
16
f19b8045 17For information on compilers on older versions of AIX, see L<Compiling
c5252117 18Perl 5 on older AIX versions up to 4.3.3>.
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19
20When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. AIX does not ship
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21an ANSI compliant C compiler with AIX by default, but binary builds of
22gcc for AIX are widely available. A version of gcc is also included in
23the AIX Toolbox which is shipped with AIX.
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24
25=head2 Supported Compilers
26
27Currently all versions of IBM's "xlc", "xlc_r", "cc", "cc_r" or
c5252117 28"vac" ANSI/C compiler will work for building Perl if that compiler
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29works on your system.
30
c5252117 31If you plan to link Perl to any module that requires thread-support,
e1051f11 32like DBD::Oracle, it is better to use the _r version of the compiler.
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33This will not build a threaded Perl, but a thread-enabled Perl. See
34also L<Threaded Perl> later on.
e1051f11 35
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36As of writing (2010-03) only the I<IBM XL C for AIX> or I<IBM XL C/C++
37for AIX> compiler is supported by IBM on AIX 5L/6.1.
7fabfece 38
f19b8045 39The following compiler versions are currently supported by IBM:
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f19b8045 41 IBM XL C and IBM XL C/C++ V8, V9, V10
7fabfece 42
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43The XL C for AIX is integrated in the XL C/C++ for AIX compiler and
44therefore also supported.
7fabfece 45
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46If you choose XL C/C++ V9 you need APAR IZ35785 installed
47otherwise the integrated SDBM_File do not compile correctly due
48to an optimization bug. You can circumvent this problem by
49adding -qipa to the optimization flags (-Doptimize='-O -qipa').
50The PTF for APAR IZ35785 which solves this problem is available
e3c125ff 51from IBM (April 2009 PTF for XL C/C++ Enterprise Edition for AIX, V9.0).
7fabfece 52
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53Perl can be compiled with either IBM's ANSI C compiler or with gcc.
54The former is recommended, as not only it can compile Perl with no
55difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later
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56that require the use of IBM compiler-specific command-line flags.
57
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58If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
59complete, and be sure to read the Perl INSTALL file for more gcc-specific
60details. Please report any hoops you had to jump through to the
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61development team.
62
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63=head2 Incompatibility with AIX Toolbox lib gdbm
64
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65If the AIX Toolbox version of lib gdbm < 1.8.3-5 is installed on your
66system then Perl will not work. This library contains the header files
67/opt/freeware/include/gdbm/dbm.h|ndbm.h which conflict with the AIX
68system versions. The lib gdbm will be automatically removed from the
69wanted libraries if the presence of one of these two header files is
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70detected. If you want to build Perl with GDBM support then please install
71at least gdbm-devel-1.8.3-5 (or higher).
72
73=head2 Perl 5.12 was successfully compiled and tested on:
74
75 AIX Level | Compiler Level | w th | w/o th
76 ---------------------+-------------------------+------+-------
77 5.1 TL9 32 bit | XL C/C++ V7 | OK | OK
78 5.1 TL9 64 bit | XL C/C++ V7 | OK | OK
79 5.2 TL10 SP8 32 bit | XL C/C++ V8 | OK | OK
80 5.2 TL10 SP8 32 bit | gcc 3.2.2 | OK | OK
81 5.2 TL10 SP8 64 bit | XL C/C++ V8 | OK | OK
82 5.3 TL8 SP8 32 bit | XL C/C++ V9 + IZ35785 | OK | OK
83 5.3 TL8 SP8 32 bit | gcc 4.2.4 | OK | OK
84 5.3 TL8 SP8 64 bit | XL C/C++ V9 + IZ35785 | OK | OK
85 6.1 TL1 SP7 32 bit | XL C/C++ V10 | OK | OK
86 6.1 TL1 SP7 64 bit | XL C/C++ V10 | OK | OK
87
88 w th = with thread support
89 w/o th = without thread support
e3c125ff 90 OK = tested
fe5460cc 91
f19b8045 92Successfully tested means that all "make test" runs finish with a
e37e7c83 93result of 100% OK. All tests were conducted with -Duseshrplib set.
fe5460cc 94
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95All tests were conducted on the oldest supported AIX technology level
96with the latest support package applied. If the tested AIX version is
97out of support (AIX 4.3.3, 5.1, 5.2) then the last available support
98level was used.
99
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100=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on AIX
101
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102Starting from Perl 5.7.2 (and consequently 5.8.x / 5.10.x / 5.12.x)
103and AIX 4.3 or newer Perl uses the AIX native dynamic loading interface
104in the so called runtime linking mode instead of the emulated interface
105that was used in Perl releases 5.6.1 and earlier or, for AIX releases
1064.2 and earlier. This change does break backward compatibility with
107compiled modules from earlier Perl releases. The change was made to make
108Perl more compliant with other applications like Apache/mod_perl which are
109using the AIX native interface. This change also enables the use of
110C++ code with static constructors and destructors in Perl extensions,
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111which was not possible using the emulated interface.
112
113It is highly recommended to use the new interface.
114
115=head2 Using Large Files with Perl
116
117Should yield no problems.
118
119=head2 Threaded Perl
120
81189653 121Should yield no problems with AIX 5.1 / 5.2 / 5.3 and 6.1.
7fabfece 122
81189653 123IBM uses the AIX system Perl (V5.6.0 on AIX 5.1 and V5.8.2 on
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124AIX 5.2 / 5.3 and 6.1; V5.8.8 on AIX 5.3 TL11 and AIX 6.1 TL4) for
125some AIX system scripts. If you switch the links in /usr/bin from the
7fabfece 126AIX system Perl (/usr/opt/perl5) to the newly build Perl then you
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127get the same features as with the IBM AIX system Perl if the threaded
128options are used.
7fabfece 129
c5252117 130The threaded Perl build works also on AIX 5.1 but the IBM Perl
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131build (Perl v5.6.0) is not threaded on AIX 5.1.
132
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133Perl 5.12 is not compatible with the IBM fileset perl.libext.
134
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135=head2 64-bit Perl
136
137If your AIX system is installed with 64-bit support, you can expect 64-bit
138configurations to work. If you want to use 64-bit Perl on AIX 6.1
f19b8045 139you need an APAR for a libc.a bug which affects (n)dbm_XXX functions.
81189653 140The APAR number for this problem is IZ39077.
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141
142If you need more memory (larger data segment) for your Perl programs you
143can set:
144
145 /etc/security/limits
146 default: (or your user)
e3c125ff 147 data = -1 (default is 262144 * 512 byte)
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148
149With the default setting the size is limited to 128MB.
f19b8045 150The -1 removes this limit. If the "make test" fails please change
e37e7c83 151your /etc/security/limits as stated above.
7fabfece 152
e1051f11 153=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1 (threaded/32-bit)
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154
155With the following options you get a threaded Perl version which
156passes all make tests in threaded 32-bit mode, which is the default
c5252117 157configuration for the Perl builds that AIX ships with.
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158
159 rm config.sh
160 ./Configure \
161 -d \
162 -Dcc=cc_r \
163 -Duseshrplib \
164 -Dusethreads \
165 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_32
166
fe5460cc 167The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
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168IBM AIX system Perl installation.
169
170=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1 (32-bit)
171
fe5460cc 172With the following options you get a Perl version which passes
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173all make tests in 32-bit mode.
174
175 rm config.sh
176 ./Configure \
177 -d \
178 -Dcc=cc_r \
179 -Duseshrplib \
180 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_32
181
182The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
183IBM AIX system Perl installation.
184
e1051f11 185=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1 (threaded/64-bit)
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186
187With the following options you get a threaded Perl version which
188passes all make tests in 64-bit mode.
189
190 export OBJECT_MODE=64 / setenv OBJECT_MODE 64 (depending on your shell)
191
192 rm config.sh
193 ./Configure \
194 -d \
195 -Dcc=cc_r \
196 -Duseshrplib \
197 -Dusethreads \
198 -Duse64bitall \
199 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_64
200
201=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1(64-bit)
202
f19b8045 203With the following options you get a Perl version which passes all
fe5460cc 204make tests in 64-bit mode.
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205
206 export OBJECT_MODE=64 / setenv OBJECT_MODE 64 (depending on your shell)
e3c125ff 207
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208 rm config.sh
209 ./Configure \
210 -d \
211 -Dcc=cc_r \
212 -Duseshrplib \
213 -Duse64bitall \
214 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_64
215
f19b8045 216The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
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217IBM AIX system Perl installation.
218
f19b8045 219If you choose gcc to compile 64-bit Perl then you need to add the
e37e7c83 220following option:
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221
222 -Dcc='gcc -maix64'
223
224
225=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on older AIX versions up to 4.3.3
226
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227Due to the fact that AIX 4.3.3 reached end-of-service in December 31,
2282003 this information is provided as is. The Perl versions prior to
229Perl 5.8.9 could be compiled on AIX up to 4.3.3 with the following
fe5460cc 230settings (your mileage may vary):
7fabfece 231
d5d9880c 232When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. AIX does not ship
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233an ANSI compliant C-compiler with AIX by default, but binary builds of
234gcc for AIX are widely available.
235
236At the moment of writing, AIX supports two different native C compilers,
4951a6f9 237for which you have to pay: B<xlC> and B<vac>. If you decide to use either
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238of these two (which is quite a lot easier than using gcc), be sure to
239upgrade to the latest available patch level. Currently:
240
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241 xlC.C 3.1.4.10 or 3.6.6.0 or 4.0.2.2 or 5.0.2.9 or 6.0.0.3
242 vac.C 4.4.0.3 or 5.0.2.6 or 6.0.0.1
243
244note that xlC has the OS version in the name as of version 4.0.2.0, so
245you will find xlC.C for AIX-5.0 as package
246
247 xlC.aix50.rte 5.0.2.0 or 6.0.0.3
248
66a1b24b 249subversions are not the same "latest" on all OS versions. For example,
c67773d0 250the latest xlC-5 on aix41 is 5.0.2.9, while on aix43, it is 5.0.2.7.
20d11268 251
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252Perl can be compiled with either IBM's ANSI C compiler or with gcc.
253The former is recommended, as not only can it compile Perl with no
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254difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later that
255require the use of IBM compiler-specific command-line flags.
256
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257The IBM's compiler patch levels 5.0.0.0 and 5.0.1.0 have compiler
258optimization bugs that affect compiling perl.c and regcomp.c,
259respectively. If Perl's configuration detects those compiler patch
260levels, optimization is turned off for the said source code files.
261Upgrading to at least 5.0.2.0 is recommended.
262
20d11268 263If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
eed1f4d3 264complete, and be sure to read the Perl INSTALL file for more gcc-specific
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265details. Please report any hoops you had to jump through to the development
266team.
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267
268=head2 OS level
269
270Before installing the patches to the IBM C-compiler you need to know the
271level of patching for the Operating System. IBM's command 'oslevel' will
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272show the base, but is not always complete (in this example oslevel shows
2734.3.NULL, whereas the system might run most of 4.3.THREE):
1a3e4d88 274
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275 # oslevel
276 4.3.0.0
277 # lslpp -l | grep 'bos.rte '
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278 bos.rte 4.3.3.75 COMMITTED Base Operating System Runtime
279 bos.rte 4.3.2.0 COMMITTED Base Operating System Runtime
280 #
281
c5252117 282The same might happen to AIX 5.1 or other OS levels. As a side note, Perl
64cb7701 283cannot be built without bos.adt.syscalls and bos.adt.libm installed
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284
285 # lslpp -l | egrep "syscalls|libm"
286 bos.adt.libm 5.1.0.25 COMMITTED Base Application Development
c67773d0 287 bos.adt.syscalls 5.1.0.36 COMMITTED System Calls Application
64cb7701 288 #
20d11268 289
f19b8045 290=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on AIX E<lt> 5L
20d11268 291
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292AIX supports dynamically loadable objects as well as shared libraries.
293Shared libraries by convention end with the suffix .a, which is a bit
294misleading, as an archive can contain static as well as dynamic members.
c5252117 295For Perl dynamically loaded objects we use the .so suffix also used on
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296many other platforms.
297
298Note that starting from Perl 5.7.2 (and consequently 5.8.0) and AIX 4.3
299or newer Perl uses the AIX native dynamic loading interface in the so
300called runtime linking mode instead of the emulated interface that was
301used in Perl releases 5.6.1 and earlier or, for AIX releases 4.2 and
302earlier. This change does break backward compatibility with compiled
c5252117 303modules from earlier Perl releases. The change was made to make Perl
efc3b6b5 304more compliant with other applications like Apache/mod_perl which are
8218ea5d 305using the AIX native interface. This change also enables the use of C++
c5252117 306code with static constructors and destructors in Perl extensions, which
8218ea5d 307was not possible using the emulated interface.
12f54d27 308
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309=head2 The IBM ANSI C Compiler
310
311All defaults for Configure can be used.
312
313If you've chosen to use vac 4, be sure to run 4.4.0.3. Older versions
4951a6f9 314will turn up nasty later on. For vac 5 be sure to run at least 5.0.1.0,
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315but vac 5.0.2.6 or up is highly recommended. Note that since IBM has
316removed vac 5.0.2.1 through 5.0.2.5 from the software depot, these
317versions should be considered obsolete.
20d11268 318
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319Here's a brief lead of how to upgrade the compiler to the latest
320level. Of course this is subject to changes. You can only upgrade
321versions from ftp-available updates if the first three digit groups
322are the same (in where you can skip intermediate unlike the patches
c5252117 323in the developer snapshots of Perl), or to one version up where the
66a1b24b 324"base" is available. In other words, the AIX compiler patches are
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325cumulative.
326
327 vac.C.4.4.0.1 => vac.C.4.4.0.3 is OK (vac.C.4.4.0.2 not needed)
328 xlC.C.3.1.3.3 => xlC.C.3.1.4.10 is NOT OK (xlC.C.3.1.4.0 is not available)
329
330 # ftp ftp.software.ibm.com
331 Connected to service.boulder.ibm.com.
332 : welcome message ...
333 Name (ftp.software.ibm.com:merijn): anonymous
334 331 Guest login ok, send your complete e-mail address as password.
335 Password:
336 ... accepted login stuff
337 ftp> cd /aix/fixes/v4/
338 ftp> dir other other.ll
339 output to local-file: other.ll? y
340 200 PORT command successful.
341 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
342 226 Transfer complete.
343 ftp> dir xlc xlc.ll
344 output to local-file: xlc.ll? y
345 200 PORT command successful.
346 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
347 226 Transfer complete.
348 ftp> bye
349 ... goodbye messages
350 # ls -l *.ll
351 -rw-rw-rw- 1 merijn system 1169432 Nov 2 17:29 other.ll
352 -rw-rw-rw- 1 merijn system 29170 Nov 2 17:29 xlc.ll
353
354On AIX 4.2 using xlC, we continue:
355
356 # lslpp -l | fgrep 'xlC.C '
357 xlC.C 3.1.4.9 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
358 xlC.C 3.1.4.0 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
359 # grep 'xlC.C.3.1.4.*.bff' xlc.ll
360 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6286336 Jul 22 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.1.bff
361 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6173696 Aug 24 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.10.bff
362 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6319104 Aug 14 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.2.bff
363 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6316032 Oct 21 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.3.bff
364 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6315008 Dec 20 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.4.bff
365 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6178816 Mar 28 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.5.bff
366 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6188032 May 22 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.6.bff
367 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6191104 Sep 5 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.7.bff
368 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6185984 Jan 13 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.8.bff
369 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6169600 May 27 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.9.bff
370 # wget ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/aix/fixes/v4/xlc/xlC.C.3.1.4.10.bff
371 #
372
373On AIX 4.3 using vac, we continue:
374
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375 # lslpp -l | grep 'vac.C '
376 vac.C 5.0.2.2 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
377 vac.C 5.0.2.0 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
378 # grep 'vac.C.5.0.2.*.bff' other.ll
379 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 13592576 Apr 16 2001 vac.C.5.0.2.0.bff
380 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14133248 Apr 9 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.3.bff
381 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14173184 May 20 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.4.bff
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382 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14192640 Nov 22 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff
383 # wget ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/aix/fixes/v4/other/vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff
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384 #
385
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386Likewise on all other OS levels. Then execute the following command, and
387fill in its choices
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388
389 # smit install_update
390 -> Install and Update from LATEST Available Software
c67773d0 391 * INPUT device / directory for software [ vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff ]
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392 [ OK ]
393 [ OK ]
394
395Follow the messages ... and you're done.
396
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397If you like a more web-like approach, a good start point can be
398http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/download/downloadaz.jsp and click
399"C for AIX", and follow the instructions.
400
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401=head2 The usenm option
402
403If linking miniperl
404
405 cc -o miniperl ... miniperlmain.o opmini.o perl.o ... -lm -lc ...
406
407causes error like this
408
409 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .aintl
410 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .copysignl
411 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .syscall
412 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .eaccess
413 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setresuid
414 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setresgid
415 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setproctitle
416 ld: 0711-345 Use the -bloadmap or -bnoquiet option to obtain more information.
417
418you could retry with
419
420 make realclean
421 rm config.sh
422 ./Configure -Dusenm ...
423
424which makes Configure to use the C<nm> tool when scanning for library
425symbols, which usually is not done in AIX.
426
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427Related to this, you probably should not use the C<-r> option of
428Configure in AIX, because that affects of how the C<nm> tool is used.
429
c5252117 430=head2 Using GNU's gcc for building Perl
20d11268 431
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432Using gcc-3.x (tested with 3.0.4, 3.1, and 3.2) now works out of the box,
433as do recent gcc-2.9 builds available directly from IBM as part of their
434Linux compatibility packages, available here:
818c4caa 435
4238f5a6 436 http://www.ibm.com/servers/aix/products/aixos/linux/
20d11268 437
f19b8045 438=head2 Using Large Files with Perl E<lt> 5L
20d11268 439
60ecc970 440Should yield no problems.
20d11268 441
f19b8045 442=head2 Threaded Perl E<lt> 5L
20d11268 443
60ecc970 444Threads seem to work OK, though at the moment not all tests pass when
1d69df2b 445threads are used in combination with 64-bit configurations.
20d11268 446
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447You may get a warning when doing a threaded build:
448
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449 "pp_sys.c", line 4640.39: 1506-280 (W) Function argument assignment
450 between types "unsigned char*" and "const void*" is not allowed.
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451
452The exact line number may vary, but if the warning (W) comes from a line
453line this
454
455 hent = PerlSock_gethostbyaddr(addr, (Netdb_hlen_t) addrlen, addrtype);
456
457in the "pp_ghostent" function, you may ignore it safely. The warning
458is caused by the reentrant variant of gethostbyaddr() having a slightly
459different prototype than its non-reentrant variant, but the difference
460is not really significant here.
461
f19b8045 462=head2 64-bit Perl E<lt> 5L
20d11268 463
1d69df2b 464If your AIX is installed with 64-bit support, you can expect 64-bit
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465configurations to work. In combination with threads some tests might
466still fail.
20d11268 467
12f54d27 468=head2 AIX 4.2 and extensions using C++ with statics
20d11268 469
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470In AIX 4.2 Perl extensions that use C++ functions that use statics
471may have problems in that the statics are not getting initialized.
472In newer AIX releases this has been solved by linking Perl with
473the libC_r library, but unfortunately in AIX 4.2 the said library
474has an obscure bug where the various functions related to time
475(such as time() and gettimeofday()) return broken values, and
476therefore in AIX 4.2 Perl is not linked against the libC_r.
20d11268 477
7fabfece 478=head1 AUTHORS
20d11268 479
3bd76f0a 480H.Merijn Brand <h.m.brand@xs4all.nl>
7fabfece 481Rainer Tammer <tammer@tammer.net>
20d11268 482
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483=head1 DATE
484
f19b8045 485Version 5.12.0 / 2010-03-20
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486
487=cut