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produce better error message when \N{...} is used without
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
e476b1b5 12 (S) A severe warning (default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
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18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above (W,
19D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
30Default warnings are always enabled unless they are explicitly disabled
31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
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37
38Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are denoted with a %s,
2ba9eb46 39just as in a printf format. Note that some messages start with a %s!
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40Since the messages are listed in alphabetical order, the symbols
41C<"%(-?@> sort before the letters, while C<[> and C<\> sort after.
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42
43=over 4
44
33633739
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45=item "%s" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same %s
46
e476b1b5 47(W misc) A "my" or "our" variable has been redeclared in the current scope or statement,
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48effectively eliminating all access to the previous instance. This is almost
49always a typographical error. Note that the earlier variable will still exist
50until the end of the scope or until all closure referents to it are
51destroyed.
52
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53=item "my sub" not yet implemented
54
55(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try that
56yet.
57
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58=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
59
60(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make sense
61to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use local()
62if you want to localize a package variable.
63
64=item "no" not allowed in expression
65
66(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
67no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
68
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69=item "our" variable %s redeclared
70
e476b1b5 71(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before in the
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72current lexical scope.
73
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74=item "use" not allowed in expression
75
76(F) The "use" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
77no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
78
f61d411c 79=item '!' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 80
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81(F) The '!' is allowed in pack() and unpack() only after certain types.
82See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 83
17f4a12d 84=item / cannot take a count
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85
86(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string,
87but you have also specified an explicit size for the string.
88See L<perlfunc/pack>.
89
17f4a12d 90=item / must be followed by a, A or Z
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91
92(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string,
93which must be followed by one of the letters a, A or Z
94to indicate what sort of string is to be unpacked.
95See L<perlfunc/pack>.
96
17f4a12d 97=item / must be followed by a*, A* or Z*
43192e07 98
437784d6 99(F) You had a pack template indicating a counted-length string,
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100Currently the only things that can have their length counted are a*, A* or Z*.
101See L<perlfunc/pack>.
102
17f4a12d 103=item / must follow a numeric type
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104
105(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '#',
106but this did not follow some numeric unpack specification.
107See L<perlfunc/pack>.
108
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109=item % may only be used in unpack
110
5f05dabc 111(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
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112checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other
113way. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
114
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115=item Repeat count in pack overflows
116
117(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows
118your signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
119
120=item Repeat count in unpack overflows
121
122(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows
123your signed integers. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
124
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125=item /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through
126
e476b1b5 127(W regexp) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
c9f97d15 128by Perl. This combination appears in an interpolated variable or a
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129C<'>-delimited regular expression. The character was understood literally.
130
131=item /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c in character class passed through
132
e476b1b5 133(W regexp) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
1028017a 134by Perl inside character classes. The character was understood literally.
c9f97d15 135
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136=item /%s/ should probably be written as "%s"
137
e476b1b5 138(W syntax) You have used a pattern where Perl expected to find a string,
437784d6 139as in the first argument to C<join>. Perl will treat the true
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140or false result of matching the pattern against $_ as the string,
141which is probably not what you had in mind.
142
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143=item %s (...) interpreted as function
144
e476b1b5 145(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator followed
8b1a09fc 146by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list operators arguments
5f05dabc 147found inside the parentheses. See L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
a0d0e21e 148
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149=item %s() called too early to check prototype
150
e476b1b5 151(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the parser saw a
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152definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check that the call
153conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an early prototype
154declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the subroutine
155definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype checking. Alternatively,
156if you are certain that you're calling the function correctly, you may put
157an ampersand before the name to avoid the warning. See L<perlsub>.
158
8ea97a1e 159=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element
a0d0e21e 160
8ea97a1e 161(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element, such as:
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162
163 $foo{$bar}
8ea97a1e 164 $ref->[12]->["susie"]
a0d0e21e 165
8ea97a1e 166=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 167
8ea97a1e 168(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element, such as:
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169
170 $foo{$bar}
8ea97a1e 171 $ref->[12]->["susie"]
5f05dabc 172
8ea97a1e 173or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 174
8ea97a1e 175 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
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176 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
177
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178=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
179
180(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
181name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this error.
182
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183=item %s did not return a true value
184
185(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
186it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
187traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
188do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
189
190=item %s found where operator expected
191
192(S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator. If it
193sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an operator,
194it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an operator or
195delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
196
f86702cc 197=item %s had compilation errors
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198
199(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
200
f86702cc 201=item %s has too many errors
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202
203(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
204Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
205
206=item %s matches null string many times
207
e476b1b5 208(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
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209regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. See L<perlre>.
210
211=item %s never introduced
212
e476b1b5 213(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of scope
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214before it could possibly have been used.
215
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216=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
217
e476b1b5 218(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a package-specific handler.
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219That name might have a meaning to Perl itself some day, even though it
220doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a mixed-case attribute name, instead.
221See L<attributes>.
222
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223=item %s syntax OK
224
225(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> succeeds.
226
f86702cc 227=item %s: Command not found
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228
229(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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230of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
231Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 232
f86702cc 233=item %s: Expression syntax
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234
235(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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236of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
237Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 238
f86702cc 239=item %s: Undefined variable
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240
241(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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242of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
243Perl yourself.
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244
245=item %s: not found
246
8b1a09fc 247(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 248instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
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249into Perl yourself.
250
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251=item (in cleanup) %s
252
e476b1b5 253(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
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254the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by
255the system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast
256number of times, the warning is issued only once for any number
257of failures that would otherwise result in the same message being
258repeated.
259
260Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag
261could also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
262
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263=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
264
265(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
266found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
267the previous line just because you saw this message.
268
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269=item B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script
270
271(F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name,
272which provides a race condition that breaks security.
273
274=item C<-T> and C<-B> not implemented on filehandles
275
276(F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it doesn't
277know about your kind of stdio. You'll have to use a filename instead.
278
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279=item C<-p> destination: %s
280
281(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
282command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
283redirected it with select().)
284
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285=item 500 Server error
286
287See Server error.
288
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289=item ?+* follows nothing in regexp
290
291(F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it
292if you meant it literally. See L<perlre>.
293
294=item @ outside of string
295
2ba9eb46 296(F) You had a pack template that specified an absolute position outside
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297the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
298
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299=item <> should be quotes
300
c47ff5f1 301(F) You wrote C<< require <file> >> when you should have written
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302C<require 'file'>.
303
69282e91 304=item accept() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 305
e476b1b5 306(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
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307the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/accept>.
308
309=item Allocation too large: %lx
310
54310121 311(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
55497cff 312
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313=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
314
e476b1b5 315(W misc) The pattern match (//), substitution (s///), and transliteration (tr///)
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316operators work on scalar values. If you apply one of them to an array
317or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to a scalar value -- the
318length of an array, or the population info of a hash -- and then work on
319that scalar value. This is probably not what you meant to do. See
320L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for alternatives.
321
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322=item Arg too short for msgsnd
323
324(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
325
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326=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
327
e476b1b5 328(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
748a9306 329you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
5f05dabc 330a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
748a9306 331
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332=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
333
e476b1b5 334(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl keyword,
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335and you have used the name without qualification for calling one or the
336other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the subroutine is
337not imported.
338
339To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
340before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
341Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
342imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
343
344To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
345on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or by declaring the subroutine
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346to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes">
347or L<attributes>).
5315574d 348
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349=item Args must match #! line
350
351(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
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352with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
353impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
354for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 355
f86702cc 356=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 357
e476b1b5 358(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator that
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359expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
360will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
361
362=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
363
e476b1b5 364(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some spots. This
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365is now heavily deprecated.
366
367=item assertion botched: %s
368
369(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
370
371=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
372
373(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
374
375=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
376
377(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
378must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
379know which context to supply to the right side.
380
381=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
382
e476b1b5 383(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas that will
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384be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be outside any
385of those arenas.
386
54310121 387=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 388
e476b1b5 389(P internal) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of strings to
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390optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other strings. This
391indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count of a string
392that can no longer be found in the table.
393
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394=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
395
e476b1b5 396(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the free_tmps()
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397routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the SV before
398the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the free_tmps()
399routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does try to free
400it.
401
402=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
403
e476b1b5 404(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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405
406=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
407
e476b1b5 408(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to see if it
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409would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0 earlier,
410and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed. This
411could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or that
412SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was mortalized
413when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been corrupted.
414
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415=item Attempt to join self
416
417(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
418impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may
419need to move the join() to some other thread.
420
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421=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
422
e476b1b5 423(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
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424function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
425means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
426invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
427literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
428avoid this warning.
429
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430=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
431
e476b1b5 432(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr() used
8b1a09fc 433as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
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434dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
435
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436=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
437
438(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl() or
2ba9eb46 439shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 440S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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441S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
442
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443=item Bad filehandle: %s
444
445(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the symbol
446has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an open(), or
447did it in another package.
448
449=item Bad free() ignored
450
e476b1b5 451(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never been
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452malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
453setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
454
455This message can be quite often seen with DB_File on systems with
456"hard" dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of
457C<Berkeley DB> which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving>
458system malloc().
a0d0e21e 459
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460=item Bad hash
461
462(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
463
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464=item Bad index while coercing array into hash
465
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466(F) The index looked up in the hash found as the 0'th element of a
467pseudo-hash is not legal. Index values must be at 1 or greater.
468See L<perlref>.
57079c46 469
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470=item Bad name after %s::
471
472(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then didn't
473finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside of quotes,
474so
475
476 $var = 'myvar';
477 $sym = mypack::$var;
478
479is not the same as
480
481 $var = 'myvar';
482 $sym = "mypack::$var";
483
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484=item Bad realloc() ignored
485
e476b1b5 486(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had never been
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487malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
488setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
489
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490=item Bad symbol for array
491
492(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
493wasn't a symbol table entry.
494
495=item Bad symbol for filehandle
496
497(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something that
498wasn't a symbol table entry.
499
500=item Bad symbol for hash
501
502(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
503wasn't a symbol table entry.
504
8b1a09fc 505=item Badly placed ()'s
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506
507(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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508of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
509Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 510
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511=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
512
513(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
d98d5fff 514subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>" symbol.
54310121 515Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
3fe9a6f1 516
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517=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
518
e476b1b5 519(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but
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520the compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point.
521Perhaps you need to predeclare a package?
522
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523=item Bareword found in conditional
524
e476b1b5 525(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a conditional,
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526which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part of the
527last argument of the previous construct, for example:
528
529 open FOO || die;
530
531It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted
532as a bareword:
533
534 use constant TYPO => 1;
535 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
536
537The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
538
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539=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
540
541(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN subroutine.
542Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is exited.
543
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544=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
545
546(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
547implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had
548already occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}>
549could not be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code
550likely depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
551
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552=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
553
e476b1b5 554(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
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JH
555(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
556L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 557
69282e91 558=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 559
e476b1b5 560(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
a0d0e21e
LW
561the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
562
c5a0f51a
JH
563=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
564
e476b1b5 565(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 566
4633a7c4
LW
567=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
568
569(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not copiable.
570
f675dbe5
CB
571=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
572
e476b1b5 573(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to iterate over
f675dbe5
CB
574%ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition which was too long,
575so it was truncated to the string shown.
576
a0d0e21e
LW
577=item Callback called exit
578
4929bf7b 579(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
580exited by calling exit.
581
a651a37d 582=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
0a753a76
PP
583
584(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look
585like a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually
586occurs if you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which
587is a no-no. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
588
84902520
TB
589=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
590
591(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a
592foreach loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
593
a651a37d 594=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
a0d0e21e
LW
595
596(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
597except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a
598current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a
a651a37d
GS
599"loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep().
600You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect though,
601because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once.
602See L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e 603
a651a37d 604=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
a0d0e21e
LW
605
606(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
607there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
a651a37d
GS
608count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
609or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
610though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
611loops once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
a0d0e21e 612
f675dbe5
CB
613=item Can't read CRTL environ
614
615(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
616from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
617missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
618or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not searched.
619
a651a37d 620=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
a0d0e21e
LW
621
622(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
623there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
a651a37d
GS
624count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
625or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
626though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
627loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
a0d0e21e
LW
628
629=item Can't bless non-reference value
630
631(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
632encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
633
634=item Can't break at that line
635
e476b1b5 636(S internal) A warning intended to only be printed while running within the debugger, indicating
a0d0e21e
LW
637the line number specified wasn't the location of a statement that could
638be stopped at.
639
640=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
641
642(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
643functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
644in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
645
646=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
647
54310121 648(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
a0d0e21e
LW
649ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but
650you didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't
651an object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
652
653=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
654
655(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
656object reference or package name contains an expression that returns
72b5445b
GS
657a defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
658Something like this will reproduce the error:
659
660 $BADREF = 42;
661 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
662 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
663
664=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
665
666(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
667object reference or package name contains an undefined value.
a0d0e21e
LW
668Something like this will reproduce the error:
669
670 $BADREF = undef;
671 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
672 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
673
674=item Can't chdir to %s
675
676(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
677that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
678
0545a864 679=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 680
e688b231 681(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for nosuid.
104d25b7 682
a0d0e21e
LW
683=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
684
685(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 686(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
687say things like:
688
689 *foo += 1;
690
691You CAN say
692
693 $foo = *foo;
694 $foo += 1;
695
696but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
697
698=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
699
700(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 701(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e
LW
702
703=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
704
705(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 706(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e 707
57079c46
GA
708=item Can't coerce array into hash
709
710(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
711information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
712only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
713
a0d0e21e
LW
714=item Can't create pipe mailbox
715
748a9306
LW
716(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted quotas
717or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 718
eb64745e 719=item Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
a0d0e21e 720
eb64745e
GS
721(S) Currently, only scalar variables can declared with a specific class
722qualifier in a "my" or "our" declaration. The semantics may be extended
723for other types of variables in future.
724
725=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
726
727(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my" or
728"our" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e
LW
729
730=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
731
e476b1b5 732(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated reason.
a0d0e21e 733
54310121 734=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 735
54310121 736(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try reading
3fe9a6f1 737from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say C<-i.bak>, or some
a0d0e21e
LW
738such.
739
10f9c03d 740=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 741
e476b1b5 742(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
743characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
744inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e
LW
745
746=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
747
e476b1b5 748(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as a file in
a0d0e21e
LW
749/dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
750
751=item Can't do setegid!
752
753(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
754of suidperl.
755
756=item Can't do seteuid!
757
758(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
759
760=item Can't do setuid
761
762(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to
763do setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the
764form sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides
765under the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines.
766If the file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask
767your sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
768
769=item Can't do waitpid with flags
770
771(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only waitpid()
772without flags is emulated.
773
c47ff5f1 774=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m
a0d0e21e
LW
775
776(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want
777your regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. See L<perlre>.
778
779=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
780
781(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this point.
782For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #! line.
783
784=item Can't exec "%s": %s
785
e476b1b5 786(W exec) An system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the named
a0d0e21e
LW
787program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the permissions
788were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in C<$ENV{PATH}>, the
789executable in question was compiled for another architecture, or the
790#! line in a script points to an interpreter that can't be run for
791similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support #! at all.)
792
793=item Can't exec %s
794
795(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because that's
796what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may need to
797mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
798
799=item Can't execute %s
800
2a92aaa0
GS
801(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute found
802in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
803
804=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
805
806(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
807in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The script
808exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
809
810=item Can't find %s on PATH
811
a0d0e21e 812(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
2a92aaa0 813in the PATH.
a0d0e21e
LW
814
815=item Can't find label %s
816
817(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's possible
818for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
819
820=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
821
822(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means that
5f05dabc 823the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count nesting
a0d0e21e
LW
824levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
825
fb73857a
PP
826 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
827
828If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
829included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good
830programmer's editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e
LW
831
832=item Can't fork
833
834(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a pipeline.
835
748a9306
LW
836=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
837
838(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference between
839access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes. Under VMS,
840access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in the stat buffer, so
841that ACLs and other protections can be taken into account. Unfortunately, Perl
842assumes that the stat buffer contains all the necessary information, and passes
843it, instead of the filespec, to the access checking routine. It will try to
844retrieve the filespec using the device name and FID present in the stat buffer,
845but this works only if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat()
5f05dabc 846routine, because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
748a9306
LW
847appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up and
848returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking routine
849knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you shouldn't ever
850see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises only if some internal
851code takes stat buffers lightly.)
852
a0d0e21e
LW
853=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
854
748a9306
LW
855(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a pipe, Perl
856can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
857
858=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
859
748a9306
LW
860(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
861mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e
LW
862
863=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
864
865(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one subroutine
866call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole cloth. In general
5f05dabc 867you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD routine anyway. See
a0d0e21e
LW
868L<perlfunc/goto>.
869
b150fb22
RH
870=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string
871
872(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval "string".
873(You can use it to jump out of an eval {BLOCK}, but you probably don't want to.)
874
0b5b802d
GS
875=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
876
e476b1b5 877(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD signal
0b5b802d
GS
878(sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this signal
879will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
880processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value.
881This situation typically indicates that the parent program under
882which Perl may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
883
706a304b 884=item Can't localize through a reference
4633a7c4 885
706a304b
SM
886(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
887handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
888pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be
889sure that $ref will still be a reference.
4633a7c4 890
748a9306
LW
891=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
892
2ba9eb46 893(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
748a9306
LW
894lexical variable using "my". This is not allowed. If you want to
895localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
896package name.
897
0ebe0038
SM
898=item Can't localize pseudo-hash element
899
c47ff5f1 900(F) You said something like C<< local $ar->{'key'} >>, where $ar is
0ebe0038
SM
901a reference to a pseudo-hash. That hasn't been implemented yet, but
902you can get a similar effect by localizing the corresponding array
c47ff5f1 903element directly -- C<< local $ar->[$ar->[0]{'key'}] >>.
0ebe0038 904
4727527e
IZ
905=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
906
907(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows autoload,
908but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes are a misprint
909in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit> the file, say, by
910doing C<make install>.
911
ec889f3a
GS
912=item Can't locate %s
913
914(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
915found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
916unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
917to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the extra
918library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name to @INC. Or
919maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See L<perlfunc/require>
920and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e
LW
921
922=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
923
924(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
925functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 926method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
927
928=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
929
e476b1b5 930(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that doesn't seem
a0d0e21e
LW
931to exist.
932
3e3baf6d
TB
933=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
934
935(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably VMS.
936
a0d0e21e
LW
937=item Can't modify %s in %s
938
939(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try to
5f05dabc 940change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 941
cd06dffe
GS
942=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
943
437784d6
GS
944(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
945such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
cd06dffe 946
54310121 947=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
948
949(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
950a NULL.
951
5f05dabc 952=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 953
5f05dabc 954(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
955buffer.
956
957=item Can't open %s: %s
958
c47ff5f1 959(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
960filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
961switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
962is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named
963on the command line.
a0d0e21e
LW
964
965=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
966
e476b1b5 967(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported. You can
a0d0e21e 968try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such as
c47ff5f1 969IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using ">",
a0d0e21e
LW
970and then read it in under a different file handle.
971
748a9306
LW
972=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
973
974(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
c47ff5f1 975couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on the
8b1a09fc 976command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
977
978=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
979
980(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
c47ff5f1 981couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
982
983=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
984
985(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
c47ff5f1 986couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on the command
8b1a09fc 987line for writing.
748a9306
LW
988
989=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
990
991(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
992couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined for stdout.
993
a0d0e21e
LW
994=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
995
996(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
997
7bac28a0
PP
998=item Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s
999
1000(F) Perl optimizes the internal handling of sort subroutines and keeps
1001pointers into them. You tried to redefine one such sort subroutine when it
1002was currently active, which is not allowed. If you really want to do
1003this, you should write C<sort { &func } @x> instead of C<sort func @x>.
1004
10f9c03d
CK
1005=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
1006
e476b1b5 1007(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup file. Perl
10f9c03d
CK
1008was unable to remove the original file to replace it with the modified
1009file. The file was left unmodified.
1010
a0d0e21e
LW
1011=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1012
e476b1b5 1013(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1014probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1015
748a9306
LW
1016=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1017
1018(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried to
1019reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
1020
a0d0e21e
LW
1021=item Can't reswap uid and euid
1022
1023(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
1024of suidperl.
1025
1026=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1027
1028(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1029there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1030
cd06dffe
GS
1031=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1032
1033(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such
1034as temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue.
1035This is not allowed.
1036
a0d0e21e
LW
1037=item Can't stat script "%s"
1038
1039(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have
1040it open already. Bizarre.
1041
1042=item Can't swap uid and euid
1043
1044(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
1045of suidperl.
1046
1047=item Can't take log of %g
1048
fb73857a
PP
1049(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1050negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
1051standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for
1052the negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1053
1054=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1055
1056(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1057negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1058with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1059
1060=item Can't undef active subroutine
1061
1062(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1063however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1064redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1065
1066=item Can't unshift
1067
1068(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
1069as the main Perl stack.
1070
1071=item Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
1072
1073(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making
1074it into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are
1075so specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This
1076message indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
1077
1078=item Can't upgrade to undef
1079
1080(P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme
1081of upgradability. Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the
1082code calling sv_upgrade.
1083
1d2dff63
GS
1084=item Can't use %%! because Errno.pm is not available
1085
1086(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1087Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1088provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1089
c07a80fd
PP
1090=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1091
1092(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1093You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1094and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1095Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1096lexical variable.
1097
e9fa98b2
HS
1098=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
1099
1100(F) You've used the /e switch to evaluate the replacement for a
1101substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
1102most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
1103
a0d0e21e
LW
1104=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1105
1106(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a foreach.
1107
1108=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1109
1110(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1111reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1112test the type of the reference, if need be.
1113
9a7dcd9c 1114=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
748a9306 1115
e476b1b5 1116(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that creates
748a9306 1117a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a backreference
5f05dabc 1118to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular expression pattern.
748a9306
LW
1119Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a value that prints
1120out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form instead.
1121
9a7dcd9c 1122=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
44a8e56a
PP
1123
1124(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
1125are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
1126
748a9306 1127=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e
LW
1128
1129(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
1130are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
1131
1132=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1133
1134(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
54310121 1135be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
a0d0e21e 1136
a0d0e21e
LW
1137=item Can't use global %s in "my"
1138
1139(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This is
5f05dabc 1140not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location (namely
a0d0e21e
LW
1141the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to have
1142variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
1143weren't.
1144
748a9306
LW
1145=item Can't use subscript on %s
1146
1147(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1148subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
1149didn't look like an array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
1150
810b8aa5
GS
1151=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1152
1153(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1154references can be weakened.
1155
5f05dabc 1156=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e
LW
1157
1158(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value) with
1159an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
1160Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1161
3f4520fe 1162=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
b6c543e3
IZ
1163
1164(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but
1165there is no builtin with the name C<word>.
1166
3f4520fe 1167=item Can't resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
e7ea3e70
IZ
1168
1169(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1170opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1171package. If method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
1172
b8c5462f 1173=item Character class [:%s:] unknown
4599a1de 1174
b8c5462f 1175(F) The class in the character class [: :] syntax is unknown.
437784d6 1176See L<perlre>.
4599a1de 1177
b8c5462f
JH
1178=item Character class syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes
1179
e476b1b5 1180(W unsafe) The character class constructs [: :], [= =], and [. .] go
644a2880 1181I<inside> character classes, the [] are part of the construct,
437784d6
GS
1182for example: /[012[:alpha:]345]/. Note that [= =] and [. .]
1183are not currently implemented; they are simply placeholders for
1184future extensions.
b8c5462f 1185
644a2880 1186=item Character class syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions
4599a1de 1187
e476b1b5 1188(W regexp) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
b8c5462f 1189with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future extensions.
4599a1de
JH
1190If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
1191expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
b8c5462f 1192backslash: "\[." and ".\]".
4599a1de
JH
1193
1194=item Character class syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions
1195
e476b1b5 1196(W regexp) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
4599a1de
JH
1197beginning with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future extensions.
1198If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
1199expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
1200backslash: "\[=" and "=\]".
1201
5a211162 1202=item chmod() mode argument is missing initial 0
a0d0e21e 1203
e476b1b5 1204(W chmod) A novice will sometimes say
a0d0e21e
LW
1205
1206 chmod 777, $filename
1207
1208not realizing that 777 will be interpreted as a decimal number, equivalent
1209to 01411. Octal constants are introduced with a leading 0 in Perl, as in C.
1210
c47ff5f1 1211=item Close on unopened file <%s>
a0d0e21e 1212
e476b1b5 1213(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
a0d0e21e 1214
7a2e2cd6
PP
1215=item Compilation failed in require
1216
1217(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
1218Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it encountered
1219were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
1220
c3464db5
DD
1221=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1222
e476b1b5 1223(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex situations
c3464db5
DD
1224where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited to 32766,
1225or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1226arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1227recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1228under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather
1229than in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular
1230expression so that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlbook>
1231for information on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
1232
69282e91 1233=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1234
e476b1b5 1235(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
a0d0e21e
LW
1236the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/connect>.
1237
779c5bc9
GS
1238=item Constant is not %s reference
1239
1240(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
1241is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference. The
1242message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This usually
1243indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
1244See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1245
4cee8e80
CS
1246=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1247
e476b1b5 1248(S|W redefine) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
4cee8e80
CS
1249inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1250workarounds.
1251
9607fc9c
PP
1252=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1253
e476b1b5 1254(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
9607fc9c
PP
1255inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1256workarounds.
1257
423cee85
JH
1258=item constant(%s): %s
1259
f0af216f
GS
1260(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define an
1261overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name specified
1262in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the corresponding
1263C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and L<overload>.
423cee85 1264
e7ea3e70
IZ
1265=item Copy method did not return a reference
1266
1267(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
1268
6798c92b
GS
1269=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1270
1271(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1272
a0d0e21e
LW
1273=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1274
1275(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1276
1277=item corrupted regexp pointers
1278
1279(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1280expression compiler gave it.
1281
1282=item corrupted regexp program
1283
1284(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without
1285a valid magic number.
1286
1287=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1288
e476b1b5 1289(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly) 100
3e3baf6d 1290times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an infinite
a0d0e21e
LW
1291recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in which
1292case it indicates something else.
1293
f10b0346 1294=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1295
e476b1b5 1296(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it checks for an
69794302
MJD
1297undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the array is empty,
1298just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
1299
f10b0346 1300=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1301
e476b1b5 1302(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it checks for an
69794302
MJD
1303undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash is empty,
1304just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
1305
fc36a67e
PP
1306=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1307
c47ff5f1 1308(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label
fc36a67e
PP
1309C<FOO> is too long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously
1310twisted to write code that triggers this error.
1311
3cdd684c
TP
1312=item Did not produce a valid header
1313
1314See Server error.
1315
4633a7c4
LW
1316=item Did you mean &%s instead?
1317
1318(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some such.
1319
33633739
GS
1320=item Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?
1321
e476b1b5 1322(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global variable.
33633739
GS
1323You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which seems superfluous.
1324
748a9306 1325=item Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?
a0d0e21e 1326
748a9306
LW
1327(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or @hash{@keys}.
1328On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got carried away.
1329
7e1af8bc 1330=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1331
1332(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1333you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1334
54310121 1335=item Do you need to predeclare %s?
748a9306
LW
1336
1337(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1338found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
1339name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1340because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
1341"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're
1342referencing something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have
1343to define the subroutine or package before the current location. You
1344can use an empty "sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward"
1345declaration.
a0d0e21e 1346
3cdd684c
TP
1347=item Document contains no data
1348
1349See Server error.
1350
a0d0e21e
LW
1351=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1352
1353(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1354
1355=item do_study: out of memory
1356
1357(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1358
1359=item Duplicate free() ignored
1360
e476b1b5 1361(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had already
a0d0e21e
LW
1362been freed.
1363
4633a7c4
LW
1364=item elseif should be elsif
1365
1366(S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1367ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1368named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
1369unlikely to be what you want.
1370
4f25aa18 1371=item %s failed--call queue aborted
a0d0e21e 1372
7d30b5c4 1373(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a CHECK, INIT, or
4f25aa18
GS
1374END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the queue of such
1375routines has been prematurely ended.
a0d0e21e 1376
85ab1d1d 1377=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1378
85ab1d1d 1379(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1380effective uids or gids failed.
1381
748a9306
LW
1382=item Error converting file specification %s
1383
5f05dabc 1384(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306
LW
1385specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
1386single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've
1387passed an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a
1388case the conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
1389
e4d48cc9
GS
1390=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1391
1392(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular expression
1393that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which is unsafe.
1394See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
1395
1396=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1397
1398(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion,
1399but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'> pragma is
1400in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
1401
1402=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time
1403
1404(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the C<(?{ ... })>
3c247ff3
GS
1405zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the pattern contains
1406interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it is not allowed.
e4d48cc9
GS
1407If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly building the pattern
1408from an interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval().
1409See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
1410
fc36a67e
PP
1411=item Excessively long <> operator
1412
1413(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1414Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1415filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1416variable and glob that.
1417
f86702cc 1418=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
1419
1420(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1421
1422=item Exiting eval via %s
1423
e476b1b5
GS
1424(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as
1425a goto, or a loop control statement.
1426
1427=item Exiting format via %s
1428
1429(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1430a goto, or a loop control statement.
1431
0a753a76
PP
1432=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1433
e476b1b5 1434(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a sort block or
0a753a76
PP
1435subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a loop control
1436statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
1437
a0d0e21e
LW
1438=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1439
e476b1b5 1440(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1441a goto, or a loop control statement.
1442
1443=item Exiting substitution via %s
1444
e476b1b5 1445(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1446a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
1447
7b8d334a
GS
1448=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1449
e476b1b5 1450(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
7b8d334a
GS
1451the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1452usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target
ae6c4aac 1453package, e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1454
73b437c8
JH
1455=item false [] range "%s" in regexp
1456
e476b1b5 1457(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal character, not
73b437c8
JH
1458another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-" in your false
1459range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the "-", "\-".
1460See L<perlre>.
1461
748a9306 1462=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1463
748a9306
LW
1464(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS system
1465service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more details. The
1466filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell you which section of
1467the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1468
1469=item fcntl is not implemented
1470
1471(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1472PDP-11 or something?
1473
1474=item Filehandle %s never opened
1475
e476b1b5 1476(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was never initialized.
a0d0e21e
LW
1477You need to do an open() or a socket() call, or call a constructor from
1478the FileHandle package.
1479
af8c498a 1480=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1481
e476b1b5 1482(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
a0d0e21e 1483intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
c47ff5f1
GS
1484"+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If
1485you intended only to write the file, use ">" or ">>". See
8b1a09fc 1486L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1487
af8c498a 1488=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1489
e476b1b5 1490(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing. If you
437784d6 1491intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it with
c47ff5f1
GS
1492"+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If
1493you intended only to read from the file, use "<". See
8b1a09fc 1494L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1495
1496=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1497
1498(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
1499a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1500that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1501the name.
1502
1503=item Final @ should be \@ or @name
1504
1505(F) You must now decide whether the final @ in a string was meant to be
1506a literal "at" sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1507that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1508the name.
1509
56e90b21
GS
1510=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1511
e476b1b5 1512(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed some
56e90b21
GS
1513time before now. Check your logic flow. flock() operates on filehandles.
1514Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the same name?
1515
a0d0e21e
LW
1516=item Format %s redefined
1517
e476b1b5 1518(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1519
1520 {
4438c4b7 1521 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
1522 eval "format NAME =...";
1523 }
1524
1525=item Format not terminated
1526
1527(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1528to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1529
1530=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1531
e476b1b5 1532(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1533
1534 if ($foo = 123)
1535
1536when you meant
1537
1538 if ($foo == 123)
1539
1540(or something like that).
1541
1542=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1543
1544(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1545
1546=item gethostent not implemented
1547
1548(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1549because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1550on the Internet.
1551
69282e91 1552=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1553
e476b1b5 1554(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed socket.
a0d0e21e
LW
1555Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
1556
748a9306
LW
1557=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1558
1559(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1560C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1561
e476b1b5
GS
1562=item glob failed (%s)
1563
1564(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for C<glob>
c47ff5f1 1565and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
e476b1b5
GS
1566pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a nonzero
1567status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit resulted in a
1568coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is broken. If so,
1569you should change all of the csh-related variables in config.sh: If you
1570have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it were csh (e.g.
1571C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all empty (except that
1572C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will think csh is missing.
1573In either case, after editing config.sh, run C<./Configure -S> and
1574rebuild Perl.
1575
a0d0e21e
LW
1576=item Glob not terminated
1577
1578(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
1579a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
1580finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
1581the line, and you really meant a "less than".
1582
1583=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1584
68dc0745 1585(F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables
eb64745e
GS
1586must either be lexically scoped (using "my"), declared beforehand using
1587"our", or explicitly qualified to say which package the global variable
1588is in (using "::").
a0d0e21e
LW
1589
1590=item goto must have label
1591
1592(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1593unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1594
1595=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1596
e476b1b5 1597(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought to have
a0d0e21e
LW
1598existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be created on
1599an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
1600
1601=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1602
e476b1b5 1603(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some spots. This
a0d0e21e
LW
1604is now heavily deprecated.
1605
252aa082
JH
1606=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
1607
e476b1b5 1608(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
1609(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
1610L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 1611
8903cb82
PP
1612=item Identifier too long
1613
1614(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e
PP
1615about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
1616names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future
1617versions of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1618
f675dbe5
CB
1619=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
1620
e476b1b5 1621(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's internal
f675dbe5
CB
1622environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=> delimiter
1623used to spearate keys from values. The element is ignored.
1624
1625=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
a0d0e21e 1626
e476b1b5 1627(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical name
f675dbe5
CB
1628or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
1629didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the
1630line was ignored.
a0d0e21e 1631
4fdae800
PP
1632=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1633
d5898338
GS
1634(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
1635would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this
1636error when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason,
1637your version of Perl appears to have been built without this support.
1638Talk to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 1639
a0d0e21e
LW
1640=item Illegal division by zero
1641
1642(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in your
1643logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against meaningless input.
1644
1645=item Illegal modulus zero
1646
1647(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most numbers
1648don't take to this kindly.
1649
399388f4
GS
1650=item Illegal binary digit %s
1651
437784d6 1652(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
399388f4
GS
1653
1654=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1655
1656(F) You used an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1657
399388f4
GS
1658=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
1659
e476b1b5 1660(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
399388f4
GS
1661Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the offending digit.
1662
1663=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 1664
e476b1b5 1665(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in a octal number. Interpretation
748a9306
LW
1666of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
1667
651978e7 1668=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
6ff81951 1669
e476b1b5 1670(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or A - F, a - f
252aa082 1671in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal number stopped
6ff81951
GS
1672before the illegal character.
1673
81e118e0
JH
1674=item Illegal number of bits in vec
1675
0a1cd687 1676(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
c5a0f51a 1677two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
09bef843 1678
54310121
PP
1679=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
1680
1681(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
1682following switches: B<-[DIMUdmw]>.
1683
9607fc9c
PP
1684=item In string, @%s now must be written as \@%s
1685
1686(F) It used to be that Perl would try to guess whether you wanted an
1687array interpolated or a literal @. It did this when the string was first
1688used at runtime. Now strings are parsed at compile time, and ambiguous
1689instances of @ must be disambiguated, either by prepending a backslash to
1690indicate a literal, or by declaring (or using) the array within the
1691program before the string (lexically). (Someday it will simply assume
1692that an unbackslashed @ interpolates an array.)
1693
a0d0e21e
LW
1694=item Insecure dependency in %s
1695
8b1a09fc 1696(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
a0d0e21e
LW
1697The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or setgid,
1698or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The tainting mechanism
1699labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly from the user,
1700who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any such data is
1701used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See L<perlsec>
1702for more information.
1703
1704=item Insecure directory in %s
1705
1706(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or setgid
8b1a09fc 1707script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by the world.
a0d0e21e
LW
1708See L<perlsec>.
1709
62f468fc 1710=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1711
1712(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc
G
1713setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
1714C<$ENV{ENV}> or C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> are derived from data supplied (or
a0d0e21e
LW
1715potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set the path to a
1716known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
1717
a7ae9550
GS
1718=item Integer overflow in %s number
1719
e476b1b5 1720(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified either
c6edd1b7 1721as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for your
9e24b6e2
JH
1722architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number. On a
172332-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
1724representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
17250b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
1726transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
1727internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
1728operations.
bbce6d69 1729
748a9306
LW
1730=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
1731
1732(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number
5f05dabc 1733of times you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine
2ba9eb46 1734whether the current call to C<exec> should affect the current
b687b08b 1735script or a subprocess (see L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count
748a9306
LW
1736has become scrambled, so Perl is making a guess and treating
1737this C<exec> as a request to terminate the Perl script
1738and execute the specified command.
1739
a0d0e21e
LW
1740=item internal disaster in regexp
1741
1742(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
1743
1744=item internal urp in regexp at /%s/
1745
1746(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser.
1747
09bef843
SB
1748=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
1749
1750The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
1751by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
1752
1753=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
1754
1755The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not recognized
1756by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
1757
73b437c8 1758=item invalid [] range "%s" in regexp
a0d0e21e
LW
1759
1760(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
1209ba90 1761greater than the maximum character. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 1762
c635e13b
PP
1763=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
1764
e476b1b5 1765(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion.
c635e13b
PP
1766See L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
1767
09bef843
SB
1768=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
1769
0120eecf 1770(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
09bef843
SB
1771elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute
1772had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated
1773too soon. See L<attributes>.
1774
96e4d5b1
PP
1775=item Invalid type in pack: '%s'
1776
8903cb82 1777(F) The given character is not a valid pack type. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
e476b1b5 1778(W pack) The given character is not a valid pack type but used to be silently
fb73857a 1779ignored.
96e4d5b1
PP
1780
1781=item Invalid type in unpack: '%s'
1782
8903cb82 1783(F) The given character is not a valid unpack type. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
e476b1b5 1784(W unpack) The given character is not a valid unpack type but used to be silently
fb73857a 1785ignored.
96e4d5b1 1786
a0d0e21e
LW
1787=item ioctl is not implemented
1788
1789(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
1790strange for a machine that supports C.
1791
1792=item junk on end of regexp
1793
1794(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
1795
1796=item Label not found for "last %s"
1797
1798(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a
1799loop of that name, not even if you count where you were called from.
1800See L<perlfunc/last>.
1801
1802=item Label not found for "next %s"
1803
1804(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
1805that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1806L<perlfunc/last>.
1807
1808=item Label not found for "redo %s"
1809
1810(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
1811that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1812L<perlfunc/last>.
1813
85ab1d1d 1814=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1815
85ab1d1d 1816(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1817effective uids or gids failed.
1818
69282e91 1819=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1820
e476b1b5 1821(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
a0d0e21e
LW
1822the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/listen>.
1823
cd06dffe
GS
1824=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
1825
1826(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
1827values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context.
1828See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
1829
a0d0e21e
LW
1830=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
1831
1832(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 1833doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 1834
3cdd684c
TP
1835=item Method %s not permitted
1836
1837See Server error.
1838
a0d0e21e
LW
1839=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
1840
1841(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
1842by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
1843ended earlier on the current line.
1844
1845=item Misplaced _ in number
1846
e476b1b5 1847(W syntax) An underline in a decimal constant wasn't on a 3-digit boundary.
a0d0e21e
LW
1848
1849=item Missing $ on loop variable
1850
8b1a09fc
PP
1851(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables are always
1852mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it can vary from
a0d0e21e
LW
1853one line to the next.
1854
4a2d328f 1855=item Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}
423cee85 1856
4a2d328f 1857(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
423cee85
JH
1858double-quotish context.
1859
a0d0e21e
LW
1860=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
1861
1862(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
1863"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
1864
06eaf0bc
GS
1865=item Missing command in piped open
1866
e476b1b5 1867(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or C<open(FH, "command |")>
06eaf0bc
GS
1868construction, but the command was missing or blank.
1869
748a9306
LW
1870=item Missing operator before %s?
1871
1872(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1873found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
1874
d98d5fff 1875=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 1876
d98d5fff
GS
1877(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than
1878closing ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place
1879you were last editing.
a0d0e21e 1880
a0d0e21e
LW
1881=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
1882
1883(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 1884constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
1885catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
1886
1887 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
1888 mod(2);
1889
1890Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
1891
4fe4fdb3 1892=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, subscript %d
a0d0e21e
LW
1893
1894(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
1895subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
1896backwards.
1897
4fe4fdb3 1898=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, subscript "%s"
a0d0e21e 1899
19a09eb8 1900(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it couldn't
a0d0e21e
LW
1901be created for some peculiar reason.
1902
1903=item Module name must be constant
1904
1905(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
1906
1907=item msg%s not implemented
1908
1909(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
1910
1911=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
1912
e476b1b5 1913(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>. They're written
8b1a09fc
PP
1914like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
1915
09bef843
SB
1916=item Missing name in "my sub"
1917
1918(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that they
1919have a name with which they can be found.
1920
8b1a09fc
PP
1921=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
1922
e476b1b5 1923(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
68dc0745 1924If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention
77ca0c92
LW
1925it again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
1926provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e
LW
1927
1928=item Negative length
1929
1930(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer length
1931that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
1932
1933=item nested *?+ in regexp
1934
5f05dabc 1935(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
a0d0e21e
LW
1936things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal.
1937
5f05dabc 1938Note, however, that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and C<??> appear
a0d0e21e
LW
1939to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
1940
1941=item No #! line
1942
1943(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1944even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
1945
1946=item No %s allowed while running setuid
1947
1948(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or setgid
1949script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there will be
1950another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least securable.
1951See L<perlsec>.
1952
1953=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
1954
1955(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
1956
a67e862a
GS
1957=item No %s specified for -%c
1958
1959(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
1960you haven't specified one.
1961
a0d0e21e
LW
1962=item No comma allowed after %s
1963
1964(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
1965allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
1966Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
1967
0a753a76
PP
1968One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
1969constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
1970importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
1971does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
1972explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
1973L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
1974would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
1975remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
1976constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
1977list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
1978this error was triggered?
1979
748a9306
LW
1980=item No command into which to pipe on command line
1981
1982(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
54310121 1983and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know where you
748a9306
LW
1984want to pipe the output from this command.
1985
a0d0e21e
LW
1986=item No DB::DB routine defined
1987
1988(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1989but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1990didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
1991statement. Which is odd, because the file should have been required
1992automatically, and should have blown up the require if it didn't parse
1993right.
1994
1995=item No dbm on this machine
1996
1997(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 1998supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1999
2000=item No DBsub routine
2001
2002(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
2003but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
2004didn't define a DB::sub routine to be called at the beginning of each
2005ordinary subroutine call.
2006
c47ff5f1 2007=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306
LW
2008
2009(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
c47ff5f1 2010and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't find
8b1a09fc 2011the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2012
c47ff5f1 2013=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306
LW
2014
2015(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
c47ff5f1 2016and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the name of the file
8b1a09fc 2017from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2018
c47ff5f1 2019=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306
LW
2020
2021(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
c47ff5f1 2022and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know
54310121 2023where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2024
c47ff5f1 2025=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306
LW
2026
2027(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
c47ff5f1 2028and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't find the
8b1a09fc 2029name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2030
1ec3e8de
GS
2031=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2032
2033(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our" declarations,
2034because that doesn't make much sense under existing semantics. Such
2035syntax is reserved for future extensions.
2036
a0d0e21e
LW
2037=item No Perl script found in input
2038
2039(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2040with #! and containing the word "perl".
2041
2042=item No setregid available
2043
2044(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2045your system.
2046
2047=item No setreuid available
2048
2049(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2050your system.
2051
a67e862a 2052=item No space allowed after -%c
a0d0e21e 2053
a67e862a
GS
2054(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow immediately
2055after the switch, without intervening spaces.
a0d0e21e 2056
88e9b055 2057=item No such pseudo-hash field "%s"
57079c46 2058
88e9b055 2059(F) You tried to access an array as a hash, but the field name used is
57079c46
GA
2060not defined. The hash at index 0 should map all valid field names to
2061array indices for that to work.
2062
88e9b055 2063=item No such pseudo-hash field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
f1192cee
GA
2064
2065(F) You tried to access a field of a typed variable where the type
2066does not know about the field name. The field names are looked up in
2067the %FIELDS hash in the type package at compile time. The %FIELDS hash
2068is usually set up with the 'fields' pragma.
2069
748a9306
LW
2070=item No such pipe open
2071
2072(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
2073close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught earlier as
2074an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
2075
a0d0e21e
LW
2076=item No such signal: SIG%s
2077
e476b1b5 2078(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was not recognized.
a0d0e21e
LW
2079Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
2080
bd3fa61c
CB
2081=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
2082
db7c17d7 2083(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
f675dbe5
CB
2084timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
2085to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL>
2086to translate to the number of seconds which need to be added to UTC to
2087get local time.
2088
a0d0e21e
LW
2089=item Not a CODE reference
2090
2091(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2092subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
2093use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
2094See also L<perlref>.
2095
2096=item Not a format reference
2097
2098(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
2099format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
2100
2101=item Not a GLOB reference
2102
55497cff 2103(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is,
a0d0e21e
LW
2104a symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
2105something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out
2106what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2107
2108=item Not a HASH reference
2109
2110(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but
2111found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
2112function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2113
2114=item Not a perl script
2115
2116(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2117even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
2118mention perl.
2119
2120=item Not a SCALAR reference
2121
2122(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but
2123found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
2124function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2125
2126=item Not a subroutine reference
2127
2128(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2129subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
2130use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
2131See also L<perlref>.
2132
e7ea3e70 2133=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
2134
2135(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 2136doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2137
2138=item Not an ARRAY reference
2139
2140(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but
2141found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
2142function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2143
2144=item Not enough arguments for %s
2145
2146(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
2147
2148=item Not enough format arguments
2149
e476b1b5 2150(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line supplied.
a0d0e21e
LW
2151See L<perlform>.
2152
2153=item Null filename used
2154
5f05dabc 2155(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many machines
a0d0e21e
LW
2156that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
2157
55497cff
PP
2158=item Null picture in formline
2159
2160(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
2161specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
2162supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
2163
a0d0e21e
LW
2164=item NULL OP IN RUN
2165
e476b1b5 2166(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode pointer.
a0d0e21e
LW
2167
2168=item Null realloc
2169
2170(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
2171
2172=item NULL regexp argument
2173
5f05dabc 2174(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2175
2176=item NULL regexp parameter
2177
2178(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
2179
fc36a67e
PP
2180=item Number too long
2181
2182(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to about
2183about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future versions of
2184Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In the meantime,
2185try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of "1_000_000").
2186
252aa082
JH
2187=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
2188
e476b1b5 2189(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1 (4294967295)
9e24b6e2
JH
2190and therefore non-portable between systems. See L<perlport> for more
2191on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
2192
2193See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
2194
3cb0bbe5
GS
2195=item Octal number in vector unsupported
2196
2197(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors. The
2198octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a future
2199version.
2200
1930e939 2201=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 2202
e476b1b5 2203(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash, which
1930e939 2204is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 2205
bbce6d69
PP
2206=item Offset outside string
2207
2208(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
2209pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to imagine.
2210The sole exception to this is that C<sysread()>ing past the buffer
2211will extend the buffer and zero pad the new area.
2212
a0d0e21e
LW
2213=item oops: oopsAV
2214
e476b1b5 2215(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
2216
2217=item oops: oopsHV
2218
e476b1b5 2219(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 2220
56f7f34b 2221=item Operation `%s': no method found, %s
44a8e56a 2222
e7ea3e70
IZ
2223(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which
2224no handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in
2225terms of other handlers, there is no default handler for any
2226operation, unless C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be
2227true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 2228
748a9306
LW
2229=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
2230
e476b1b5 2231(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser was
748a9306
LW
2232expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant
2233to use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect.
2234For example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as
2235if you said "*foo * 'foo'".
2236
a80b8354
GS
2237=item Out of memory!
2238
2239(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
2240remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl
2241has no option but to exit immediately.
2242
a0d0e21e
LW
2243=item Out of memory for yacc stack
2244
2245(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue parsing,
2246but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or otherwise.
2247
1b979e0a 2248=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 2249
55497cff 2250(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
54310121 2251remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request.
eff9c6e2
CS
2252
2253The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
2254depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
2255However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as
2256an emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the
55497cff
PP
2257error is trappable I<once>.
2258
1b979e0a 2259=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
55497cff
PP
2260
2261(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
2262remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
2263the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so
2264a possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
2265
1b979e0a
IZ
2266=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
2267
2268(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
2269is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g., C<$arr[time]>
2270instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
2271
a0d0e21e
LW
2272=item page overflow
2273
e476b1b5 2274(W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a page.
a0d0e21e
LW
2275See L<perlform>.
2276
2277=item panic: ck_grep
2278
2279(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
2280
2281=item panic: ck_split
2282
2283(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
2284
2285=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
2286
2287(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than there
2288are in the savestack.
2289
810b8aa5
GS
2290=item panic: del_backref
2291
2292(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
2293reference.
2294
a0d0e21e
LW
2295=item panic: die %s
2296
2297(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
2298it wasn't an eval context.
2299
2300=item panic: do_match
2301
2302(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2303
2304=item panic: do_split
2305
2306(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
2307
2308=item panic: do_subst
2309
2310(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2311
2312=item panic: do_trans
2313
2314(P) The internal do_trans() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2315
c635e13b
PP
2316=item panic: frexp
2317
2318(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
2319
a0d0e21e
LW
2320=item panic: goto
2321
2322(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
2323and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
2324
2325=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
2326
2327(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
2328
2329=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
2330
2331(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
2332
e446cec8
IZ
2333=item panic: kid popen errno read
2334
2335(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
2336
a0d0e21e
LW
2337=item panic: last
2338
2339(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
2340it wasn't a block context.
2341
2342=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
2343
5f05dabc 2344(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
2345
2346=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
2347
2348(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
2349invalid enum on the top of it.
2350
2351=item panic: malloc
2352
2353(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
2354
810b8aa5
GS
2355=item panic: magic_killbackrefs
2356
2357(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak
2358references to an object.
2359
a0d0e21e
LW
2360=item panic: mapstart
2361
2362(P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.
2363
2364=item panic: null array
2365
2366(P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.
2367
2368=item panic: pad_alloc
2369
2370(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2371and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2372
2373=item panic: pad_free curpad
2374
2375(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2376and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2377
2378=item panic: pad_free po
2379
2380(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2381
2382=item panic: pad_reset curpad
2383
2384(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2385and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2386
2387=item panic: pad_sv po
2388
2389(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2390
2391=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
2392
2393(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2394and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2395
2396=item panic: pad_swipe po
2397
2398(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2399
2400=item panic: pp_iter
2401
2402(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
2403
2404=item panic: realloc
2405
2406(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
2407
2408=item panic: restartop
2409
2410(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
2411didn't supply the destination.
2412
2413=item panic: return
2414
2415(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
2416then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
2417
2418=item panic: scan_num
2419
2420(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
2421
2422=item panic: sv_insert
2423
2424(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
2425was string.
2426
2427=item panic: top_env
2428
6224f72b 2429(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
a0d0e21e
LW
2430
2431=item panic: yylex
2432
2433(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
2434
b3c9acc1
IZ
2435=item panic: %s
2436
2437(P) An internal error.
2438
7b8d334a 2439=item Parentheses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e 2440
e476b1b5 2441(W parenthesis) You said something like
a0d0e21e
LW
2442
2443 my $foo, $bar = @_;
2444
2445when you meant
2446
2447 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
2448
54884818 2449Remember that "my", "our", and "local" bind tighter than comma.
a0d0e21e
LW
2450
2451=item Perl %3.3f required--this is only version %s, stopped
2452
2453(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more recent
2454than the currently running version. How long has it been since you upgraded,
2455anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
2456
2457=item Permission denied
2458
2459(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
2460
bd3fa61c 2461=item pid %x not a child
748a9306 2462
e476b1b5 2463(W exec) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a process which
748a9306
LW
2464isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is fine from VMS'
2465perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
2466
a0d0e21e
LW
2467=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
2468
81777298 2469(F) Your system has POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
a0d0e21e
LW
2470the BSD version, which takes a pid.
2471
6bc102ca
GS
2472=item Possible Y2K bug: %s
2473
e476b1b5 2474(W y2k) You are concatenating the number 19 with another number, which
6bc102ca
GS
2475could be a potential Year 2000 problem.
2476
bbce6d69
PP
2477=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
2478
e476b1b5 2479(W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal
774d564b
PP
2480strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated
2481as literal data. (You may have used different delimiters than the
7b8d334a 2482parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently used.)
bbce6d69 2483
774d564b
PP
2484You probably wrote something like this:
2485
54310121 2486 @list = qw(
774d564b 2487 a # a comment
bbce6d69 2488 b # another comment
774d564b 2489 );
bbce6d69
PP
2490
2491when you should have written this:
2492
774d564b 2493 @list = qw(
54310121
PP
2494 a
2495 b
774d564b
PP
2496 );
2497
2498If you really want comments, build your list the
2499old-fashioned way, with quotes and commas:
2500
2501 @list = (
2502 'a', # a comment
2503 'b', # another comment
2504 );
bbce6d69
PP
2505
2506=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
2507
e476b1b5 2508(W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore commas
68dc0745 2509aren't needed to separate the items. (You may have used different
774d564b
PP
2510delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently
2511used.)
bbce6d69 2512
54310121 2513You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69 2514
774d564b
PP
2515 qw! a, b, c !;
2516
2517which puts literal commas into some of the list items. Write it without
2518commas if you don't want them to appear in your data:
bbce6d69 2519
774d564b 2520 qw! a b c !;
bbce6d69 2521
a0d0e21e
LW
2522=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
2523
2524(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
2525Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
2526end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
2527Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
2528
8cd79558
GS
2529=item pragma "attrs" is deprecated, use "sub NAME : ATTRS" instead
2530
2531(W deprecated) You have written somehing like this:
2532
2533 sub doit
2534 {
2535 use attrs qw(locked);
2536 }
2537
2538You should use the new declaration syntax instead.
2539
2540 sub doit : locked
2541 {
2542 ...
2543
2544The C<use attrs> pragma is now obsolete, and is only provided for
2545backward-compatibility. See L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes">.
2546
a0d0e21e
LW
2547=item Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
2548
e476b1b5 2549(S precedence) The old irregular construct
cb1a09d0 2550
a0d0e21e
LW
2551 open FOO || die;
2552
2553is now misinterpreted as
2554
2555 open(FOO || die);
2556
68dc0745
PP
2557because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary
2558and list operators. (The old open was a little of both.) You must
2559put parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator
2560instead of "||".
a0d0e21e 2561
3cdd684c
TP
2562=item Premature end of script headers
2563
2564See Server error.
2565
9a7dcd9c 2566=item print() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 2567
e476b1b5 2568(W closed) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime before now.
a0d0e21e
LW
2569Check your logic flow.
2570
9a7dcd9c 2571=item printf() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 2572
e476b1b5 2573(W closed) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
a0d0e21e
LW
2574Check your logic flow.
2575
3fe9a6f1 2576=item Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
4633a7c4 2577
e476b1b5 2578(S unsafe) The subroutine being declared or defined had previously been declared
3fe9a6f1 2579or defined with a different function prototype.
4633a7c4 2580
89ea2908
GA
2581=item Range iterator outside integer range
2582
2583(F) One (or both) of the numeric arguments to the range operator ".."
2584are outside the range which can be represented by integers internally.
2585One possible workaround is to force Perl to use magical string
2586increment by prepending "0" to your numbers.
2587
9a7dcd9c 2588=item readline() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 2589
e476b1b5 2590(W closed) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime before now.
a0d0e21e
LW
2591Check your logic flow.
2592
4ad56ec9
IZ
2593=item realloc() of freed memory ignored
2594
e476b1b5 2595(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had already
4ad56ec9
IZ
2596been freed.
2597
a0d0e21e
LW
2598=item Reallocation too large: %lx
2599
54310121 2600(F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e
LW
2601
2602=item Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch
2603
e476b1b5 2604(F debugging) You can't use the B<-D> option unless the code to produce the
a0d0e21e
LW
2605desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead,
2606which is why it's currently left out of your copy.
2607
3e0ccd42 2608=item Recursive inheritance detected in package '%s'
a0d0e21e
LW
2609
2610(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used. Probably indicates
2611an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2612
3e0ccd42
JP
2613=item Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method '%s' in package '%s'
2614
2615(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were encountered while invoking a
2616method. Probably indicates an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2617
1930e939
TP
2618=item Reference found where even-sized list expected
2619
e476b1b5 2620(W misc) You gave a single reference where Perl was expecting a list with
1930e939
TP
2621an even number of elements (for assignment to a hash). This
2622usually means that you used the anon hash constructor when you meant
2623to use parens. In any case, a hash requires key/value B<pairs>.
7b8d334a
GS
2624
2625 %hash = { one => 1, two => 2, }; # WRONG
2626 %hash = [ qw/ an anon array / ]; # WRONG
2627 %hash = ( one => 1, two => 2, ); # right
2628 %hash = qw( one 1 two 2 ); # also fine
2629
810b8aa5
GS
2630=item Reference is already weak
2631
e476b1b5 2632(W misc) You have attempted to weaken a reference that is already weak.
810b8aa5
GS
2633Doing so has no effect.
2634
a0d0e21e
LW
2635=item Reference miscount in sv_replace()
2636
e476b1b5 2637(W internal) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with a
a0d0e21e
LW
2638reference count of other than 1.
2639
fb73857a
PP
2640=item regexp *+ operand could be empty
2641
2642(F) The part of the regexp subject to either the * or + quantifier
2643could match an empty string.
2644
a0d0e21e
LW
2645=item regexp memory corruption
2646
2647(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
2648expression compiler gave it.
2649
2650=item regexp out of space
2651
2652(P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it earlier.
2653
a0d0e21e
LW
2654=item Reversed %s= operator
2655
e476b1b5 2656(W syntax) You wrote your assignment operator backwards. The = must always
a0d0e21e
LW
2657comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.
2658
2659=item Runaway format
2660
2661(F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it
2662produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the
2663199th line. Apparently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
2664themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar variables), or by
2665shifting or popping (for array variables). See L<perlform>.
2666
2667=item Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
2668
e476b1b5 2669(W syntax) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
a0d0e21e 2670an array. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
8b1a09fc
PP
2671The difference is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2672assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo[&bar]> behaves
a0d0e21e 2673like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
5f05dabc 2674subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
a0d0e21e 2675
748a9306 2676On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
5f05dabc 2677element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
748a9306
LW
2678Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2679L<perlref>.
2680
a6006777
PP
2681=item Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
2682
e476b1b5 2683(W syntax) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
a6006777
PP
2684a hash. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
2685The difference is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2686assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> behaves
2687like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
2688subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
2689
2690On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash
2691element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
2692Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2693L<perlref>.
2694
a0d0e21e
LW
2695=item Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
2696
54310121
PP
2697(F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script without a setuid
2698or setgid bit set. This doesn't make much sense.
a0d0e21e
LW
2699
2700=item Search pattern not terminated
2701
2702(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{}
2703construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2704Missing the leading C<$> from a variable C<$m> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2705
96e4d5b1 2706=item %sseek() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2707
e476b1b5 2708(W unopened) You tried to use the seek() or sysseek() function on a filehandle that
96e4d5b1 2709was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2710
2711=item select not implemented
2712
2713(F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.
2714
2715=item sem%s not implemented
2716
2717(F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.
2718
2719=item semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
2720
e476b1b5 2721(S internal) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a scalar
a0d0e21e
LW
2722that had previously been marked as free.
2723
2724=item Semicolon seems to be missing
2725
e476b1b5 2726(W semicolon) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing semicolon,
a0d0e21e
LW
2727or possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.
2728
69282e91 2729=item send() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2730
e476b1b5 2731(W closed) The socket you're sending to got itself closed sometime before now.
a0d0e21e
LW
2732Check your logic flow.
2733
1b1626e4 2734=item Sequence (? incomplete
7b8d334a 2735
1b1626e4
G
2736(F) A regular expression ended with an incomplete extension (?.
2737See L<perlre>.
2738
a0d0e21e
LW
2739=item Sequence (?#... not terminated
2740
2741(F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing
5f05dabc 2742parenthesis. Embedded parentheses aren't allowed. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2743
2744=item Sequence (?%s...) not implemented
2745
2746(F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved
2747but has not yet been written. See L<perlre>.
2748
2749=item Sequence (?%s...) not recognized
2750
2751(F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense.
2752See L<perlre>.
2753
a5f75d66
AD
2754=item Server error
2755
3cdd684c
TP
2756This is the error message generally seen in a browser window when trying
2757to run a CGI program (including SSI) over the web. The actual error
2758text varies widely from server to server. The most frequently-seen
2759variants are "500 Server error", "Method (something) not permitted",
2760"Document contains no data", "Premature end of script headers", and
2761"Did not produce a valid header".
9607fc9c
PP
2762
2763B<This is a CGI error, not a Perl error>.
2764
2765You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible by the user
2766CGI is running the script under (which is probably not the user account you
2767tested it under), does not rely on any environment variables (like PATH)
2768from the user it isn't running under, and isn't in a location where the CGI
2769server can't find it, basically, more or less. Please see the following
2770for more information:
2771
be94a901
GS
2772 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/idiots-guide.html
2773 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/perl-cgi-faq.html
9607fc9c
PP
2774 ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/www/cgi-faq
2775 http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/cgi/interface.html
2776 http://www-genome.wi.mit.edu/WWW/faqs/www-security-faq.html
a5f75d66 2777
be94a901
GS
2778You should also look at L<perlfaq9>.
2779
a0d0e21e
LW
2780=item setegid() not implemented
2781
8b1a09fc 2782(F) You tried to assign to C<$)>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2783the setegid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2784think so.
2785
2786=item seteuid() not implemented
2787
c47ff5f1 2788(F) You tried to assign to C<< $> >>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2789the seteuid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2790think so.
2791
81777298
GS
2792=item setpgrp can't take arguments
2793
2794(F) Your system has the setpgrp() from BSD 4.2, which takes no arguments,
2795unlike POSIX setpgid(), which takes a process ID and process group ID.
2796
a0d0e21e
LW
2797=item setrgid() not implemented
2798
8b1a09fc 2799(F) You tried to assign to C<$(>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2800the setrgid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2801think so.
2802
2803=item setruid() not implemented
2804
c47ff5f1 2805(F) You tried to assign to C<$<>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2806the setruid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2807think so.
2808
2809=item Setuid/gid script is writable by world
2810
2811(F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is writable by the world,
2812because the world might have written on it already.
2813
2814=item shm%s not implemented
2815
2816(F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your system.
2817
69282e91 2818=item shutdown() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2819
e476b1b5 2820(W closed) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket. Seems a bit superfluous.
a0d0e21e 2821
f86702cc 2822=item SIG%s handler "%s" not defined
a0d0e21e 2823
e476b1b5 2824(W signal) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't, in fact, exist. Perhaps you
a0d0e21e
LW
2825put it into the wrong package?
2826
2827=item sort is now a reserved word
2828
2829(F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into anymore.
2830But before sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a filehandle.
2831
2832=item Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value
2833
2834(F) A sort comparison routine must return a number. You probably blew
c47ff5f1 2835it by not using C<< <=> >> or C<cmp>, or by not using them correctly.
a0d0e21e
LW
2836See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2837
2838=item Sort subroutine didn't return single value
2839
2840(F) A sort comparison subroutine may not return a list value with more
2841or less than one element. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2842
2843=item Split loop
2844
2845(P) The split was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a split shouldn't iterate
2846more times than there are characters of input, which is what happened.)
2847See L<perlfunc/split>.
2848
c47ff5f1 2849=item Stat on unopened file <%s>
a0d0e21e 2850
e476b1b5 2851(W unopened) You tried to use the stat() function (or an equivalent file test)
54310121 2852on a filehandle that was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2853
2854=item Statement unlikely to be reached
2855
e476b1b5 2856(W exec) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than a die().
a0d0e21e
LW
2857This is almost always an error, because exec() never returns unless
2858there was a failure. You probably wanted to use system() instead,
2859which does return. To suppress this warning, put the exec() in a block
2860by itself.
2861
17feb5d5
DD
2862=item Strange *+?{} on zero-length expression
2863
e476b1b5 2864(W regexp) You applied a regular expression quantifier in a place where it
17feb5d5
DD
2865makes no sense, such as on a zero-width assertion.
2866Try putting the quantifier inside the assertion instead. For example,
2867the way to match "abc" provided that it is followed by three
2868repetitions of "xyz" is C</abc(?=(?:xyz){3})/>, not C</abc(?=xyz){3}/>.
2869
e7ea3e70
IZ
2870=item Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
2871
2872(P) Overloading resolution over @ISA tree may be broken by importation stubs.
2873Stubs should never be implicitely created, but explicit calls to C<can>
2874may break this.
2875
a0d0e21e
LW
2876=item Subroutine %s redefined
2877
e476b1b5 2878(W redefine) You redefined a subroutine. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
2879
2880 {
4438c4b7 2881 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
2882 eval "sub name { ... }";
2883 }
2884
2885=item Substitution loop
2886
2887(P) The substitution was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a
2888substitution shouldn't iterate more times than there are characters of
68dc0745 2889input, which is what happened.) See the discussion of substitution in
5f05dabc 2890L<perlop/"Quote and Quote-like Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
2891
2892=item Substitution pattern not terminated
2893
2894(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2895construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2896Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2897
2898=item Substitution replacement not terminated
2899
2900(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2901construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2902Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2903
2904=item substr outside of string
2905
e476b1b5 2906(W substr),(F) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed outside of a
3e3baf6d
TB
2907string. That is, the absolute value of the offset was larger than the
2908length of the string. See L<perlfunc/substr>. This warning is
e476b1b5 2909fatal if substr is used in an lvalue context (as the left hand side
3e3baf6d 2910of an assignment or as a subroutine argument for example).
a0d0e21e 2911
f86702cc 2912=item suidperl is no longer needed since %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2913
2914(F) Your Perl was compiled with B<-D>SETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW, but a
2915version of the setuid emulator somehow got run anyway.
2916
85ab1d1d
JH
2917=item switching effective %s is not implemented
2918
2919(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, we cannot switch the
2920real and effective uids or gids.
2921
a0d0e21e
LW
2922=item syntax error
2923
2924(F) Probably means you had a syntax error. Common reasons include:
2925
2926 A keyword is misspelled.
2927 A semicolon is missing.
2928 A comma is missing.
2929 An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
2930 An opening or closing brace is missing.
2931 A closing quote is missing.
2932
2933Often there will be another error message associated with the syntax
2934error giving more information. (Sometimes it helps to turn on B<-w>.)
2935The error message itself often tells you where it was in the line when
2936it decided to give up. Sometimes the actual error is several tokens
5f05dabc 2937before this, because Perl is good at understanding random input.
a0d0e21e
LW
2938Occasionally the line number may be misleading, and once in a blue moon
2939the only way to figure out what's triggering the error is to call
2940C<perl -c> repeatedly, chopping away half the program each time to see
2941if the error went away. Sort of the cybernetic version of S<20 questions>.
2942
cb1a09d0
AD
2943=item syntax error at line %d: `%s' unexpected
2944
8b1a09fc 2945(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 2946instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
2947into Perl yourself.
2948
6087ac44 2949=item System V %s is not implemented on this machine
a0d0e21e 2950
6087ac44
JH
2951(F) You tried to do something with a function beginning with "sem",
2952"shm", or "msg" but that System V IPC is not implemented in your
2953machine. In some machines the functionality can exist but be
2954unconfigured. Consult your system support.
a0d0e21e 2955
69282e91 2956=item syswrite() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 2957
e476b1b5 2958(W closed) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
a0d0e21e
LW
2959Check your logic flow.
2960
fc36a67e
PP
2961=item Target of goto is too deeply nested
2962
2963(F) You tried to use C<goto> to reach a label that was too deeply
2964nested for Perl to reach. Perl is doing you a favor by refusing.
2965
8903cb82 2966=item tell() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2967
e476b1b5 2968(W unopened) You tried to use the tell() function on a filehandle that was either
8903cb82 2969never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e 2970
c47ff5f1 2971=item Test on unopened file <%s>
a0d0e21e 2972
e476b1b5 2973(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle that isn't
a0d0e21e
LW
2974open. Check your logic. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
2975
2976=item That use of $[ is unsupported
2977
8b1a09fc 2978(F) Assignment to C<$[> is now strictly circumscribed, and interpreted as
5f05dabc 2979a compiler directive. You may say only one of
a0d0e21e
LW
2980
2981 $[ = 0;
2982 $[ = 1;
2983 ...
2984 local $[ = 0;
2985 local $[ = 1;
2986 ...
2987
2988This is to prevent the problem of one module changing the array base
2989out from under another module inadvertently. See L<perlvar/$[>.
2990
2991=item The %s function is unimplemented
2992
2993The function indicated isn't implemented on this architecture, according
2994to the probings of Configure.
2995
f86702cc 2996=item The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia
a0d0e21e
LW
2997
2998(F) Configure couldn't find the crypt() function on your machine,
2999probably because your vendor didn't supply it, probably because they
8b1a09fc 3000think the U.S. Government thinks it's a secret, or at least that they
a0d0e21e
LW
3001will continue to pretend that it is. And if you quote me on that, I
3002will deny it.
3003
3004=item The stat preceding C<-l _> wasn't an lstat
3005
3006(F) It makes no sense to test the current stat buffer for symbolic linkhood
3007if the last stat that wrote to the stat buffer already went past
3008the symlink to get to the real file. Use an actual filename instead.
3009
437784d6 3010=item This Perl can't reset CRTL environ elements (%s)
f675dbe5
CB
3011
3012=item This Perl can't set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s)
3013
e476b1b5 3014(W internal) Warnings peculiar to VMS. You tried to change or delete an element
f675dbe5
CB
3015of the CRTL's internal environ array, but your copy of Perl wasn't
3016built with a CRTL that contained the setenv() function. You'll need to
3017rebuild Perl with a CRTL that does, or redefine F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see
3018L<perlvms>) so that the environ array isn't the target of the change to
3019%ENV which produced the warning.
3020
a0d0e21e
LW
3021=item times not implemented
3022
3023(F) Your version of the C library apparently doesn't do times(). I suspect
3024you're not running on Unix.
3025
3026=item Too few args to syscall
3027
3028(F) There has to be at least one argument to syscall() to specify the
3029system call to call, silly dilly.
3030
9607fc9c
PP
3031=item Too late for "B<-T>" option
3032
3033(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
8cc95fdb
PP
3034B<-T> option, but Perl was not invoked with B<-T> in its command line.
3035This is an error because, by the time Perl discovers a B<-T> in a
3036script, it's too late to properly taint everything from the environment.
3037So Perl gives up.
f86702cc 3038
9607fc9c
PP
3039If the Perl script is being executed as a command using the #!
3040mechanism (or its local equivalent), this error can usually be fixed
3041by editing the #! line so that the B<-T> option is a part of Perl's
3042first argument: e.g. change C<perl -n -T> to C<perl -T -n>.
f86702cc 3043
9607fc9c
PP
3044If the Perl script is being executed as C<perl scriptname>, then the
3045B<-T> option must appear on the command line: C<perl -T scriptname>.
f86702cc 3046
8cc95fdb
PP
3047=item Too late for "-%s" option
3048
3049(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
3050B<-M> or B<-m> option. This is an error because B<-M> and B<-m> options
3051are not intended for use inside scripts. Use the C<use> pragma instead.
3052
ddda08b7
GS
3053=item Too late to run %s block
3054
3055(W void) A CHECK or INIT block is being defined during run time proper,
3056when the opportunity to run them has already passed. Perhaps you are
3057loading a file with C<require> or C<do> when you should be using
3058C<use> instead. Or perhaps you should put the C<require> or C<do>
3059inside a BEGIN block.
3060
cb1a09d0
AD
3061=item Too many ('s
3062
3063=item Too many )'s
3064
3065(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
3066of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
3067Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 3068
a0d0e21e
LW
3069=item Too many args to syscall
3070
5f05dabc 3071(F) Perl supports a maximum of only 14 args to syscall().
a0d0e21e
LW
3072
3073=item Too many arguments for %s
3074
3075(F) The function requires fewer arguments than you specified.
3076
3077=item trailing \ in regexp
3078
3079(F) The regular expression ends with an unbackslashed backslash. Backslash
3080it. See L<perlre>.
3081
2c268ad5 3082=item Transliteration pattern not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
3083
3084(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
fb73857a
PP
3085or y/// or y[][] construct. Missing the leading C<$> from variables
3086C<$tr> or C<$y> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 3087
2c268ad5 3088=item Transliteration replacement not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
3089
3090(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
3091construct.
3092
3093=item truncate not implemented
3094
3095(F) Your machine doesn't implement a file truncation mechanism that
3096Configure knows about.
3097
3098=item Type of arg %d to %s must be %s (not %s)
3099
3100(F) This function requires the argument in that position to be of a
8b1a09fc
PP
3101certain type. Arrays must be @NAME or C<@{EXPR}>. Hashes must be
3102%NAME or C<%{EXPR}>. No implicit dereferencing is allowed--use the
a0d0e21e
LW
3103{EXPR} forms as an explicit dereference. See L<perlref>.
3104
3105=item umask: argument is missing initial 0
3106
e476b1b5 3107(W umask) A umask of 222 is incorrect. It should be 0222, because octal
eec2d3df
GS
3108literals always start with 0 in Perl, as in C.
3109
3110=item umask not implemented
3111
3112(F) Your machine doesn't implement the umask function and you tried
3113to use it to restrict permissions for yourself (EXPR & 0700).
a0d0e21e 3114
4633a7c4
LW
3115=item Unable to create sub named "%s"
3116
3117(F) You attempted to create or access a subroutine with an illegal name.
3118
a0d0e21e
LW
3119=item Unbalanced context: %d more PUSHes than POPs
3120
e476b1b5 3121(W internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many execution
a0d0e21e
LW
3122contexts were entered and left.
3123
3124=item Unbalanced saves: %d more saves than restores
3125
e476b1b5 3126(W internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many
a0d0e21e
LW
3127values were temporarily localized.
3128
3129=item Unbalanced scopes: %d more ENTERs than LEAVEs
3130
e476b1b5 3131(W internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many blocks
a0d0e21e
LW
3132were entered and left.
3133
3134=item Unbalanced tmps: %d more allocs than frees
3135
e476b1b5 3136(W internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many mortal
a0d0e21e
LW
3137scalars were allocated and freed.
3138
3139=item Undefined format "%s" called
3140
3141(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
3142another package? See L<perlform>.
3143
3144=item Undefined sort subroutine "%s" called
3145
3146(F) The sort comparison routine specified doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps
3147it's in a different package? See L<perlfunc/sort>.
3148
3149=item Undefined subroutine &%s called
3150
3151(F) The subroutine indicated hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
3152has since been undefined.
3153
3154=item Undefined subroutine called
3155
3156(F) The anonymous subroutine you're trying to call hasn't been defined,
3157or if it was, it has since been undefined.
3158
3159=item Undefined subroutine in sort
3160
3161(F) The sort comparison routine specified is declared but doesn't seem to
3162have been defined yet. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
3163
4633a7c4
LW
3164=item Undefined top format "%s" called
3165
3166(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
3167another package? See L<perlform>.
3168
20408e3c
GS
3169=item Undefined value assigned to typeglob
3170
e476b1b5 3171(W misc) An undefined value was assigned to a typeglob, a la C<*foo = undef>.
20408e3c
GS
3172This does nothing. It's possible that you really mean C<undef *foo>.
3173
a0d0e21e
LW
3174=item unexec of %s into %s failed!
3175
3176(F) The unexec() routine failed for some reason. See your local FSF
3177representative, who probably put it there in the first place.
3178
3179=item Unknown BYTEORDER
3180
5f05dabc 3181(F) There are no byte-swapping functions for a machine with this byte order.
a0d0e21e 3182
6170680b
IZ
3183=item Unknown open() mode '%s'
3184
437784d6 3185(F) The second argument of 3-argument open() is not among the list
c47ff5f1
GS
3186of valid modes: C<< < >>, C<< > >>, C<<< >> >>>, C<< +< >>,
3187C<< +> >>, C<<< +>> >>>, C<-|>, C<|->.
6170680b 3188
f675dbe5
CB
3189=item Unknown process %x sent message to prime_env_iter: %s
3190
3191(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl was reading values for %ENV before
3192iterating over it, and someone else stuck a message in the stream of
3193data Perl expected. Someone's very confused, or perhaps trying to
3194subvert Perl's population of %ENV for nefarious purposes.
3195
a0d0e21e
LW
3196=item unmatched () in regexp
3197
3198(F) Unbackslashed parentheses must always be balanced in regular
3199expressions. If you're a vi user, the % key is valuable for finding
5f05dabc 3200the matching parenthesis. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3201
d98d5fff 3202=item Unmatched right %s bracket
a0d0e21e 3203
d98d5fff
GS
3204(F) The lexer counted more closing curly or square brackets than
3205opening ones, so you're probably missing a matching opening bracket.
3206As a general rule, you'll find the missing one (so to speak) near the
3207place you were last editing.
a0d0e21e
LW
3208
3209=item unmatched [] in regexp
3210
3211(F) The brackets around a character class must match. If you wish to
3212include a closing bracket in a character class, backslash it or put it first.
3213See L<perlre>.
3214
3215=item Unquoted string "%s" may clash with future reserved word
3216
e476b1b5 3217(W reserved) You used a bareword that might someday be claimed as a reserved word.
a0d0e21e
LW
3218It's best to put such a word in quotes, or capitalize it somehow, or insert
3219an underbar into it. You might also declare it as a subroutine.
3220
54310121 3221=item Unrecognized character %s
a0d0e21e 3222
54310121
PP
3223(F) The Perl parser has no idea what to do with the specified character
3224in your Perl script (or eval). Perhaps you tried to run a compressed
3225script, a binary program, or a directory as a Perl program.
a0d0e21e 3226
c9f97d15
IZ
3227=item Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through
3228
e476b1b5 3229(W misc) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
c9f97d15
IZ
3230by Perl.
3231
a0d0e21e
LW
3232=item Unrecognized signal name "%s"
3233
3234(F) You specified a signal name to the kill() function that was not recognized.
3235Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
3236
90248788 3237=item Unrecognized switch: -%s (-h will show valid options)
a0d0e21e
LW
3238
3239(F) You specified an illegal option to Perl. Don't do that.
3240(If you think you didn't do that, check the #! line to see if it's
3241supplying the bad switch on your behalf.)
3242
3243=item Unsuccessful %s on filename containing newline
3244
e476b1b5 3245(W newline) A file operation was attempted on a filename, and that operation
a0d0e21e 3246failed, PROBABLY because the filename contained a newline, PROBABLY
54310121 3247because you forgot to chop() or chomp() it off. See L<perlfunc/chomp>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3248
3249=item Unsupported directory function "%s" called
3250
3251(F) Your machine doesn't support opendir() and readdir().
3252
54310121
PP
3253=item Unsupported function fork
3254
3255(F) Your version of executable does not support forking.
3256
3257Note that under some systems, like OS/2, there may be different flavors of
3258Perl executables, some of which may support fork, some not. Try changing
3259the name you call Perl by to C<perl_>, C<perl__>, and so on.
3260
a0d0e21e
LW
3261=item Unsupported function %s
3262
7b8d334a 3263(F) This machine doesn't implement the indicated function, apparently.
a0d0e21e
LW
3264At least, Configure doesn't think so.
3265
3266=item Unsupported socket function "%s" called
3267
3268(F) Your machine doesn't support the Berkeley socket mechanism, or at
3269least that's what Configure thought.
3270
c47ff5f1 3271=item Unterminated <> operator
a0d0e21e
LW
3272
3273(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
3274a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
3275finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
3276the line, and you really meant a "less than".
3277
09bef843
SB
3278=item Unterminated attribute parameter in attribute list
3279
3280(F) The lexer saw an opening (left) parenthesis character while parsing an
3281attribute list, but the matching closing (right) parenthesis
3282character was not found. You may need to add (or remove) a backslash
3283character to get your parentheses to balance. See L<attributes>.
3284
3285=item Unterminated attribute list
3286
3287(F) The lexer found something other than a simple identifier at the start
3288of an attribute, and it wasn't a semicolon or the start of a
3289block. Perhaps you terminated the parameter list of the previous attribute
3290too soon. See L<attributes>.
3291
a0d0e21e
LW
3292=item Use of $# is deprecated
3293
e476b1b5 3294(D deprecated) This was an ill-advised attempt to emulate a poorly defined B<awk> feature.
a0d0e21e
LW
3295Use an explicit printf() or sprintf() instead.
3296
3297=item Use of $* is deprecated
3298
e476b1b5 3299(D deprecated) This variable magically turned on multi-line pattern matching, both for
a0d0e21e
LW
3300you and for any luckless subroutine that you happen to call. You should
3301use the new C<//m> and C<//s> modifiers now to do that without the dangerous
3302action-at-a-distance effects of C<$*>.
3303
748a9306
LW
3304=item Use of %s in printf format not supported
3305
5f05dabc
PP
3306(F) You attempted to use a feature of printf that is accessible from
3307only C. This usually means there's a better way to do it in Perl.
748a9306 3308
c47ff5f1 3309=item Use of bare << to mean <<"" is deprecated
4633a7c4 3310
e476b1b5 3311(D deprecated) You are now encouraged to use the explicitly quoted form if you
3fe9a6f1 3312wish to use an empty line as the terminator of the here-document.
4633a7c4 3313
a0d0e21e
LW
3314=item Use of implicit split to @_ is deprecated
3315
e476b1b5 3316(D deprecated) It makes a lot of work for the compiler when you clobber a
a0d0e21e
LW
3317subroutine's argument list, so it's better if you assign the results of
3318a split() explicitly to an array (or list).
3319
dc848c6f
PP
3320=item Use of inherited AUTOLOAD for non-method %s() is deprecated
3321
c47ff5f1
GS
3322(D deprecated) As an (ahem) accidental feature, C<AUTOLOAD> subroutines are
3323looked up as methods (using the C<@ISA> hierarchy) even when the subroutines
3324to be autoloaded were called as plain functions (e.g. C<Foo::bar()>),
3325not as methods (e.g. C<< Foo->bar() >> or C<< $obj->bar() >>).
dc848c6f
PP
3326
3327This bug will be rectified in Perl 5.005, which will use method lookup
3328only for methods' C<AUTOLOAD>s. However, there is a significant base
3329of existing code that may be using the old behavior. So, as an
3330interim step, Perl 5.004 issues an optional warning when non-methods
3331use inherited C<AUTOLOAD>s.
3332
3333The simple rule is: Inheritance will not work when autoloading
3334non-methods. The simple fix for old code is: In any module that used to
3335depend on inheriting C<AUTOLOAD> for non-methods from a base class named
3336C<BaseClass>, execute C<*AUTOLOAD = \&BaseClass::AUTOLOAD> during startup.
3337
fb73857a
PP
3338In code that currently says C<use AutoLoader; @ISA = qw(AutoLoader);> you
3339should remove AutoLoader from @ISA and change C<use AutoLoader;> to
7b8d334a 3340C<use AutoLoader 'AUTOLOAD';>.
fb73857a 3341
85b81015
LW
3342=item Use of reserved word "%s" is deprecated
3343
e476b1b5 3344(D deprecated) The indicated bareword is a reserved word. Future versions of perl
85b81015
LW
3345may use it as a keyword, so you're better off either explicitly quoting
3346the word in a manner appropriate for its context of use, or using a
3347different name altogether. The warning can be suppressed for subroutine
3348names by either adding a C<&> prefix, or using a package qualifier,
3349e.g. C<&our()>, or C<Foo::our()>.
3350
dc848c6f
PP
3351=item Use of %s is deprecated
3352
e476b1b5 3353(D deprecated) The construct indicated is no longer recommended for use, generally
dc848c6f
PP
3354because there's a better way to do it, and also because the old way has
3355bad side effects.
3356
cc95b072 3357=item Use of uninitialized value%s
a0d0e21e 3358
e476b1b5 3359(W uninitialized) An undefined value was used as if it were already defined. It was
a0d0e21e 3360interpreted as a "" or a 0, but maybe it was a mistake. To suppress this
5311ebfa 3361warning assign a defined value to your variables.
a0d0e21e 3362
8202fd39
G
3363=item Useless use of "re" pragma
3364
3365(W) You did C<use re;> without any arguments. That isn't very useful.
3366
a0d0e21e
LW
3367=item Useless use of %s in void context
3368
e476b1b5 3369(W void) You did something without a side effect in a context that does nothing
a0d0e21e
LW
3370with the return value, such as a statement that doesn't return a value
3371from a block, or the left side of a scalar comma operator. Very often
3372this points not to stupidity on your part, but a failure of Perl to parse
3373your program the way you thought it would. For example, you'd get this
3374if you mixed up your C precedence with Python precedence and said
3375
3376 $one, $two = 1, 2;
3377
3378when you meant to say
3379
3380 ($one, $two) = (1, 2);
3381
748a9306
LW
3382Another common error is to use ordinary parentheses to construct a list
3383reference when you should be using square or curly brackets, for
3384example, if you say
3385
3386 $array = (1,2);
3387
3388when you should have said
3389
3390 $array = [1,2];
3391
3392The square brackets explicitly turn a list value into a scalar value,
3393while parentheses do not. So when a parenthesized list is evaluated in
3394a scalar context, the comma is treated like C's comma operator, which
3395throws away the left argument, which is not what you want. See
3396L<perlref> for more on this.
3397
55497cff
PP
3398=item untie attempted while %d inner references still exist
3399
e476b1b5 3400(W untie) A copy of the object returned from C<tie> (or C<tied>) was still
55497cff
PP
3401valid when C<untie> was called.
3402
68dc0745 3403=item Value of %s can be "0"; test with defined()
a6006777 3404
e476b1b5 3405(W misc) In a conditional expression, you used <HANDLE>, <*> (glob), C<each()>,
68dc0745
PP
3406or C<readdir()> as a boolean value. Each of these constructs can return a
3407value of "0"; that would make the conditional expression false, which is
3408probably not what you intended. When using these constructs in conditional
3409expressions, test their values with the C<defined> operator.
a6006777 3410
f675dbe5
CB
3411=item Value of CLI symbol "%s" too long
3412
e476b1b5 3413(W misc) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the value of an %ENV
f675dbe5
CB
3414element from a CLI symbol table, and found a resultant string longer
3415than 1024 characters. The return value has been truncated to 1024
3416characters.
3417
9607fc9c 3418=item Variable "%s" is not imported%s
4633a7c4
LW
3419
3420(F) While "use strict" in effect, you referred to a global variable
3421that you apparently thought was imported from another module, because
3422something else of the same name (usually a subroutine) is exported
3423by that module. It usually means you put the wrong funny character
3424on the front of your variable.
3425
44a8e56a
PP
3426=item Variable "%s" may be unavailable
3427
e476b1b5 3428(W closure) An inner (nested) I<anonymous> subroutine is inside a I<named>
44a8e56a
PP
3429subroutine, and outside that is another subroutine; and the anonymous
3430(innermost) subroutine is referencing a lexical variable defined in
3431the outermost subroutine. For example:
3432
3433 sub outermost { my $a; sub middle { sub { $a } } }
3434
3435If the anonymous subroutine is called or referenced (directly or
3436indirectly) from the outermost subroutine, it will share the variable
3437as you would expect. But if the anonymous subroutine is called or
3438referenced when the outermost subroutine is not active, it will see
3439the value of the shared variable as it was before and during the
3440*first* call to the outermost subroutine, which is probably not what
3441you want.
3442
3443In these circumstances, it is usually best to make the middle
3444subroutine anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. Perl has specific
3445support for shared variables in nested anonymous subroutines; a named
3446subroutine in between interferes with this feature.
3447
3448=item Variable "%s" will not stay shared
3449
e476b1b5 3450(W closure) An inner (nested) I<named> subroutine is referencing a lexical
44a8e56a
PP
3451variable defined in an outer subroutine.
3452
3453When the inner subroutine is called, it will probably see the value of
3454the outer subroutine's variable as it was before and during the
3455*first* call to the outer subroutine; in this case, after the first
3456call to the outer subroutine is complete, the inner and outer
3457subroutines will no longer share a common value for the variable. In
3458other words, the variable will no longer be shared.
3459
3460Furthermore, if the outer subroutine is anonymous and references a
3461lexical variable outside itself, then the outer and inner subroutines
3462will I<never> share the given variable.
3463
3464This problem can usually be solved by making the inner subroutine
3465anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. When inner anonymous subs that
3466reference variables in outer subroutines are called or referenced,
54310121 3467they are automatically rebound to the current values of such
44a8e56a
PP
3468variables.
3469
f86702cc 3470=item Variable syntax
cb1a09d0
AD
3471
3472(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
3473of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
3474Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 3475
084610c0
GS
3476=item Version number must be a constant number
3477
3478(P) The attempt to translate a C<use Module n.n LIST> statement into
3479its equivalent C<BEGIN> block found an internal inconsistency with
3480the version number.
3481
3e6e419a
JH
3482=item perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3483
3484(S) The whole warning message will look something like:
3485
3486 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3487 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
3488 LC_ALL = "En_US",
3489 LANG = (unset)
3490 are supported and installed on your system.
3491 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
3492
3493Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies. In the above the
3494settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.
3495This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your system
3496administrator have set up the so-called variable system but Perl could
3497not use those settings. This was not dead serious, fortunately: there
3498is a "default locale" called "C" that Perl can and will use, the
3499script will be run. Before you really fix the problem, however, you
3500will get the same error message each time you run Perl. How to really
3501fix the problem can be found in L<perllocale> section B<LOCALE PROBLEMS>.
3502
7e1af8bc 3503=item Warning: something's wrong