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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
fa816bf3 26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
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27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
de42a5a9 53=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
1109a392
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59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
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88(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
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92=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
93
94(W ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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95bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
96(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
97like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
98assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
99clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
100really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 101
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102=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
103
104(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
105asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
106named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
1cecf2c0 107the variable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
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108function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
109and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
110
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111=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s[...]} resolved to %c%s[...]
112
113=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s{...}} resolved to %c%s{...}
4da60377 114
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115(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo represents
116the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for element number
1172 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write C<$foo[2]>, or you
118might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to the function named
119foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it returns. If you meant
120that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
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121
122In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
123to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
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124C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length> followed
125by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what you
126want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/> to the
127unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to something
128that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by simply turning
129off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 130
bdac9d71 131=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
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132
133(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
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134string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
135the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
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136write C<-foo()>.
137
6df41af2 138=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 139
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140(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
141redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
142redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 143
6df41af2 144=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 145
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146(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
147redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
148into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
149though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
150which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 151
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152 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
153 while (<STDIN>) {
154 print;
155 print OUT;
156 }
157 close OUT;
c9f97d15 158
6df41af2 159=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 160
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161(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
162transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 163one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 164a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
165hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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166you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
167alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 168
6df41af2 169=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 170
6df41af2 171(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 172
b0fdf69e 173=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 174
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175(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
176subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
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177
178 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 179 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 180 &do_something
a0d0e21e 181
8ea97a1e 182=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 183
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184(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
185such as:
5f05dabc 186
187 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 188 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 189
8ea97a1e 190or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 191
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192 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
193 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 194
6df41af2 195=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 196
6df41af2 197(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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198name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
199error.
a0d0e21e 200
f86702cc 201=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 202
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203(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
204that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
205will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 206
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207=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
208
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209(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O
210system you forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers
211take care of transforming data between external and internal
212representations.) Perl stopped parsing the layer list at this
213point and did not attempt to push this layer. If your program
214didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be the
215result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
b4581f09 216
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217=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
218
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219(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
220spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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221
222=item assertion botched: %s
223
21b5e840 224(X) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
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225
226=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
227
21b5e840 228(X) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
a0d0e21e 229
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230=item Assigning non-zero to $[ is no longer possible
231
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232(F) When the "array_base" feature is disabled (e.g., under C<use v5.16;>)
233the special variable C<$[>, which is deprecated, is now a fixed zero value.
82122228 234
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235=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
236
237(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
238must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
239know which context to supply to the right side.
240
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241=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
242
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243(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily
244the main thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
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245Usually it's a good idea first to collect the return values of the
246created threads by joining them, and only then to exit from the main
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247thread. See L<threads>.
248
2393f1b9 249=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 250
49293501 251(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 252the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 253
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254=item Attempt to bless into a reference
255
256(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
57dedab9 257the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
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258supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
259
260 bless $self, $proto;
261
262when you intended
263
264 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
265
266If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
267of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
268example by:
269
270 bless $self, "$proto";
271
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272=item Attempt to clear deleted array
273
274(S debugging) An array was assigned to when it was being freed.
275Freed values are not supposed to be visible to Perl code. This
276can also happen if XS code calls C<av_clear> from a custom magic
277callback on the array.
278
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279=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
280
281(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
282which is not in its key set.
283
284=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
285
286(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
287declared readonly from a restricted hash.
288
de42a5a9 289=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 290
f84fe999 291(S internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
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292that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
293outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 294
12578ffb 295=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string '%s'%s
bbce6d69 296
f84fe999 297(S internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
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298strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
299strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
300of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 301
7d5b40b4 302=item Attempt to free temp prematurely: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 303
f84fe999 304(S debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
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305free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
306SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
307free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
308try to free it.
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309
310=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
311
f84fe999 312(S internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
a0d0e21e 313
7d5b40b4 314=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 315
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316(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
317see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
318earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
319This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
320that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
321mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
322corrupted.
a0d0e21e 323
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324=item Attempt to join self
325
326(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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327impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
328to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 329
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330=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
331
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332(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
333function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
334means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
335invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
336literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
337avoid this warning.
84902520 338
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339=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
340
341(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
342compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
343unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
344L<perlvar/%INC>.
345
1b20cd17
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346=item Attempt to set length of freed array
347
348(W) You tried to set the length of an array which has been freed. You
349can do this by storing a reference to the scalar representing the last index
fa816bf3 350of an array and later assigning through that reference. For example
1b20cd17
NC
351
352 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
353 $$r = 503
354
b7a902f4 355=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
356
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357(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
358used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
359dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 360
c32124fe
NC
361=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
362
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363(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the
364"locked" attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is
365obsolete, has had no effect since 5005 threads were removed, and
366will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
c32124fe 367
f1a3ce43
NC
368=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
369
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370(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify
371the "unique" attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference.
372The :unique attribute has had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and
373will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
f1a3ce43 374
ccce04a4
FC
375=item av_reify called on tied array
376
377(S debugging) This indicates that something went wrong and Perl got I<very>
378confused about C<@_> or C<@DB::args> being tied.
379
de42a5a9 380=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 381
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382(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
383or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 384S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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385S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
386
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387=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
388
496a33f5 389(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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390substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
391most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
392
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393=item Bad filehandle: %s
394
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395(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
396symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
397open(), or did it in another package.
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398
399=item Bad free() ignored
400
be771a83 401(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
fa816bf3 402been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 403setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 404
9ea8bc6d 405This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
6903afa2 406dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
be771a83 407which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 408
aa689395 409=item Bad hash
410
411(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
412
6df41af2
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413=item Badly placed ()'s
414
415(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
416of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
417Perl yourself.
418
a7cb8dae 419=item Bad name after %s
a0d0e21e 420
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421(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
422didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
423of quotes, so
a0d0e21e
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424
425 $var = 'myvar';
426 $sym = mypack::$var;
427
428is not the same as
429
430 $var = 'myvar';
431 $sym = "mypack::$var";
432
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433=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
434
435(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
436plugin API.
437
4ad56ec9
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438=item Bad realloc() ignored
439
6903afa2
FC
440(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that
441had never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can
442be disabled by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 443
a0d0e21e
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444=item Bad symbol for array
445
446(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
447wasn't a symbol table entry.
448
4df3f177
SP
449=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
450
451(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
452that wasn't a symbol table entry.
453
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454=item Bad symbol for filehandle
455
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456(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
457that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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458
459=item Bad symbol for hash
460
461(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
462wasn't a symbol table entry.
463
34d09196
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464=item Bareword found in conditional
465
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466(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
467conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
468of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
GS
469
470 open FOO || die;
471
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472It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
473a bareword:
34d09196
GS
474
475 use constant TYPO => 1;
476 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
477
478The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
479
6df41af2
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480=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
481
482(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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483subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
484symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
GS
485
486=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
487
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488(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
489compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
490you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 491
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492=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
493
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494(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
495subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
496exited.
a0d0e21e 497
68dc0745 498=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
499
500(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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501implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
502occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
503be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
504depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 505
6df41af2
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506=item \1 better written as $1
507
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508(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
509The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
510substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
511because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
512there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 513
252aa082
JH
514=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
515
e476b1b5 516(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
517(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
518L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 519
69282e91 520=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 521
be771a83
GS
522(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
523check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 524
c289d2f7
JH
525=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
526
527(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 528Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 529
f866a7cd
FC
530=item "\b{" is deprecated; use "\b\{" instead
531
532=item "\B{" is deprecated; use "\B\{" instead
533
534(W deprecated, regexp) Use of an unescaped "{" immediately following a
535C<\b> or C<\B> is now deprecated so as to reserve its use for Perl
536itself in a future release.
537
c5a0f51a
JH
538=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
539
e476b1b5 540(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 541
043c750c 542=item Bizarre copy of %s
4633a7c4 543
be771a83 544(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
4dcecea4 545copiable.
4633a7c4 546
f675dbe5
CB
547=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
548
be771a83
GS
549(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
550iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
551which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 552
7fcfef4d
FC
553=item Bizarre SvTYPE [%d]
554
555(P) When starting a new thread or return values from a thread, Perl
556encountered an invalid data type.
557
a0d0e21e
LW
558=item Callback called exit
559
4929bf7b 560(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
561exited by calling exit.
562
6df41af2 563=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 564
be771a83
GS
565(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
566parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
567that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
568early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
569subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
570checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
571function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
572the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 573
49704364 574=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
575
576(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
577compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
578attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
579See L<perlfunc/pack>.
580
49704364 581=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
582
583(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
584format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
585
5c1f4d79
NC
586=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
587
6903afa2
FC
588(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference
589in it, then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax.
590The access triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is
591no legal conversion from that type of reference to a typeglob.
5c1f4d79 592
4040665a 593=item Cannot copy to %s
ba2fdce6
NC
594
595(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 596be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 597
b5d97229
RGS
598=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
599
600(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
601either with open() or binmode().
602
7355df7e
FC
603=item Cannot set tied @DB::args
604
605(F) C<caller> tried to set C<@DB::args>, but found it tied. Tying C<@DB::args>
606is not supported. (Before this error was added, it used to crash.)
607
ce65bc73
FC
608=item Cannot tie unreifiable array
609
610(P) You somehow managed to call C<tie> on an array that does not
611keep a reference count on its arguments and cannot be made to
612do so. Such arrays are not even supposed to be accessible to
613Perl code, but are only used internally.
614
96ebfdd7
RK
615=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
616
617(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
618integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
619to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
620
a0d0e21e
LW
621=item Can't bless non-reference value
622
623(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
624encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
625
dc57907a
RGS
626=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
627
0d863452 628(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
6903afa2 629a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
0d863452
RH
630
631=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 632
0d863452
RH
633(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
634
6df41af2
GS
635=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
636
637(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
638object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
639like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
640
641 $BADREF = undef;
642 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
643 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
644
a0d0e21e
LW
645=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
646
54310121 647(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
648ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
649didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
650object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
651
652=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
653
654(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
655object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
656defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
657Something like this will reproduce the error:
658
659 $BADREF = 42;
660 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
661 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
662
a0d0e21e
LW
663=item Can't chdir to %s
664
665(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
666that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
667
0545a864 668=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 669
be771a83
GS
670(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
671nosuid.
104d25b7 672
22e74366 673=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
674
675(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 676(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
677say things like:
678
679 *foo += 1;
680
681You CAN say
682
683 $foo = *foo;
684 $foo += 1;
685
686but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
687
0d863452 688=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 689
0d863452
RH
690(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
691or C<default> block.
692
a0d0e21e
LW
693=item Can't create pipe mailbox
694
be771a83
GS
695(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
696quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 697
eb64745e
GS
698=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
699
30c282f6
NC
700(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
701"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 702
fc7debfb
FC
703=item Can't "default" outside a topicalizer
704
705(F) You have used a C<default> block that is neither inside a
706C<foreach> loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is
707issued on exit from the C<default> block, so you won't get the
708error if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
709
6df41af2
GS
710=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
711
be771a83
GS
712(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
713a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 714
a0d0e21e
LW
715=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
716
be771a83
GS
717(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
718reason.
a0d0e21e 719
54310121 720=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 721
be771a83
GS
722(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
723reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
724C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 725
10f9c03d 726=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 727
e476b1b5 728(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
729characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
730inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 731
7253e4e3 732=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 733
6903afa2
FC
734(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really
735want your regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The
736<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem
737was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 738
a0d0e21e
LW
739=item Can't do waitpid with flags
740
be771a83
GS
741(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
742waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 743
a0d0e21e
LW
744=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
745
be771a83
GS
746(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
747point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
748line.
a0d0e21e 749
1109a392
MHM
750=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
751
752(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
753or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
754little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
755See L<perlfunc/pack>.
756
a0d0e21e
LW
757=item Can't exec "%s": %s
758
d1be9408 759(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
760named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
761permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
762C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
763architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
764can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
765#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
766
767=item Can't exec %s
768
be771a83
GS
769(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
770that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
771need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
772
773=item Can't execute %s
774
be771a83
GS
775(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
776found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 777
6df41af2 778=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 779
be771a83
GS
780(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
781is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 782
56ca2fc0
JH
783=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
784
785(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
6903afa2 786could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
e1b711da
KW
787See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
788for a complete list of available properties.
56ca2fc0 789
6df41af2
GS
790=item Can't find label %s
791
be771a83
GS
792(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
793possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
794
795=item Can't find %s on PATH
796
be771a83
GS
797(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
798found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 799
6df41af2 800=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 801
be771a83
GS
802(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
803found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
804script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
805
806=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
807
be771a83
GS
808(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
809that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
810nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 811
fb73857a 812 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
813
97b3d10f 814If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
b6b8cb97
FC
815included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag or there
816may not be a linebreak after it. A good programmer's editor will have
817a way to help you find these characters (or lack of characters). See
818L<perlop> for the full details on here-documents.
a0d0e21e 819
660a4616
TS
820=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
821
5f8ad6b6
FC
822(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode
823property (for example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase
fa816bf3 824letters). If you did mean to use a Unicode property, see
e1b711da 825L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
6903afa2 826for a complete list of available properties. If you didn't
fa816bf3
FC
827mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either by
828C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, or
5f8ad6b6 829until C<\E>).
660a4616 830
b3647a36 831=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 832
be771a83
GS
833(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
834pipeline.
a0d0e21e 835
b3647a36
SR
836=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
837
c973c02e 838(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
839after five seconds.
840
748a9306
LW
841=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
842
be771a83
GS
843(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
844between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
845Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
846the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
847account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
848the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
2fe2bdfd 849the access-checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
be771a83
GS
850the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
851if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
852because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
2fe2bdfd
FC
853appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-checking routine gave up
854and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access-checking
be771a83
GS
855routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
856shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
857only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 858
a0d0e21e
LW
859=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
860
be771a83
GS
861(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
862pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
863
864=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
865
748a9306
LW
866(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
867mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 868
6df41af2 869=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 870
be771a83
GS
871(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
872loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
873
874=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
875
be771a83
GS
876(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
877a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
878you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
879See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 880
9850bf21 881=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 882
9850bf21
RH
883(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
884comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
885as the reduce() function in List::Util).
886
c74ace89 887=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 888
be771a83 889(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 890"string" or block.
b150fb22 891
6df41af2
GS
892=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
893
be771a83
GS
894(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
895subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
896cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
897routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 898
0b5b802d
GS
899=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
900
be771a83
GS
901(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
902signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
903signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
904processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
905situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
906may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 907
e2c0f81f
DG
908=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
909
910(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
911attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
912process identifier.
913
6df41af2 914=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 915
6df41af2 916(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
917except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
918block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
919block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
920usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
921inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
922L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 923
2c7d6b9c
RGS
924=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
925
926(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
927package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
928
b8170e59
JB
929=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
930
6903afa2
FC
931(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension.
932This may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one
933that is incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known
934to happen between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your
935dynamic extension was built against an older version of the library
936that is installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old
937dynamic extensions.
b8170e59 938
748a9306
LW
939=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
940
2ba9eb46 941(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
b7e4ecc1
FC
942lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you
943want to localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with
944the package name.
748a9306 945
6df41af2 946=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 947
6df41af2
GS
948(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
949handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 950pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 951that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 952
ea071790 953=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a 954
fa816bf3
FC
955(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be found.
956Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC, unless
957the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
958to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the
959extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
be771a83
GS
960to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
961L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 962
6df41af2
GS
963=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
964
be771a83
GS
965(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
966autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
967are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
968the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 969
b8170e59
JB
970=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
971
972(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
d70d8e57 973for example, F<foo.so> or F<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
b8170e59
JB
974unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
975
a0d0e21e
LW
976=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
977
978(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
979functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 980method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
981
982=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
983
be771a83
GS
984(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
985doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 986
2f7da168
RK
987=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
988
989(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
990e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
991
f4ad53f4 992=item Can't make list assignment to %ENV on this system
3e3baf6d 993
be771a83
GS
994(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
995VMS.
3e3baf6d 996
a0d0e21e
LW
997=item Can't modify %s in %s
998
be771a83
GS
999(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
1000to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 1001
54310121 1002=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
1003
1004(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
1005a NULL.
1006
6df41af2
GS
1007=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
1008
1009(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
2fe2bdfd 1010such. See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
6df41af2 1011
5f05dabc 1012=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 1013
5f05dabc 1014(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
1015buffer.
1016
6df41af2
GS
1017=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
1018
1019(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
1020there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
1021count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
1022grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1023though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
1024once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 1025
46fa9b26
FC
1026=item Can't open %s
1027
1028(F) You tried to run a perl built with MAD support with
1029the PERL_XMLDUMP environment variable set, but the file
1030named by that variable could not be opened.
1031
a0d0e21e
LW
1032=item Can't open %s: %s
1033
c47ff5f1 1034(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e 1035filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
46fa9b26
FC
1036switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually
1037this is because you don't have read permission for a file which
1038you named on the command line.
1039
1040(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-e> switch, but F</dev/null> (or
1041your operating system's equivalent) could not be opened.
a0d0e21e 1042
9a869a14
RGS
1043=item Can't open a reference
1044
1045(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
2fe2bdfd 1046using the 3-arg open() syntax:
9a869a14
RGS
1047
1048 open FH, '>', $ref;
1049
1050but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1051open is not supported.
1052
a0d0e21e
LW
1053=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1054
be771a83
GS
1055(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1056You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1057as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1058">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1059
748a9306
LW
1060=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1061
be771a83
GS
1062(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1063redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1064the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1065
1066=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1067
be771a83
GS
1068(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1069redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1070command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1071
1072=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1073
be771a83
GS
1074(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1075redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1076the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1077
1078=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1079
be771a83
GS
1080(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1081redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1082for stdout.
748a9306 1083
3b1cf97d 1084=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1085
1086(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1087
fa3aa65a
JC
1088If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1089shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1090you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1091
6df41af2
GS
1092=item Can't read CRTL environ
1093
1094(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1095from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1096missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1097or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1098searched.
6df41af2 1099
6df41af2
GS
1100=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1101
1102(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1103there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1104count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1105or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1106though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1107loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1108
64977eb6 1109=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1110
be771a83
GS
1111(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1112file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1113the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1114
a0d0e21e
LW
1115=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1116
e476b1b5 1117(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1118probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1119
748a9306
LW
1120=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1121
be771a83
GS
1122(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1123to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1124
4f12ec0e
FC
1125=item Can't reset %ENV on this system
1126
1127(F) You called C<reset('E')> or similar, which tried to reset
1128all variables in the current package beginning with "E". In
1129the main package, that includes %ENV. Resetting %ENV is not
1130supported on some systems, notably VMS.
1131
fe13d51d 1132=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1133
1fa582fa
FC
1134(F)(P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1135opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1136package. If the method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1137
cd06dffe
GS
1138=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1139
be771a83
GS
1140(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1141temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1142is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1143
96ebfdd7
RK
1144=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1145
1146(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1147there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1148
78f9721b
SM
1149=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1150
6903afa2
FC
1151(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue
1152subroutine, but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl
1153think you meant to return only one value. You probably meant to
1154write parentheses around the call to the subroutine, which tell
1155Perl that the call should be in list context.
78f9721b 1156
a0d0e21e
LW
1157=item Can't stat script "%s"
1158
be771a83
GS
1159(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1160open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1161
a0d0e21e
LW
1162=item Can't take log of %g
1163
fb73857a 1164(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
6903afa2 1165negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1166standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1167negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1168
1169=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1170
1171(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a 1172negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1173with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1174
1175=item Can't undef active subroutine
1176
1177(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1178however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1179redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1180
c81225bc 1181=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1182
be771a83
GS
1183(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1184into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1185specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1186indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1187
6651ba0b
FC
1188=item Can't use '%c' after -mname
1189
1190(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-m> switch, but you put something
1191other than "=" after the module name.
1192
1db89ea5
BS
1193=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1194
e27ad1f2 1195(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1196table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1197for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1198
96ebfdd7
RK
1199=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1200
1201(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1202be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1203
6df41af2
GS
1204=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1205
be771a83
GS
1206(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1207references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1208
90b75b61 1209=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63 1210
20561843 1211(F) The first time the C<%!> hash is used, perl automatically loads the
6903afa2 1212Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1d2dff63
GS
1213provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1214
1109a392
MHM
1215=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1216
1217(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1218byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1219allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1220
6df41af2
GS
1221=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1222
be771a83
GS
1223(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1224foreach.
6df41af2 1225
aab6a793 1226=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1227
be771a83
GS
1228(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1229is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1230(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1231have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1232weren't.
1233
6d3b25aa
RGS
1234=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1235
1236(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1237that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1238For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1239is inside a big-endian group.
1240
c07a80fd 1241=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1242
1243(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1244You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd 1245and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1246Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1247lexical variable.
1248
a0d0e21e
LW
1249=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1250
1251(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1252reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1253test the type of the reference, if need be.
1254
748a9306 1255=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1256
b41bf23f
FC
1257(F) You've told Perl to dereference a string, something which
1258C<use strict> blocks to prevent it happening accidentally. See
1259L<perlref/"Symbolic references">. This can be triggered by an C<@> or C<$>
1260in a double-quoted string immediately before interpolating a variable,
1261for example in C<"user @$twitter_id">, which says to treat the contents
1262of C<$twitter_id> as an array reference; use a C<\> to have a literal C<@>
1263symbol followed by the contents of C<$twitter_id>: C<"user \@$twitter_id">.
a0d0e21e 1264
748a9306
LW
1265=item Can't use subscript on %s
1266
1267(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1268subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1269didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1270
6df41af2
GS
1271=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1272
75b44862
GS
1273(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1274creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1275backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1276expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1277value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1278instead.
6df41af2 1279
810b8aa5
GS
1280=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1281
1282(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1283references can be weakened.
1284
fc7debfb
FC
1285=item Can't "when" outside a topicalizer
1286
1287(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1288loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1289from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1290or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1291
5f05dabc 1292=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1293
be771a83
GS
1294(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1295with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1296Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1297
4a68bf9d 1298=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529 1299
1fa582fa 1300(F)(W deprecated, syntax) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
79ef86ee 1301It is planned to make this fatal in all instances in Perl 5.18. In the
17a3df4c
KW
1302cases where it isn't fatal, the character this evaluates to is
1303derived by exclusive or'ing the code point of this character with 0x40.
1304
1305Note that non-alphabetic ASCII characters are discouraged here as well.
f9d13529 1306
f337b084 1307=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1308
1309(W pack) You said
1310
1311 pack("C", $x)
1312
1313where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1314only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1315and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1316
1317 pack("C", $x & 255)
1318
1319If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1320instead.
1321
f337b084
TH
1322=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1323
1324(W pack) You said
1325
1326 pack("U0W", $x)
1327
6903afa2
FC
1328where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode
1329expects all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved
1330as if you meant:
f337b084
TH
1331
1332 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1333
1334=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1335
1336(W pack) You said
1337
1338 pack("c", $x)
1339
1340where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1341is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1342and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1343
1344 pack("c", $x & 255);
1345
1346If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1347instead.
1348
f337b084
TH
1349=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1350
1351(W unpack) You tried something like
1352
1353 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1354
1a147d38 1355where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
6903afa2
FC
1356below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the
1357value modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
f337b084
TH
1358
1359 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1360
1361=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1362
1363(W pack) You tried something like
1364
1365 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1366
1a147d38 1367where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1368value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1369uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1370
1371 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1372
1373=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1374
1375(W unpack) You tried something like
1376
1377 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1378
1a147d38 1379where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1380value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1381uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1382
1383 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1384
f866a7cd
FC
1385=item "\c{" is deprecated and is more clearly written as ";"
1386
1387(D deprecated, syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way
1388to specify non-printable characters. You used it with a "{" which
1389evaluates to ";", which is printable. It is planned to remove the
79ef86ee 1390ability to specify a semi-colon this way in Perl 5.18. Just use a
f866a7cd
FC
1391semi-colon or a backslash-semi-colon without the "\c".
1392
1393=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
1394
1395(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
1396non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1397written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
1398characters.
1399
6651ba0b
FC
1400=item Cloning substitution context is unimplemented
1401
1402(F) Creating a new thread inside the C<s///> operator is not supported.
1403
96ebfdd7
RK
1404=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1405
1406(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1407
abc7ecad
SP
1408=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1409
1410(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1411a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1412
541ed3a9
FC
1413=item Closure prototype called
1414
1415(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1416handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1417This subroutine cannot be called.
1418
49704364
WL
1419=item Code missing after '/'
1420
6903afa2
FC
1421(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be
1422another template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 1423
0876b9a0
KW
1424=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1425
c634fdd3 1426=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, all \p{} matches fail; all \P{} matches succeed
9ae3ac1a 1427
1b64326b
FC
1428(W utf8, non_unicode) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum
1429of U+10FFFF.
1430
1431Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code points, up
1432to the limit of what is storable in an unsigned integer on your system,
1433but these may not be accepted by other languages/systems. At one time,
1434it was legal in some standards to have code points up to 0x7FFF_FFFF,
1435but not higher. Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require larger than a
143632 bit word.
0876b9a0 1437
9ae3ac1a
KW
1438None of the Unicode or Perl-defined properties will match a non-Unicode
1439code point. For example,
1440
1441 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\p{Any}/
1442
1443will not match, because the code point is not in Unicode. But
1444
1445 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\P{Any}/
1446
1447will match.
1448
94b42e47
KW
1449This may be counterintuitive at times, as both these fail:
1450
1451 chr(0x110000) =~ \p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True} # Fails.
1452 chr(0x110000) =~ \p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False} # Also fails!
1453
1454and both these succeed:
1455
1456 chr(0x110000) =~ \P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True} # Succeeds.
1457 chr(0x110000) =~ \P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False} # Also succeeds!
1458
6df41af2
GS
1459=item %s: Command not found
1460
a892b81a
FC
1461(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> or another shell
1462shell instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
1463into Perl yourself. The #! line at the top of your file could look like
8f721816
MM
1464
1465 #!/usr/bin/perl -w
6df41af2 1466
7a2e2cd6 1467=item Compilation failed in require
1468
1469(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1470Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1471encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1472
c3464db5
DD
1473=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1474
be771a83
GS
1475(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1476situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1477to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1478arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1479recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1480under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1481in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1482that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1483on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1484
38875929
DM
1485=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1486
6903afa2
FC
1487(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to
1488call cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked.
1489The cond_broadcast() function is used to wake up another thread
1490that is waiting in a cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't
1491sent before the other thread has a chance to enter the wait, it
1492is usual for the signaling thread first to wait for a lock on
1493variable. This lock attempt will only succeed after the other
1494thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the lock.
38875929 1495
38875929
DM
1496=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1497
6903afa2
FC
1498(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to
1499call cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The
1500cond_signal() function is used to wake up another thread that
1501is waiting in a cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't
1502sent before the other thread has a chance to enter the wait, it
1503is usual for the signaling thread first to wait for a lock on
1504variable. This lock attempt will only succeed after the other
1505thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the lock.
38875929 1506
69282e91 1507=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1508
be771a83
GS
1509(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1510to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1511L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1512
41ab332f 1513=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1514
be771a83
GS
1515(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1516an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1517specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
fbb93542 1518corresponding L<overload> pragma?.
6df41af2 1519
fc8cd66c
YO
1520=item Constant(%s)%s: %s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1521
1a147d38 1522(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to find
fbb93542 1523the character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape.
fc8cd66c 1524
779c5bc9
GS
1525=item Constant is not %s reference
1526
1527(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83 1528is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
6903afa2 1529The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
be771a83 1530usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1531See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1532
4cee8e80
CS
1533=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1534
aeb94125
FC
1535(W redefine)(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously
1536been eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions">
1537for commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1538
9607fc9c 1539=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1540
be771a83
GS
1541(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1542for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1543workarounds.
9607fc9c 1544
e7ea3e70
IZ
1545=item Copy method did not return a reference
1546
6903afa2 1547(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1548L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1549
4aaa4757
FC
1550=item &CORE::%s cannot be called directly
1551
1552(F) You tried to call a subroutine in the C<CORE::> namespace
8d605c0d 1553with C<&foo> syntax or through a reference. Some subroutines
4aaa4757
FC
1554in this package cannot yet be called that way, but must be
1555called as barewords. Something like this will work:
1556
1557 BEGIN { *shove = \&CORE::push; }
1558 shove @array, 1,2,3; # pushes on to @array
1559
6798c92b
GS
1560=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1561
1562(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1563
a0d0e21e
LW
1564=item corrupted regexp pointers
1565
1566(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1567expression compiler gave it.
1568
1569=item corrupted regexp program
1570
be771a83
GS
1571(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1572valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1573
de42a5a9 1574=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1575
1576(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1577
49704364
WL
1578=item Count after length/code in unpack
1579
1580(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1581you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1582L<perlfunc/pack>.
1583
6651ba0b
FC
1584=item Deep recursion on anonymous subroutine
1585
a0d0e21e
LW
1586=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1587
be771a83
GS
1588(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1589100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1590infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1591which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1592
aad1d01f
NC
1593This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1594setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1595
f10b0346 1596=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1597
be771a83
GS
1598(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1599checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1600array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1601
f10b0346 1602=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1603
f0ec9725
KR
1604(D deprecated) C<defined()> is not usually right on hashes and has been
1605discouraged since 5.004.
1606
1607Although C<defined %hash> is false on a plain not-yet-used hash, it
1608becomes true in several non-obvious circumstances, including iterators,
1609weak references, stash names, even remaining true after C<undef %hash>.
1610These things make C<defined %hash> fairly useless in practice.
1611
1612If a check for non-empty is what you wanted then just put it in boolean
1613context (see L<perldata/Scalar values>):
16546e45
KR
1614
1615 if (%hash) {
1616 # not empty
1617 }
1618
f0ec9725
KR
1619If you had C<defined %Foo::Bar::QUUX> to check whether such a package
1620variable exists then that's never really been reliable, and isn't
1621a good way to enquire about the features of a package, or whether
1622it's loaded, etc.
1623
69794302 1624
bcb95744
FC
1625=item (?(DEFINE)....) does not allow branches in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1626
6903afa2 1627(F) You used something like C<(?(DEFINE)...|..)> which is illegal. The
bcb95744
FC
1628most likely cause of this error is that you left out a parenthesis inside
1629of the C<....> part.
1630
1631The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1632discovered.
1633
62658f4d
PM
1634=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1635
1636(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1637there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1638
fc36a67e 1639=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1640
be771a83
GS
1641(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1642long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1643that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1644
4a68bf9d 1645=item Deprecated character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s<-- HERE %s
cb233ae3
KW
1646
1647(D deprecated) Just about anything is legal for the C<...> in C<\N{...}>.
5fca8acb
FC
1648But starting in 5.12, non-reasonable ones that don't look like names
1649are deprecated. A reasonable name begins with an alphabetic character
1650and continues with any combination of alphanumerics, dashes, spaces,
1651parentheses or colons.
cb233ae3 1652
6d3b25aa
RGS
1653=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1654
fa816bf3
FC
1655(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>. There
1656has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
6d3b25aa 1657not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
6903afa2 1658conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
fa816bf3 1659static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
6903afa2 1660relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
6d3b25aa 1661declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1662
6d3b25aa
RGS
1663 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1664
1665becomes
1666
1667 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1668
fa816bf3
FC
1669Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to have
1670lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
36fb85f3
RGS
1671
1672 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1673
500ab966
RGS
1674=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1675
1676(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
6903afa2
FC
1677just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather
1678than to create a dangling reference.
500ab966 1679
3cdd684c
TP
1680=item Did not produce a valid header
1681
1682See Server error.
1683
6df41af2
GS
1684=item %s did not return a true value
1685
1686(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1687it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1688traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1689do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1690
cc507455 1691=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1692
413ff9f6
FC
1693(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1694some such.
4633a7c4 1695
cc507455 1696=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1697
be771a83
GS
1698(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1699variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1700seems superfluous.
33633739 1701
cc507455 1702=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1703
be771a83
GS
1704(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1705@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1706carried away.
748a9306 1707
7e1af8bc 1708=item Died
5f05dabc 1709
1710(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
075b00aa 1711you called it with no args and C<$@> was empty.
5f05dabc 1712
3cdd684c
TP
1713=item Document contains no data
1714
1715See Server error.
1716
62658f4d
PM
1717=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1718
1719(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1720define a C<$VERSION.>
1721
49704364
WL
1722=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1723
1724(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1725See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1726
a0d0e21e
LW
1727=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1728
1729(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1730
1731=item do_study: out of memory
1732
1733(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1734
6df41af2
GS
1735=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1736
56da5a46
RGS
1737(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1738"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1739name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1740because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1741"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1742something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1743subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1744"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1745
ac206dc8
RGS
1746=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1747
1748(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1749qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1750
84d78eb7
YO
1751=item dump is not supported
1752
1753(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1754
a0d0e21e
LW
1755=item Duplicate free() ignored
1756
be771a83
GS
1757(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1758already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1759
1109a392
MHM
1760=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1761
1762(W) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a type
1763in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1764
4633a7c4
LW
1765=item elseif should be elsif
1766
fa816bf3
FC
1767(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks
1768it's ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1769named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1770unlikely to be what you want.
1771
ab13f0c7
JH
1772=item Empty %s
1773
af6f566e 1774(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
6903afa2 1775described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
af6f566e 1776a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1777
85ab1d1d 1778=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1779
85ab1d1d 1780(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1781effective uids or gids failed.
1782
c038024b
RGS
1783=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1784
1785(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1786aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
6903afa2 1787program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
c038024b 1788
748a9306
LW
1789=item Error converting file specification %s
1790
5f05dabc 1791(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1792specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1793single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1794an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1795conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1796
e4d48cc9
GS
1797=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1798
be771a83
GS
1799(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1800expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1801is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1802
fc8f615e 1803=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval'
e4d48cc9 1804
be771a83
GS
1805(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1806C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
f11307f5
FC
1807pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk,
1808it is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by using the
1809C<re 'eval'> pragma or by explicitly building the pattern from an
1810interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval(). See
1811L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1812
6df41af2
GS
1813=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1814
be771a83
GS
1815(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1816assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1817pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1818
1a147d38
YO
1819=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1820
1821(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
6903afa2 1822any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1a147d38
YO
1823
1824The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1825discovered.
1826
fc36a67e 1827=item Excessively long <> operator
1828
1829(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1830Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1831filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1832variable and glob that.
1833
ed9aa3b7
SG
1834=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1835
af8bb25a 1836(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented on some systems, e.g., Symbian
6903afa2 1837OS. See L<perlport>.
ed9aa3b7 1838
fe13d51d 1839=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1840
1841(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1842
1843=item Exiting eval via %s
1844
be771a83
GS
1845(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1846goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1847
1848=item Exiting format via %s
1849
9a2ff54b 1850(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1851goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1852
0a753a76 1853=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1854
be771a83
GS
1855(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1856sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1857loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1858
a0d0e21e
LW
1859=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1860
be771a83
GS
1861(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1862as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1863
1864=item Exiting substitution via %s
1865
be771a83
GS
1866(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1867as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1868
7b8d334a
GS
1869=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1870
be771a83
GS
1871(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1872the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1873usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1874e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1875
6df41af2
GS
1876=item %s: Expression syntax
1877
be771a83
GS
1878(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1879Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1880
1881=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1882
3c10abe3
AG
1883(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1884CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1885queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1886
7253e4e3 1887=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1888
be771a83 1889(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1890character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1891in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1892"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1893problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1894
1b1ee2ef 1895=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1896
be771a83
GS
1897(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1898system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1899details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1900you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1901
1902=item fcntl is not implemented
1903
1904(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1905PDP-11 or something?
1906
22846ab4
AB
1907=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1908
1909(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1910is not possible.
1911
f337b084
TH
1912=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1913
1914(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string start with a length indicator
6903afa2
FC
1915which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1916a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
5c96f6f7 1917C<u63> as the format.
f337b084 1918
af8c498a 1919=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1920
6c8d78fb
HS
1921(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1922it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1923"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1924write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1925
af8c498a 1926=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1927
6c8d78fb
HS
1928(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1929you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
89a1bda8
FC
1930with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with ">". If you intended only to
1931read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>. Another possibility
1932is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for
1933output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1934
1935=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1936
1937(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
6903afa2 1938as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1939previously.
1940
1941=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1942
1943(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
fa816bf3 1944as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1945
1946=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1947
1948(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1949a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1950happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1951name.
a0d0e21e 1952
56e90b21
GS
1953=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1954
be771a83 1955(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1956some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1957filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1958same name?
56e90b21 1959
6df41af2
GS
1960=item Format not terminated
1961
1962(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1963to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1964
a0d0e21e
LW
1965=item Format %s redefined
1966
e476b1b5 1967(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1968
1969 {
271595cc 1970 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1971 eval "format NAME =...";
1972 }
1973
a0d0e21e
LW
1974=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1975
e476b1b5 1976(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1977
1978 if ($foo = 123)
1979
1980when you meant
1981
1982 if ($foo == 123)
1983
1984(or something like that).
1985
6df41af2
GS
1986=item %s found where operator expected
1987
56da5a46
RGS
1988(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
1989If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
1990operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1991operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1992
a0d0e21e
LW
1993=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1994
1995(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1996
1997=item gethostent not implemented
1998
1999(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
2000because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
2001on the Internet.
2002
69282e91 2003=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2004
be771a83
GS
2005(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
2006socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 2007
748a9306
LW
2008=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
2009
2010(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
2011C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
2012
6df41af2
GS
2013=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
2014
be771a83
GS
2015(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
2016forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
2017L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
2018
2019=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
2020
a4edf47d 2021(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 2022that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
2023declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
2024which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 2025
e476b1b5
GS
2026=item glob failed (%s)
2027
5ead438e 2028(S glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used
73c4e9dc
FC
2029for C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
2030pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
be771a83 2031nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
73c4e9dc
FC
2032resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell)
2033is broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables
2034in config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as
2035if it were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them
2036all empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
be771a83 2037think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 2038C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 2039
a0d0e21e
LW
2040=item Glob not terminated
2041
2042(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
2043a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
2044not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
2045earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 2046
bcd05b94 2047=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2048
e9200be3 2049(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was larger than
fc003d4b 2050it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
6903afa2 2051date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2052not-a-number value).
2053
bcd05b94 2054=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2055
e9200be3 2056(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was smaller than
e7a1a147 2057it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2058
6df41af2 2059=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 2060
6df41af2
GS
2061(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
2062version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
2063
2064=item goto must have label
2065
2066(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
2067unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2068
6651ba0b
FC
2069=item Goto undefined subroutine%s
2070
2071(F) You tried to call a subroutine with C<goto &sub> syntax, but
2072the indicated subroutine hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2073has since been undefined.
2074
49704364 2075=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 2076
bca4a986
FC
2077(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is supposed to follow
2078something: a template character or a ()-group. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 2079
1f4f6bf1
YO
2080=item Group name must start with a non-digit word character in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2081
2082(F) Group names must follow the rules for perl identifiers, meaning
2083they must start with a non-digit word character. A common cause of
2084this error is using (?&0) instead of (?0). See L<perlre>.
2085
fe13d51d 2086=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
2087
2088(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
2089
a0d0e21e
LW
2090=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
2091
be771a83
GS
2092(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
2093to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
2094created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
2095
2096=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
2097
be771a83
GS
2098(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
2099spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 2100
6df41af2
GS
2101=item %s has too many errors
2102
2103(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
2104Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
2105
252aa082
JH
2106=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2107
e476b1b5 2108(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2109(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2110L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2111
8903cb82 2112=item Identifier too long
2113
2114(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2115about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2116names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2117of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2118
c3c41406 2119=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class
fc8cd66c 2120
20561843 2121(W) Named Unicode character escapes C<(\N{...})> may return a zero-length
6903afa2
FC
2122sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class its
2123behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
2124been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
2125
6df41af2 2126=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2127
6df41af2 2128(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2129
6df41af2 2130=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2131
be771a83
GS
2132(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2133binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2134offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2135
6597eb22
FC
2136=item Illegal character after '_' in prototype for %s : %s
2137
2138(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2139Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
2140
78d0fecf 2141=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2142
d5898338 2143(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2144would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2145when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2146version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2147to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2148
d37a9538
ST
2149=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2150
197afce1 2151(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2e9cc7ef 2152Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
d37a9538 2153
904d85c5
RGS
2154=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2155
2156(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
6903afa2 2157you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
904d85c5 2158
8e742a20
MHM
2159=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2160
6903afa2 2161(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
8e742a20 2162
a0d0e21e
LW
2163=item Illegal division by zero
2164
be771a83
GS
2165(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2166your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2167meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2168
6df41af2
GS
2169=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2170
be771a83
GS
2171(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2172A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2173number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2174
a0d0e21e
LW
2175=item Illegal modulus zero
2176
be771a83
GS
2177(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2178numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2179
6df41af2 2180=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2181
6df41af2
GS
2182(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2183two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2184
2185=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2186
d1be9408 2187(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2188
399388f4 2189=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2190
d1be9408 2191(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2192Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2193
fe13d51d 2194=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2195
6df41af2 2196(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2197following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2198
6df41af2 2199=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2200
75b44862 2201(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2202internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2203delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2204
6df41af2 2205=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2206
be771a83
GS
2207(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2208name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2209didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2210ignored.
54310121 2211
6df41af2 2212=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2213
be771a83
GS
2214(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2215the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2216system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2217times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2218would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2219
be771a83
GS
2220Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2221also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2222
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2223=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on parent '%s'
2224
2225(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2226C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2227documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2228
979699d9
JH
2229=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2230
2231(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2232Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2233encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2234
1a147d38
YO
2235=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2236
2237(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
6903afa2 2238text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
1a147d38
YO
2239either consume text or fail.
2240
2241The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2242discovered.
2243
6dbe9451
NC
2244=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2245
6903afa2
FC
2246(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the
2247initialization of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write
2248C<state ($a) = 42> as C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar
2249context. Constructions such as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be
2250supported in a future perl release.
6dbe9451 2251
a0d0e21e
LW
2252=item Insecure dependency in %s
2253
8b1a09fc 2254(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2255The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2256setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2257tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2258from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2259such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2260L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2261
2262=item Insecure directory in %s
2263
be771a83
GS
2264(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2265setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2266the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2267See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2268
62f468fc 2269=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2270
2271(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2272setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2273C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2274supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2275the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2276
0e9be77f
DM
2277=item Insecure user-defined property %s
2278
2279(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2280expression that contains a call to a user-defined character property
2281function, i.e. C<\p{IsFoo}> or C<\p{InFoo}>.
2282See L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties> and L<perlsec>.
2283
b9ef414d
FC
2284=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2285
2286(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2287or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2288integers for your architecture.
2289
a7ae9550
GS
2290=item Integer overflow in %s number
2291
75b44862 2292(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2293either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2294your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2295On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2296representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
22970b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2298transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2299internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2300operations.
bbce6d69 2301
46314c13
JP
2302=item Integer overflow in version
2303
2304(F) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the
2305size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
f084e84f 2306because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use an
46314c13
JP
2307element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by
2308trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
2309100/9.
2310
7253e4e3 2311=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2312
2313(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 2314The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2315discovered.
2316
748a9306
LW
2317=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2318
be771a83
GS
2319(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2320you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2321to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2322L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2323Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2324terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2325
7253e4e3 2326=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2327
fa816bf3 2328(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
7253e4e3
RK
2329<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2330discovered.
a0d0e21e 2331
6df41af2
GS
2332=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2333
75b44862 2334(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2335followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2336operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2337L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2338
09bef843
SB
2339=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2340
a4a4c9e2 2341(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2342by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2343
2344=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2345
a4a4c9e2 2346(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2347recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2348
c635e13b 2349=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2350
be771a83
GS
2351(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2352L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2353
9e08bc66
TS
2354=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2355
2356(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2357didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2358from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2359The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
2360The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2361escape was discovered.
2362
8149aa9f
FC
2363=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
2364
2365(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
74f8e9e3
FC
2366number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than
23670 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
8149aa9f 2368
6651ba0b
FC
2369=item Invalid module name %s with -%c option: contains single ':'
2370
2371(F) The module argument to perl's B<-m> and B<-M> command-line options
2372cannot contain single colons in the module name, but only in the
2373arguments after "=". In other words, B<-MFoo::Bar=:baz> is ok, but
2374B<-MFoo:Bar=baz> is not.
2375
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2376=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2377
162a3e34
FC
2378(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")> or C<use mro 'foo'>,
2379where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO). Currently,
2380the only valid ones supported are C<dfs> and C<c3>, unless you have loaded
2381a module that is a MRO plugin. See L<mro> and L<perlmroapi>.
2c7d6b9c 2382
6651ba0b
FC
2383=item invalid option -D%c, use -D'' to see choices
2384
2385(F) Perl was called with invalid debugger flags. Call perl with
2386the B<-D> option with no flags to see the list of acceptable values.
2387See also L<< perlrun/B<-D>I<letters> >>.
2388
7253e4e3 2389=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2390
2391(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2392greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2393C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
2394up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2395problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2396
d1573ac7 2397=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2398
2399(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2400character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2401
09bef843
SB
2402=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2403
0120eecf 2404(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2405elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2406parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2407See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2408
b4581f09
JH
2409=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2410
2bfc5f71
FC
2411(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other
2412than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
b4581f09
JH
2413If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2414list was terminated too soon.
2415
2c86d456
DG
2416=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2417
fa816bf3 2418(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2419A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2420decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2421v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2422The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2423See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2424
49704364 2425=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2426
49704364
WL
2427(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2428See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6728c851 2429
49704364 2430(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2431silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2432
2c86d456
DG
2433=item Invalid version format (%s)
2434
fa816bf3 2435(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2436A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2437decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
fa816bf3
FC
2438v-string. If the v-string has fewer than three components, it
2439must have a leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is
2440optional. Both decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a
2441trailing "alpha" component separated by an underscore character
2442after a fractional or dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized
2443text indicates which criteria were not met. See the L<version> module
2444for more details on allowed version formats.
46314c13 2445
798ae1b7
DG
2446=item Invalid version object
2447
fa816bf3
FC
2448(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid.
2449Perhaps the internals were modified directly in some way or
2450an arbitrary reference was blessed into the "version" class.
798ae1b7 2451
a0d0e21e
LW
2452=item ioctl is not implemented
2453
2454(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2455strange for a machine that supports C.
2456
c289d2f7
JH
2457=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2458
2459(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
34b6fd5e 2460Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 2461
fe13d51d 2462=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2463
2464(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
34b6fd5e 2465you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO, Perl must be configured
363c40c4
SB
2466with 'useperlio'.
2467
80cbd5ad
JH
2468=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2469
2470(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
34b6fd5e 2471neither as a system call nor an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
80cbd5ad 2472
b4581f09
JH
2473=item $* is no longer supported
2474
a58ac25e 2475(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older
6903afa2 2476perls, has been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In
a58ac25e
FC
2477previous versions of perl the use of C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line
2478matching within a string.
4fd19576
B
2479
2480Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
6903afa2
FC
2481modifiers. You can enable C</m> for a lexical scope (even a whole file)
2482with C<use re '/m'>. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value
570dedd4 2483then all regular expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2484
8ae1fe26
RGS
2485=item $# is no longer supported
2486
a58ac25e 2487(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older
6903afa2 2488perls, has been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You
a58ac25e 2489should use the printf/sprintf functions instead.
8ae1fe26 2490
ccf3535a 2491=item '%s' is not a code reference
6ad11d81 2492
6903afa2
FC
2493(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of
2494overload::constant needs to be a code reference. Either
2495an anonymous subroutine, or a reference to a subroutine.
6ad11d81 2496
ccf3535a 2497=item '%s' is not an overloadable type
6ad11d81 2498
04a80ee0
RGS
2499(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2500unaware of.
6ad11d81 2501
a0d0e21e
LW
2502=item junk on end of regexp
2503
2504(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2505
2506=item Label not found for "last %s"
2507
be771a83
GS
2508(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2509of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2510L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2511
2512=item Label not found for "next %s"
2513
2514(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2515that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2516L<perlfunc/last>.
2517
2518=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2519
2520(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2521that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2522L<perlfunc/last>.
2523
85ab1d1d 2524=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2525
85ab1d1d 2526(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2527effective uids or gids failed.
2528
49704364
WL
2529=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2530
d7f8936a 2531(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
6903afa2
FC
2532length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2533an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 2534
e508c8a4
MH
2535=item length() used on %s
2536
0d46a4e7
FC
2537(W syntax) You used length() on either an array or a hash when you
2538probably wanted a count of the items.
e508c8a4
MH
2539
2540Array size can be obtained by doing:
2541
2542 scalar(@array);
2543
2544The number of items in a hash can be obtained by doing:
2545
2546 scalar(keys %hash);
2547
f0e67a1d
Z
2548=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2549
2550(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
6903afa2
FC
2551(using L<lex_stuff_pvn|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn> or similar), but tried to insert a character that
2552couldn't be part of the current input. This is an inherent pitfall
2553of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the reasons to avoid it. Where
2554it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only plain ASCII is recommended.
f0e67a1d
Z
2555
2556=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2557
2558(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2559detectable way.
2560
69282e91 2561=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2562
be771a83
GS
2563(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2564to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2565L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2566
6651ba0b
FC
2567=item List form of piped open not implemented
2568
2569(F) On some platforms, notably Windows, the three-or-more-arguments
2570form of C<open> does not support pipes, such as C<open($pipe, '|-', @args)>.
2571Use the two-argument C<open($pipe, '|prog arg1 arg2...')> form instead.
2572
bcd05b94 2573=item localtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2574
e9200be3 2575(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was larger
fc003d4b 2576than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
6903afa2 2577wrong date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2578not-a-number value).
2579
bcd05b94 2580=item localtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2581
e9200be3 2582(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was smaller
fc003d4b 2583than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
e7a1a147 2584wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2585
58e23c8d 2586=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2587
2588(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
6903afa2 2589handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2590
b88df990
NC
2591=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2592
2593(W) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one is too large
2594for the underlying floating point representation to store accurately,
6903afa2 2595hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this warning
b88df990
NC
2596because it has already switched from integers to floating point when values
2597are too large for integers, and now even floating point is insufficient.
2598You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
2599
93fad930 2600=item lstat() on filehandle%s
2f7da168
RK
2601
2602(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2603by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2604instead on the filehandle.)
2605
345d70e3 2606=item lvalue attribute %s already-defined subroutine
bb3abb05 2607
345d70e3
FC
2608(W misc) Although L<attributes.pm|attributes> allows this, turning the lvalue
2609attribute on or off on a Perl subroutine that is already defined
2610does not always work properly. It may or may not do what you
2611want, depending on what code is inside the subroutine, with exact
2612details subject to change between Perl versions. Only do this
2613if you really know what you are doing.
bb3abb05 2614
885ef6f5
GG
2615=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2616
345d70e3
FC
2617(W misc) Using the C<:lvalue> declarative syntax to make a Perl
2618subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined is
2619not permitted. To make the subroutine an lvalue subroutine,
2620add the lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the C<sub
2621foo :lvalue;> declaration before the definition.
2622
2623See also L<attributes.pm|attributes>.
885ef6f5 2624
2db62bbc 2625=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
49704364 2626
2db62bbc 2627(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
WL
2628are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2629
2630=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2631
2db62bbc 2632(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
WL
2633are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2634
6df41af2
GS
2635=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2636
2637(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2638
2639 prefix1;prefix2
2640
2641or
6df41af2
GS
2642 prefix1 prefix2
2643
be771a83
GS
2644with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2645a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2646appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2647"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2648
2f758a16
ST
2649=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2650
d37a9538
ST
2651(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2652syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2653obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2654when the function is called.
2f758a16 2655
ba210ebe
JH
2656=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2657
4d6f11e5 2658(S utf8)(F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2575c402 2659encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2660
2575c402
JW
2661One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2662you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
6903afa2 26638-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2575c402
JW
2664
2665If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2666sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2667set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2668message.
2669
2670See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2671
ff3f963a
KW
2672=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N
2673
2674(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2675
4a5d3a93
FC
2676=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2677
2678(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2679rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2680
f337b084
TH
2681=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2682
2683(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2684rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2685
2686=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2687
2688(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2689rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2690
4a5d3a93 2691=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
f337b084 2692
4a5d3a93
FC
2693(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
2694doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2695
2696=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2697
2698(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
2699regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
2700shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2701See L<perlre>.
f337b084 2702
de42a5a9 2703=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 2704
6903afa2 2705(F) Perl aborted due to too high a number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2706usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2707too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2708resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
6903afa2 2709safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2563cec5 2710
25f58aea
PN
2711=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2712
2713(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2714interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2715"use" or "my".
2716
0d2487cd 2717=item '%' may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2718
2719(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2720checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2721See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2722
a0d0e21e
LW
2723=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2724
2725(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2726doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2727
3cdd684c
TP
2728=item Method %s not permitted
2729
2730See Server error.
2731
a0d0e21e
LW
2732=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2733
2734(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2735by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2736ended earlier on the current line.
2737
2738=item Misplaced _ in number
2739
d4ced10d
JH
2740(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2741separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2742
7baa4690
HS
2743=item Missing argument in %s
2744
2745(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2746supplied.
2747
9e81e6a1
RGS
2748=item Missing argument to -%c
2749
2750(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2751immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2752
ff3f963a 2753=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2754
4a2d328f 2755(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
532cb70d
FC
2756double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space
2757(or comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2758This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately
2759follow the C<\N>.
423cee85 2760
f0a2b745
KW
2761=item Missing braces on \o{}
2762
2763(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2764
a0d0e21e
LW
2765=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2766
2767(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2768"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2769
06eaf0bc
GS
2770=item Missing command in piped open
2771
be771a83
GS
2772(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2773C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2774blank.
06eaf0bc 2775
961ce445
RGS
2776=item Missing control char name in \c
2777
2778(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2779character name.
2780
6df41af2
GS
2781=item Missing name in "my sub"
2782
be771a83
GS
2783(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2784they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2785
2786=item Missing $ on loop variable
2787
be771a83
GS
2788(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2789are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2790can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2791
cc507455 2792=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2793
56da5a46
RGS
2794(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2795"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2796
ab13f0c7
JH
2797=item Missing right brace on %s
2798
ff3f963a
KW
2799(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
2800
4a68bf9d 2801=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 2802
d32207c9
FC
2803(F) C<\N> has two meanings.
2804
2805The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed in braces,
2806meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that
fa816bf3 2807name. Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
d32207c9
FC
2808double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns,
2809it doesn't have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
2810
2811Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only)
2812in patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short
2813for C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
2814
2815This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately
2816by a left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if the braces
2817form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes that this
2818means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
28193; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a
2820C<\N{> and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
2821
2822However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was
2823mistakenly omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and raises this error.
2824If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant the latter,
2825escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 2826
d98d5fff 2827=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2828
be771a83
GS
2829(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2830ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2831were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2832
6df41af2
GS
2833=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2834
56da5a46
RGS
2835(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2836"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2837the previous line just because you saw this message.
2838
a0d0e21e
LW
2839=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2840
2841(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2842constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2843catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2844
2845 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2846 mod(2);
2847
2848Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2849
c5674021
PDF
2850Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2851is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2852
b7e4ecc1
FC
2853 $x = 1;
2854 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2855 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to
2856 } # modify the 2
c5674021 2857
7a4340ed 2858=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2859
2860(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2861subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2862backwards.
2863
7a4340ed 2864=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2865
be771a83
GS
2866(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2867couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2868
2869=item Module name must be constant
2870
2871(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2872
be98fb35 2873=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2874
be98fb35
GS
2875(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2876you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2877about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2878
fe13d51d 2879=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7 2880
6903afa2 2881(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
ed9aa3b7
SG
2882can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2883list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2884See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2885
a0d0e21e
LW
2886=item msg%s not implemented
2887
2888(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2889
2890=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2891
75b44862
GS
2892(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2893They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2894
49704364 2895=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2896
49704364
WL
2897(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2898follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2899See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2900
2901=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2902
be771a83
GS
2903(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2904that yet.
6df41af2 2905
fd1b7234 2906=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 2907
be771a83
GS
2908(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2909sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2910local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2911
8149aa9f
FC
2912=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2913
2914(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
2915If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2916again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
2917provided for this purpose.
2918
2919NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2920%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2921the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2922will not trigger this warning.
2923
4a68bf9d 2924=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...}
ff3f963a 2925
c3c41406 2926(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in a bracketed
f4e361c7
FC
2927character class, for the same reason that C<.> in a character class loses
2928its specialness: it matches almost everything, which is probably not
2929what you want.
c3c41406 2930
4a68bf9d 2931=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer
c3c41406 2932
f4e361c7
FC
2933(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or
2934sequence was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that
2935bypass the lexer, such as using single-quotish context, or an extra
7fae04b9 2936backslash in double-quotish:
c3c41406
KW
2937
2938 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
b09c05e6 2939 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
c3c41406
KW
2940 /$re/;
2941
b09c05e6 2942Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
c3c41406
KW
2943
2944 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
2945 /$re/;
2946
2947The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
2948components:
2949
2950 $re = '\N';
2951 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
2952
2953It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and it
2954doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
2955
2956Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
2957C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
2958
2959 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
2960 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
ff3f963a 2961
49704364
WL
2962=item Negative '/' count in unpack
2963
2964(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
2965negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2966
a0d0e21e
LW
2967=item Negative length
2968
be771a83
GS
2969(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2970length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2971
ed9aa3b7
SG
2972=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
2973
2974(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
2975greater than or equal to zero.
2976
7253e4e3 2977=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2978
6903afa2
FC
2979(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses.
2980So things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the
2981regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2982
7253e4e3 2983Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2984C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2985
6df41af2 2986=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2987
be771a83
GS
2988(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2989scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 2990
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2991=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
2992
2993(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
2994real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
2995See L<mro>.
2996
a0d0e21e
LW
2997=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2998
be771a83
GS
2999(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
3000setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
3001will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
3002securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 3003
6651ba0b
FC
3004=item No code specified for -%c
3005
3006(F) Perl's B<-e> and B<-E> command-line options require an argument. If
3007you want to run an empty program, pass the empty string as a separate
3008argument or run a program consisting of a single 0 or 1:
3009
3010 perl -e ""
3011 perl -e0
3012 perl -e1
3013
a0d0e21e
LW
3014=item No comma allowed after %s
3015
6903afa2
FC
3016(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is
3017not allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
a0d0e21e
LW
3018Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
3019
6903afa2
FC
3020One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported
3021a constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
3022importing took place, it may for example be that your operating
3023system does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did
3024use an explicit import list for the constants you expect to see;
3025please see L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an
3026explicit import list would probably have caught this error earlier
3027it naturally does not remedy the fact that your operating system
3028still does not support that constant. Maybe you have a typo in
3029the constants of the symbol import list of B<use> or B<import> or in the
3030constant name at the line where this error was triggered?
0a753a76 3031
748a9306
LW
3032=item No command into which to pipe on command line
3033
be771a83
GS
3034(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3035redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
3036doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 3037
a0d0e21e
LW
3038=item No DB::DB routine defined
3039
be771a83 3040(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
f7af5ce1 3041for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
ccafdc96
RGS
3042module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
3043statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
3044
3045=item No dbm on this machine
3046
3047(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 3048supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 3049
ccafdc96 3050=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 3051
ccafdc96
RGS
3052(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
3053for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
3054module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
3055of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 3056
6651ba0b
FC
3057=item No directory specified for -I
3058
3059(F) The B<-I> command-line switch requires a directory name as part of the
3060I<same> argument. Use B<-Ilib>, for instance. B<-I lib> won't work.
3061
c47ff5f1 3062=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 3063
be771a83
GS
3064(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3065redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
3066find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 3067
49704364
WL
3068=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
3069
3070(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
6903afa2 3071matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 3072
c47ff5f1 3073=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 3074
be771a83
GS
3075(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3076redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
3077name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 3078
2c7d6b9c
RGS
3079=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
3080
3081(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
3082in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
3083it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
fa816bf3 3084or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2c7d6b9c 3085
6df41af2
GS
3086=item "no" not allowed in expression
3087
be771a83
GS
3088(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
3089returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 3090
c47ff5f1 3091=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 3092
be771a83
GS
3093(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3094redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
3095doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 3096
c47ff5f1 3097=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 3098
be771a83
GS
3099(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3100redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
3101find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 3102
1ec3e8de
GS
3103=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
3104
be771a83
GS
3105(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
3106declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
3107semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 3108
a0d0e21e
LW
3109=item No Perl script found in input
3110
3111(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
3112with #! and containing the word "perl".
3113
3114=item No setregid available
3115
3116(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
3117your system.
3118
3119=item No setreuid available
3120
3121(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
3122your system.
3123
e75d1f10
RD
3124=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
3125
b7e4ecc1
FC
3126(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed
3127variable but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type.
3128The indicated package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the
3129L<fields> pragma.
e75d1f10 3130
2c692339
RGS
3131=item No such class %s
3132
dc7e5945
FC
3133(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state"
3134declaration, but this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2c692339 3135
3c20a832
SP
3136=item No such hook: %s
3137
dc7e5945
FC
3138(F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl.
3139Currently, Perl accepts C<__DIE__> and C<__WARN__> as valid signal hooks.
3c20a832 3140
6df41af2
GS
3141=item No such pipe open
3142
3143(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
3144close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
3145earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 3146
a0d0e21e
LW
3147=item No such signal: SIG%s
3148
be771a83
GS
3149(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
3150not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
3151names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
3152
3153=item Not a CODE reference
3154
3155(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3156subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3157use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3158also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3159
a0d0e21e
LW
3160=item Not a GLOB reference
3161
be771a83
GS
3162(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
3163symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
3164something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
3165kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3166
3167=item Not a HASH reference
3168
be771a83
GS
3169(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
3170reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
3171find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3172
6df41af2
GS
3173=item Not an ARRAY reference
3174
be771a83
GS
3175(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
3176a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3177to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 3178
d4fc4415
FC
3179=item Not an unblessed ARRAY reference
3180
3181(F) You passed a reference to a blessed array to C<push>, C<shift> or
3182another array function. These only accept unblessed array references
3183or arrays beginning explicitly with C<@>.
3184
a0d0e21e
LW
3185=item Not a SCALAR reference
3186
be771a83
GS
3187(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
3188a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3189to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3190
3191=item Not a subroutine reference
3192
3193(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3194subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3195use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3196also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3197
e7ea3e70 3198=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
3199
3200(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 3201doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 3202
a0d0e21e
LW
3203=item Not enough arguments for %s
3204
3205(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
3206
6df41af2
GS
3207=item Not enough format arguments
3208
be771a83
GS
3209(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
3210supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
3211
3212=item %s: not found
3213
be771a83
GS
3214(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
3215of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
3216yourself.
6df41af2
GS
3217
3218=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 3219
6df41af2
GS
3220(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
3221timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
3222to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
3223F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
3224need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e 3225
f0a2b745
KW
3226=item Non-octal character '%c'. Resolved as "%s"
3227
fa816bf3
FC
3228(W digit) In parsing an octal numeric constant, a character was
3229unexpectedly encountered that isn't octal. The resulting value
3230is as indicated.
f0a2b745 3231
4ef2275c
GA
3232=item Non-string passed as bitmask
3233
3234(W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().
3235Use the vec() function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for
6903afa2 3236select. See L<perlfunc/select>.
4ef2275c 3237
a0d0e21e
LW
3238=item Null filename used
3239
be771a83
GS
3240(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
3241machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 3242
6df41af2
GS
3243=item NULL OP IN RUN
3244
f84fe999 3245(S debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
be771a83 3246pointer.
6df41af2 3247
55497cff 3248=item Null picture in formline
3249
3250(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
3251specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
3252supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
3253
a0d0e21e
LW
3254=item Null realloc
3255
3256(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
3257
3258=item NULL regexp argument
3259
5f05dabc 3260(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
3261
3262=item NULL regexp parameter
3263
3264(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
3265
fc36a67e 3266=item Number too long
3267
be771a83 3268(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 3269about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
3270versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
3271the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
3272"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 3273
f0a2b745
KW
3274=item Number with no digits
3275
1043934d 3276(F) Perl was looking for a number but found nothing that looked like
6903afa2 3277a number. This happens, for example with C<\o{}>, with no number between
1043934d 3278the braces.
f0a2b745 3279
252aa082
JH
3280=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
3281
75b44862 3282(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
3283(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
3284L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 3285
6ad11d81
JH
3286=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
3287
04a80ee0 3288(W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of
6903afa2 3289arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.
6ad11d81 3290
b21befc1
MG
3291=item Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
3292
3293(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3294which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
3295
1930e939 3296=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 3297
be771a83
GS
3298(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3299which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 3300
bbce6d69 3301=item Offset outside string
3302
1fa582fa 3303(F)(W layer) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv/seek operation
42bc49da 3304with an of