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locale.c: Handle and edge case
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1/* locale.c
2 *
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3 * Copyright (C) 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001,
4 * 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 by Larry Wall and others
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5 *
6 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
7 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
8 *
9 */
10
11/*
4ac71550 12 * A Elbereth Gilthoniel,
cdad3b53 13 * silivren penna míriel
4ac71550 14 * o menel aglar elenath!
cdad3b53 15 * Na-chaered palan-díriel
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16 * o galadhremmin ennorath,
17 * Fanuilos, le linnathon
18 * nef aear, si nef aearon!
19 *
20 * [p.238 of _The Lord of the Rings_, II/i: "Many Meetings"]
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21 */
22
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23/* utility functions for handling locale-specific stuff like what
24 * character represents the decimal point.
0d071d52 25 *
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26 * All C programs have an underlying locale. Perl code generally doesn't pay
27 * any attention to it except within the scope of a 'use locale'. For most
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28 * categories, it accomplishes this by just using different operations if it is
29 * in such scope than if not. However, various libc functions called by Perl
30 * are affected by the LC_NUMERIC category, so there are macros in perl.h that
31 * are used to toggle between the current locale and the C locale depending on
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32 * the desired behavior of those functions at the moment. And, LC_MESSAGES is
33 * switched to the C locale for outputting the message unless within the scope
34 * of 'use locale'.
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35 *
36 * This code now has multi-thread-safe locale handling on systems that support
37 * that. This is completely transparent to most XS code. On earlier systems,
38 * it would be possible to emulate thread-safe locales, but this likely would
39 * involve a lot of locale switching, and would require XS code changes.
40 * Macros could be written so that the code wouldn't have to know which type of
41 * system is being used. It's unlikely that we would ever do that, since most
42 * modern systems support thread-safe locales, but there was code written to
43 * this end, and is retained, #ifdef'd out.
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44 */
45
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46#include "EXTERN.h"
47#define PERL_IN_LOCALE_C
f7416781 48#include "perl_langinfo.h"
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49#include "perl.h"
50
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51#include "reentr.h"
52
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53#ifdef I_WCHAR
54# include <wchar.h>
55#endif
56
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57/* If the environment says to, we can output debugging information during
58 * initialization. This is done before option parsing, and before any thread
59 * creation, so can be a file-level static */
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60#if ! defined(DEBUGGING) || defined(PERL_GLOBAL_STRUCT)
61# define debug_initialization 0
62# define DEBUG_INITIALIZATION_set(v)
63#else
2fcc0ca9 64static bool debug_initialization = FALSE;
5a4b0634 65# define DEBUG_INITIALIZATION_set(v) (debug_initialization = v)
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66#endif
67
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68
69/* Returns the Unix errno portion; ignoring any others. This is a macro here
70 * instead of putting it into perl.h, because unclear to khw what should be
71 * done generally. */
72#define GET_ERRNO saved_errno
73
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74/* strlen() of a literal string constant. We might want this more general,
75 * but using it in just this file for now. A problem with more generality is
76 * the compiler warnings about comparing unlike signs */
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77#define STRLENs(s) (sizeof("" s "") - 1)
78
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79/* Is the C string input 'name' "C" or "POSIX"? If so, and 'name' is the
80 * return of setlocale(), then this is extremely likely to be the C or POSIX
81 * locale. However, the output of setlocale() is documented to be opaque, but
82 * the odds are extremely small that it would return these two strings for some
83 * other locale. Note that VMS in these two locales includes many non-ASCII
84 * characters as controls and punctuation (below are hex bytes):
85 * cntrl: 84-97 9B-9F
86 * punct: A1-A3 A5 A7-AB B0-B3 B5-B7 B9-BD BF-CF D1-DD DF-EF F1-FD
87 * Oddly, none there are listed as alphas, though some represent alphabetics
88 * http://www.nntp.perl.org/group/perl.perl5.porters/2013/02/msg198753.html */
89#define isNAME_C_OR_POSIX(name) \
90 ( (name) != NULL \
91 && (( *(name) == 'C' && (*(name + 1)) == '\0') \
92 || strEQ((name), "POSIX")))
93
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94#ifdef USE_LOCALE
95
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96/* This code keeps a LRU cache of the UTF-8ness of the locales it has so-far
97 * looked up. This is in the form of a C string: */
98
99#define UTF8NESS_SEP "\v"
100#define UTF8NESS_PREFIX "\f"
101
102/* So, the string looks like:
98994639 103 *
47280b20 104 * \vC\a0\vPOSIX\a0\vam_ET\a0\vaf_ZA.utf8\a1\ven_US.UTF-8\a1\0
98994639 105 *
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106 * where the digit 0 after the \a indicates that the locale starting just
107 * after the preceding \v is not UTF-8, and the digit 1 mean it is. */
108
109STATIC_ASSERT_DECL(STRLENs(UTF8NESS_SEP) == 1);
110STATIC_ASSERT_DECL(STRLENs(UTF8NESS_PREFIX) == 1);
111
112#define C_and_POSIX_utf8ness UTF8NESS_SEP "C" UTF8NESS_PREFIX "0" \
113 UTF8NESS_SEP "POSIX" UTF8NESS_PREFIX "0"
114
115/* The cache is initialized to C_and_POSIX_utf8ness at start up. These are
116 * kept there always. The remining portion of the cache is LRU, with the
117 * oldest looked-up locale at the tail end */
118
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119STATIC char *
120S_stdize_locale(pTHX_ char *locs)
121{
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122 /* Standardize the locale name from a string returned by 'setlocale',
123 * possibly modifying that string.
124 *
125 * The typical return value of setlocale() is either
126 * (1) "xx_YY" if the first argument of setlocale() is not LC_ALL
127 * (2) "xa_YY xb_YY ..." if the first argument of setlocale() is LC_ALL
128 * (the space-separated values represent the various sublocales,
129 * in some unspecified order). This is not handled by this function.
130 *
131 * In some platforms it has a form like "LC_SOMETHING=Lang_Country.866\n",
132 * which is harmful for further use of the string in setlocale(). This
133 * function removes the trailing new line and everything up through the '='
134 * */
135
7452cf6a 136 const char * const s = strchr(locs, '=');
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137 bool okay = TRUE;
138
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139 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_STDIZE_LOCALE;
140
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141 if (s) {
142 const char * const t = strchr(s, '.');
98994639 143 okay = FALSE;
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144 if (t) {
145 const char * const u = strchr(t, '\n');
146 if (u && (u[1] == 0)) {
147 const STRLEN len = u - s;
148 Move(s + 1, locs, len, char);
149 locs[len] = 0;
150 okay = TRUE;
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151 }
152 }
153 }
154
155 if (!okay)
156 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't fix broken locale name \"%s\"", locs);
157
158 return locs;
159}
160
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161/* Two parallel arrays; first the locale categories Perl uses on this system;
162 * the second array is their names. These arrays are in mostly arbitrary
163 * order. */
164
165const int categories[] = {
166
167# ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
168 LC_NUMERIC,
169# endif
170# ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
171 LC_CTYPE,
172# endif
173# ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
174 LC_COLLATE,
175# endif
176# ifdef USE_LOCALE_TIME
177 LC_TIME,
178# endif
179# ifdef USE_LOCALE_MESSAGES
180 LC_MESSAGES,
181# endif
182# ifdef USE_LOCALE_MONETARY
183 LC_MONETARY,
184# endif
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185# ifdef USE_LOCALE_ADDRESS
186 LC_ADDRESS,
187# endif
188# ifdef USE_LOCALE_IDENTIFICATION
189 LC_IDENTIFICATION,
190# endif
191# ifdef USE_LOCALE_MEASUREMENT
192 LC_MEASUREMENT,
193# endif
194# ifdef USE_LOCALE_PAPER
195 LC_PAPER,
196# endif
197# ifdef USE_LOCALE_TELEPHONE
198 LC_TELEPHONE,
199# endif
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200# ifdef LC_ALL
201 LC_ALL,
202# endif
203 -1 /* Placeholder because C doesn't allow a
204 trailing comma, and it would get complicated
205 with all the #ifdef's */
206};
207
208/* The top-most real element is LC_ALL */
209
210const char * category_names[] = {
211
212# ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
213 "LC_NUMERIC",
214# endif
215# ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
216 "LC_CTYPE",
217# endif
218# ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
219 "LC_COLLATE",
220# endif
221# ifdef USE_LOCALE_TIME
222 "LC_TIME",
223# endif
224# ifdef USE_LOCALE_MESSAGES
225 "LC_MESSAGES",
226# endif
227# ifdef USE_LOCALE_MONETARY
228 "LC_MONETARY",
229# endif
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230# ifdef USE_LOCALE_ADDRESS
231 "LC_ADDRESS",
232# endif
233# ifdef USE_LOCALE_IDENTIFICATION
234 "LC_IDENTIFICATION",
235# endif
236# ifdef USE_LOCALE_MEASUREMENT
237 "LC_MEASUREMENT",
238# endif
239# ifdef USE_LOCALE_PAPER
240 "LC_PAPER",
241# endif
242# ifdef USE_LOCALE_TELEPHONE
243 "LC_TELEPHONE",
244# endif
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245# ifdef LC_ALL
246 "LC_ALL",
247# endif
248 NULL /* Placeholder */
249 };
250
251# ifdef LC_ALL
252
253 /* On systems with LC_ALL, it is kept in the highest index position. (-2
254 * to account for the final unused placeholder element.) */
255# define NOMINAL_LC_ALL_INDEX (C_ARRAY_LENGTH(categories) - 2)
256
257# else
258
259 /* On systems without LC_ALL, we pretend it is there, one beyond the real
260 * top element, hence in the unused placeholder element. */
261# define NOMINAL_LC_ALL_INDEX (C_ARRAY_LENGTH(categories) - 1)
262
263# endif
264
265/* Pretending there is an LC_ALL element just above allows us to avoid most
266 * special cases. Most loops through these arrays in the code below are
267 * written like 'for (i = 0; i < NOMINAL_LC_ALL_INDEX; i++)'. They will work
268 * on either type of system. But the code must be written to not access the
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269 * element at 'LC_ALL_INDEX' except on platforms that have it. This can be
270 * checked for at compile time by using the #define LC_ALL_INDEX which is only
271 * defined if we do have LC_ALL. */
e5f10d49 272
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273STATIC const char *
274S_category_name(const int category)
275{
276 unsigned int i;
277
278#ifdef LC_ALL
279
280 if (category == LC_ALL) {
281 return "LC_ALL";
282 }
283
284#endif
285
286 for (i = 0; i < NOMINAL_LC_ALL_INDEX; i++) {
287 if (category == categories[i]) {
288 return category_names[i];
289 }
290 }
291
292 {
293 const char suffix[] = " (unknown)";
294 int temp = category;
295 Size_t length = sizeof(suffix) + 1;
296 char * unknown;
297 dTHX;
298
299 if (temp < 0) {
300 length++;
301 temp = - temp;
302 }
303
304 /* Calculate the number of digits */
305 while (temp >= 10) {
306 temp /= 10;
307 length++;
308 }
309
310 Newx(unknown, length, char);
311 my_snprintf(unknown, length, "%d%s", category, suffix);
312 SAVEFREEPV(unknown);
313 return unknown;
314 }
315}
316
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317/* Now create LC_foo_INDEX #defines for just those categories on this system */
318# ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
319# define LC_NUMERIC_INDEX 0
320# define _DUMMY_NUMERIC LC_NUMERIC_INDEX
321# else
322# define _DUMMY_NUMERIC -1
323# endif
324# ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
325# define LC_CTYPE_INDEX _DUMMY_NUMERIC + 1
326# define _DUMMY_CTYPE LC_CTYPE_INDEX
327# else
328# define _DUMMY_CTYPE _DUMMY_NUMERIC
329# endif
330# ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
331# define LC_COLLATE_INDEX _DUMMY_CTYPE + 1
332# define _DUMMY_COLLATE LC_COLLATE_INDEX
333# else
334# define _DUMMY_COLLATE _DUMMY_COLLATE
335# endif
336# ifdef USE_LOCALE_TIME
337# define LC_TIME_INDEX _DUMMY_COLLATE + 1
338# define _DUMMY_TIME LC_TIME_INDEX
339# else
340# define _DUMMY_TIME _DUMMY_COLLATE
341# endif
342# ifdef USE_LOCALE_MESSAGES
343# define LC_MESSAGES_INDEX _DUMMY_TIME + 1
344# define _DUMMY_MESSAGES LC_MESSAGES_INDEX
345# else
346# define _DUMMY_MESSAGES _DUMMY_TIME
347# endif
348# ifdef USE_LOCALE_MONETARY
349# define LC_MONETARY_INDEX _DUMMY_MESSAGES + 1
350# define _DUMMY_MONETARY LC_MONETARY_INDEX
351# else
352# define _DUMMY_MONETARY _DUMMY_MESSAGES
353# endif
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354# ifdef USE_LOCALE_ADDRESS
355# define LC_ADDRESS_INDEX _DUMMY_MONETARY + 1
356# define _DUMMY_ADDRESS LC_ADDRESS_INDEX
357# else
358# define _DUMMY_ADDRESS _DUMMY_MONETARY
359# endif
360# ifdef USE_LOCALE_IDENTIFICATION
361# define LC_IDENTIFICATION_INDEX _DUMMY_ADDRESS + 1
362# define _DUMMY_IDENTIFICATION LC_IDENTIFICATION_INDEX
363# else
364# define _DUMMY_IDENTIFICATION _DUMMY_ADDRESS
365# endif
366# ifdef USE_LOCALE_MEASUREMENT
367# define LC_MEASUREMENT_INDEX _DUMMY_IDENTIFICATION + 1
368# define _DUMMY_MEASUREMENT LC_MEASUREMENT_INDEX
369# else
370# define _DUMMY_MEASUREMENT _DUMMY_IDENTIFICATION
371# endif
372# ifdef USE_LOCALE_PAPER
373# define LC_PAPER_INDEX _DUMMY_MEASUREMENT + 1
374# define _DUMMY_PAPER LC_PAPER_INDEX
375# else
376# define _DUMMY_PAPER _DUMMY_MEASUREMENT
377# endif
378# ifdef USE_LOCALE_TELEPHONE
379# define LC_TELEPHONE_INDEX _DUMMY_PAPER + 1
380# define _DUMMY_TELEPHONE LC_TELEPHONE_INDEX
381# else
382# define _DUMMY_TELEPHONE _DUMMY_PAPER
383# endif
948523db 384# ifdef LC_ALL
9821811f 385# define LC_ALL_INDEX _DUMMY_TELEPHONE + 1
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386# endif
387#endif /* ifdef USE_LOCALE */
8ef6e574 388
d2b24094 389/* Windows requres a customized base-level setlocale() */
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390#ifdef WIN32
391# define my_setlocale(cat, locale) win32_setlocale(cat, locale)
392#else
393# define my_setlocale(cat, locale) setlocale(cat, locale)
394#endif
395
396#ifndef USE_POSIX_2008_LOCALE
397
398/* "do_setlocale_c" is intended to be called when the category is a constant
399 * known at compile time; "do_setlocale_r", not known until run time */
400# define do_setlocale_c(cat, locale) my_setlocale(cat, locale)
401# define do_setlocale_r(cat, locale) my_setlocale(cat, locale)
402
403#else /* Below uses POSIX 2008 */
404
405/* We emulate setlocale with our own function. LC_foo is not valid for the
406 * POSIX 2008 functions. Instead LC_foo_MASK is used, which we use an array
407 * lookup to convert to. At compile time we have defined LC_foo_INDEX as the
408 * proper offset into the array 'category_masks[]'. At runtime, we have to
409 * search through the array (as the actual numbers may not be small contiguous
410 * positive integers which would lend themselves to array lookup). */
411# define do_setlocale_c(cat, locale) \
412 emulate_setlocale(cat, locale, cat ## _INDEX, TRUE)
413# define do_setlocale_r(cat, locale) emulate_setlocale(cat, locale, 0, FALSE)
414
415/* A third array, parallel to the ones above to map from category to its
416 * equivalent mask */
417const int category_masks[] = {
418# ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
419 LC_NUMERIC_MASK,
420# endif
421# ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
422 LC_CTYPE_MASK,
423# endif
424# ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
425 LC_COLLATE_MASK,
426# endif
427# ifdef USE_LOCALE_TIME
428 LC_TIME_MASK,
429# endif
430# ifdef USE_LOCALE_MESSAGES
431 LC_MESSAGES_MASK,
432# endif
433# ifdef USE_LOCALE_MONETARY
434 LC_MONETARY_MASK,
435# endif
436# ifdef USE_LOCALE_ADDRESS
437 LC_ADDRESS_MASK,
438# endif
439# ifdef USE_LOCALE_IDENTIFICATION
440 LC_IDENTIFICATION_MASK,
441# endif
442# ifdef USE_LOCALE_MEASUREMENT
443 LC_MEASUREMENT_MASK,
444# endif
445# ifdef USE_LOCALE_PAPER
446 LC_PAPER_MASK,
447# endif
448# ifdef USE_LOCALE_TELEPHONE
449 LC_TELEPHONE_MASK,
450# endif
451 /* LC_ALL can't be turned off by a Configure
452 * option, and in Posix 2008, should always be
453 * here, so compile it in unconditionally.
454 * This could catch some glitches at compile
455 * time */
456 LC_ALL_MASK
457 };
458
459STATIC const char *
460S_emulate_setlocale(const int category,
461 const char * locale,
462 unsigned int index,
463 const bool is_index_valid
464 )
465{
466 /* This function effectively performs a setlocale() on just the current
467 * thread; thus it is thread-safe. It does this by using the POSIX 2008
468 * locale functions to emulate the behavior of setlocale(). Similar to
469 * regular setlocale(), the return from this function points to memory that
470 * can be overwritten by other system calls, so needs to be copied
471 * immediately if you need to retain it. The difference here is that
472 * system calls besides another setlocale() can overwrite it.
473 *
474 * By doing this, most locale-sensitive functions become thread-safe. The
475 * exceptions are mostly those that return a pointer to static memory.
476 *
477 * This function takes the same parameters, 'category' and 'locale', that
478 * the regular setlocale() function does, but it also takes two additional
479 * ones. This is because the 2008 functions don't use a category; instead
480 * they use a corresponding mask. Because this function operates in both
481 * worlds, it may need one or the other or both. This function can
482 * calculate the mask from the input category, but to avoid this
483 * calculation, if the caller knows at compile time what the mask is, it
484 * can pass it, setting 'is_index_valid' to TRUE; otherwise the mask
485 * parameter is ignored.
486 *
487 * POSIX 2008, for some sick reason, chose not to provide a method to find
488 * the category name of a locale. Some vendors have created a
489 * querylocale() function to do just that. This function is a lot simpler
490 * to implement on systems that have this. Otherwise, we have to keep
491 * track of what the locale has been set to, so that we can return its
492 * name to emulate setlocale(). It's also possible for C code in some
493 * library to change the locale without us knowing it, though as of
494 * September 2017, there are no occurrences in CPAN of uselocale(). Some
495 * libraries do use setlocale(), but that changes the global locale, and
496 * threads using per-thread locales will just ignore those changes.
497 * Another problem is that without querylocale(), we have to guess at what
498 * was meant by setting a locale of "". We handle this by not actually
499 * ever setting to "" (unless querylocale exists), but to emulate what we
500 * think should happen for "".
501 */
502
503 int mask;
504 locale_t old_obj;
505 locale_t new_obj;
506 dTHX;
507
508# ifdef DEBUGGING
509
510 if (DEBUG_Lv_TEST || debug_initialization) {
511 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: emulate_setlocale input=%d (%s), \"%s\", %d, %d\n", __FILE__, __LINE__, category, category_name(category), locale, index, is_index_valid);
512 }
513
514# endif
515
516 /* If the input mask might be incorrect, calculate the correct one */
517 if (! is_index_valid) {
518 unsigned int i;
519
520# ifdef DEBUGGING
521
522 if (DEBUG_Lv_TEST || debug_initialization) {
523 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: finding index of category %d (%s)\n", __FILE__, __LINE__, category, category_name(category));
524 }
525
526# endif
527
528 for (i = 0; i <= LC_ALL_INDEX; i++) {
529 if (category == categories[i]) {
530 index = i;
531 goto found_index;
532 }
533 }
534
535 /* Here, we don't know about this category, so can't handle it.
536 * Fallback to the early POSIX usages */
537 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_LOCALE),
538 "Unknown locale category %d; can't set it to %s\n",
539 category, locale);
540 return NULL;
541
542 found_index: ;
543
544# ifdef DEBUGGING
545
546 if (DEBUG_Lv_TEST || debug_initialization) {
547 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: index is %d for %s\n", __FILE__, __LINE__, index, category_name(category));
548 }
549
550# endif
551
552 }
553
554 mask = category_masks[index];
555
556# ifdef DEBUGGING
557
558 if (DEBUG_Lv_TEST || debug_initialization) {
559 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: category name is %s; mask is 0x%x\n", __FILE__, __LINE__, category_names[index], mask);
560 }
561
562# endif
563
564 /* If just querying what the existing locale is ... */
565 if (locale == NULL) {
566 locale_t cur_obj = uselocale((locale_t) 0);
567
568# ifdef DEBUGGING
569
570 if (DEBUG_Lv_TEST || debug_initialization) {
571 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: emulate_setlocale querying %p\n", __FILE__, __LINE__, cur_obj);
572 }
573
574# endif
575
576 if (cur_obj == LC_GLOBAL_LOCALE) {
577 return my_setlocale(category, NULL);
578 }
579
580# ifdef HAS_QUERYLOCALE
581
582 return (char *) querylocale(mask, cur_obj);
583
d2b24094 584# else
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585
586 /* If this assert fails, adjust the size of curlocales in intrpvar.h */
587 STATIC_ASSERT_STMT(C_ARRAY_LENGTH(PL_curlocales) > LC_ALL_INDEX);
588
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589# if defined(_NL_LOCALE_NAME) && defined(DEBUGGING)
590
591 {
592 /* Internal glibc for querylocale(), but doesn't handle
593 * empty-string ("") locale properly; who knows what other
594 * glitches. Check it for now, under debug. */
595
596 char * temp_name = nl_langinfo_l(_NL_LOCALE_NAME(category),
597 uselocale((locale_t) 0));
598 /*
599 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: temp_name=%s\n", __FILE__, __LINE__, temp_name ? temp_name : "NULL");
600 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: index=%d\n", __FILE__, __LINE__, index);
601 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: PL_curlocales[index]=%s\n", __FILE__, __LINE__, PL_curlocales[index]);
602 */
603 if (temp_name && PL_curlocales[index] && strNE(temp_name, "")) {
604 if ( strNE(PL_curlocales[index], temp_name)
605 && ! ( isNAME_C_OR_POSIX(temp_name)
606 && isNAME_C_OR_POSIX(PL_curlocales[index]))) {
607
608# ifdef USE_C_BACKTRACE
609
610 dump_c_backtrace(Perl_debug_log, 20, 1);
611
612# endif
613
614 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: Mismatch between what Perl thinks %s is"
615 " (%s) and what internal glibc thinks"
616 " (%s)\n", category_names[index],
617 PL_curlocales[index], temp_name);
618 }
619
620 return temp_name;
621 }
622 }
623
624# endif
625
626 /* Without querylocale(), we have to use our record-keeping we've
627 * done. */
628
629 if (category != LC_ALL) {
630
631# ifdef DEBUGGING
632
633 if (DEBUG_Lv_TEST || debug_initialization) {
634 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: emulate_setlocale returning %s\n", __FILE__, __LINE__, PL_curlocales[index]);
635 }
636
637# endif
638
639 return PL_curlocales[index];
640 }
641 else { /* For LC_ALL */
642 unsigned int i;
643 Size_t names_len = 0;
644 char * all_string;
7c93a471 645 bool are_all_categories_the_same_locale = TRUE;
e9bc6d6b
KW
646
647 /* If we have a valid LC_ALL value, just return it */
648 if (PL_curlocales[LC_ALL_INDEX]) {
649
650# ifdef DEBUGGING
651
652 if (DEBUG_Lv_TEST || debug_initialization) {
653 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: emulate_setlocale returning %s\n", __FILE__, __LINE__, PL_curlocales[LC_ALL_INDEX]);
654 }
655
656# endif
657
658 return PL_curlocales[LC_ALL_INDEX];
659 }
660
661 /* Otherwise, we need to construct a string of name=value pairs.
662 * We use the glibc syntax, like
663 * LC_NUMERIC=C;LC_TIME=en_US.UTF-8;...
7c93a471
KW
664 * First calculate the needed size. Along the way, check if all
665 * the locale names are the same */
e9bc6d6b
KW
666 for (i = 0; i < LC_ALL_INDEX; i++) {
667
668# ifdef DEBUGGING
669
670 if (DEBUG_Lv_TEST || debug_initialization) {
671 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: emulate_setlocale i=%d, name=%s, locale=%s\n", __FILE__, __LINE__, i, category_names[i], PL_curlocales[i]);
672 }
673
674# endif
675
676 names_len += strlen(category_names[i])
677 + 1 /* '=' */
678 + strlen(PL_curlocales[i])
679 + 1; /* ';' */
7c93a471
KW
680
681 if (i > 0 && strNE(PL_curlocales[i], PL_curlocales[i-1])) {
682 are_all_categories_the_same_locale = FALSE;
683 }
684 }
685
686 /* If they are the same, we don't actually have to construct the
687 * string; we just make the entry in LC_ALL_INDEX valid, and be
688 * that single name */
689 if (are_all_categories_the_same_locale) {
690 PL_curlocales[LC_ALL_INDEX] = savepv(PL_curlocales[0]);
691 return PL_curlocales[LC_ALL_INDEX];
e9bc6d6b 692 }
7c93a471 693
e9bc6d6b
KW
694 names_len++; /* Trailing '\0' */
695 SAVEFREEPV(Newx(all_string, names_len, char));
696 *all_string = '\0';
697
698 /* Then fill in the string */
699 for (i = 0; i < LC_ALL_INDEX; i++) {
700
701# ifdef DEBUGGING
702
703 if (DEBUG_Lv_TEST || debug_initialization) {
704 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: emulate_setlocale i=%d, name=%s, locale=%s\n", __FILE__, __LINE__, i, category_names[i], PL_curlocales[i]);
705 }
706
707# endif
708
709 my_strlcat(all_string, category_names[i], names_len);
710 my_strlcat(all_string, "=", names_len);
711 my_strlcat(all_string, PL_curlocales[i], names_len);
712 my_strlcat(all_string, ";", names_len);
713 }
714
715# ifdef DEBUGGING
716
717 if (DEBUG_L_TEST || debug_initialization) {
718 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: emulate_setlocale returning %s\n", __FILE__, __LINE__, all_string);
719 }
720
721 #endif
722
723 return all_string;
724 }
725
726# ifdef EINVAL
727
728 SETERRNO(EINVAL, LIB_INVARG);
729
730# endif
731
732 return NULL;
733
d2b24094
KW
734# endif
735
e9bc6d6b
KW
736 }
737
738 assert(PL_C_locale_obj);
739
740 /* Otherwise, we are switching locales. This will generally entail freeing
741 * the current one's space (at the C library's discretion). We need to
742 * stop using that locale before the switch. So switch to a known locale
743 * object that we don't otherwise mess with. This returns the locale
744 * object in effect at the time of the switch. */
745 old_obj = uselocale(PL_C_locale_obj);
746
747# ifdef DEBUGGING
748
749 if (DEBUG_Lv_TEST || debug_initialization) {
750 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: emulate_setlocale was using %p\n", __FILE__, __LINE__, old_obj);
751 }
752
753# endif
754
755 if (! old_obj) {
756
757# ifdef DEBUGGING
758
759 if (DEBUG_L_TEST || debug_initialization) {
760 dSAVE_ERRNO;
761 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: emulate_setlocale switching to C failed: %d\n", __FILE__, __LINE__, GET_ERRNO);
762 RESTORE_ERRNO;
763 }
764
765# endif
766
767 return NULL;
768 }
769
770# ifdef DEBUGGING
771
772 if (DEBUG_Lv_TEST || debug_initialization) {
773 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: emulate_setlocale now using %p\n", __FILE__, __LINE__, PL_C_locale_obj);
774 }
775
776# endif
777
778 /* If we weren't in a thread safe locale, set so that newlocale() below
779 which uses 'old_obj', uses an empty one. Same for our reserved C object.
780 The latter is defensive coding, so that, even if there is some bug, we
781 will never end up trying to modify either of these, as if passed to
782 newlocale(), they can be. */
783 if (old_obj == LC_GLOBAL_LOCALE || old_obj == PL_C_locale_obj) {
784 old_obj = (locale_t) 0;
785 }
786
787 /* Create the new locale (it may actually modify the current one). */
788
789# ifndef HAS_QUERYLOCALE
790
791 if (strEQ(locale, "")) {
792
793 /* For non-querylocale() systems, we do the setting of "" ourselves to
794 * be sure that we really know what's going on. We follow the Linux
795 * documented behavior (but if that differs from the actual behavior,
796 * this won't work exactly as the OS implements). We go out and
797 * examine the environment based on our understanding of how the system
798 * works, and use that to figure things out */
799
800 const char * const lc_all = PerlEnv_getenv("LC_ALL");
801
802 /* Use any "LC_ALL" environment variable, as it overrides everything
803 * else. */
804 if (lc_all && strNE(lc_all, "")) {
805 locale = lc_all;
806 }
807 else {
808
809 /* Otherwise, we need to dig deeper. Unless overridden, the
810 * default is the LANG environment variable; if it doesn't exist,
811 * then "C" */
812
813 const char * default_name;
814
815 /* To minimize other threads messing with the environment, we copy
816 * the variable, making it a temporary. But this doesn't work upon
817 * program initialization before any scopes are created, and at
818 * this time, there's nothing else going on that would interfere.
819 * So skip the copy in that case */
820 if (PL_scopestack_ix == 0) {
821 default_name = PerlEnv_getenv("LANG");
822 }
823 else {
824 default_name = savepv(PerlEnv_getenv("LANG"));
825 }
826
827 if (! default_name || strEQ(default_name, "")) {
929a7f8c 828 default_name = "C";
e9bc6d6b
KW
829 }
830 else if (PL_scopestack_ix != 0) {
831 SAVEFREEPV(default_name);
832 }
833
834 if (category != LC_ALL) {
835 const char * const name = PerlEnv_getenv(category_names[index]);
836
837 /* Here we are setting a single category. Assume will have the
838 * default name */
839 locale = default_name;
840
841 /* But then look for an overriding environment variable */
842 if (name && strNE(name, "")) {
843 locale = name;
844 }
845 }
846 else {
847 bool did_override = FALSE;
848 unsigned int i;
849
850 /* Here, we are getting LC_ALL. Any categories that don't have
851 * a corresponding environment variable set should be set to
852 * LANG, or to "C" if there is no LANG. If no individual
853 * categories differ from this, we can just set LC_ALL. This
854 * is buggy on systems that have extra categories that we don't
855 * know about. If there is an environment variable that sets
856 * that category, we won't know to look for it, and so our use
857 * of LANG or "C" improperly overrides it. On the other hand,
858 * if we don't do what is done here, and there is no
859 * environment variable, the category's locale should be set to
860 * LANG or "C". So there is no good solution. khw thinks the
861 * best is to look at systems to see what categories they have,
862 * and include them, and then to assume that we know the
863 * complete set */
864
865 for (i = 0; i < LC_ALL_INDEX; i++) {
866 const char * const env_override
867 = savepv(PerlEnv_getenv(category_names[i]));
868 const char * this_locale = ( env_override
869 && strNE(env_override, ""))
870 ? env_override
871 : default_name;
6435f98d
KW
872 if (! emulate_setlocale(categories[i], this_locale, i, TRUE))
873 {
874 Safefree(env_override);
875 return NULL;
876 }
e9bc6d6b
KW
877
878 if (strNE(this_locale, default_name)) {
879 did_override = TRUE;
880 }
881
882 Safefree(env_override);
883 }
884
885 /* If all the categories are the same, we can set LC_ALL to
886 * that */
887 if (! did_override) {
888 locale = default_name;
889 }
890 else {
891
892 /* Here, LC_ALL is no longer valid, as some individual
893 * categories don't match it. We call ourselves
894 * recursively, as that will execute the code that
895 * generates the proper locale string for this situation.
896 * We don't do the remainder of this function, as that is
897 * to update our records, and we've just done that for the
898 * individual categories in the loop above, and doing so
899 * would cause LC_ALL to be done as well */
900 return emulate_setlocale(LC_ALL, NULL, LC_ALL_INDEX, TRUE);
901 }
902 }
903 }
904 }
905 else if (strchr(locale, ';')) {
906
907 /* LC_ALL may actually incude a conglomeration of various categories.
908 * Without querylocale, this code uses the glibc (as of this writing)
909 * syntax for representing that, but that is not a stable API, and
910 * other platforms do it differently, so we have to handle all cases
911 * ourselves */
912
f0023d47 913 unsigned int i;
e9bc6d6b
KW
914 const char * s = locale;
915 const char * e = locale + strlen(locale);
916 const char * p = s;
917 const char * category_end;
918 const char * name_start;
919 const char * name_end;
920
f0023d47
KW
921 /* If the string that gives what to set doesn't include all categories,
922 * the omitted ones get set to "C". To get this behavior, first set
923 * all the individual categories to "C", and override the furnished
924 * ones below */
925 for (i = 0; i < LC_ALL_INDEX; i++) {
926 if (! emulate_setlocale(categories[i], "C", i, TRUE)) {
927 return NULL;
928 }
929 }
930
e9bc6d6b 931 while (s < e) {
e9bc6d6b
KW
932
933 /* Parse through the category */
934 while (isWORDCHAR(*p)) {
935 p++;
936 }
937 category_end = p;
938
939 if (*p++ != '=') {
940 Perl_croak(aTHX_
941 "panic: %s: %d: Unexpected character in locale name '%02X",
942 __FILE__, __LINE__, *(p-1));
943 }
944
945 /* Parse through the locale name */
946 name_start = p;
bee74f4b
KW
947 while (p < e && *p != ';') {
948 if (! isGRAPH(*p)) {
949 Perl_croak(aTHX_
950 "panic: %s: %d: Unexpected character in locale name '%02X",
951 __FILE__, __LINE__, *(p-1));
952 }
e9bc6d6b
KW
953 p++;
954 }
955 name_end = p;
956
bee74f4b
KW
957 /* Space past the semi-colon */
958 if (p < e) {
959 p++;
e9bc6d6b
KW
960 }
961
962 /* Find the index of the category name in our lists */
963 for (i = 0; i < LC_ALL_INDEX; i++) {
3c76a412 964 char * individ_locale;
e9bc6d6b
KW
965
966 /* Keep going if this isn't the index. The strnNE() avoids a
967 * Perl_form(), but would fail if ever a category name could be
968 * a substring of another one, like if there were a
969 * "LC_TIME_DATE" */
970 if strnNE(s, category_names[i], category_end - s) {
971 continue;
972 }
973
974 /* If this index is for the single category we're changing, we
975 * have found the locale to set it to. */
976 if (category == categories[i]) {
977 locale = Perl_form(aTHX_ "%.*s",
978 (int) (name_end - name_start),
979 name_start);
980 goto ready_to_set;
981 }
982
3c76a412 983 assert(category == LC_ALL);
bee74f4b
KW
984 individ_locale = Perl_form(aTHX_ "%.*s",
985 (int) (name_end - name_start), name_start);
6435f98d
KW
986 if (! emulate_setlocale(categories[i], individ_locale, i, TRUE))
987 {
988 return NULL;
989 }
e9bc6d6b
KW
990 }
991
992 s = p;
993 }
994
995 /* Here we have set all the individual categories by recursive calls.
996 * These collectively should have fixed up LC_ALL, so can just query
997 * what that now is */
998 assert(category == LC_ALL);
999
1000 return do_setlocale_c(LC_ALL, NULL);
1001 }
1002
1003 ready_to_set: ;
1004
1005# endif /* end of ! querylocale */
1006
1007 /* Ready to create a new locale by modification of the exising one */
1008 new_obj = newlocale(mask, locale, old_obj);
1009
1010 if (! new_obj) {
1011 dSAVE_ERRNO;
1012
1013# ifdef DEBUGGING
1014
1015 if (DEBUG_L_TEST || debug_initialization) {
1016 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: emulate_setlocale creating new object failed: %d\n", __FILE__, __LINE__, GET_ERRNO);
1017 }
1018
1019# endif
1020
1021 if (! uselocale(old_obj)) {
e9bc6d6b
KW
1022
1023# ifdef DEBUGGING
1024
1025 if (DEBUG_L_TEST || debug_initialization) {
1026 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: switching back failed: %d\n", __FILE__, __LINE__, GET_ERRNO);
1027 }
1028
1029# endif
1030
1031 }
1032 RESTORE_ERRNO;
1033 return NULL;
1034 }
1035
1036# ifdef DEBUGGING
1037
1038 if (DEBUG_Lv_TEST || debug_initialization) {
1039 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: emulate_setlocale created %p\n", __FILE__, __LINE__, new_obj);
1040 }
1041
1042# endif
1043
1044 /* And switch into it */
1045 if (! uselocale(new_obj)) {
1046 dSAVE_ERRNO;
1047
1048# ifdef DEBUGGING
1049
1050 if (DEBUG_L_TEST || debug_initialization) {
1051 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: emulate_setlocale switching to new object failed\n", __FILE__, __LINE__);
1052 }
1053
1054# endif
1055
1056 if (! uselocale(old_obj)) {
1057
1058# ifdef DEBUGGING
1059
1060 if (DEBUG_L_TEST || debug_initialization) {
1061 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: switching back failed: %d\n", __FILE__, __LINE__, GET_ERRNO);
1062 }
1063
1064# endif
1065
1066 }
1067 freelocale(new_obj);
1068 RESTORE_ERRNO;
1069 return NULL;
1070 }
1071
1072# ifdef DEBUGGING
1073
1074 if (DEBUG_Lv_TEST || debug_initialization) {
1075 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: emulate_setlocale now using %p\n", __FILE__, __LINE__, new_obj);
1076 }
1077
1078# endif
1079
1080 /* We are done, except for updating our records (if the system doesn't keep
1081 * them) and in the case of locale "", we don't actually know what the
1082 * locale that got switched to is, as it came from the environment. So
1083 * have to find it */
1084
1085# ifdef HAS_QUERYLOCALE
1086
1087 if (strEQ(locale, "")) {
1088 locale = querylocale(mask, new_obj);
1089 }
1090
1091# else
1092
1093 /* Here, 'locale' is the return value */
1094
1095 /* Without querylocale(), we have to update our records */
1096
1097 if (category == LC_ALL) {
1098 unsigned int i;
1099
1100 /* For LC_ALL, we change all individual categories to correspond */
1101 /* PL_curlocales is a parallel array, so has same
1102 * length as 'categories' */
1103 for (i = 0; i <= LC_ALL_INDEX; i++) {
1104 Safefree(PL_curlocales[i]);
1105 PL_curlocales[i] = savepv(locale);
1106 }
1107 }
1108 else {
1109
1110 /* For a single category, if it's not the same as the one in LC_ALL, we
1111 * nullify LC_ALL */
1112
1113 if (PL_curlocales[LC_ALL_INDEX] && strNE(PL_curlocales[LC_ALL_INDEX], locale)) {
1114 Safefree(PL_curlocales[LC_ALL_INDEX]);
1115 PL_curlocales[LC_ALL_INDEX] = NULL;
1116 }
1117
1118 /* Then update the category's record */
1119 Safefree(PL_curlocales[index]);
1120 PL_curlocales[index] = savepv(locale);
1121 }
1122
1123# endif
1124
1125 return locale;
1126}
1127
1128#endif /* USE_POSIX_2008_LOCALE */
1129
1130#if 0 /* Code that was to emulate thread-safe locales on platforms that
1131 didn't natively support them */
1132
1133/* The way this would work is that we would keep a per-thread list of the
1134 * correct locale for that thread. Any operation that was locale-sensitive
1135 * would have to be changed so that it would look like this:
1136 *
1137 * LOCALE_LOCK;
1138 * setlocale to the correct locale for this operation
1139 * do operation
1140 * LOCALE_UNLOCK
1141 *
1142 * This leaves the global locale in the most recently used operation's, but it
1143 * was locked long enough to get the result. If that result is static, it
1144 * needs to be copied before the unlock.
1145 *
1146 * Macros could be written like SETUP_LOCALE_DEPENDENT_OP(category) that did
1147 * the setup, but are no-ops when not needed, and similarly,
1148 * END_LOCALE_DEPENDENT_OP for the tear-down
1149 *
1150 * But every call to a locale-sensitive function would have to be changed, and
1151 * if a module didn't cooperate by using the mutex, things would break.
1152 *
1153 * This code was abandoned before being completed or tested, and is left as-is
1154*/
1155
1156# define do_setlocale_c(cat, locale) locking_setlocale(cat, locale, cat ## _INDEX, TRUE)
1157# define do_setlocale_r(cat, locale) locking_setlocale(cat, locale, 0, FALSE)
1158
1159STATIC char *
1160S_locking_setlocale(pTHX_
1161 const int category,
1162 const char * locale,
1163 int index,
1164 const bool is_index_valid
1165 )
1166{
1167 /* This function kind of performs a setlocale() on just the current thread;
1168 * thus it is kind of thread-safe. It does this by keeping a thread-level
1169 * array of the current locales for each category. Every time a locale is
1170 * switched to, it does the switch globally, but updates the thread's
1171 * array. A query as to what the current locale is just returns the
1172 * appropriate element from the array, and doesn't actually call the system
1173 * setlocale(). The saving into the array is done in an uninterruptible
1174 * section of code, so is unaffected by whatever any other threads might be
1175 * doing.
1176 *
1177 * All locale-sensitive operations must work by first starting a critical
1178 * section, then switching to the thread's locale as kept by this function,
1179 * and then doing the operation, then ending the critical section. Thus,
1180 * each gets done in the appropriate locale. simulating thread-safety.
1181 *
1182 * This function takes the same parameters, 'category' and 'locale', that
1183 * the regular setlocale() function does, but it also takes two additional
1184 * ones. This is because as described earlier. If we know on input the
1185 * index corresponding to the category into the array where we store the
1186 * current locales, we don't have to calculate it. If the caller knows at
1187 * compile time what the index is, it it can pass it, setting
1188 * 'is_index_valid' to TRUE; otherwise the index parameter is ignored.
1189 *
1190 */
1191
1192 /* If the input index might be incorrect, calculate the correct one */
1193 if (! is_index_valid) {
1194 unsigned int i;
1195
1196 if (DEBUG_Lv_TEST || debug_initialization) {
1197 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: converting category %d to index\n", __FILE__, __LINE__, category);
1198 }
1199
1200 for (i = 0; i <= LC_ALL_INDEX; i++) {
1201 if (category == categories[i]) {
1202 index = i;
1203 goto found_index;
1204 }
1205 }
1206
1207 /* Here, we don't know about this category, so can't handle it.
1208 * XXX best we can do is to unsafely set this
1209 * XXX warning */
1210
1211 return my_setlocale(category, locale);
1212
1213 found_index: ;
1214
1215 if (DEBUG_Lv_TEST || debug_initialization) {
1216 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: index is 0x%x\n", __FILE__, __LINE__, index);
1217 }
1218 }
1219
1220 /* For a query, just return what's in our records */
1221 if (new_locale == NULL) {
1222 return curlocales[index];
1223 }
1224
1225
1226 /* Otherwise, we need to do the switch, and save the result, all in a
1227 * critical section */
1228
1229 Safefree(curlocales[[index]]);
1230
1231 /* It might be that this is called from an already-locked section of code.
1232 * We would have to detect and skip the LOCK/UNLOCK if so */
1233 LOCALE_LOCK;
1234
1235 curlocales[index] = savepv(my_setlocale(category, new_locale));
1236
1237 if (strEQ(new_locale, "")) {
1238
1239#ifdef LC_ALL
1240
1241 /* The locale values come from the environment, and may not all be the
1242 * same, so for LC_ALL, we have to update all the others, while the
1243 * mutex is still locked */
1244
1245 if (category == LC_ALL) {
1246 unsigned int i;
1247 for (i = 0; i < LC_ALL_INDEX) {
1248 curlocales[i] = my_setlocale(categories[i], NULL);
1249 }
1250 }
1251 }
1252
1253#endif
1254
1255 LOCALE_UNLOCK;
1256
1257 return curlocales[index];
1258}
1259
1260#endif
837ce802 1261
a4f00dcc 1262STATIC void
86799d2d 1263S_set_numeric_radix(pTHX_ const bool use_locale)
98994639 1264{
86799d2d
KW
1265 /* If 'use_locale' is FALSE, set to use a dot for the radix character. If
1266 * TRUE, use the radix character derived from the current locale */
7d4bcc4a 1267
86799d2d
KW
1268#if defined(USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC) && ( defined(HAS_LOCALECONV) \
1269 || defined(HAS_NL_LANGINFO))
98994639 1270
87f8e8e7 1271 const char * radix = (use_locale)
4e6826bf 1272 ? my_nl_langinfo(RADIXCHAR, FALSE)
87f8e8e7
KW
1273 /* FALSE => already in dest locale */
1274 : ".";
2213a3be 1275
87f8e8e7 1276 sv_setpv(PL_numeric_radix_sv, radix);
86799d2d 1277
87f8e8e7
KW
1278 /* If this is valid UTF-8 that isn't totally ASCII, and we are in
1279 * a UTF-8 locale, then mark the radix as being in UTF-8 */
1280 if (is_utf8_non_invariant_string((U8 *) SvPVX(PL_numeric_radix_sv),
7a393424 1281 SvCUR(PL_numeric_radix_sv))
87f8e8e7
KW
1282 && _is_cur_LC_category_utf8(LC_NUMERIC))
1283 {
1284 SvUTF8_on(PL_numeric_radix_sv);
1285 }
86799d2d
KW
1286
1287# ifdef DEBUGGING
7d4bcc4a 1288
2fcc0ca9
KW
1289 if (DEBUG_L_TEST || debug_initialization) {
1290 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Locale radix is '%s', ?UTF-8=%d\n",
3ca88433
KW
1291 SvPVX(PL_numeric_radix_sv),
1292 cBOOL(SvUTF8(PL_numeric_radix_sv)));
2fcc0ca9 1293 }
69014004 1294
86799d2d
KW
1295# endif
1296#endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC and can find the radix char */
7d4bcc4a 1297
98994639
HS
1298}
1299
398eeea9
KW
1300STATIC void
1301S_new_numeric(pTHX_ const char *newnum)
98994639 1302{
7d4bcc4a
KW
1303
1304#ifndef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
1305
1306 PERL_UNUSED_ARG(newnum);
1307
1308#else
0d071d52 1309
291a84fb 1310 /* Called after each libc setlocale() call affecting LC_NUMERIC, to tell
0d071d52
KW
1311 * core Perl this and that 'newnum' is the name of the new locale.
1312 * It installs this locale as the current underlying default.
1313 *
1314 * The default locale and the C locale can be toggled between by use of the
5792c642
KW
1315 * set_numeric_underlying() and set_numeric_standard() functions, which
1316 * should probably not be called directly, but only via macros like
0d071d52
KW
1317 * SET_NUMERIC_STANDARD() in perl.h.
1318 *
1319 * The toggling is necessary mainly so that a non-dot radix decimal point
1320 * character can be output, while allowing internal calculations to use a
1321 * dot.
1322 *
1323 * This sets several interpreter-level variables:
bb304765 1324 * PL_numeric_name The underlying locale's name: a copy of 'newnum'
892e6465 1325 * PL_numeric_underlying A boolean indicating if the toggled state is such
7738054c
KW
1326 * that the current locale is the program's underlying
1327 * locale
1328 * PL_numeric_standard An int indicating if the toggled state is such
4c68b815
KW
1329 * that the current locale is the C locale or
1330 * indistinguishable from the C locale. If non-zero, it
1331 * is in C; if > 1, it means it may not be toggled away
7738054c 1332 * from C.
4c68b815
KW
1333 * PL_numeric_underlying_is_standard A bool kept by this function
1334 * indicating that the underlying locale and the standard
1335 * C locale are indistinguishable for the purposes of
1336 * LC_NUMERIC. This happens when both of the above two
1337 * variables are true at the same time. (Toggling is a
1338 * no-op under these circumstances.) This variable is
1339 * used to avoid having to recalculate.
398eeea9 1340 */
0d071d52 1341
b03f34cf 1342 char *save_newnum;
98994639
HS
1343
1344 if (! newnum) {
43c5f42d
NC
1345 Safefree(PL_numeric_name);
1346 PL_numeric_name = NULL;
98994639 1347 PL_numeric_standard = TRUE;
892e6465 1348 PL_numeric_underlying = TRUE;
4c68b815 1349 PL_numeric_underlying_is_standard = TRUE;
98994639
HS
1350 return;
1351 }
1352
b03f34cf 1353 save_newnum = stdize_locale(savepv(newnum));
892e6465 1354 PL_numeric_underlying = TRUE;
4c68b815
KW
1355 PL_numeric_standard = isNAME_C_OR_POSIX(save_newnum);
1356
69c5e0db
KW
1357#ifndef TS_W32_BROKEN_LOCALECONV
1358
4c68b815 1359 /* If its name isn't C nor POSIX, it could still be indistinguishable from
69c5e0db
KW
1360 * them. But on broken Windows systems calling my_nl_langinfo() for
1361 * THOUSEP can currently (but rarely) cause a race, so avoid doing that,
1362 * and just always change the locale if not C nor POSIX on those systems */
4c68b815 1363 if (! PL_numeric_standard) {
4e6826bf 1364 PL_numeric_standard = cBOOL(strEQ(".", my_nl_langinfo(RADIXCHAR,
4c68b815 1365 FALSE /* Don't toggle locale */ ))
4e6826bf 1366 && strEQ("", my_nl_langinfo(THOUSEP, FALSE)));
4c68b815 1367 }
abe1abcf 1368
69c5e0db
KW
1369#endif
1370
4c68b815 1371 /* Save the new name if it isn't the same as the previous one, if any */
b03f34cf 1372 if (! PL_numeric_name || strNE(PL_numeric_name, save_newnum)) {
98994639 1373 Safefree(PL_numeric_name);
b03f34cf 1374 PL_numeric_name = save_newnum;
b03f34cf 1375 }
abe1abcf
KW
1376 else {
1377 Safefree(save_newnum);
1378 }
4c28b29c 1379
4c68b815
KW
1380 PL_numeric_underlying_is_standard = PL_numeric_standard;
1381
7e5377f7 1382# ifdef HAS_POSIX_2008_LOCALE
e1aa2579
KW
1383
1384 PL_underlying_numeric_obj = newlocale(LC_NUMERIC_MASK,
1385 PL_numeric_name,
1386 PL_underlying_numeric_obj);
1387
1388#endif
1389
4c68b815
KW
1390 if (DEBUG_L_TEST || debug_initialization) {
1391 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Called new_numeric with %s, PL_numeric_name=%s\n", newnum, PL_numeric_name);
1392 }
1393
4c28b29c
KW
1394 /* Keep LC_NUMERIC in the C locale. This is for XS modules, so they don't
1395 * have to worry about the radix being a non-dot. (Core operations that
1396 * need the underlying locale change to it temporarily). */
84f1d29f
KW
1397 if (PL_numeric_standard) {
1398 set_numeric_radix(0);
1399 }
1400 else {
1401 set_numeric_standard();
1402 }
4c28b29c 1403
98994639 1404#endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
7d4bcc4a 1405
98994639
HS
1406}
1407
1408void
1409Perl_set_numeric_standard(pTHX)
1410{
7d4bcc4a 1411
98994639 1412#ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
7d4bcc4a 1413
28c1bf33
KW
1414 /* Toggle the LC_NUMERIC locale to C. Most code should use the macros like
1415 * SET_NUMERIC_STANDARD() in perl.h instead of calling this directly. The
1416 * macro avoids calling this routine if toggling isn't necessary according
1417 * to our records (which could be wrong if some XS code has changed the
1418 * locale behind our back) */
0d071d52 1419
837ce802 1420 do_setlocale_c(LC_NUMERIC, "C");
a9b8c0d8 1421 PL_numeric_standard = TRUE;
4c68b815 1422 PL_numeric_underlying = PL_numeric_underlying_is_standard;
86799d2d 1423 set_numeric_radix(0);
7d4bcc4a
KW
1424
1425# ifdef DEBUGGING
1426
2fcc0ca9
KW
1427 if (DEBUG_L_TEST || debug_initialization) {
1428 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
58e4a467 1429 "LC_NUMERIC locale now is standard C\n");
2fcc0ca9 1430 }
98994639 1431
7d4bcc4a 1432# endif
98994639 1433#endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
7d4bcc4a 1434
98994639
HS
1435}
1436
1437void
5792c642 1438Perl_set_numeric_underlying(pTHX)
98994639 1439{
7d4bcc4a 1440
98994639 1441#ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
7d4bcc4a 1442
28c1bf33 1443 /* Toggle the LC_NUMERIC locale to the current underlying default. Most
7d4bcc4a
KW
1444 * code should use the macros like SET_NUMERIC_UNDERLYING() in perl.h
1445 * instead of calling this directly. The macro avoids calling this routine
1446 * if toggling isn't necessary according to our records (which could be
1447 * wrong if some XS code has changed the locale behind our back) */
a9b8c0d8 1448
837ce802 1449 do_setlocale_c(LC_NUMERIC, PL_numeric_name);
4c68b815 1450 PL_numeric_standard = PL_numeric_underlying_is_standard;
892e6465 1451 PL_numeric_underlying = TRUE;
3c62fd46 1452 set_numeric_radix(! PL_numeric_standard);
7d4bcc4a
KW
1453
1454# ifdef DEBUGGING
1455
2fcc0ca9
KW
1456 if (DEBUG_L_TEST || debug_initialization) {
1457 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
58e4a467 1458 "LC_NUMERIC locale now is %s\n",
2fcc0ca9
KW
1459 PL_numeric_name);
1460 }
98994639 1461
7d4bcc4a 1462# endif
98994639 1463#endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
7d4bcc4a 1464
98994639
HS
1465}
1466
1467/*
1468 * Set up for a new ctype locale.
1469 */
a4f00dcc
KW
1470STATIC void
1471S_new_ctype(pTHX_ const char *newctype)
98994639 1472{
7d4bcc4a
KW
1473
1474#ifndef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
1475
1476 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_NEW_CTYPE;
1477 PERL_UNUSED_ARG(newctype);
1478 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
1479
1480#else
0d071d52 1481
291a84fb 1482 /* Called after each libc setlocale() call affecting LC_CTYPE, to tell
0d071d52
KW
1483 * core Perl this and that 'newctype' is the name of the new locale.
1484 *
1485 * This function sets up the folding arrays for all 256 bytes, assuming
1486 * that tofold() is tolc() since fold case is not a concept in POSIX,
1487 *
1488 * Any code changing the locale (outside this file) should use
9aac5db8
KW
1489 * Perl_setlocale or POSIX::setlocale, which call this function. Therefore
1490 * this function should be called directly only from this file and from
0d071d52
KW
1491 * POSIX::setlocale() */
1492
27da23d5 1493 dVAR;
013f4e03 1494 unsigned int i;
98994639 1495
8b7358b9
KW
1496 /* Don't check for problems if we are suppressing the warnings */
1497 bool check_for_problems = ckWARN_d(WARN_LOCALE) || UNLIKELY(DEBUG_L_TEST);
1498
7918f24d
NC
1499 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_NEW_CTYPE;
1500
215c5139
KW
1501 /* We will replace any bad locale warning with 1) nothing if the new one is
1502 * ok; or 2) a new warning for the bad new locale */
1503 if (PL_warn_locale) {
1504 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(PL_warn_locale);
1505 PL_warn_locale = NULL;
1506 }
1507
c1284011 1508 PL_in_utf8_CTYPE_locale = _is_cur_LC_category_utf8(LC_CTYPE);
31f05a37
KW
1509
1510 /* A UTF-8 locale gets standard rules. But note that code still has to
1511 * handle this specially because of the three problematic code points */
1512 if (PL_in_utf8_CTYPE_locale) {
1513 Copy(PL_fold_latin1, PL_fold_locale, 256, U8);
1514 }
8b7358b9
KW
1515
1516 /* We don't populate the other lists if a UTF-8 locale, but do check that
1517 * everything works as expected, unless checking turned off */
1518 if (check_for_problems || ! PL_in_utf8_CTYPE_locale) {
8c6180a9
KW
1519 /* Assume enough space for every character being bad. 4 spaces each
1520 * for the 94 printable characters that are output like "'x' "; and 5
1521 * spaces each for "'\\' ", "'\t' ", and "'\n' "; plus a terminating
1522 * NUL */
8b7358b9 1523 char bad_chars_list[ (94 * 4) + (3 * 5) + 1 ] = { '\0' };
8c6180a9
KW
1524 bool multi_byte_locale = FALSE; /* Assume is a single-byte locale
1525 to start */
1526 unsigned int bad_count = 0; /* Count of bad characters */
1527
baa60164 1528 for (i = 0; i < 256; i++) {
8b7358b9 1529 if (! PL_in_utf8_CTYPE_locale) {
bd6d0898
KW
1530 if (isupper(i))
1531 PL_fold_locale[i] = (U8) tolower(i);
1532 else if (islower(i))
1533 PL_fold_locale[i] = (U8) toupper(i);
1534 else
1535 PL_fold_locale[i] = (U8) i;
8b7358b9 1536 }
8c6180a9
KW
1537
1538 /* If checking for locale problems, see if the native ASCII-range
1539 * printables plus \n and \t are in their expected categories in
1540 * the new locale. If not, this could mean big trouble, upending
1541 * Perl's and most programs' assumptions, like having a
1542 * metacharacter with special meaning become a \w. Fortunately,
1543 * it's very rare to find locales that aren't supersets of ASCII
1544 * nowadays. It isn't a problem for most controls to be changed
1545 * into something else; we check only \n and \t, though perhaps \r
1546 * could be an issue as well. */
7d4bcc4a 1547 if ( check_for_problems
8c6180a9
KW
1548 && (isGRAPH_A(i) || isBLANK_A(i) || i == '\n'))
1549 {
8b7358b9
KW
1550 bool is_bad = FALSE;
1551 char name[3] = { '\0' };
1552
1553 /* Convert the name into a string */
1554 if (isPRINT_A(i)) {
1555 name[0] = i;
1556 name[1] = '\0';
1557 }
1558 else if (i == '\n') {
1559 my_strlcpy(name, "\n", sizeof(name));
1560 }
1561 else {
1562 my_strlcpy(name, "\t", sizeof(name));
1563 }
1564
1565 /* Check each possibe class */
1566 if (UNLIKELY(cBOOL(isalnum(i)) != cBOOL(isALPHANUMERIC_A(i)))) {
1567 is_bad = TRUE;
1568 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1569 "isalnum('%s') unexpectedly is %d\n",
1570 name, cBOOL(isalnum(i))));
1571 }
1572 if (UNLIKELY(cBOOL(isalpha(i)) != cBOOL(isALPHA_A(i)))) {
1573 is_bad = TRUE;
1574 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1575 "isalpha('%s') unexpectedly is %d\n",
1576 name, cBOOL(isalpha(i))));
1577 }
1578 if (UNLIKELY(cBOOL(isdigit(i)) != cBOOL(isDIGIT_A(i)))) {
1579 is_bad = TRUE;
1580 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1581 "isdigit('%s') unexpectedly is %d\n",
1582 name, cBOOL(isdigit(i))));
1583 }
1584 if (UNLIKELY(cBOOL(isgraph(i)) != cBOOL(isGRAPH_A(i)))) {
1585 is_bad = TRUE;
1586 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1587 "isgraph('%s') unexpectedly is %d\n",
1588 name, cBOOL(isgraph(i))));
1589 }
1590 if (UNLIKELY(cBOOL(islower(i)) != cBOOL(isLOWER_A(i)))) {
1591 is_bad = TRUE;
1592 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1593 "islower('%s') unexpectedly is %d\n",
1594 name, cBOOL(islower(i))));
1595 }
1596 if (UNLIKELY(cBOOL(isprint(i)) != cBOOL(isPRINT_A(i)))) {
1597 is_bad = TRUE;
1598 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1599 "isprint('%s') unexpectedly is %d\n",
1600 name, cBOOL(isprint(i))));
1601 }
1602 if (UNLIKELY(cBOOL(ispunct(i)) != cBOOL(isPUNCT_A(i)))) {
1603 is_bad = TRUE;
1604 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1605 "ispunct('%s') unexpectedly is %d\n",
1606 name, cBOOL(ispunct(i))));
1607 }
1608 if (UNLIKELY(cBOOL(isspace(i)) != cBOOL(isSPACE_A(i)))) {
1609 is_bad = TRUE;
1610 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1611 "isspace('%s') unexpectedly is %d\n",
1612 name, cBOOL(isspace(i))));
1613 }
1614 if (UNLIKELY(cBOOL(isupper(i)) != cBOOL(isUPPER_A(i)))) {
1615 is_bad = TRUE;
1616 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1617 "isupper('%s') unexpectedly is %d\n",
1618 name, cBOOL(isupper(i))));
1619 }
1620 if (UNLIKELY(cBOOL(isxdigit(i))!= cBOOL(isXDIGIT_A(i)))) {
1621 is_bad = TRUE;
1622 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1623 "isxdigit('%s') unexpectedly is %d\n",
1624 name, cBOOL(isxdigit(i))));
1625 }
1626 if (UNLIKELY(tolower(i) != (int) toLOWER_A(i))) {
1627 is_bad = TRUE;
1628 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1629 "tolower('%s')=0x%x instead of the expected 0x%x\n",
1630 name, tolower(i), (int) toLOWER_A(i)));
1631 }
1632 if (UNLIKELY(toupper(i) != (int) toUPPER_A(i))) {
1633 is_bad = TRUE;
1634 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1635 "toupper('%s')=0x%x instead of the expected 0x%x\n",
1636 name, toupper(i), (int) toUPPER_A(i)));
1637 }
1638 if (UNLIKELY((i == '\n' && ! isCNTRL_LC(i)))) {
1639 is_bad = TRUE;
1640 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1641 "'\\n' (=%02X) is not a control\n", (int) i));
1642 }
1643
1644 /* Add to the list; Separate multiple entries with a blank */
1645 if (is_bad) {
1646 if (bad_count) {
1647 my_strlcat(bad_chars_list, " ", sizeof(bad_chars_list));
8c6180a9 1648 }
8b7358b9
KW
1649 my_strlcat(bad_chars_list, name, sizeof(bad_chars_list));
1650 bad_count++;
8c6180a9
KW
1651 }
1652 }
1653 }
1654
7d4bcc4a
KW
1655# ifdef MB_CUR_MAX
1656
8c6180a9 1657 /* We only handle single-byte locales (outside of UTF-8 ones; so if
d35fca5f 1658 * this locale requires more than one byte, there are going to be
8c6180a9 1659 * problems. */
9c8a6dc2
KW
1660 DEBUG_Lv(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1661 "%s:%d: check_for_problems=%d, MB_CUR_MAX=%d\n",
1662 __FILE__, __LINE__, check_for_problems, (int) MB_CUR_MAX));
1663
8b7358b9
KW
1664 if ( check_for_problems && MB_CUR_MAX > 1
1665 && ! PL_in_utf8_CTYPE_locale
ba1a4362
KW
1666
1667 /* Some platforms return MB_CUR_MAX > 1 for even the "C"
1668 * locale. Just assume that the implementation for them (plus
1669 * for POSIX) is correct and the > 1 value is spurious. (Since
1670 * these are specially handled to never be considered UTF-8
1671 * locales, as long as this is the only problem, everything
1672 * should work fine */
1673 && strNE(newctype, "C") && strNE(newctype, "POSIX"))
1674 {
8c6180a9
KW
1675 multi_byte_locale = TRUE;
1676 }
7d4bcc4a
KW
1677
1678# endif
8c6180a9 1679
8b7358b9
KW
1680 if (UNLIKELY(bad_count) || UNLIKELY(multi_byte_locale)) {
1681 if (UNLIKELY(bad_count) && PL_in_utf8_CTYPE_locale) {
1682 PL_warn_locale = Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_
1683 "Locale '%s' contains (at least) the following characters"
578a6a87
KW
1684 " which have\nunexpected meanings: %s\nThe Perl program"
1685 " will use the expected meanings",
8b7358b9 1686 newctype, bad_chars_list);
8b7358b9
KW
1687 }
1688 else {
1689 PL_warn_locale = Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_
8c6180a9 1690 "Locale '%s' may not work well.%s%s%s\n",
780fcc9f 1691 newctype,
8c6180a9
KW
1692 (multi_byte_locale)
1693 ? " Some characters in it are not recognized by"
1694 " Perl."
1695 : "",
1696 (bad_count)
1697 ? "\nThe following characters (and maybe others)"
1698 " may not have the same meaning as the Perl"
1699 " program expects:\n"
1700 : "",
1701 (bad_count)
1702 ? bad_chars_list
1703 : ""
1704 );
8b7358b9
KW
1705 }
1706
b119c2be
KW
1707# ifdef HAS_NL_LANGINFO
1708
1709 Perl_sv_catpvf(aTHX_ PL_warn_locale, "; codeset=%s",
1710 /* parameter FALSE is a don't care here */
4e6826bf 1711 my_nl_langinfo(CODESET, FALSE));
b119c2be
KW
1712
1713# endif
1714
8b7358b9
KW
1715 Perl_sv_catpvf(aTHX_ PL_warn_locale, "\n");
1716
cc9eaeb0 1717 /* If we are actually in the scope of the locale or are debugging,
bddebb56
KW
1718 * output the message now. If not in that scope, we save the
1719 * message to be output at the first operation using this locale,
1720 * if that actually happens. Most programs don't use locales, so
1721 * they are immune to bad ones. */
cc9eaeb0 1722 if (IN_LC(LC_CTYPE) || UNLIKELY(DEBUG_L_TEST)) {
780fcc9f 1723
780fcc9f
KW
1724 /* The '0' below suppresses a bogus gcc compiler warning */
1725 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_LOCALE), SvPVX(PL_warn_locale), 0);
bddebb56 1726
bddebb56
KW
1727 if (IN_LC(LC_CTYPE)) {
1728 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(PL_warn_locale);
1729 PL_warn_locale = NULL;
1730 }
780fcc9f 1731 }
baa60164 1732 }
31f05a37 1733 }
98994639
HS
1734
1735#endif /* USE_LOCALE_CTYPE */
7d4bcc4a 1736
98994639
HS
1737}
1738
98994639 1739void
2726666d
KW
1740Perl__warn_problematic_locale()
1741{
2726666d
KW
1742
1743#ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
1744
5f04a188
KW
1745 dTHX;
1746
1747 /* Internal-to-core function that outputs the message in PL_warn_locale,
1748 * and then NULLS it. Should be called only through the macro
1749 * _CHECK_AND_WARN_PROBLEMATIC_LOCALE */
1750
2726666d 1751 if (PL_warn_locale) {
2726666d
KW
1752 Perl_ck_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_LOCALE),
1753 SvPVX(PL_warn_locale),
1754 0 /* dummy to avoid compiler warning */ );
2726666d
KW
1755 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(PL_warn_locale);
1756 PL_warn_locale = NULL;
1757 }
1758
1759#endif
1760
1761}
1762
a4f00dcc
KW
1763STATIC void
1764S_new_collate(pTHX_ const char *newcoll)
98994639 1765{
7d4bcc4a
KW
1766
1767#ifndef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
1768
1769 PERL_UNUSED_ARG(newcoll);
1770 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
1771
1772#else
0d071d52 1773
291a84fb 1774 /* Called after each libc setlocale() call affecting LC_COLLATE, to tell
0d071d52
KW
1775 * core Perl this and that 'newcoll' is the name of the new locale.
1776 *
d35fca5f
KW
1777 * The design of locale collation is that every locale change is given an
1778 * index 'PL_collation_ix'. The first time a string particpates in an
1779 * operation that requires collation while locale collation is active, it
1780 * is given PERL_MAGIC_collxfrm magic (via sv_collxfrm_flags()). That
1781 * magic includes the collation index, and the transformation of the string
1782 * by strxfrm(), q.v. That transformation is used when doing comparisons,
1783 * instead of the string itself. If a string changes, the magic is
1784 * cleared. The next time the locale changes, the index is incremented,
1785 * and so we know during a comparison that the transformation is not
1786 * necessarily still valid, and so is recomputed. Note that if the locale
1787 * changes enough times, the index could wrap (a U32), and it is possible
1788 * that a transformation would improperly be considered valid, leading to
1789 * an unlikely bug */
0d071d52 1790
98994639
HS
1791 if (! newcoll) {
1792 if (PL_collation_name) {
1793 ++PL_collation_ix;
1794 Safefree(PL_collation_name);
1795 PL_collation_name = NULL;
1796 }
1797 PL_collation_standard = TRUE;
00bf60ca 1798 is_standard_collation:
98994639
HS
1799 PL_collxfrm_base = 0;
1800 PL_collxfrm_mult = 2;
165a1c52 1801 PL_in_utf8_COLLATE_locale = FALSE;
f28f4d2a 1802 PL_strxfrm_NUL_replacement = '\0';
a4a439fb 1803 PL_strxfrm_max_cp = 0;
98994639
HS
1804 return;
1805 }
1806
d35fca5f 1807 /* If this is not the same locale as currently, set the new one up */
98994639
HS
1808 if (! PL_collation_name || strNE(PL_collation_name, newcoll)) {
1809 ++PL_collation_ix;
1810 Safefree(PL_collation_name);
1811 PL_collation_name = stdize_locale(savepv(newcoll));
a39edc4c 1812 PL_collation_standard = isNAME_C_OR_POSIX(newcoll);
00bf60ca
KW
1813 if (PL_collation_standard) {
1814 goto is_standard_collation;
1815 }
98994639 1816
165a1c52 1817 PL_in_utf8_COLLATE_locale = _is_cur_LC_category_utf8(LC_COLLATE);
f28f4d2a 1818 PL_strxfrm_NUL_replacement = '\0';
a4a439fb 1819 PL_strxfrm_max_cp = 0;
165a1c52 1820
59c018b9
KW
1821 /* A locale collation definition includes primary, secondary, tertiary,
1822 * etc. weights for each character. To sort, the primary weights are
1823 * used, and only if they compare equal, then the secondary weights are
1824 * used, and only if they compare equal, then the tertiary, etc.
1825 *
1826 * strxfrm() works by taking the input string, say ABC, and creating an
1827 * output transformed string consisting of first the primary weights,
1828 * A¹B¹C¹ followed by the secondary ones, A²B²C²; and then the
1829 * tertiary, etc, yielding A¹B¹C¹ A²B²C² A³B³C³ .... Some characters
1830 * may not have weights at every level. In our example, let's say B
1831 * doesn't have a tertiary weight, and A doesn't have a secondary
1832 * weight. The constructed string is then going to be
1833 * A¹B¹C¹ B²C² A³C³ ....
1834 * This has the desired effect that strcmp() will look at the secondary
1835 * or tertiary weights only if the strings compare equal at all higher
1836 * priority weights. The spaces shown here, like in
c342d20e 1837 * "A¹B¹C¹ A²B²C² "
59c018b9
KW
1838 * are not just for readability. In the general case, these must
1839 * actually be bytes, which we will call here 'separator weights'; and
1840 * they must be smaller than any other weight value, but since these
1841 * are C strings, only the terminating one can be a NUL (some
1842 * implementations may include a non-NUL separator weight just before
1843 * the NUL). Implementations tend to reserve 01 for the separator
1844 * weights. They are needed so that a shorter string's secondary
1845 * weights won't be misconstrued as primary weights of a longer string,
1846 * etc. By making them smaller than any other weight, the shorter
1847 * string will sort first. (Actually, if all secondary weights are
1848 * smaller than all primary ones, there is no need for a separator
1849 * weight between those two levels, etc.)
1850 *
1851 * The length of the transformed string is roughly a linear function of
1852 * the input string. It's not exactly linear because some characters
1853 * don't have weights at all levels. When we call strxfrm() we have to
1854 * allocate some memory to hold the transformed string. The
1855 * calculations below try to find coefficients 'm' and 'b' for this
1856 * locale so that m*x + b equals how much space we need, given the size
1857 * of the input string in 'x'. If we calculate too small, we increase
1858 * the size as needed, and call strxfrm() again, but it is better to
1859 * get it right the first time to avoid wasted expensive string
1860 * transformations. */
1861
98994639 1862 {
79f120c8
KW
1863 /* We use the string below to find how long the tranformation of it
1864 * is. Almost all locales are supersets of ASCII, or at least the
1865 * ASCII letters. We use all of them, half upper half lower,
1866 * because if we used fewer, we might hit just the ones that are
1867 * outliers in a particular locale. Most of the strings being
1868 * collated will contain a preponderance of letters, and even if
1869 * they are above-ASCII, they are likely to have the same number of
1870 * weight levels as the ASCII ones. It turns out that digits tend
1871 * to have fewer levels, and some punctuation has more, but those
1872 * are relatively sparse in text, and khw believes this gives a
1873 * reasonable result, but it could be changed if experience so
1874 * dictates. */
1875 const char longer[] = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMnopqrstuvwxyz";
1876 char * x_longer; /* Transformed 'longer' */
1877 Size_t x_len_longer; /* Length of 'x_longer' */
1878
1879 char * x_shorter; /* We also transform a substring of 'longer' */
1880 Size_t x_len_shorter;
1881
a4a439fb 1882 /* _mem_collxfrm() is used get the transformation (though here we
79f120c8
KW
1883 * are interested only in its length). It is used because it has
1884 * the intelligence to handle all cases, but to work, it needs some
1885 * values of 'm' and 'b' to get it started. For the purposes of
1886 * this calculation we use a very conservative estimate of 'm' and
1887 * 'b'. This assumes a weight can be multiple bytes, enough to
1888 * hold any UV on the platform, and there are 5 levels, 4 weight
1889 * bytes, and a trailing NUL. */
1890 PL_collxfrm_base = 5;
1891 PL_collxfrm_mult = 5 * sizeof(UV);
1892
1893 /* Find out how long the transformation really is */
a4a439fb
KW
1894 x_longer = _mem_collxfrm(longer,
1895 sizeof(longer) - 1,
1896 &x_len_longer,
1897
1898 /* We avoid converting to UTF-8 in the
1899 * called function by telling it the
1900 * string is in UTF-8 if the locale is a
1901 * UTF-8 one. Since the string passed
1902 * here is invariant under UTF-8, we can
1903 * claim it's UTF-8 even though it isn't.
1904 * */
1905 PL_in_utf8_COLLATE_locale);
79f120c8
KW
1906 Safefree(x_longer);
1907
1908 /* Find out how long the transformation of a substring of 'longer'
1909 * is. Together the lengths of these transformations are
1910 * sufficient to calculate 'm' and 'b'. The substring is all of
1911 * 'longer' except the first character. This minimizes the chances
1912 * of being swayed by outliers */
a4a439fb 1913 x_shorter = _mem_collxfrm(longer + 1,
79f120c8 1914 sizeof(longer) - 2,
a4a439fb
KW
1915 &x_len_shorter,
1916 PL_in_utf8_COLLATE_locale);
79f120c8
KW
1917 Safefree(x_shorter);
1918
1919 /* If the results are nonsensical for this simple test, the whole
1920 * locale definition is suspect. Mark it so that locale collation
1921 * is not active at all for it. XXX Should we warn? */
1922 if ( x_len_shorter == 0
1923 || x_len_longer == 0
1924 || x_len_shorter >= x_len_longer)
1925 {
1926 PL_collxfrm_mult = 0;
1927 PL_collxfrm_base = 0;
1928 }
1929 else {
1930 SSize_t base; /* Temporary */
1931
1932 /* We have both: m * strlen(longer) + b = x_len_longer
1933 * m * strlen(shorter) + b = x_len_shorter;
1934 * subtracting yields:
1935 * m * (strlen(longer) - strlen(shorter))
1936 * = x_len_longer - x_len_shorter
1937 * But we have set things up so that 'shorter' is 1 byte smaller
1938 * than 'longer'. Hence:
1939 * m = x_len_longer - x_len_shorter
1940 *
1941 * But if something went wrong, make sure the multiplier is at
1942 * least 1.
1943 */
1944 if (x_len_longer > x_len_shorter) {
1945 PL_collxfrm_mult = (STRLEN) x_len_longer - x_len_shorter;
1946 }
1947 else {
1948 PL_collxfrm_mult = 1;
1949 }
1950
1951 /* mx + b = len
1952 * so: b = len - mx
1953 * but in case something has gone wrong, make sure it is
1954 * non-negative */
1955 base = x_len_longer - PL_collxfrm_mult * (sizeof(longer) - 1);
1956 if (base < 0) {
1957 base = 0;
1958 }
1959
1960 /* Add 1 for the trailing NUL */
1961 PL_collxfrm_base = base + 1;
1962 }
58eebef2 1963
7d4bcc4a
KW
1964# ifdef DEBUGGING
1965
58eebef2
KW
1966 if (DEBUG_L_TEST || debug_initialization) {
1967 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
b07929e4
KW
1968 "%s:%d: ?UTF-8 locale=%d; x_len_shorter=%zu, "
1969 "x_len_longer=%zu,"
1970 " collate multipler=%zu, collate base=%zu\n",
58eebef2
KW
1971 __FILE__, __LINE__,
1972 PL_in_utf8_COLLATE_locale,
1973 x_len_shorter, x_len_longer,
1974 PL_collxfrm_mult, PL_collxfrm_base);
1975 }
7d4bcc4a
KW
1976# endif
1977
98994639
HS
1978 }
1979 }
1980
1981#endif /* USE_LOCALE_COLLATE */
7d4bcc4a 1982
98994639
HS
1983}
1984
d2b24094 1985#ifdef WIN32
b8cc575c 1986
a4f00dcc 1987STATIC char *
b8cc575c 1988S_win32_setlocale(pTHX_ int category, const char* locale)
b385bb4d
KW
1989{
1990 /* This, for Windows, emulates POSIX setlocale() behavior. There is no
7d4bcc4a
KW
1991 * difference between the two unless the input locale is "", which normally
1992 * means on Windows to get the machine default, which is set via the
1993 * computer's "Regional and Language Options" (or its current equivalent).
1994 * In POSIX, it instead means to find the locale from the user's
1995 * environment. This routine changes the Windows behavior to first look in
1996 * the environment, and, if anything is found, use that instead of going to
1997 * the machine default. If there is no environment override, the machine
1998 * default is used, by calling the real setlocale() with "".
1999 *
2000 * The POSIX behavior is to use the LC_ALL variable if set; otherwise to
2001 * use the particular category's variable if set; otherwise to use the LANG
2002 * variable. */
b385bb4d 2003
175c4cf9 2004 bool override_LC_ALL = FALSE;
89f7b9aa 2005 char * result;
e5f10d49 2006 unsigned int i;
89f7b9aa 2007
b385bb4d 2008 if (locale && strEQ(locale, "")) {
7d4bcc4a
KW
2009
2010# ifdef LC_ALL
2011
b385bb4d
KW
2012 locale = PerlEnv_getenv("LC_ALL");
2013 if (! locale) {
e5f10d49
KW
2014 if (category == LC_ALL) {
2015 override_LC_ALL = TRUE;
2016 }
2017 else {
7d4bcc4a
KW
2018
2019# endif
7d4bcc4a 2020
e5f10d49
KW
2021 for (i = 0; i < NOMINAL_LC_ALL_INDEX; i++) {
2022 if (category == categories[i]) {
2023 locale = PerlEnv_getenv(category_names[i]);
2024 goto found_locale;
2025 }
2026 }
7d4bcc4a 2027
b385bb4d 2028 locale = PerlEnv_getenv("LANG");
481465ea 2029 if (! locale) {
b385bb4d
KW
2030 locale = "";
2031 }
e5f10d49
KW
2032
2033 found_locale: ;
7d4bcc4a
KW
2034
2035# ifdef LC_ALL
2036
e5f10d49 2037 }
b385bb4d 2038 }
7d4bcc4a
KW
2039
2040# endif
2041
b385bb4d
KW
2042 }
2043
89f7b9aa 2044 result = setlocale(category, locale);
48015184
KW
2045 DEBUG_L(STMT_START {
2046 dSAVE_ERRNO;
2047 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: %s\n", __FILE__, __LINE__,
2048 setlocale_debug_string(category, locale, result));
2049 RESTORE_ERRNO;
2050 } STMT_END);
89f7b9aa 2051
481465ea 2052 if (! override_LC_ALL) {
89f7b9aa
KW
2053 return result;
2054 }
2055
dfd77d7a 2056 /* Here the input category was LC_ALL, and we have set it to what is in the
481465ea
KW
2057 * LANG variable or the system default if there is no LANG. But these have
2058 * lower priority than the other LC_foo variables, so override it for each
2059 * one that is set. (If they are set to "", it means to use the same thing
2060 * we just set LC_ALL to, so can skip) */
7d4bcc4a 2061
948523db 2062 for (i = 0; i < LC_ALL_INDEX; i++) {
e5f10d49
KW
2063 result = PerlEnv_getenv(category_names[i]);
2064 if (result && strNE(result, "")) {
2065 setlocale(categories[i], result);
2066 DEBUG_Lv(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: %s\n",
2067 __FILE__, __LINE__,
2068 setlocale_debug_string(categories[i], result, "not captured")));
2069 }
89f7b9aa 2070 }
7d4bcc4a 2071
bbc98134 2072 result = setlocale(LC_ALL, NULL);
48015184
KW
2073 DEBUG_L(STMT_START {
2074 dSAVE_ERRNO;
2075 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: %s\n",
bbc98134 2076 __FILE__, __LINE__,
48015184
KW
2077 setlocale_debug_string(LC_ALL, NULL, result));
2078 RESTORE_ERRNO;
2079 } STMT_END);
89f7b9aa 2080
bbc98134 2081 return result;
b385bb4d
KW
2082}
2083
2084#endif
2085
9aac5db8
KW
2086/*
2087
2088=head1 Locale-related functions and macros
2089
2090=for apidoc Perl_setlocale
2091
2092This is an (almost) drop-in replacement for the system L<C<setlocale(3)>>,
2093taking the same parameters, and returning the same information, except that it
9487427b
KW
2094returns the correct underlying C<LC_NUMERIC> locale. Regular C<setlocale> will
2095instead return C<C> if the underlying locale has a non-dot decimal point
2096character, or a non-empty thousands separator for displaying floating point
2097numbers. This is because perl keeps that locale category such that it has a
2098dot and empty separator, changing the locale briefly during the operations
2099where the underlying one is required. C<Perl_setlocale> knows about this, and
2100compensates; regular C<setlocale> doesn't.
9aac5db8 2101
e9bc6d6b 2102Another reason it isn't completely a drop-in replacement is that it is
9aac5db8 2103declared to return S<C<const char *>>, whereas the system setlocale omits the
163deff3
KW
2104C<const> (presumably because its API was specified long ago, and can't be
2105updated; it is illegal to change the information C<setlocale> returns; doing
2106so leads to segfaults.)
9aac5db8 2107
e9bc6d6b
KW
2108Finally, C<Perl_setlocale> works under all circumstances, whereas plain
2109C<setlocale> can be completely ineffective on some platforms under some
2110configurations.
2111
9aac5db8 2112C<Perl_setlocale> should not be used to change the locale except on systems
e9bc6d6b
KW
2113where the predefined variable C<${^SAFE_LOCALES}> is 1. On some such systems,
2114the system C<setlocale()> is ineffective, returning the wrong information, and
2115failing to actually change the locale. C<Perl_setlocale>, however works
2116properly in all circumstances.
9aac5db8
KW
2117
2118The return points to a per-thread static buffer, which is overwritten the next
2119time C<Perl_setlocale> is called from the same thread.
2120
2121=cut
2122
2123*/
2124
2125const char *
2126Perl_setlocale(const int category, const char * locale)
a4f00dcc
KW
2127{
2128 /* This wraps POSIX::setlocale() */
2129
9aac5db8
KW
2130 const char * retval;
2131 const char * newlocale;
2132 dSAVEDERRNO;
2133 DECLARATION_FOR_LC_NUMERIC_MANIPULATION;
a4f00dcc
KW
2134 dTHX;
2135
a4f00dcc
KW
2136#ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
2137
291a84fb
KW
2138 /* A NULL locale means only query what the current one is. We have the
2139 * LC_NUMERIC name saved, because we are normally switched into the C
9487427b
KW
2140 * (or equivalent) locale for it. For an LC_ALL query, switch back to get
2141 * the correct results. All other categories don't require special
2142 * handling */
a4f00dcc
KW
2143 if (locale == NULL) {
2144 if (category == LC_NUMERIC) {
9aac5db8
KW
2145
2146 /* We don't have to copy this return value, as it is a per-thread
2147 * variable, and won't change until a future setlocale */
2148 return PL_numeric_name;
a4f00dcc
KW
2149 }
2150
7d4bcc4a 2151# ifdef LC_ALL
a4f00dcc 2152
9aac5db8
KW
2153 else if (category == LC_ALL) {
2154 STORE_LC_NUMERIC_FORCE_TO_UNDERLYING();
a4f00dcc
KW
2155 }
2156
7d4bcc4a 2157# endif
a4f00dcc
KW
2158
2159 }
2160
2161#endif
2162
33e5a354
KW
2163 retval = save_to_buffer(do_setlocale_r(category, locale),
2164 &PL_setlocale_buf, &PL_setlocale_bufsize, 0);
9aac5db8
KW
2165 SAVE_ERRNO;
2166
2167#if defined(USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC) && defined(LC_ALL)
2168
2169 if (locale == NULL && category == LC_ALL) {
2170 RESTORE_LC_NUMERIC();
2171 }
2172
2173#endif
a4f00dcc
KW
2174
2175 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
2176 "%s:%d: %s\n", __FILE__, __LINE__,
2177 setlocale_debug_string(category, locale, retval)));
7d4bcc4a 2178
9aac5db8
KW
2179 RESTORE_ERRNO;
2180
2181 if (! retval) {
a4f00dcc
KW
2182 return NULL;
2183 }
2184
9aac5db8 2185 /* If locale == NULL, we are just querying the state */
a4f00dcc 2186 if (locale == NULL) {
a4f00dcc
KW
2187 return retval;
2188 }
a4f00dcc 2189
1159483a
KW
2190 /* Now that have switched locales, we have to update our records to
2191 * correspond. */
a4f00dcc 2192
1159483a 2193 switch (category) {
a4f00dcc 2194
1159483a 2195#ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
a4f00dcc 2196
1159483a
KW
2197 case LC_CTYPE:
2198 new_ctype(retval);
2199 break;
a4f00dcc 2200
1159483a 2201#endif
a4f00dcc
KW
2202#ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
2203
1159483a
KW
2204 case LC_COLLATE:
2205 new_collate(retval);
2206 break;
a4f00dcc 2207
1159483a 2208#endif
a4f00dcc
KW
2209#ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
2210
1159483a
KW
2211 case LC_NUMERIC:
2212 new_numeric(retval);
2213 break;
a4f00dcc 2214
1159483a
KW
2215#endif
2216#ifdef LC_ALL
a4f00dcc 2217
1159483a 2218 case LC_ALL:
a4f00dcc 2219
1159483a
KW
2220 /* LC_ALL updates all the things we care about. The values may not
2221 * be the same as 'retval', as the locale "" may have set things
2222 * individually */
a4f00dcc 2223
1159483a 2224# ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
a4f00dcc 2225
b0bde642 2226 newlocale = savepv(do_setlocale_c(LC_CTYPE, NULL));
1159483a 2227 new_ctype(newlocale);
b0bde642 2228 Safefree(newlocale);
a4f00dcc 2229
1159483a
KW
2230# endif /* USE_LOCALE_CTYPE */
2231# ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
2232
b0bde642 2233 newlocale = savepv(do_setlocale_c(LC_COLLATE, NULL));
1159483a 2234 new_collate(newlocale);
b0bde642 2235 Safefree(newlocale);
a4f00dcc 2236
7d4bcc4a 2237# endif
1159483a 2238# ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
a4f00dcc 2239
b0bde642 2240 newlocale = savepv(do_setlocale_c(LC_NUMERIC, NULL));
1159483a 2241 new_numeric(newlocale);
b0bde642 2242 Safefree(newlocale);
a4f00dcc 2243
1159483a
KW
2244# endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
2245#endif /* LC_ALL */
a4f00dcc 2246
1159483a
KW
2247 default:
2248 break;
a4f00dcc
KW
2249 }
2250
2251 return retval;
2252
f7416781
KW
2253}
2254
2255PERL_STATIC_INLINE const char *
2256S_save_to_buffer(const char * string, char **buf, Size_t *buf_size, const Size_t offset)
2257{
2258 /* Copy the NUL-terminated 'string' to 'buf' + 'offset'. 'buf' has size 'buf_size',
2259 * growing it if necessary */
2260
0b6697c5 2261 Size_t string_size;
f7416781
KW
2262
2263 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SAVE_TO_BUFFER;
2264
0b6697c5
KW
2265 if (! string) {
2266 return NULL;
2267 }
2268
2269 string_size = strlen(string) + offset + 1;
2270
f7416781
KW
2271 if (*buf_size == 0) {
2272 Newx(*buf, string_size, char);
2273 *buf_size = string_size;
2274 }
2275 else if (string_size > *buf_size) {
2276 Renew(*buf, string_size, char);
2277 *buf_size = string_size;
2278 }
2279
2280 Copy(string, *buf + offset, string_size - offset, char);
2281 return *buf;
2282}
2283
2284/*
2285
f7416781
KW
2286=for apidoc Perl_langinfo
2287
ce181bf6 2288This is an (almost) drop-in replacement for the system C<L<nl_langinfo(3)>>,
f7416781
KW
2289taking the same C<item> parameter values, and returning the same information.
2290But it is more thread-safe than regular C<nl_langinfo()>, and hides the quirks
2291of Perl's locale handling from your code, and can be used on systems that lack
2292a native C<nl_langinfo>.
2293
2294Expanding on these:
2295
2296=over
2297
2298=item *
2299
ce181bf6
KW
2300The reason it isn't quite a drop-in replacement is actually an advantage. The
2301only difference is that it returns S<C<const char *>>, whereas plain
2302C<nl_langinfo()> returns S<C<char *>>, but you are (only by documentation)
2303forbidden to write into the buffer. By declaring this C<const>, the compiler
2304enforces this restriction, so if it is violated, you know at compilation time,
2305rather than getting segfaults at runtime.
2306
2307=item *
2308
69e2275e 2309It delivers the correct results for the C<RADIXCHAR> and C<THOUSEP> items,
f7416781
KW
2310without you having to write extra code. The reason for the extra code would be
2311because these are from the C<LC_NUMERIC> locale category, which is normally
9487427b
KW
2312kept set by Perl so that the radix is a dot, and the separator is the empty
2313string, no matter what the underlying locale is supposed to be, and so to get
2314the expected results, you have to temporarily toggle into the underlying
2315locale, and later toggle back. (You could use plain C<nl_langinfo> and
2316C<L</STORE_LC_NUMERIC_FORCE_TO_UNDERLYING>> for this but then you wouldn't get
2317the other advantages of C<Perl_langinfo()>; not keeping C<LC_NUMERIC> in the C
2318(or equivalent) locale would break a lot of CPAN, which is expecting the radix
2319(decimal point) character to be a dot.)
ce181bf6
KW
2320
2321=item *
2322
2323The system function it replaces can have its static return buffer trashed,
2324not only by a subesequent call to that function, but by a C<freelocale>,
2325C<setlocale>, or other locale change. The returned buffer of this function is
2326not changed until the next call to it, so the buffer is never in a trashed
2327state.
f7416781
KW
2328
2329=item *
2330
ce181bf6
KW
2331Its return buffer is per-thread, so it also is never overwritten by a call to
2332this function from another thread; unlike the function it replaces.
2333
2334=item *
2335
2336But most importantly, it works on systems that don't have C<nl_langinfo>, such
2337as Windows, hence makes your code more portable. Of the fifty-some possible
2338items specified by the POSIX 2008 standard,
f7416781 2339L<http://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/basedefs/langinfo.h.html>,
8d72e74e
KW
2340only one is completely unimplemented, though on non-Windows platforms, another
2341significant one is also not implemented). It uses various techniques to
2342recover the other items, including calling C<L<localeconv(3)>>, and
2343C<L<strftime(3)>>, both of which are specified in C89, so should be always be
2344available. Later C<strftime()> versions have additional capabilities; C<""> is
2345returned for those not available on your system.
ce181bf6
KW
2346
2347It is important to note that when called with an item that is recovered by
2348using C<localeconv>, the buffer from any previous explicit call to
2349C<localeconv> will be overwritten. This means you must save that buffer's
c3997e39
KW
2350contents if you need to access them after a call to this function. (But note
2351that you might not want to be using C<localeconv()> directly anyway, because of
2352issues like the ones listed in the second item of this list (above) for
2353C<RADIXCHAR> and C<THOUSEP>. You can use the methods given in L<perlcall> to
2354call L<POSIX/localeconv> and avoid all the issues, but then you have a hash to
2355unpack).
9f0bc911 2356
6201c220
KW
2357The details for those items which may deviate from what this emulation returns
2358and what a native C<nl_langinfo()> would return are specified in
2359L<I18N::Langinfo>.
f7416781 2360
ce181bf6
KW
2361=back
2362
f7416781
KW
2363When using C<Perl_langinfo> on systems that don't have a native
2364C<nl_langinfo()>, you must
2365
2366 #include "perl_langinfo.h"
2367
2368before the C<perl.h> C<#include>. You can replace your C<langinfo.h>
2369C<#include> with this one. (Doing it this way keeps out the symbols that plain
c3997e39
KW
2370C<langinfo.h> would try to import into the namespace for code that doesn't need
2371it.)
f7416781 2372
f7416781
KW
2373The original impetus for C<Perl_langinfo()> was so that code that needs to
2374find out the current currency symbol, floating point radix character, or digit
2375grouping separator can use, on all systems, the simpler and more
2376thread-friendly C<nl_langinfo> API instead of C<L<localeconv(3)>> which is a
2377pain to make thread-friendly. For other fields returned by C<localeconv>, it
2378is better to use the methods given in L<perlcall> to call
2379L<C<POSIX::localeconv()>|POSIX/localeconv>, which is thread-friendly.
2380
2381=cut
2382
2383*/
2384
2385const char *
2386#ifdef HAS_NL_LANGINFO
2387Perl_langinfo(const nl_item item)
2388#else
2389Perl_langinfo(const int item)
2390#endif
2391{
f61748ac
KW
2392 return my_nl_langinfo(item, TRUE);
2393}
2394
59a15af0 2395STATIC const char *
f61748ac
KW
2396#ifdef HAS_NL_LANGINFO
2397S_my_nl_langinfo(const nl_item item, bool toggle)
2398#else
2399S_my_nl_langinfo(const int item, bool toggle)
2400#endif
2401{
ae74815b 2402 dTHX;
0b6697c5 2403 const char * retval;
f7416781 2404
5a854ab3
KW
2405 /* We only need to toggle into the underlying LC_NUMERIC locale for these
2406 * two items, and only if not already there */
4e6826bf 2407 if (toggle && (( item != RADIXCHAR && item != THOUSEP)
5a854ab3
KW
2408 || PL_numeric_underlying))
2409 {
2410 toggle = FALSE;
2411 }
2412
ab340fff 2413#if defined(HAS_NL_LANGINFO) /* nl_langinfo() is available. */
ee90eb2d 2414# if ! defined(HAS_THREAD_SAFE_NL_LANGINFO_L) \
80306bb6
KW
2415 || ! defined(HAS_POSIX_2008_LOCALE) \
2416 || ! defined(DUPLOCALE)
f7416781 2417
ab340fff 2418 /* Here, use plain nl_langinfo(), switching to the underlying LC_NUMERIC
ae74815b
KW
2419 * for those items dependent on it. This must be copied to a buffer before
2420 * switching back, as some systems destroy the buffer when setlocale() is
2421 * called */
f7416781 2422
038d3702
KW
2423 {
2424 DECLARATION_FOR_LC_NUMERIC_MANIPULATION;
2425
b2fee59c 2426 if (toggle) {
038d3702 2427 STORE_LC_NUMERIC_FORCE_TO_UNDERLYING();
b2fee59c 2428 }
f7416781 2429
5acc4454
KW
2430 LOCALE_LOCK; /* Prevent interference from another thread executing
2431 this code section (the only call to nl_langinfo in
2432 the core) */
2433
ee90eb2d 2434
628ff75a
KW
2435 /* Copy to a per-thread buffer, which is also one that won't be
2436 * destroyed by a subsequent setlocale(), such as the
2437 * RESTORE_LC_NUMERIC may do just below. */
0b6697c5
KW
2438 retval = save_to_buffer(nl_langinfo(item),
2439 &PL_langinfo_buf, &PL_langinfo_bufsize, 0);
f7416781 2440
5acc4454
KW
2441 LOCALE_UNLOCK;
2442
b2fee59c 2443 if (toggle) {
038d3702 2444 RESTORE_LC_NUMERIC();
b2fee59c 2445 }
f7416781
KW
2446 }
2447
ab340fff
KW
2448# else /* Use nl_langinfo_l(), avoiding both a mutex and changing the locale */
2449
5a854ab3 2450 {
b2fee59c
KW
2451 bool do_free = FALSE;
2452 locale_t cur = uselocale((locale_t) 0);
ab340fff 2453
b2fee59c
KW
2454 if (cur == LC_GLOBAL_LOCALE) {
2455 cur = duplocale(LC_GLOBAL_LOCALE);
2456 do_free = TRUE;
2457 }
ab340fff 2458
b2fee59c 2459 if (toggle) {
e1aa2579
KW
2460 if (PL_underlying_numeric_obj) {
2461 cur = PL_underlying_numeric_obj;
2462 }
2463 else {
2464 cur = newlocale(LC_NUMERIC_MASK, PL_numeric_name, cur);
2465 do_free = TRUE;
2466 }
b2fee59c 2467 }
ab340fff 2468
628ff75a
KW
2469 /* We have to save it to a buffer, because the freelocale() just below
2470 * can invalidate the internal one */
0b6697c5
KW
2471 retval = save_to_buffer(nl_langinfo_l(item, cur),
2472 &PL_langinfo_buf, &PL_langinfo_bufsize, 0);
ee90eb2d 2473
b2fee59c
KW
2474 if (do_free) {
2475 freelocale(cur);
2476 }
5a854ab3 2477 }
ab340fff 2478
c1566110
KW
2479# endif
2480
0b6697c5 2481 if (strEQ(retval, "")) {
4e6826bf 2482 if (item == YESSTR) {
c1566110
KW
2483 return "yes";
2484 }
4e6826bf 2485 if (item == NOSTR) {
c1566110
KW
2486 return "no";
2487 }
2488 }
2489
0b6697c5 2490 return retval;
ab340fff 2491
f7416781 2492#else /* Below, emulate nl_langinfo as best we can */
43dd6b15
KW
2493
2494 {
2495
f7416781
KW
2496# ifdef HAS_LOCALECONV
2497
43dd6b15 2498 const struct lconv* lc;
628ff75a 2499 const char * temp;
038d3702 2500 DECLARATION_FOR_LC_NUMERIC_MANIPULATION;
f7416781 2501
69c5e0db
KW
2502# ifdef TS_W32_BROKEN_LOCALECONV
2503
2504 const char * save_global;
2505 const char * save_thread;
2506 int needed_size;
2507 char * ptr;
2508 char * e;
2509 char * item_start;
2510
2511# endif
f7416781
KW
2512# endif
2513# ifdef HAS_STRFTIME
2514
43dd6b15
KW
2515 struct tm tm;
2516 bool return_format = FALSE; /* Return the %format, not the value */
2517 const char * format;
f7416781
KW
2518
2519# endif
2520
43dd6b15
KW
2521 /* We copy the results to a per-thread buffer, even if not
2522 * multi-threaded. This is in part to simplify this code, and partly
2523 * because we need a buffer anyway for strftime(), and partly because a
2524 * call of localeconv() could otherwise wipe out the buffer, and the
2525 * programmer would not be expecting this, as this is a nl_langinfo()
2526 * substitute after all, so s/he might be thinking their localeconv()
2527 * is safe until another localeconv() call. */
f7416781 2528
43dd6b15
KW
2529 switch (item) {
2530 Size_t len;
f7416781 2531
8d72e74e 2532 /* This is unimplemented */
4e6826bf 2533 case ERA: /* For use with strftime() %E modifier */
f7416781 2534
43dd6b15
KW
2535 default:
2536 return "";
f7416781 2537
43dd6b15 2538 /* We use only an English set, since we don't know any more */
4e6826bf
KW
2539 case YESEXPR: return "^[+1yY]";
2540 case YESSTR: return "yes";
2541 case NOEXPR: return "^[-0nN]";
2542 case NOSTR: return "no";
2543
8d72e74e
KW
2544 case CODESET:
2545
2546# ifndef WIN32
2547
2548 /* On non-windows, this is unimplemented, in part because of
2549 * inconsistencies between vendors. The Darwin native
2550 * nl_langinfo() implementation simply looks at everything past
2551 * any dot in the name, but that doesn't work for other
2552 * vendors. Many Linux locales that don't have UTF-8 in their
2553 * names really are UTF-8, for example; z/OS locales that do
2554 * have UTF-8 in their names, aren't really UTF-8 */
2555 return "";
2556
2557# else
2558
2559 { /* But on Windows, the name does seem to be consistent, so
2560 use that. */
2561 const char * p;
2562 const char * first;
2563 Size_t offset = 0;
2564 const char * name = my_setlocale(LC_CTYPE, NULL);
2565
2566 if (isNAME_C_OR_POSIX(name)) {
2567 return "ANSI_X3.4-1968";
2568 }
2569
2570 /* Find the dot in the locale name */
2571 first = (const char *) strchr(name, '.');
2572 if (! first) {
2573 first = name;
2574 goto has_nondigit;
2575 }
2576
2577 /* Look at everything past the dot */
2578 first++;
2579 p = first;
2580
2581 while (*p) {
2582 if (! isDIGIT(*p)) {
2583 goto has_nondigit;
2584 }
2585
2586 p++;
2587 }
2588
2589 /* Here everything past the dot is a digit. Treat it as a
2590 * code page */
32a62865
KW
2591 (void) save_to_buffer("CP", &PL_langinfo_buf,
2592 &PL_langinfo_bufsize, 0);
8d72e74e 2593 offset = STRLENs("CP");
f7416781 2594
8d72e74e
KW
2595 has_nondigit:
2596
2597 retval = save_to_buffer(first, &PL_langinfo_buf,
2598 &PL_langinfo_bufsize, offset);
2599 }
2600
2601 break;
2602
2603# endif
f7416781
KW
2604# ifdef HAS_LOCALECONV
2605
4e6826bf 2606 case CRNCYSTR:
f7416781 2607
43dd6b15
KW
2608 /* We don't bother with localeconv_l() because any system that
2609 * has it is likely to also have nl_langinfo() */
291a84fb 2610
69c5e0db
KW
2611 LOCALE_LOCK_V; /* Prevent interference with other threads
2612 using localeconv() */
2613
2614# ifdef TS_W32_BROKEN_LOCALECONV
2615
2616 /* This is a workaround for a Windows bug prior to VS 15.
2617 * What we do here is, while locked, switch to the global
2618 * locale so localeconv() works; then switch back just before
2619 * the unlock. This can screw things up if some thread is
2620 * already using the global locale while assuming no other is.
2621 * A different workaround would be to call GetCurrencyFormat on
2622 * a known value, and parse it; patches welcome
2623 *
2624 * We have to use LC_ALL instead of LC_MONETARY because of
2625 * another bug in Windows */
2626
2627 save_thread = savepv(my_setlocale(LC_ALL, NULL));
2628 _configthreadlocale(_DISABLE_PER_THREAD_LOCALE);
2629 save_global= savepv(my_setlocale(LC_ALL, NULL));
2630 my_setlocale(LC_ALL, save_thread);
2631
2632# endif
5acc4454 2633
43dd6b15
KW
2634 lc = localeconv();
2635 if ( ! lc
2636 || ! lc->currency_symbol
2637 || strEQ("", lc->currency_symbol))
2638 {
69c5e0db 2639 LOCALE_UNLOCK_V;
43dd6b15
KW
2640 return "";
2641 }
f7416781 2642
43dd6b15 2643 /* Leave the first spot empty to be filled in below */
0b6697c5
KW
2644 retval = save_to_buffer(lc->currency_symbol, &PL_langinfo_buf,
2645 &PL_langinfo_bufsize, 1);
43dd6b15
KW
2646 if (lc->mon_decimal_point && strEQ(lc->mon_decimal_point, ""))
2647 { /* khw couldn't figure out how the localedef specifications
2648 would show that the $ should replace the radix; this is
2649 just a guess as to how it might work.*/
a34edee3 2650 PL_langinfo_buf[0] = '.';
43dd6b15
KW
2651 }
2652 else if (lc->p_cs_precedes) {
a34edee3 2653 PL_langinfo_buf[0] = '-';
43dd6b15
KW
2654 }
2655 else {
a34edee3 2656 PL_langinfo_buf[0] = '+';
43dd6b15 2657 }
f7416781 2658
69c5e0db
KW
2659# ifdef TS_W32_BROKEN_LOCALECONV
2660
2661 my_setlocale(LC_ALL, save_global);
2662 _configthreadlocale(_ENABLE_PER_THREAD_LOCALE);
2663 my_setlocale(LC_ALL, save_thread);
2664 Safefree(save_global);
2665 Safefree(save_thread);
2666
2667# endif
2668
2669 LOCALE_UNLOCK_V;
43dd6b15 2670 break;
f7416781 2671
69c5e0db
KW
2672# ifdef TS_W32_BROKEN_LOCALECONV
2673
4e6826bf 2674 case RADIXCHAR:
69c5e0db
KW
2675
2676 /* For this, we output a known simple floating point number to
2677 * a buffer, and parse it, looking for the radix */
2678
2679 if (toggle) {
2680 STORE_LC_NUMERIC_FORCE_TO_UNDERLYING();
2681 }
2682
2683 if (PL_langinfo_bufsize < 10) {
2684 PL_langinfo_bufsize = 10;
2685 Renew(PL_langinfo_buf, PL_langinfo_bufsize, char);
2686 }
2687
2688 needed_size = my_snprintf(PL_langinfo_buf, PL_langinfo_bufsize,
2689 "%.1f", 1.5);
2690 if (needed_size >= (int) PL_langinfo_bufsize) {
2691 PL_langinfo_bufsize = needed_size + 1;
2692 Renew(PL_langinfo_buf, PL_langinfo_bufsize, char);
2693 needed_size = my_snprintf(PL_langinfo_buf, PL_langinfo_bufsize,
2694 "%.1f", 1.5);
2695 assert(needed_size < (int) PL_langinfo_bufsize);
2696 }
2697
2698 ptr = PL_langinfo_buf;
2699 e = PL_langinfo_buf + PL_langinfo_bufsize;
2700
2701 /* Find the '1' */
2702 while (ptr < e && *ptr != '1') {
2703 ptr++;
2704 }
2705 ptr++;
2706
2707 /* Find the '5' */
2708 item_start = ptr;
2709 while (ptr < e && *ptr != '5') {
2710 ptr++;
2711 }
2712
2713 /* Everything in between is the radix string */
2714 if (ptr >= e) {
2715 PL_langinfo_buf[0] = '?';
2716 PL_langinfo_buf[1] = '\0';
2717 }
2718 else {
2719 *ptr = '\0';
2720 Move(item_start, PL_langinfo_buf, ptr - PL_langinfo_buf, char);
2721 }
2722
2723 if (toggle) {
2724 RESTORE_LC_NUMERIC();
2725 }
2726
2727 retval = PL_langinfo_buf;
2728 break;
2729
2730# else
2731
2732 case RADIXCHAR: /* No special handling needed */
2733
2734# endif
2735
4e6826bf 2736 case THOUSEP:
f7416781 2737
43dd6b15 2738 if (toggle) {
038d3702 2739 STORE_LC_NUMERIC_FORCE_TO_UNDERLYING();
c0d737a8 2740 }
f7416781 2741
69c5e0db
KW
2742 LOCALE_LOCK_V; /* Prevent interference with other threads
2743 using localeconv() */
2744
2745# ifdef TS_W32_BROKEN_LOCALECONV
2746
2747 /* This should only be for the thousands separator. A
2748 * different work around would be to use GetNumberFormat on a
2749 * known value and parse the result to find the separator */
2750 save_thread = savepv(my_setlocale(LC_ALL, NULL));
2751 _configthreadlocale(_DISABLE_PER_THREAD_LOCALE);
2752 save_global = savepv(my_setlocale(LC_ALL, NULL));
2753 my_setlocale(LC_ALL, save_thread);
2754# if 0
2755 /* This is the start of code that for broken Windows replaces
2756 * the above and below code, and instead calls
2757 * GetNumberFormat() and then would parse that to find the
2758 * thousands separator. It needs to handle UTF-16 vs -8
2759 * issues. */
2760
2761 needed_size = GetNumberFormatEx(PL_numeric_name, 0, "1234.5", NULL, PL_langinfo_buf, PL_langinfo_bufsize);
2762 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
2763 "%s: %d: return from GetNumber, count=%d, val=%s\n",
2764 __FILE__, __LINE__, needed_size, PL_langinfo_buf));
2765
2766# endif
2767# endif
5acc4454 2768
43dd6b15
KW
2769 lc = localeconv();
2770 if (! lc) {
628ff75a 2771 temp = "";
33394adc 2772 }
43dd6b15 2773 else {
4e6826bf 2774 temp = (item == RADIXCHAR)
43dd6b15
KW
2775 ? lc->decimal_point
2776 : lc->thousands_sep;
628ff75a
KW
2777 if (! temp) {
2778 temp = "";
43dd6b15
KW
2779 }
2780 }
f7416781 2781
0b6697c5
KW
2782 retval = save_to_buffer(temp, &PL_langinfo_buf,
2783 &PL_langinfo_bufsize, 0);
f7416781 2784
69c5e0db
KW
2785# ifdef TS_W32_BROKEN_LOCALECONV
2786
2787 my_setlocale(LC_ALL, save_global);
2788 _configthreadlocale(_ENABLE_PER_THREAD_LOCALE);
2789 my_setlocale(LC_ALL, save_thread);
2790 Safefree(save_global);
2791 Safefree(save_thread);
2792
2793# endif
2794
2795 LOCALE_UNLOCK_V;
5acc4454 2796
43dd6b15 2797 if (toggle) {
038d3702 2798 RESTORE_LC_NUMERIC();
43dd6b15 2799 }
f7416781 2800
43dd6b15 2801 break;
f7416781
KW
2802
2803# endif
2804# ifdef HAS_STRFTIME
2805
43dd6b15
KW
2806 /* These are defined by C89, so we assume that strftime supports
2807 * them, and so are returned unconditionally; they may not be what
2808 * the locale actually says, but should give good enough results
2809 * for someone using them as formats (as opposed to trying to parse
2810 * them to figure out what the locale says). The other format
2811 * items are actually tested to verify they work on the platform */
4e6826bf
KW
2812 case D_FMT: return "%x";
2813 case T_FMT: return "%X";
2814 case D_T_FMT: return "%c";
43dd6b15
KW
2815
2816 /* These formats are only available in later strfmtime's */
4e6826bf 2817 case ERA_D_FMT: case ERA_T_FMT: case ERA_D_T_FMT: case T_FMT_AMPM:
43dd6b15
KW
2818
2819 /* The rest can be gotten from most versions of strftime(). */
4e6826bf
KW
2820 case ABDAY_1: case ABDAY_2: case ABDAY_3:
2821 case ABDAY_4: case ABDAY_5: case ABDAY_6: case ABDAY_7:
2822 case ALT_DIGITS:
2823 case AM_STR: case PM_STR:
2824 case ABMON_1: case ABMON_2: case ABMON_3: case ABMON_4:
2825 case ABMON_5: case ABMON_6: case ABMON_7: case ABMON_8:
2826 case ABMON_9: case ABMON_10: case ABMON_11: case ABMON_12:
2827 case DAY_1: case DAY_2: case DAY_3: case DAY_4:
2828 case DAY_5: case DAY_6: case DAY_7:
2829 case MON_1: case MON_2: case MON_3: case MON_4:
2830 case MON_5: case MON_6: case MON_7: case MON_8:
2831 case MON_9: case MON_10: case MON_11: case MON_12:
43dd6b15
KW
2832
2833 LOCALE_LOCK;
2834
2835 init_tm(&tm); /* Precaution against core dumps */
2836 tm.tm_sec = 30;
2837 tm.tm_min = 30;
2838 tm.tm_hour = 6;
2839 tm.tm_year = 2017 - 1900;
2840 tm.tm_wday = 0;
2841 tm.tm_mon = 0;
2842 switch (item) {
2843 default:
2844 LOCALE_UNLOCK;
2845 Perl_croak(aTHX_
2846 "panic: %s: %d: switch case: %d problem",
2847 __FILE__, __LINE__, item);
2848 NOT_REACHED; /* NOTREACHED */
2849
4e6826bf
KW
2850 case PM_STR: tm.tm_hour = 18;
2851 case AM_STR:
43dd6b15
KW
2852 format = "%p";
2853 break;
2854
4e6826bf
KW
2855 case ABDAY_7: tm.tm_wday++;
2856 case ABDAY_6: tm.tm_wday++;
2857 case ABDAY_5: tm.tm_wday++;
2858 case ABDAY_4: tm.tm_wday++;
2859 case ABDAY_3: tm.tm_wday++;
2860 case ABDAY_2: tm.tm_wday++;
2861 case ABDAY_1:
43dd6b15
KW
2862 format = "%a";
2863 break;
2864
4e6826bf
KW
2865 case DAY_7: tm.tm_wday++;
2866 case DAY_6: tm.tm_wday++;
2867 case DAY_5: tm.tm_wday++;
2868 case DAY_4: tm.tm_wday++;
2869 case DAY_3: tm.tm_wday++;
2870 case DAY_2: tm.tm_wday++;
2871 case DAY_1:
43dd6b15
KW
2872 format = "%A";
2873 break;
2874
4e6826bf
KW
2875 case ABMON_12: tm.tm_mon++;
2876 case ABMON_11: tm.tm_mon++;
2877 case ABMON_10: tm.tm_mon++;
2878 case ABMON_9: tm.tm_mon++;
2879 case ABMON_8: tm.tm_mon++;
2880 case ABMON_7: tm.tm_mon++;
2881 case ABMON_6: tm.tm_mon++;
2882 case ABMON_5: tm.tm_mon++;
2883 case ABMON_4: tm.tm_mon++;
2884 case ABMON_3: tm.tm_mon++;
2885 case ABMON_2: tm.tm_mon++;
2886 case ABMON_1:
43dd6b15
KW
2887 format = "%b";
2888 break;
2889
4e6826bf
KW
2890 case MON_12: tm.tm_mon++;
2891 case MON_11: tm.tm_mon++;
2892 case MON_10: tm.tm_mon++;
2893 case MON_9: tm.tm_mon++;
2894 case MON_8: tm.tm_mon++;
2895 case MON_7: tm.tm_mon++;
2896 case MON_6: tm.tm_mon++;
2897 case MON_5: tm.tm_mon++;
2898 case MON_4: tm.tm_mon++;
2899 case MON_3: tm.tm_mon++;
2900 case MON_2: tm.tm_mon++;
2901 case MON_1:
43dd6b15
KW
2902 format = "%B";
2903 break;
2904
4e6826bf 2905 case T_FMT_AMPM:
43dd6b15
KW
2906 format = "%r";
2907 return_format = TRUE;
2908 break;
2909
4e6826bf 2910 case ERA_D_FMT:
43dd6b15
KW
2911 format = "%Ex";
2912 return_format = TRUE;
2913 break;
2914
4e6826bf 2915 case ERA_T_FMT:
43dd6b15
KW
2916 format = "%EX";
2917 return_format = TRUE;
2918 break;
2919
4e6826bf 2920 case ERA_D_T_FMT:
43dd6b15
KW
2921 format = "%Ec";
2922 return_format = TRUE;
2923 break;
2924
4e6826bf 2925 case ALT_DIGITS:
43dd6b15
KW
2926 tm.tm_wday = 0;
2927 format = "%Ow"; /* Find the alternate digit for 0 */
2928 break;
2929 }
f7416781 2930
43dd6b15
KW
2931 /* We can't use my_strftime() because it doesn't look at
2932 * tm_wday */
2933 while (0 == strftime(PL_langinfo_buf, PL_langinfo_bufsize,
2934 format, &tm))
2935 {
2936 /* A zero return means one of:
2937 * a) there wasn't enough space in PL_langinfo_buf
2938 * b) the format, like a plain %p, returns empty
2939 * c) it was an illegal format, though some
2940 * implementations of strftime will just return the
2941 * illegal format as a plain character sequence.
2942 *
2943 * To quickly test for case 'b)', try again but precede
2944 * the format with a plain character. If that result is
2945 * still empty, the problem is either 'a)' or 'c)' */
2946
2947 Size_t format_size = strlen(format) + 1;
2948 Size_t mod_size = format_size + 1;
2949 char * mod_format;
2950 char * temp_result;
2951
2952 Newx(mod_format, mod_size, char);
2953 Newx(temp_result, PL_langinfo_bufsize, char);
6873aa47 2954 *mod_format = ' ';
43dd6b15
KW
2955 my_strlcpy(mod_format + 1, format, mod_size);
2956 len = strftime(temp_result,
2957 PL_langinfo_bufsize,
2958 mod_format, &tm);
2959 Safefree(mod_format);
2960 Safefree(temp_result);
2961
2962 /* If 'len' is non-zero, it means that we had a case like
2963 * %p which means the current locale doesn't use a.m. or
2964 * p.m., and that is valid */
2965 if (len == 0) {
2966
2967 /* Here, still didn't work. If we get well beyond a
2968 * reasonable size, bail out to prevent an infinite
2969 * loop. */
2970
2971 if (PL_langinfo_bufsize > 100 * format_size) {
2972 *PL_langinfo_buf = '\0';
2973 }
2974 else {
2975 /* Double the buffer size to retry; Add 1 in case
2976 * original was 0, so we aren't stuck at 0. */
2977 PL_langinfo_bufsize *= 2;
2978 PL_langinfo_bufsize++;
2979 Renew(PL_langinfo_buf, PL_langinfo_bufsize, char);
2980 continue;
2981 }
2982 }
f7416781 2983
f7416781 2984 break;
43dd6b15 2985 }
f7416781 2986
43dd6b15
KW
2987 /* Here, we got a result.
2988 *
2989 * If the item is 'ALT_DIGITS', PL_langinfo_buf contains the
2990 * alternate format for wday 0. If the value is the same as
2991 * the normal 0, there isn't an alternate, so clear the buffer.
2992 * */
4e6826bf 2993 if ( item == ALT_DIGITS
43dd6b15
KW
2994 && strEQ(PL_langinfo_buf, "0"))
2995 {
2996 *PL_langinfo_buf = '\0';
2997 }
f7416781 2998
43dd6b15
KW
2999 /* ALT_DIGITS is problematic. Experiments on it showed that
3000 * strftime() did not always work properly when going from
3001 * alt-9 to alt-10. Only a few locales have this item defined,
3002 * and in all of them on Linux that khw was able to find,
3003 * nl_langinfo() merely returned the alt-0 character, possibly
3004 * doubled. Most Unicode digits are in blocks of 10
3005 * consecutive code points, so that is sufficient information
3006 * for those scripts, as we can infer alt-1, alt-2, .... But
3007 * for a Japanese locale, a CJK ideographic 0 is returned, and
3008 * the CJK digits are not in code point order, so you can't
3009 * really infer anything. The localedef for this locale did
3010 * specify the succeeding digits, so that strftime() works
3011 * properly on them, without needing to infer anything. But
3012 * the nl_langinfo() return did not give sufficient information
3013 * for the caller to understand what's going on. So until
3014 * there is evidence that it should work differently, this
3015 * returns the alt-0 string for ALT_DIGITS.
3016 *
3017 * wday was chosen because its range is all a single digit.
3018 * Things like tm_sec have two digits as the minimum: '00' */
f7416781 3019
43dd6b15 3020 LOCALE_UNLOCK;
f7416781 3021
d1b150d9
KW
3022 retval = PL_langinfo_buf;
3023
43dd6b15
KW
3024 /* If to return the format, not the value, overwrite the buffer
3025 * with it. But some strftime()s will keep the original format
3026 * if illegal, so change those to "" */
3027 if (return_format) {
3028 if (strEQ(PL_langinfo_buf, format)) {
f7416781
KW
3029 *PL_langinfo_buf = '\0';
3030 }
43dd6b15 3031 else {
0b6697c5
KW
3032 retval = save_to_buffer(format, &PL_langinfo_buf,
3033 &PL_langinfo_bufsize, 0);
f7416781
KW
3034 }
3035 }
3036
3037 break;
f7416781
KW
3038
3039# endif
3040
43dd6b15 3041 }
f7416781
KW
3042 }
3043
0b6697c5 3044 return retval;
f7416781
KW
3045
3046#endif
3047
a4f00dcc 3048}
b385bb4d 3049
98994639
HS
3050/*
3051 * Initialize locale awareness.
3052 */
3053int
3054Perl_init_i18nl10n(pTHX_ int printwarn)
3055{
0e92a118
KW
3056 /* printwarn is
3057 *
3058 * 0 if not to output warning when setup locale is bad
3059 * 1 if to output warning based on value of PERL_BADLANG
3060 * >1 if to output regardless of PERL_BADLANG
3061 *
3062 * returns
98994639 3063 * 1 = set ok or not applicable,
0e92a118
KW
3064 * 0 = fallback to a locale of lower priority
3065 * -1 = fallback to all locales failed, not even to the C locale
6b058d42
KW
3066 *
3067 * Under -DDEBUGGING, if the environment variable PERL_DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT is
3068 * set, debugging information is output.
3069 *
3070 * This looks more complicated than it is, mainly due to the #ifdefs.
3071 *
3072 * We try to set LC_ALL to the value determined by the environment. If
3073 * there is no LC_ALL on this platform, we try the individual categories we
3074 * know about. If this works, we are done.
3075 *
3076 * But if it doesn't work, we have to do something else. We search the
3077 * environment variables ourselves instead of relying on the system to do
3078 * it. We look at, in order, LC_ALL, LANG, a system default locale (if we
3079 * think there is one), and the ultimate fallback "C". This is all done in
3080 * the same loop as above to avoid duplicating code, but it makes things
7d4bcc4a
KW
3081 * more complex. The 'trial_locales' array is initialized with just one
3082 * element; it causes the behavior described in the paragraph above this to
3083 * happen. If that fails, we add elements to 'trial_locales', and do extra
3084 * loop iterations to cause the behavior described in this paragraph.
6b058d42
KW
3085 *
3086 * On Ultrix, the locale MUST come from the environment, so there is
3087 * preliminary code to set it. I (khw) am not sure that it is necessary,
3088 * and that this couldn't be folded into the loop, but barring any real
3089 * platforms to test on, it's staying as-is
3090 *
3091 * A slight complication is that in embedded Perls, the locale may already
3092 * be set-up, and we don't want to get it from the normal environment
3093 * variables. This is handled by having a special environment variable
3094 * indicate we're in this situation. We simply set setlocale's 2nd
3095 * parameter to be a NULL instead of "". That indicates to setlocale that
3096 * it is not to change anything, but to return the current value,
3097 * effectively initializing perl's db to what the locale already is.
3098 *
3099 * We play the same trick with NULL if a LC_ALL succeeds. We call
3100 * setlocale() on the individual categores with NULL to get their existing
3101 * values for our db, instead of trying to change them.
3102 * */
98994639 3103
0e92a118
KW
3104 int ok = 1;
3105
7d4bcc4a
KW
3106#ifndef USE_LOCALE
3107
3108 PERL_UNUSED_ARG(printwarn);
3109
3110#else /* USE_LOCALE */
7d4bcc4a
KW
3111# ifdef __GLIBC__
3112
175c4cf9 3113 const char * const language = savepv(PerlEnv_getenv("LANGUAGE"));
7d4bcc4a
KW
3114
3115# endif
65ebb059 3116
ccd65d51
KW
3117 /* NULL uses the existing already set up locale */
3118 const char * const setlocale_init = (PerlEnv_getenv("PERL_SKIP_LOCALE_INIT"))
3119 ? NULL
3120 : "";
c3fcd832
KW
3121 const char* trial_locales[5]; /* 5 = 1 each for "", LC_ALL, LANG, "", C */
3122 unsigned int trial_locales_count;
175c4cf9
KW
3123 const char * const lc_all = savepv(PerlEnv_getenv("LC_ALL"));
3124 const char * const lang = savepv(PerlEnv_getenv("LANG"));
98994639 3125 bool setlocale_failure = FALSE;
65ebb059 3126 unsigned int i;
175c4cf9
KW
3127
3128 /* A later getenv() could zap this, so only use here */
3129 const char * const bad_lang_use_once = PerlEnv_getenv("PERL_BADLANG");
3130
3131 const bool locwarn = (printwarn > 1
e5f10d49
KW
3132 || ( printwarn
3133 && ( ! bad_lang_use_once
22ff3130 3134 || (
e5f10d49
KW
3135 /* disallow with "" or "0" */
3136 *bad_lang_use_once
3137 && strNE("0", bad_lang_use_once)))));
ea92aad8 3138
291a84fb 3139 /* setlocale() return vals; not copied so must be looked at immediately */
8de4332b 3140 const char * sl_result[NOMINAL_LC_ALL_INDEX + 1];
291a84fb
KW
3141
3142 /* current locale for given category; should have been copied so aren't
3143 * volatile */
8de4332b 3144 const char * curlocales[NOMINAL_LC_ALL_INDEX + 1];
291a84fb 3145
7d4bcc4a
KW
3146# ifdef WIN32
3147
6bce99ee
JH
3148 /* In some systems you can find out the system default locale
3149 * and use that as the fallback locale. */
7d4bcc4a
KW
3150# define SYSTEM_DEFAULT_LOCALE
3151# endif
3152# ifdef SYSTEM_DEFAULT_LOCALE
3153
65ebb059 3154 const char *system_default_locale = NULL;
98994639 3155
7d4bcc4a 3156# endif
948523db
KW
3157
3158# ifndef DEBUGGING
3159# define DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT(a,b,c)
3160# else
7d4bcc4a 3161
8298454c 3162 DEBUG_INITIALIZATION_set(cBOOL(PerlEnv_getenv("PERL_DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT")));
7d4bcc4a
KW
3163
3164# define DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT(category, locale, result) \
2fcc0ca9
KW
3165 STMT_START { \
3166 if (debug_initialization) { \
3167 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, \
3168 "%s:%d: %s\n", \
3169 __FILE__, __LINE__, \
a4f00dcc 3170 setlocale_debug_string(category, \
2fcc0ca9
KW
3171 locale, \
3172 result)); \
3173 } \
3174 } STMT_END
2fcc0ca9 3175
948523db
KW
3176/* Make sure the parallel arrays are properly set up */
3177# ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
3178 assert(categories[LC_NUMERIC_INDEX] == LC_NUMERIC);
3179 assert(strEQ(category_names[LC_NUMERIC_INDEX], "LC_NUMERIC"));
e9bc6d6b
KW
3180# ifdef USE_POSIX_2008_LOCALE
3181 assert(category_masks[LC_NUMERIC_INDEX] == LC_NUMERIC_MASK);
3182# endif
948523db
KW
3183# endif
3184# ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
3185 assert(categories[LC_CTYPE_INDEX] == LC_CTYPE);
3186 assert(strEQ(category_names[LC_CTYPE_INDEX], "LC_CTYPE"));
e9bc6d6b
KW
3187# ifdef USE_POSIX_2008_LOCALE
3188 assert(category_masks[LC_CTYPE_INDEX] == LC_CTYPE_MASK);
3189# endif
948523db
KW
3190# endif
3191# ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
3192 assert(categories[LC_COLLATE_INDEX] == LC_COLLATE);
3193 assert(strEQ(category_names[LC_COLLATE_INDEX], "LC_COLLATE"));
e9bc6d6b
KW
3194# ifdef USE_POSIX_2008_LOCALE
3195 assert(category_masks[LC_COLLATE_INDEX] == LC_COLLATE_MASK);
3196# endif
948523db
KW
3197# endif
3198# ifdef USE_LOCALE_TIME
3199 assert(categories[LC_TIME_INDEX] == LC_TIME);
3200 assert(strEQ(category_names[LC_TIME_INDEX], "LC_TIME"));
e9bc6d6b
KW
3201# ifdef USE_POSIX_2008_LOCALE
3202 assert(category_masks[LC_TIME_INDEX] == LC_TIME_MASK);
3203# endif
948523db
KW
3204# endif
3205# ifdef USE_LOCALE_MESSAGES
3206 assert(categories[LC_MESSAGES_INDEX] == LC_MESSAGES);
3207 assert(strEQ(category_names[LC_MESSAGES_INDEX], "LC_MESSAGES"));
e9bc6d6b
KW
3208# ifdef USE_POSIX_2008_LOCALE
3209 assert(category_masks[LC_MESSAGES_INDEX] == LC_MESSAGES_MASK);
3210# endif
948523db
KW
3211# endif
3212# ifdef USE_LOCALE_MONETARY
3213 assert(categories[LC_MONETARY_INDEX] == LC_MONETARY);
3214 assert(strEQ(category_names[LC_MONETARY_INDEX], "LC_MONETARY"));
e9bc6d6b
KW
3215# ifdef USE_POSIX_2008_LOCALE
3216 assert(category_masks[LC_MONETARY_INDEX] == LC_MONETARY_MASK);
3217# endif
948523db 3218# endif
9821811f
KW
3219# ifdef USE_LOCALE_ADDRESS
3220 assert(categories[LC_ADDRESS_INDEX] == LC_ADDRESS);
3221 assert(strEQ(category_names[LC_ADDRESS_INDEX], "LC_ADDRESS"));
e9bc6d6b
KW
3222# ifdef USE_POSIX_2008_LOCALE
3223 assert(category_masks[LC_ADDRESS_INDEX] == LC_ADDRESS_MASK);
3224# endif
9821811f
KW
3225# endif
3226# ifdef USE_LOCALE_IDENTIFICATION
3227 assert(categories[LC_IDENTIFICATION_INDEX] == LC_IDENTIFICATION);
3228 assert(strEQ(category_names[LC_IDENTIFICATION_INDEX], "LC_IDENTIFICATION"));
e9bc6d6b
KW
3229# ifdef USE_POSIX_2008_LOCALE
3230 assert(category_masks[LC_IDENTIFICATION_INDEX] == LC_IDENTIFICATION_MASK);
3231# endif
9821811f
KW
3232# endif
3233# ifdef USE_LOCALE_MEASUREMENT
3234 assert(categories[LC_MEASUREMENT_INDEX] == LC_MEASUREMENT);
3235 assert(strEQ(category_names[LC_MEASUREMENT_INDEX], "LC_MEASUREMENT"));
e9bc6d6b
KW
3236# ifdef USE_POSIX_2008_LOCALE
3237 assert(category_masks[LC_MEASUREMENT_INDEX] == LC_MEASUREMENT_MASK);
3238# endif
9821811f
KW
3239# endif
3240# ifdef USE_LOCALE_PAPER
3241 assert(categories[LC_PAPER_INDEX] == LC_PAPER);
3242 assert(strEQ(category_names[LC_PAPER_INDEX], "LC_PAPER"));
e9bc6d6b
KW
3243# ifdef USE_POSIX_2008_LOCALE
3244 assert(category_masks[LC_PAPER_INDEX] == LC_PAPER_MASK);
3245# endif
9821811f
KW
3246# endif
3247# ifdef USE_LOCALE_TELEPHONE
3248 assert(categories[LC_TELEPHONE_INDEX] == LC_TELEPHONE);
3249 assert(strEQ(category_names[LC_TELEPHONE_INDEX], "LC_TELEPHONE"));
e9bc6d6b
KW
3250# ifdef USE_POSIX_2008_LOCALE
3251 assert(category_masks[LC_TELEPHONE_INDEX] == LC_TELEPHONE_MASK);
3252# endif
9821811f 3253# endif
948523db
KW
3254# ifdef LC_ALL
3255 assert(categories[LC_ALL_INDEX] == LC_ALL);
3256 assert(strEQ(category_names[LC_ALL_INDEX], "LC_ALL"));
3257 assert(NOMINAL_LC_ALL_INDEX == LC_ALL_INDEX);
e9bc6d6b
KW
3258# ifdef USE_POSIX_2008_LOCALE
3259 assert(category_masks[LC_ALL_INDEX] == LC_ALL_MASK);
3260# endif
948523db
KW
3261# endif
3262# endif /* DEBUGGING */
47280b20
KW
3263
3264 /* Initialize the cache of the program's UTF-8ness for the always known
3265 * locales C and POSIX */
3266 my_strlcpy(PL_locale_utf8ness, C_and_POSIX_utf8ness,
3267 sizeof(PL_locale_utf8ness));
3268
e9bc6d6b
KW
3269# ifdef USE_THREAD_SAFE_LOCALE
3270# ifdef WIN32
3271
3272 _configthreadlocale(_ENABLE_PER_THREAD_LOCALE);
3273
3274# endif
3275# endif
39e69e77 3276# ifdef USE_POSIX_2008_LOCALE
e9bc6d6b
KW
3277
3278 PL_C_locale_obj = newlocale(LC_ALL_MASK, "C", (locale_t) 0);
3279 if (! PL_C_locale_obj) {
3280 Perl_croak_nocontext(
3281 "panic: Cannot create POSIX 2008 C locale object; errno=%d", errno);
3282 }
3283 if (DEBUG_Lv_TEST || debug_initialization) {
3284 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%s:%d: created C object %p\n", __FILE__, __LINE__, PL_C_locale_obj);
3285 }
3286
3287# endif
3288
3ca88433
KW
3289 PL_numeric_radix_sv = newSVpvs(".");
3290
e9bc6d6b
KW
3291# if defined(USE_POSIX_2008_LOCALE) && ! defined(HAS_QUERYLOCALE)
3292
3293 /* Initialize our records. If we have POSIX 2008, we have LC_ALL */
3294 do_setlocale_c(LC_ALL, my_setlocale(LC_ALL, NULL));
3295
3296# endif
b56c4436 3297# ifdef LOCALE_ENVIRON_REQUIRED
98994639
HS
3298
3299 /*
3300 * Ultrix setlocale(..., "") fails if there are no environment
3301 * variables from which to get a locale name.
3302 */
3303
b56c4436
KW
3304# ifndef LC_ALL
3305# error Ultrix without LC_ALL not implemented
3306# else
7d4bcc4a 3307
b56c4436
KW
3308 {
3309 bool done = FALSE;
ea92aad8
KW
3310 if (lang) {
3311 sl_result[LC_ALL_INDEX] = do_setlocale_c(LC_ALL, setlocale_init);
3312 DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT(LC_ALL, setlocale_init, sl_result[LC_ALL_INDEX]);
3313 if (sl_result[LC_ALL_INDEX])
3314 done = TRUE;
3315 else
e5f10d49 3316 setlocale_failure = TRUE;
ea92aad8
KW
3317 }
3318 if (! setlocale_failure) {
3319 const char * locale_param;
3320 for (i = 0; i < LC_ALL_INDEX; i++) {
3321 locale_param = (! done && (lang || PerlEnv_getenv(category_names[i])))
3322 ? setlocale_init
3323 : NULL;
3324 sl_result[i] = do_setlocale_r(categories[i], locale_param);
3325 if (! sl_result[i]) {
3326 setlocale_failure = TRUE;
3327 }
3328 DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT(categories[i], locale_param, sl_result[i]);
e5f10d49 3329 }
c835d6be 3330 }
7d4bcc4a
KW
3331 }
3332
3333# endif /* LC_ALL */
e5f10d49 3334# endif /* LOCALE_ENVIRON_REQUIRED */
98994639 3335
65ebb059 3336 /* We try each locale in the list until we get one that works, or exhaust
20a240df
KW
3337 * the list. Normally the loop is executed just once. But if setting the
3338 * locale fails, inside the loop we add fallback trials to the array and so
3339 * will execute the loop multiple times */
c3fcd832
KW
3340 trial_locales[0] = setlocale_init;
3341 trial_locales_count = 1;
7d4bcc4a 3342
65ebb059
KW
3343 for (i= 0; i < trial_locales_count; i++) {
3344 const char * trial_locale = trial_locales[i];
3345
3346 if (i > 0) {
3347
3348 /* XXX This is to preserve old behavior for LOCALE_ENVIRON_REQUIRED
3349 * when i==0, but I (khw) don't think that behavior makes much
3350 * sense */
3351 setlocale_failure = FALSE;
3352
7d4bcc4a 3353# ifdef SYSTEM_DEFAULT_LOCALE
291a84fb 3354# ifdef WIN32 /* Note that assumes Win32 has LC_ALL */
7d4bcc4a 3355
65ebb059
KW
3356 /* On Windows machines, an entry of "" after the 0th means to use
3357 * the system default locale, which we now proceed to get. */
3358 if (strEQ(trial_locale, "")) {
3359 unsigned int j;
3360
3361 /* Note that this may change the locale, but we are going to do
3362 * that anyway just below */
837ce802 3363 system_default_locale = do_setlocale_c(LC_ALL, "");
5d1187d1 3364 DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT(LC_ALL, "", system_default_locale);
65ebb059 3365
7d4bcc4a 3366 /* Skip if invalid or if it's already on the list of locales to
65ebb059
KW
3367 * try */
3368 if (! system_default_locale) {
3369 goto next_iteration;
3370 }
3371 for (j = 0; j < trial_locales_count; j++) {
3372 if (strEQ(system_default_locale, trial_locales[j])) {
3373 goto next_iteration;
3374 }
3375 }
3376
3377 trial_locale = system_default_locale;
3378 }
ec0202b5
KW
3379# else
3380# error SYSTEM_DEFAULT_LOCALE only implemented for Win32
3381# endif
7d4bcc4a 3382# endif /* SYSTEM_DEFAULT_LOCALE */
291a84fb
KW
3383
3384 } /* For i > 0 */
65ebb059 3385
7d4bcc4a
KW
3386# ifdef LC_ALL
3387
948523db
KW
3388 sl_result[LC_ALL_INDEX] = do_setlocale_c(LC_ALL, trial_locale);
3389 DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT(LC_ALL, trial_locale, sl_result[LC_ALL_INDEX]);
3390 if (! sl_result[LC_ALL_INDEX]) {
49c85077 3391 setlocale_failure = TRUE;
7cd8b568
KW
3392 }
3393 else {
3394 /* Since LC_ALL succeeded, it should have changed all the other
3395 * categories it can to its value; so we massage things so that the
3396 * setlocales below just return their category's current values.
3397 * This adequately handles the case in NetBSD where LC_COLLATE may
3398 * not be defined for a locale, and setting it individually will
7d4bcc4a 3399 * fail, whereas setting LC_ALL succeeds, leaving LC_COLLATE set to
7cd8b568
KW
3400 * the POSIX locale. */
3401 trial_locale = NULL;
3402 }
7d4bcc4a
KW
3403
3404# endif /* LC_ALL */
98994639 3405
e5f10d49
KW
3406 if (! setlocale_failure) {
3407 unsigned int j;
3408 for (j = 0; j < NOMINAL_LC_ALL_INDEX; j++) {
3409 curlocales[j]
3410 = savepv(do_setlocale_r(categories[j], trial_locale));
3411 if (! curlocales[j]) {
3412 setlocale_failure = TRUE;
3413 }
3414 DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT(categories[j], trial_locale, curlocales[j]);
3415 }
c835d6be 3416
e5f10d49
KW
3417 if (! setlocale_failure) { /* All succeeded */
3418 break; /* Exit trial_locales loop */
49c85077 3419 }
65ebb059 3420 }
98994639 3421
49c85077
KW
3422 /* Here, something failed; will need to try a fallback. */
3423 ok = 0;
65ebb059 3424
49c85077
KW
3425 if (i == 0) {
3426 unsigned int j;
98994639 3427
65ebb059 3428 if (locwarn) { /* Output failure info only on the first one */
7d4bcc4a
KW
3429
3430# ifdef LC_ALL
98994639 3431
49c85077
KW
3432 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
3433 "perl: warning: Setting locale failed.\n");
98994639 3434
7d4bcc4a 3435# else /* !LC_ALL */
98994639 3436
49c85077
KW
3437 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
3438 "perl: warning: Setting locale failed for the categories:\n\t");
7d4bcc4a 3439
e5f10d49
KW
3440 for (j = 0; j < NOMINAL_LC_ALL_INDEX; j++) {
3441 if (! curlocales[j]) {
3442 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log, category_names[j]);
3443 }
3444 else {
3445 Safefree(curlocales[j]);
3446 }
3447 }
7d4bcc4a 3448
7d4bcc4a 3449# endif /* LC_ALL */
98994639 3450
49c85077
KW
3451 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
3452 "perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:\n");
98994639 3453
7d4bcc4a
KW
3454# ifdef __GLIBC__
3455
49c85077
KW
3456 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
3457 "\tLANGUAGE = %c%s%c,\n",
3458 language ? '"' : '(',
3459 language ? language : "unset",
3460 language ? '"' : ')');
7d4bcc4a 3461# endif
98994639 3462
49c85077
KW
3463 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
3464 "\tLC_ALL = %c%s%c,\n",
3465 lc_all ? '"' : '(',
3466 lc_all ? lc_all : "unset",
3467 lc_all ? '"' : ')');
98994639 3468
7d4bcc4a
KW
3469# if defined(USE_ENVIRON_ARRAY)
3470
49c85077 3471 {
cd999af9 3472 char **e;
d5e32b93
KW
3473
3474 /* Look through the environment for any variables of the
3475 * form qr/ ^ LC_ [A-Z]+ = /x, except LC_ALL which was
3476 * already handled above. These are assumed to be locale
3477 * settings. Output them and their values. */
cd999af9 3478 for (e = environ; *e; e++) {
d5e32b93
KW
3479 const STRLEN prefix_len = sizeof("LC_") - 1;
3480 STRLEN uppers_len;
3481
cd999af9 3482 if ( strBEGINs(*e, "LC_")
c8b388b0 3483 && ! strBEGINs(*e, "LC_ALL=")
d5e32b93
KW
3484 && (uppers_len = strspn(*e + prefix_len,
3485 "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ"))
3486 && ((*e)[prefix_len + uppers_len] == '='))
cd999af9
KW
3487 {
3488 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log, "\t%.*s = \"%s\",\n",
d5e32b93
KW
3489 (int) (prefix_len + uppers_len), *e,
3490 *e + prefix_len + uppers_len + 1);
cd999af9
KW
3491 }
3492 }
49c85077 3493 }
7d4bcc4a
KW
3494
3495# else
3496
49c85077
KW
3497 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
3498 "\t(possibly more locale environment variables)\n");
7d4bcc4a
KW
3499
3500# endif
98994639 3501
49c85077
KW
3502 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
3503 "\tLANG = %c%s%c\n",
3504 lang ? '"' : '(',
3505 lang ? lang : "unset",
3506 lang ? '"' : ')');
98994639 3507
49c85077
KW
3508 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
3509 " are supported and installed on your system.\n");
3510 }
98994639 3511
65ebb059 3512 /* Calculate what fallback locales to try. We have avoided this
f6bab5f6 3513 * until we have to, because failure is quite unlikely. This will
65ebb059
KW
3514 * usually change the upper bound of the loop we are in.
3515 *
3516 * Since the system's default way of setting the locale has not
3517 * found one that works, We use Perl's defined ordering: LC_ALL,
3518 * LANG, and the C locale. We don't try the same locale twice, so
3519 * don't add to the list if already there. (On POSIX systems, the
3520 * LC_ALL element will likely be a repeat of the 0th element "",
6b058d42
KW
3521 * but there's no harm done by doing it explicitly.
3522 *
3523 * Note that this tries the LC_ALL environment variable even on
3524 * systems which have no LC_ALL locale setting. This may or may
3525 * not have been originally intentional, but there's no real need
3526 * to change the behavior. */
65ebb059
KW
3527 if (lc_all) {
3528 for (j = 0; j < trial_locales_count; j++) {
3529 if (strEQ(lc_all, trial_locales[j])) {
3530 goto done_lc_all;
3531 }
3532 }
3533 trial_locales[trial_locales_count++] = lc_all;
3534 }
3535 done_lc_all:
98994639 3536
65ebb059
KW
3537 if (lang) {
3538 for (j = 0; j < trial_locales_count; j++) {
3539 if (strEQ(lang, trial_locales[j])) {
3540 goto done_lang;
3541 }
3542 }
3543 trial_locales[trial_locales_count++] = lang;
3544 }
3545 done_lang:
3546
7d4bcc4a
KW
3547# if defined(WIN32) && defined(LC_ALL)
3548
65ebb059
KW
3549 /* For Windows, we also try the system default locale before "C".
3550 * (If there exists a Windows without LC_ALL we skip this because
3551 * it gets too complicated. For those, the "C" is the next
3552 * fallback possibility). The "" is the same as the 0th element of
3553 * the array, but the code at the loop above knows to treat it
3554 * differently when not the 0th */
3555 trial_locales[trial_locales_count++] = "";
7d4bcc4a
KW
3556
3557# endif
65ebb059
KW
3558
3559 for (j = 0; j < trial_locales_count; j++) {
3560 if (strEQ("C", trial_locales[j])) {
3561 goto done_C;
3562 }
3563 }
3564 trial_locales[trial_locales_count++] = "C";
98994639 3565
65ebb059
KW
3566 done_C: ;
3567 } /* end of first time through the loop */
98994639 3568
7d4bcc4a
KW
3569# ifdef WIN32
3570
65ebb059 3571 next_iteration: ;
7d4bcc4a
KW
3572
3573# endif
65ebb059
KW
3574
3575 } /* end of looping through the trial locales */
3576
3577 if (ok < 1) { /* If we tried to fallback */
3578 const char* msg;
3579 if (! setlocale_failure) { /* fallback succeeded */
3580 msg = "Falling back to";
3581 }
3582 else { /* fallback failed */
e5f10d49 3583 unsigned int j;
98994639 3584
65ebb059
KW
3585 /* We dropped off the end of the loop, so have to decrement i to
3586 * get back to the value the last time through */
3587 i--;
98994639 3588
65ebb059
KW
3589 ok = -1;
3590 msg = "Failed to fall back to";
3591
3592 /* To continue, we should use whatever values we've got */
7d4bcc4a 3593
e5f10d49
KW
3594 for (j = 0; j < NOMINAL_LC_ALL_INDEX; j++) {
3595 Safefree(curlocales[j]);
3596 curlocales[j] = savepv(do_setlocale_r(categories[j], NULL));
3597 DEBUG_LOCALE_INIT(categories[j], NULL, curlocales[j]);
3598 }
65ebb059
KW
3599 }
3600
3601 if (locwarn) {
3602 const char * description;
3603 const char * name = "";
3604 if (strEQ(trial_locales[i], "C")) {
3605 description = "the standard locale";
3606 name = "C";
3607 }
7d4bcc4a
KW
3608
3609# ifdef SYSTEM_DEFAULT_LOCALE
3610
65ebb059
KW
3611 else if (strEQ(trial_locales[i], "")) {
3612 description = "the system default locale";
3613 if (system_default_locale) {
3614 name = system_default_locale;
3615 }
3616 }
7d4bcc4a
KW
3617
3618# endif /* SYSTEM_DEFAULT_LOCALE */
3619
65ebb059
KW
3620 else {
3621 description = "a fallback locale";
3622 name = trial_locales[i];
3623 }
3624 if (name && strNE(name, "")) {
3625 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
3626 "perl: warning: %s %s (\"%s\").\n", msg, description, name);
3627 }
3628 else {
3629 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
3630 "perl: warning: %s %s.\n", msg, description);
3631 }
3632 }
3633 } /* End of tried to fallback */
98994639 3634
e5f10d49
KW
3635 /* Done with finding the locales; update our records */
3636
7d4bcc4a
KW
3637# ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
3638
948523db 3639 new_ctype(curlocales[LC_CTYPE_INDEX]);
98994639 3640
e5f10d49 3641# endif
7d4bcc4a
KW
3642# ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
3643
948523db 3644 new_collate(curlocales[LC_COLLATE_INDEX]);
98994639 3645
e5f10d49 3646# endif
7d4bcc4a
KW
3647# ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
3648
948523db 3649 new_numeric(curlocales[LC_NUMERIC_INDEX]);
e5f10d49
KW
3650
3651# endif
3652
948523db 3653 for (i = 0; i < NOMINAL_LC_ALL_INDEX; i++) {
47280b20 3654
e9bc6d6b 3655# if defined(USE_ITHREADS) && ! defined(USE_THREAD_SAFE_LOCALE)
47280b20
KW
3656
3657 /* This caches whether each category's locale is UTF-8 or not. This
3658 * may involve changing the locale. It is ok to do this at
e9bc6d6b
KW
3659 * initialization time before any threads have started, but not later
3660 * unless thread-safe operations are used.
47280b20
KW
3661 * Caching means that if the program heeds our dictate not to change
3662 * locales in threaded applications, this data will remain valid, and
9de6fe47
KW
3663 * it may get queried without having to change locales. If the
3664 * environment is such that all categories have the same locale, this
3665 * isn't needed, as the code will not change the locale; but this
3666 * handles the uncommon case where the environment has disparate
3667 * locales for the categories */
47280b20
KW
3668 (void) _is_cur_LC_category_utf8(categories[i]);
3669
3670# endif
3671
e5f10d49
KW
3672 Safefree(curlocales[i]);
3673 }
b310b053 3674
7d4bcc4a
KW
3675# if defined(USE_PERLIO) && defined(USE_LOCALE_CTYPE)
3676
49c85077 3677 /* Set PL_utf8locale to TRUE if using PerlIO _and_ the current LC_CTYPE
50bf02bd
KW
3678 * locale is UTF-8. The call to new_ctype() just above has already
3679 * calculated the latter value and saved it in PL_in_utf8_CTYPE_locale. If
3680 * both PL_utf8locale and PL_unicode (set by -C or by $ENV{PERL_UNICODE})
3681 * are true, perl.c:S_parse_body() will turn on the PerlIO :utf8 layer on
3682 * STDIN, STDOUT, STDERR, _and_ the default open discipline. */
3683 PL_utf8locale = PL_in_utf8_CTYPE_locale;
49c85077 3684
a05d7ebb 3685 /* Set PL_unicode to $ENV{PERL_UNICODE} if using PerlIO.
fde18df1
JH
3686 This is an alternative to using the -C command line switch
3687 (the -C if present will override this). */
3688 {
dd374669 3689 const char *p = PerlEnv_getenv("PERL_UNICODE");
a05d7ebb 3690 PL_unicode = p ? parse_unicode_opts(&p) : 0;
5a22a2bb
NC
3691 if (PL_unicode & PERL_UNICODE_UTF8CACHEASSERT_FLAG)
3692 PL_utf8cache = -1;
b310b053
JH
3693 }
3694
7d4bcc4a 3695# endif
7d4bcc4a
KW
3696# ifdef __GLIBC__
3697
175c4cf9 3698 Safefree(language);
7d4bcc4a
KW
3699
3700# endif
175c4cf9
KW
3701
3702 Safefree(lc_all);
3703 Safefree(lang);
3704
e3305790 3705#endif /* USE_LOCALE */
2fcc0ca9 3706#ifdef DEBUGGING
7d4bcc4a 3707
2fcc0ca9 3708 /* So won't continue to output stuff */
27cdc72e 3709 DEBUG_INITIALIZATION_set(FALSE);
7d4bcc4a 3710
2fcc0ca9
KW
3711#endif
3712
98994639
HS
3713 return ok;
3714}
3715
98994639
HS
3716#ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
3717
a4a439fb 3718char *
a4a439fb
KW
3719Perl__mem_collxfrm(pTHX_ const char *input_string,
3720 STRLEN len, /* Length of 'input_string' */
3721 STRLEN *xlen, /* Set to length of returned string
3722 (not including the collation index
3723 prefix) */
3724 bool utf8 /* Is the input in UTF-8? */
6696cfa7 3725 )
98994639 3726{
a4a439fb
KW
3727
3728 /* _mem_collxfrm() is a bit like strxfrm() but with two important
3729 * differences. First, it handles embedded NULs. Second, it allocates a bit
3730 * more memory than needed for the transformed data itself. The real
55e5378d 3731 * transformed data begins at offset COLLXFRM_HDR_LEN. *xlen is set to
a4a439fb
KW
3732 * the length of that, and doesn't include the collation index size.
3733 * Please see sv_collxfrm() to see how this is used. */
3734
55e5378d
KW
3735#define COLLXFRM_HDR_LEN sizeof(PL_collation_ix)
3736
6696cfa7
KW
3737 char * s = (char *) input_string;
3738 STRLEN s_strlen = strlen(input_string);
79f120c8 3739 char *xbuf = NULL;
55e5378d 3740 STRLEN xAlloc; /* xalloc is a reserved word in VC */
17f41037 3741 STRLEN length_in_chars;
c664130f 3742 bool first_time = TRUE; /* Cleared after first loop iteration */
98994639 3743
a4a439fb
KW
3744 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__MEM_COLLXFRM;
3745
3746 /* Must be NUL-terminated */
3747 assert(*(input_string + len) == '\0');
7918f24d 3748
79f120c8
KW
3749 /* If this locale has defective collation, skip */
3750 if (PL_collxfrm_base == 0 && PL_collxfrm_mult == 0) {
c7202dee
KW
3751 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
3752 "_mem_collxfrm: locale's collation is defective\n"));
79f120c8
KW
3753 goto bad;
3754 }
3755
6696cfa7
KW
3756 /* Replace any embedded NULs with the control that sorts before any others.
3757 * This will give as good as possible results on strings that don't
3758 * otherwise contain that character, but otherwise there may be
3759 * less-than-perfect results with that character and NUL. This is
fdc080f3 3760 * unavoidable unless we replace strxfrm with our own implementation. */
fd43f63c
KW
3761 if (UNLIKELY(s_strlen < len)) { /* Only execute if there is an embedded
3762 NUL */
6696cfa7
KW
3763 char * e = s + len;
3764 char * sans_nuls;
fdc080f3 3765 STRLEN sans_nuls_len;
94762aa0 3766 int try_non_controls;
afc4976f
KW
3767 char this_replacement_char[] = "?\0"; /* Room for a two-byte string,
3768 making sure 2nd byte is NUL.
3769 */
3770 STRLEN this_replacement_len;
3771
1e4c9676
KW
3772 /* If we don't know what non-NUL control character sorts lowest for
3773 * this locale, find it */
f28f4d2a 3774 if (PL_strxfrm_NUL_replacement == '\0') {
6696cfa7 3775 int j;
afc4976f 3776 char * cur_min_x = NULL; /* The min_char's xfrm, (except it also
6696cfa7
KW
3777 includes the collation index
3778 prefixed. */
3779
91c0e2e0 3780 DEBUG_Lv(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Looking to replace NUL\n"));
94762aa0
KW
3781
3782 /* Unlikely, but it may be that no control will work to replace
1e4c9676
KW
3783 * NUL, in which case we instead look for any character. Controls
3784 * are preferred because collation order is, in general, context
3785 * sensitive, with adjoining characters affecting the order, and
3786 * controls are less likely to have such interactions, allowing the
3787 * NUL-replacement to stand on its own. (Another way to look at it
3788 * is to imagine what would happen if the NUL were replaced by a
3789 * combining character; it wouldn't work out all that well.) */
94762aa0
KW
3790 for (try_non_controls = 0;
3791 try_non_controls < 2;
3792 try_non_controls++)
3793 {
d4ff9586
KW
3794 /* Look through all legal code points (NUL isn't) */
3795 for (j = 1; j < 256; j++) {
3796 char * x; /* j's xfrm plus collation index */
3797 STRLEN x_len; /* length of 'x' */
3798 STRLEN trial_len = 1;
736a4fed 3799 char cur_source[] = { '\0', '\0' };
d4ff9586 3800
736a4fed
KW
3801 /* Skip non-controls the first time through the loop. The
3802 * controls in a UTF-8 locale are the L1 ones */
afc4976f
KW
3803 if (! try_non_controls && (PL_in_utf8_COLLATE_locale)
3804 ? ! isCNTRL_L1(j)
3805 : ! isCNTRL_LC(j))
3806 {
d4ff9586 3807 continue;
6696cfa7 3808 }
6696cfa7 3809
736a4fed
KW
3810 /* Create a 1-char string of the current code point */
3811 cur_source[0] = (char) j;
3812
d4ff9586
KW
3813 /* Then transform it */
3814 x = _mem_collxfrm(cur_source, trial_len, &x_len,
afc4976f 3815 0 /* The string is not in UTF-8 */);
6696cfa7 3816
1e4c9676 3817 /* Ignore any character that didn't successfully transform.
d4ff9586
KW
3818 * */
3819 if (! x) {
3820 continue;
3821 }
6696cfa7 3822
d4ff9586
KW
3823 /* If this character's transformation is lower than
3824 * the current lowest, this one becomes the lowest */
3825 if ( cur_min_x == NULL
3826 || strLT(x + COLLXFRM_HDR_LEN,
3827 cur_min_x + COLLXFRM_HDR_LEN))
3828 {
f28f4d2a 3829 PL_strxfrm_NUL_replacement = j;
d4ff9586 3830 cur_min_x = x;
d4ff9586
KW
3831 }
3832 else {
3833 Safefree(x);
3834 }
1e4c9676 3835 } /* end of loop through all 255 characters */
6696cfa7 3836
1e4c9676 3837 /* Stop looking if found */
94762aa0
KW
3838 if (cur_min_x) {
3839 break;
3840 }
3841
3842 /* Unlikely, but possible, if there aren't any controls that
3843 * work in the locale, repeat the loop, looking for any
3844 * character that works */
3845 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
3846 "_mem_collxfrm: No control worked. Trying non-controls\n"));
1e4c9676 3847 } /* End of loop to try first the controls, then any char */
6696cfa7 3848
94762aa0
KW
3849 if (! cur_min_x) {
3850 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
3851 "_mem_collxfrm: Couldn't find any character to replace"
3852 " embedded NULs in locale %s with", PL_collation_name));
3853 goto bad;
58eebef2
KW
3854 }
3855
94762aa0
KW
3856 DEBUG_L(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
3857 "_mem_collxfrm: Replacing embedded NULs in locale %s with "
f28f4d2a 3858 "0x%02X\n", PL_collation_name, PL_strxfrm_NUL_replacement));
94762aa0 3859
6696cfa7 3860 Safefree(cur_min_x);
1e4c9676 3861 } /* End of determining the character that is to replace NULs */
afc4976f
KW
3862
3863 /* If the replacement is variant under UTF-8, it must match the
291a84fb 3864 * UTF8-ness of the original */
f28f4d2a