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1=head1 NAME
2
07fcf8ff 3perluniintro - Perl Unicode introduction
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4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7This document gives a general idea of Unicode and how to use Unicode
8in Perl.
9
10=head2 Unicode
11
12Unicode is a character set standard with plans to cover all of the
13writing systems of the world, plus many other symbols.
14
15Unicode and ISO/IEC 10646 are coordinated standards that provide code
16points for the characters in almost all modern character set standards,
17covering more than 30 writing systems and hundreds of languages,
18including all commercially important modern languages. All characters
19in the largest Chinese, Japanese, and Korean dictionaries are also
20encoded. The standards will eventually cover almost all characters in
21more than 250 writing systems and thousands of languages.
22
23A Unicode I<character> is an abstract entity. It is not bound to any
24particular integer width, and especially not to the C language C<char>.
25Unicode is language neutral and display neutral: it doesn't encode the
26language of the text, and it doesn't define fonts or other graphical
27layout details. Unicode operates on characters and on text built from
28those characters.
29
30Unicode defines characters like C<LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A> or C<GREEK
31SMALL LETTER ALPHA>, and then unique numbers for those, hexadecimal
320x0041 or 0x03B1 for those particular characters. Such unique
33numbers are called I<code points>.
34
35The Unicode standard prefers using hexadecimal notation for the code
36points. (In case this notation, numbers like 0x0041, is unfamiliar to
37you, take a peek at a later section, L</"Hexadecimal Notation">.)
38The Unicode standard uses the notation C<U+0041 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A>,
39which gives the hexadecimal code point, and the normative name of
40the character.
41
42Unicode also defines various I<properties> for the characters, like
43"uppercase" or "lowercase", "decimal digit", or "punctuation":
44these properties are independent of the names of the characters.
45Furthermore, various operations on the characters like uppercasing,
46lowercasing, and collating (sorting), are defined.
47
48A Unicode character consists either of a single code point, or a
49I<base character> (like C<LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A>), followed by one or
50more I<modifiers> (like C<COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT>). This sequence of
51a base character and modifiers is called a I<combining character
52sequence>.
53
54Whether to call these combining character sequences, as a whole,
55"characters" depends on your point of view. If you are a programmer, you
56probably would tend towards seeing each element in the sequences as one
57unit, one "character", but from the user viewpoint, the sequence as a
58whole is probably considered one "character", since that's probably what
59it looks like in the context of the user's language.
60
61With this "as a whole" view of characters, the number of characters is
62open-ended. But in the programmer's "one unit is one character" point of
63view, the concept of "characters" is more deterministic, and so we take
64that point of view in this document: one "character" is one Unicode
65code point, be it a base character or a combining character.
66
67For some of the combinations there are I<precomposed> characters,
68for example C<LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH ACUTE> is defined as
69a single code point. These precomposed characters are, however,
70often available only for some combinations, and mainly they are
71meant to support round-trip conversions between Unicode and legacy
72standards (like the ISO 8859), and in general case the composing
73method is more extensible. To support conversion between the
74different compositions of the characters, various I<normalization
75forms> are also defined.
76
77Because of backward compatibility with legacy encodings, the "a unique
78number for every character" breaks down a bit: "at least one number
79for every character" is closer to truth. (This happens when the same
80character has been encoded in several legacy encodings.) The converse
81is also not true: not every code point has an assigned character.
82Firstly, there are unallocated code points within otherwise used
83blocks. Secondly, there are special Unicode control characters that
84do not represent true characters.
85
86A common myth about Unicode is that it would be "16-bit", that is,
870x10000 (or 65536) characters from 0x0000 to 0xFFFF. B<This is untrue.>
88Since Unicode 2.0 Unicode has been defined all the way up to 21 bits
89(0x10FFFF), and since 3.1 characters have been defined beyond 0xFFFF.
90The first 0x10000 characters are called the I<Plane 0>, or the I<Basic
91Multilingual Plane> (BMP). With the Unicode 3.1, 17 planes in all are
92defined (but nowhere near full of defined characters yet).
93
94Another myth is that the 256-character blocks have something to do
95with languages: a block per language. B<Also this is untrue.>
96The division into the blocks exists but it is almost completely
97accidental, an artifact of how the characters have been historically
98allocated. Instead, there is a concept called I<scripts>, which may
99be more useful: there is C<Latin> script, C<Greek> script, and so on.
100Scripts usually span several parts of several blocks. For further
101information see L<Unicode::UCD>.
102
103The Unicode code points are just abstract numbers. To input and
104output these abstract numbers, the numbers must be I<encoded> somehow.
105Unicode defines several I<character encoding forms>, of which I<UTF-8>
106is perhaps the most popular. UTF-8 is a variable length encoding that
107encodes Unicode characters as 1 to 6 bytes (only 4 with the currently
108defined characters). Other encodings are UTF-16 and UTF-32 and their
109big and little endian variants (UTF-8 is byteorder independent).
110The ISO/IEC 10646 defines the UCS-2 and UCS-4 encoding forms.
111
112For more information about encodings, for example to learn what
113I<surrogates> and I<byte order marks> (BOMs) are, see L<perlunicode>.
114
115=head2 Perl's Unicode Support
116
117Starting from Perl 5.6.0, Perl has had the capability of handling
118Unicode natively. The first recommended release for serious Unicode
119work is Perl 5.8.0, however. The maintenance release 5.6.1 fixed many
120of the problems of the initial implementation of Unicode, but for
121example regular expressions didn't really work with Unicode.
122
123B<Starting from Perl 5.8.0, the use of C<use utf8> is no longer
124necessary.> In earlier releases the C<utf8> pragma was used to declare
125that operations in the current block or file would be Unicode-aware.
126This model was found to be wrong, or at least clumsy: the Unicodeness
127is now carried with the data, not attached to the operations. (There
128is one remaining case where an explicit C<use utf8> is needed: if your
129Perl script is in UTF-8, you can use UTF-8 in your variable and
130subroutine names, and in your string and regular expression literals,
131by saying C<use utf8>. This is not the default because that would
132break existing scripts having legacy 8-bit data in them.)
133
134=head2 Perl's Unicode Model
135
136Perl supports both the old, pre-5.6, model of strings of eight-bit
137native bytes, and strings of Unicode characters. The principle is
138that Perl tries to keep its data as eight-bit bytes for as long as
139possible, but as soon as Unicodeness cannot be avoided, the data is
140transparently upgraded to Unicode.
141
142The internal encoding of Unicode in Perl is UTF-8. The internal
143encoding is normally hidden, however, and one need not and should not
144worry about the internal encoding at all: it is all just characters.
145
146Perl 5.8.0 will also support Unicode on EBCDIC platforms. There the
147support is somewhat harder to implement since additional conversions
148are needed at every step. Because of these difficulties the Unicode
149support won't be quite as full as in other, mainly ASCII-based,
150platforms (the Unicode support will be better than in the 5.6 series,
151which didn't work much at all for EBCDIC platform). On EBCDIC
152platforms the internal encoding form used is UTF-EBCDIC.
153
154=head2 Creating Unicode
155
156To create Unicode literals, use the C<\x{...}> notation in
157doublequoted strings:
158
159 my $smiley = "\x{263a}";
160
161Similarly for regular expression literals
162
163 $smiley =~ /\x{263a}/;
164
165At run-time you can use C<chr()>:
166
167 my $hebrew_alef = chr(0x05d0);
168
169(See L</"Further Resources"> for how to find all these numeric codes.)
170
171Naturally, C<ord()> will do the reverse: turn a character to a code point.
172
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173Note that C<\x..> (no C<{}> and only two hexadecimal digits), C<\x{...}>
174and C<chr(...)> for arguments less than 0x100 (decimal 256) will
175generate an eight-bit character for backward compatibility with older
176Perls. For arguments of 0x100 or more, Unicode will always be
177produced. If you want UTF-8 always, use C<pack("U", ...)> instead of
178C<\x..>, C<\x{...}>, or C<chr()>.
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179
180You can also use the C<charnames> pragma to invoke characters
181by name in doublequoted strings:
182
183 use charnames ':full';
184 my $arabic_alef = "\N{ARABIC LETTER ALEF}";
185
186And, as mentioned above, you can also C<pack()> numbers into Unicode
187characters:
188
189 my $georgian_an = pack("U", 0x10a0);
190
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191Note that both C<\x{...}> and C<\N{...}> are compile-time string
192constants: you cannot use variables in them. if you want similar
193run-time functionality, use C<chr()> and C<charnames::vianame()>.
194
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195=head2 Handling Unicode
196
197Handling Unicode is for the most part transparent: just use the
198strings as usual. Functions like C<index()>, C<length()>, and
199C<substr()> will work on the Unicode characters; regular expressions
200will work on the Unicode characters (see L<perlunicode> and L<perlretut>).
201
202Note that Perl does B<not> consider combining character sequences
203to be characters, such for example
204
205 use charnames ':full';
206 print length("\N{LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A}\N{COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT}"), "\n";
207
208will print 2, not 1. The only exception is that regular expressions
209have C<\X> for matching a combining character sequence.
210
211When life is not quite so transparent is working with legacy
212encodings, and I/O, and certain special cases.
213
214=head2 Legacy Encodings
215
216When you combine legacy data and Unicode the legacy data needs
217to be upgraded to Unicode. Normally ISO 8859-1 (or EBCDIC, if
218applicable) is assumed. You can override this assumption by
219using the C<encoding> pragma, for example
220
221 use encoding 'latin2'; # ISO 8859-2
222
223in which case literals (string or regular expression) and chr/ord
224in your whole script are assumed to produce Unicode characters from
225ISO 8859-2 code points. Note that the matching for the encoding
226names is forgiving: instead of C<latin2> you could have said
227C<Latin 2>, or C<iso8859-2>, and so forth. With just
228
229 use encoding;
230
231first the environment variable C<PERL_ENCODING> will be consulted,
232and if that doesn't exist, ISO 8859-1 (Latin 1) will be assumed.
233
234The C<Encode> module knows about many encodings and it has interfaces
235for doing conversions between those encodings:
236
237 use Encode 'from_to';
238 from_to($data, "iso-8859-3", "utf-8"); # from legacy to utf-8
239
240=head2 Unicode I/O
241
242Normally writing out Unicode data
243
1d7919c5 244 print FH chr(0x100), "\n";
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246will print out the raw UTF-8 bytes, but you will get a warning
247out of that if you use C<-w> or C<use warnings>. To avoid the
248warning open the stream explicitly in UTF-8:
ba62762e 249
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250 open FH, ">:utf8", "file";
251
252and on already open streams use C<binmode()>:
253
254 binmode(STDOUT, ":utf8");
255
256Reading in correctly formed UTF-8 data will not magically turn
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257the data into Unicode in Perl's eyes.
258
259You can use either the C<':utf8'> I/O discipline when opening files
260
261 open(my $fh,'<:utf8', 'anything');
262 my $line_of_utf8 = <$fh>;
263
264The I/O disciplines can also be specified more flexibly with
265the C<open> pragma; see L<open>:
266
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267 use open ':utf8'; # input and output default discipline will be UTF-8
268 open X, ">file";
269 print X chr(0x100), "\n";
ba62762e 270 close X;
1d7919c5 271 open Y, "<file";
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272 printf "%#x\n", ord(<Y>); # this should print 0x100
273 close Y;
274
275With the C<open> pragma you can use the C<:locale> discipline
276
277 $ENV{LANG} = 'ru_RU.KOI8-R';
278 # the :locale will probe the locale environment variables like LANG
279 use open OUT => ':locale'; # russki parusski
280 open(O, ">koi8");
281 print O chr(0x430); # Unicode CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER A = KOI8-R 0xc1
282 close O;
283 open(I, "<koi8");
284 printf "%#x\n", ord(<I>), "\n"; # this should print 0xc1
285 close I;
286
287or you can also use the C<':encoding(...)'> discipline
288
289 open(my $epic,'<:encoding(iso-8859-7)','iliad.greek');
290 my $line_of_iliad = <$epic>;
291
292Both of these methods install a transparent filter on the I/O stream that
293will convert data from the specified encoding when it is read in from the
294stream. In the first example the F<anything> file is assumed to be UTF-8
295encoded Unicode, in the second example the F<iliad.greek> file is assumed
296to be ISO-8858-7 encoded Greek, but the lines read in will be in both
297cases Unicode.
298
299The L<open> pragma affects all the C<open()> calls after the pragma by
300setting default disciplines. If you want to affect only certain
301streams, use explicit disciplines directly in the C<open()> call.
302
303You can switch encodings on an already opened stream by using
304C<binmode()>, see L<perlfunc/binmode>.
305
306The C<:locale> does not currently work with C<open()> and
307C<binmode()>, only with the C<open> pragma. The C<:utf8> and
308C<:encoding(...)> do work with all of C<open()>, C<binmode()>,
309and the C<open> pragma.
310
311Similarly, you may use these I/O disciplines on input streams to
312automatically convert data from the specified encoding when it is
313written to the stream.
314
315 open(my $unicode, '<:utf8', 'japanese.uni');
316 open(my $nihongo, '>:encoding(iso2022-jp)', 'japanese.jp');
317 while (<$unicode>) { print $nihongo }
318
319The naming of encodings, both by the C<open()> and by the C<open>
320pragma, is similarly understanding as with the C<encoding> pragma:
321C<koi8-r> and C<KOI8R> will both be understood.
322
323Common encodings recognized by ISO, MIME, IANA, and various other
324standardisation organisations are recognised, for a more detailed
325list see L<Encode>.
326
327C<read()> reads characters and returns the number of characters.
328C<seek()> and C<tell()> operate on byte counts, as do C<sysread()>
329and C<sysseek()>.
330
331Notice that because of the default behaviour "input is not UTF-8"
332it is easy to mistakenly write code that keeps on expanding a file
333by repeatedly encoding it in UTF-8:
334
335 # BAD CODE WARNING
336 open F, "file";
337 local $/; # read in the whole file
338 $t = <F>;
339 close F;
340 open F, ">:utf8", "file";
341 print F $t;
342 close F;
343
344If you run this code twice, the contents of the F<file> will be twice
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345UTF-8 encoded. A C<use open ':utf8'> would have avoided the bug, or
346explicitly opening also the F<file> for input as UTF-8.
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347
348=head2 Special Cases
349
350=over 4
351
352=item *
353
354Bit Complement Operator ~ And vec()
355
356The bit complement operator C<~> will produce surprising results if
357used on strings containing Unicode characters. The results are
358consistent with the internal UTF-8 encoding of the characters, but not
359with much else. So don't do that. Similarly for vec(): you will be
360operating on the UTF-8 bit patterns of the Unicode characters, not on
361the bytes, which is very probably not what you want.
362
363=item *
364
365Peeking At UTF-8
366
367One way of peeking inside the internal encoding of Unicode characters
368is to use C<unpack("C*", ...> to get the bytes, or C<unpack("H*", ...)>
369to display the bytes:
370
371 # this will print c4 80 for the UTF-8 bytes 0xc4 0x80
372 print join(" ", unpack("H*", pack("U", 0x100))), "\n";
373
374Yet another way would be to use the Devel::Peek module:
375
376 perl -MDevel::Peek -e 'Dump(chr(0x100))'
377
378That will show the UTF8 flag in FLAGS and both the UTF-8 bytes
379and Unicode characters in PV. See also later in this document
380the discussion about the C<is_utf8> function of the C<Encode> module.
381
382=back
383
384=head2 Advanced Topics
385
386=over 4
387
388=item *
389
390String Equivalence
391
392The question of string equivalence turns somewhat complicated
393in Unicode: what do you mean by equal?
394
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395(Is C<LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH ACUTE> equal to
396C<LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A>?)
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397
398The short answer is that by default Perl compares equivalence
399(C<eq>, C<ne>) based only on code points of the characters.
400In the above case, no (because 0x00C1 != 0x0041). But sometimes any
401CAPITAL LETTER As being considered equal, or even any As of any case,
402would be desirable.
403
404The long answer is that you need to consider character normalization
405and casing issues: see L<Unicode::Normalize>, and Unicode Technical
406Reports #15 and #21, I<Unicode Normalization Forms> and I<Case
407Mappings>, http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr15/
408http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr21/
409
410As of Perl 5.8.0, the's regular expression case-ignoring matching
411implements only 1:1 semantics: one character matches one character.
412In I<Case Mappings> both 1:N and N:1 matches are defined.
413
414=item *
415
416String Collation
417
418People like to see their strings nicely sorted, or as Unicode
419parlance goes, collated. But again, what do you mean by collate?
420
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421(Does C<LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH ACUTE> come before or after
422C<LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH GRAVE>?)
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423
424The short answer is that by default Perl compares strings (C<lt>,
425C<le>, C<cmp>, C<ge>, C<gt>) based only on the code points of the
426characters. In the above case, after, since 0x00C1 > 0x00C0.
427
428The long answer is that "it depends", and a good answer cannot be
429given without knowing (at the very least) the language context.
430See L<Unicode::Collate>, and I<Unicode Collation Algorithm>
431http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr10/
432
433=back
434
435=head2 Miscellaneous
436
437=over 4
438
439=item *
440
441Character Ranges
442
443Character ranges in regular expression character classes (C</[a-z]/>)
444and in the C<tr///> (also known as C<y///>) operator are not magically
445Unicode-aware. What this means that C<[a-z]> will not magically start
446to mean "all alphabetic letters" (not that it does mean that even for
4478-bit characters, you should be using C</[[:alpha]]/> for that).
448
449For specifying things like that in regular expressions you can use the
450various Unicode properties, C<\pL> in this particular case. You can
451use Unicode code points as the end points of character ranges, but
452that means that particular code point range, nothing more. For
453further information, see L<perlunicode>.
454
455=item *
456
457String-To-Number Conversions
458
459Unicode does define several other decimal (and numeric) characters
460than just the familiar 0 to 9, such as the Arabic and Indic digits.
461Perl does not support string-to-number conversion for digits other
462than the 0 to 9 (and a to f for hexadecimal).
463
464=back
465
466=head2 Questions With Answers
467
468=over 4
469
470=item Will My Old Scripts Break?
471
472Very probably not. Unless you are generating Unicode characters
473somehow, any old behaviour should be preserved. About the only
474behaviour that has changed and which could start generating Unicode
475is the old behaviour of C<chr()> where supplying an argument more
476than 255 produced a character modulo 255 (for example, C<chr(300)>
477was equal to C<chr(45)>).
478
479=item How Do I Make My Scripts Work With Unicode?
480
481Very little work should be needed since nothing changes until you
482somehow generate Unicode data. The greatest trick will be getting
483input as Unicode, and for that see the earlier I/O discussion.
484
485=item How Do I Know Whether My String Is In Unicode?
486
487You shouldn't care. No, you really shouldn't. If you have
488to care (beyond the cases described above), it means that we
489didn't get the transparency of Unicode quite right.
490
491Okay, if you insist:
492
493 use Encode 'is_utf8';
494 print is_utf8($string) ? 1 : 0, "\n";
495
496But note that this doesn't mean that any of the characters in the
497string are necessary UTF-8 encoded, or that any of the characters have
498code points greater than 0xFF (255) or even 0x80 (128), or that the
499string has any characters at all. All the C<is_utf8()> does is to
500return the value of the internal "utf8ness" flag attached to the
501$string. If the flag is on, characters added to that string will be
502automatically upgraded to UTF-8 (and even then only if they really
503need to be upgraded, that is, if their code point is greater than 0xFF).
504
505Sometimes you might really need to know the byte length of a string
506instead of the character length. For that use the C<bytes> pragma
507and its only defined function C<length()>:
508
509 my $unicode = chr(0x100);
510 print length($unicode), "\n"; # will print 1
511 use bytes;
512 print length($unicode), "\n"; # will print 2 (the 0xC4 0x80 of the UTF-8)
513
514=item How Do I Detect Invalid UTF-8?
515
516Either
517
518 use Encode 'encode_utf8';
519 if (encode_utf8($string)) {
520 # valid
521 } else {
522 # invalid
523 }
524
525or
526
527 use warnings;
528 @chars = unpack("U0U*", "\xFF"); # will warn
529
530The warning will be C<Malformed UTF-8 character (byte 0xff) in
531unpack>. The "U0" means "expect strictly UTF-8 encoded Unicode".
532Without that the C<unpack("U*", ...)> would accept also data like
533C<chr(0xFF>).
534
535=item How Do I Convert Data Into UTF-8? Or Vice Versa?
536
537This probably isn't as useful (or simple) as you might think.
538Also, normally you shouldn't need to.
539
540In one sense what you are asking doesn't make much sense: UTF-8 is
541(intended as an) Unicode encoding, so converting "data" into UTF-8
542isn't meaningful unless you know in what character set and encoding
543the binary data is in, and in this case you can use C<Encode>.
544
545 use Encode 'from_to';
546 from_to($data, "iso-8859-1", "utf-8"); # from latin-1 to utf-8
547
548If you have ASCII (really 7-bit US-ASCII), you already have valid
549UTF-8, the lowest 128 characters of UTF-8 encoded Unicode and US-ASCII
550are equivalent.
551
552If you have Latin-1 (or want Latin-1), you can just use pack/unpack:
553
554 $latin1 = pack("C*", unpack("U*", $utf8));
555 $utf8 = pack("U*", unpack("C*", $latin1));
556
557(The same works for EBCDIC.)
558
559If you have a sequence of bytes you B<know> is valid UTF-8,
560but Perl doesn't know it yet, you can make Perl a believer, too:
561
562 use Encode 'decode_utf8';
563 $utf8 = decode_utf8($bytes);
564
565You can convert well-formed UTF-8 to a sequence of bytes, but if
566you just want to convert random binary data into UTF-8, you can't.
567Any random collection of bytes isn't well-formed UTF-8. You can
568use C<unpack("C*", $string)> for the former, and you can create
569well-formed Unicode/UTF-8 data by C<pack("U*", 0xff, ...)>.
570
571=item How Do I Display Unicode? How Do I Input Unicode?
572
573See http://www.hclrss.demon.co.uk/unicode/ and
574http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~mgk25/unicode.html
575
576=item How Does Unicode Work With Traditional Locales?
577
578In Perl, not very well. Avoid using locales through the C<locale>
579pragma. Use only one or the other.
580
581=back
582
583=head2 Hexadecimal Notation
584
585The Unicode standard prefers using hexadecimal notation because that
586shows better the division of Unicode into blocks of 256 characters.
587Hexadecimal is also simply shorter than decimal. You can use decimal
588notation, too, but learning to use hexadecimal just makes life easier
589with the Unicode standard.
590
591The C<0x> prefix means a hexadecimal number, the digits are 0-9 I<and>
592a-f (or A-F, case doesn't matter). Each hexadecimal digit represents
593four bits, or half a byte. C<print 0x..., "\n"> will show a
594hexadecimal number in decimal, and C<printf "%x\n", $decimal> will
595show a decimal number in hexadecimal. If you have just the
596"hexdigits" of a hexadecimal number, you can use the C<hex()>
597function.
598
599 print 0x0009, "\n"; # 9
600 print 0x000a, "\n"; # 10
601 print 0x000f, "\n"; # 15
602 print 0x0010, "\n"; # 16
603 print 0x0011, "\n"; # 17
604 print 0x0100, "\n"; # 256
605
606 print 0x0041, "\n"; # 65
607
608 printf "%x\n", 65; # 41
609 printf "%#x\n", 65; # 0x41
610
611 print hex("41"), "\n"; # 65
612
613=head2 Further Resources
614
615=over 4
616
617=item *
618
619Unicode Consortium
620
621 http://www.unicode.org/
622
623=item *
624
625Unicode FAQ
626
627 http://www.unicode.org/unicode/faq/
628
629=item *
630
631Unicode Glossary
632
633 http://www.unicode.org/glossary/
634
635=item *
636
637Unicode Useful Resources
638
639 http://www.unicode.org/unicode/onlinedat/resources.html
640
641=item *
642
643Unicode and Multilingual Support in HTML, Fonts, Web Browsers and Other Applications
644
645 http://www.hclrss.demon.co.uk/unicode/
646
647=item *
648
649UTF-8 and Unicode FAQ for Unix/Linux
650
651 http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~mgk25/unicode.html
652
653=item *
654
655Legacy Character Sets
656
657 http://www.czyborra.com/
658 http://www.eki.ee/letter/
659
660=item *
661
662The Unicode support files live within the Perl installation in the
663directory
664
665 $Config{installprivlib}/unicore
666
667in Perl 5.8.0 or newer, and
668
669 $Config{installprivlib}/unicode
670
671in the Perl 5.6 series. (The renaming to F<lib/unicore> was done to
672avoid naming conflicts with lib/Unicode in case-insensitive filesystems.)
673The main Unicode data file is F<Unicode.txt> (or F<Unicode.301> in
674Perl 5.6.1.) You can find the C<$Config{installprivlib}> by
675
676 perl "-V:installprivlib"
677
678Note that some of the files have been renamed from the Unicode
679standard since the Perl installation tries to live by the "8.3"
680filenaming restrictions. The renamings are shown in the
681accompanying F<rename> file.
682
683You can explore various information from the Unicode data files using
684the C<Unicode::UCD> module.
685
686=back
687
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688=head1 UNICODE IN OLDER PERLS
689
690If you cannot upgrade your Perl to 5.8.0 or later, you can still
691do some Unicode processing by using the modules C<Unicode::String>,
692C<Unicode::Map8>, and C<Unicode::Map>, available from CPAN.
693If you have the GNU recode installed, you can also use the
694Perl frontend C<Convert::Recode> for character conversions.
695
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696=head1 SEE ALSO
697
698L<perlunicode>, L<Encode>, L<encoding>, L<open>, L<utf8>, L<bytes>,
699L<perlretut>, L<Unicode::Collate>, L<Unicode::Normalize>, L<Unicode::UCD>
700
701=head1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
702
703Thanks to the kind readers of the perl5-porters@perl.org,
704perl-unicode@perl.org, linux-utf8@nl.linux.org, and unicore@unicode.org
705mailing lists for their valuable feedback.
706
707=head1 AUTHOR, COPYRIGHT, AND LICENSE
708
709Copyright 2001 Jarkko Hietaniemi <jhi@iki.fi>
710
711This document may be distributed under the same terms as Perl itself.