This is a live mirror of the Perl 5 development currently hosted at https://github.com/perl/perl5
prevent multiple evaluations of ERRSV
[perl5.git] / utf8.c
CommitLineData
a0ed51b3
LW
1/* utf8.c
2 *
1129b882 3 * Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008
b94e2f88 4 * by Larry Wall and others
a0ed51b3
LW
5 *
6 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
7 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
8 *
9 */
10
11/*
4ac71550
TC
12 * 'What a fix!' said Sam. 'That's the one place in all the lands we've ever
13 * heard of that we don't want to see any closer; and that's the one place
14 * we're trying to get to! And that's just where we can't get, nohow.'
15 *
cdad3b53 16 * [p.603 of _The Lord of the Rings_, IV/I: "The Taming of Sméagol"]
a0ed51b3
LW
17 *
18 * 'Well do I understand your speech,' he answered in the same language;
19 * 'yet few strangers do so. Why then do you not speak in the Common Tongue,
4ac71550 20 * as is the custom in the West, if you wish to be answered?'
cdad3b53 21 * --Gandalf, addressing Théoden's door wardens
4ac71550
TC
22 *
23 * [p.508 of _The Lord of the Rings_, III/vi: "The King of the Golden Hall"]
a0ed51b3
LW
24 *
25 * ...the travellers perceived that the floor was paved with stones of many
26 * hues; branching runes and strange devices intertwined beneath their feet.
4ac71550
TC
27 *
28 * [p.512 of _The Lord of the Rings_, III/vi: "The King of the Golden Hall"]
a0ed51b3
LW
29 */
30
31#include "EXTERN.h"
864dbfa3 32#define PERL_IN_UTF8_C
a0ed51b3 33#include "perl.h"
81e983c1 34#include "inline_invlist.c"
a0ed51b3 35
a0c21aa1 36#ifndef EBCDIC
970ea3cb 37/* Separate prototypes needed because in ASCII systems these are
a0c21aa1
JH
38 * usually macros but they still are compiled as code, too. */
39PERL_CALLCONV UV Perl_utf8n_to_uvchr(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN curlen, STRLEN *retlen, U32 flags);
6dd9dce9 40PERL_CALLCONV UV Perl_valid_utf8_to_uvchr(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen);
a0c21aa1
JH
41PERL_CALLCONV U8* Perl_uvchr_to_utf8(pTHX_ U8 *d, UV uv);
42#endif
43
27da23d5
JH
44static const char unees[] =
45 "Malformed UTF-8 character (unexpected end of string)";
901b21bf 46
48ef279e 47/*
ccfc67b7 48=head1 Unicode Support
a0ed51b3 49
166f8a29
DM
50This file contains various utility functions for manipulating UTF8-encoded
51strings. For the uninitiated, this is a method of representing arbitrary
61296642 52Unicode characters as a variable number of bytes, in such a way that
56da48f7
DM
53characters in the ASCII range are unmodified, and a zero byte never appears
54within non-zero characters.
166f8a29 55
eaf7a4d2
CS
56=cut
57*/
58
59/*
60=for apidoc is_ascii_string
61
a1433954 62Returns true if the first C<len> bytes of the string C<s> are the same whether
970ea3cb
KW
63or not the string is encoded in UTF-8 (or UTF-EBCDIC on EBCDIC machines). That
64is, if they are invariant. On ASCII-ish machines, only ASCII characters
65fit this definition, hence the function's name.
eaf7a4d2 66
9f7e3d64
MH
67If C<len> is 0, it will be calculated using C<strlen(s)>.
68
a1433954 69See also L</is_utf8_string>(), L</is_utf8_string_loclen>(), and L</is_utf8_string_loc>().
eaf7a4d2
CS
70
71=cut
72*/
73
74bool
668b6d8d 75Perl_is_ascii_string(const U8 *s, STRLEN len)
eaf7a4d2
CS
76{
77 const U8* const send = s + (len ? len : strlen((const char *)s));
78 const U8* x = s;
79
80 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_ASCII_STRING;
eaf7a4d2
CS
81
82 for (; x < send; ++x) {
83 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*x))
84 break;
85 }
86
87 return x == send;
88}
89
90/*
87cea99e 91=for apidoc uvuni_to_utf8_flags
eebe1485 92
6ee84de2
KW
93Adds the UTF-8 representation of the code point C<uv> to the end
94of the string C<d>; C<d> should have at least C<UTF8_MAXBYTES+1> free
eebe1485 95bytes available. The return value is the pointer to the byte after the
9041c2e3 96end of the new character. In other words,
eebe1485 97
b851fbc1
JH
98 d = uvuni_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, flags);
99
100or, in most cases,
101
9041c2e3 102 d = uvuni_to_utf8(d, uv);
eebe1485 103
b851fbc1
JH
104(which is equivalent to)
105
106 d = uvuni_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, 0);
107
949cf498 108This is the recommended Unicode-aware way of saying
eebe1485
SC
109
110 *(d++) = uv;
111
949cf498
KW
112This function will convert to UTF-8 (and not warn) even code points that aren't
113legal Unicode or are problematic, unless C<flags> contains one or more of the
a1433954
KW
114following flags:
115
949cf498
KW
116If C<uv> is a Unicode surrogate code point and UNICODE_WARN_SURROGATE is set,
117the function will raise a warning, provided UTF8 warnings are enabled. If instead
118UNICODE_DISALLOW_SURROGATE is set, the function will fail and return NULL.
119If both flags are set, the function will both warn and return NULL.
120
121The UNICODE_WARN_NONCHAR and UNICODE_DISALLOW_NONCHAR flags correspondingly
122affect how the function handles a Unicode non-character. And, likewise for the
123UNICODE_WARN_SUPER and UNICODE_DISALLOW_SUPER flags, and code points that are
124above the Unicode maximum of 0x10FFFF. Code points above 0x7FFF_FFFF (which are
125even less portable) can be warned and/or disallowed even if other above-Unicode
126code points are accepted by the UNICODE_WARN_FE_FF and UNICODE_DISALLOW_FE_FF
127flags.
128
129And finally, the flag UNICODE_WARN_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE selects all four of the
130above WARN flags; and UNICODE_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE selects all four
131DISALLOW flags.
132
133
eebe1485
SC
134=cut
135*/
136
dfe13c55 137U8 *
b851fbc1 138Perl_uvuni_to_utf8_flags(pTHX_ U8 *d, UV uv, UV flags)
a0ed51b3 139{
7918f24d
NC
140 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UVUNI_TO_UTF8_FLAGS;
141
979f77b6
KW
142 /* The first problematic code point is the first surrogate */
143 if (uv >= UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST
144 && ckWARN4_d(WARN_UTF8, WARN_SURROGATE, WARN_NON_UNICODE, WARN_NONCHAR))
145 {
949cf498
KW
146 if (UNICODE_IS_SURROGATE(uv)) {
147 if (flags & UNICODE_WARN_SURROGATE) {
8457b38f 148 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_SURROGATE),
949cf498
KW
149 "UTF-16 surrogate U+%04"UVXf, uv);
150 }
151 if (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_SURROGATE) {
152 return NULL;
153 }
154 }
155 else if (UNICODE_IS_SUPER(uv)) {
156 if (flags & UNICODE_WARN_SUPER
157 || (UNICODE_IS_FE_FF(uv) && (flags & UNICODE_WARN_FE_FF)))
158 {
8457b38f 159 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NON_UNICODE),
949cf498
KW
160 "Code point 0x%04"UVXf" is not Unicode, may not be portable", uv);
161 }
162 if (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_SUPER
163 || (UNICODE_IS_FE_FF(uv) && (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_FE_FF)))
164 {
165 return NULL;
166 }
167 }
168 else if (UNICODE_IS_NONCHAR(uv)) {
169 if (flags & UNICODE_WARN_NONCHAR) {
8457b38f 170 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NONCHAR),
949cf498
KW
171 "Unicode non-character U+%04"UVXf" is illegal for open interchange",
172 uv);
173 }
174 if (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_NONCHAR) {
175 return NULL;
176 }
177 }
507b9800 178 }
c4d5f83a 179 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(uv)) {
eb160463 180 *d++ = (U8)UTF_TO_NATIVE(uv);
a0ed51b3
LW
181 return d;
182 }
2d331972 183#if defined(EBCDIC)
1d72bdf6
NIS
184 else {
185 STRLEN len = UNISKIP(uv);
186 U8 *p = d+len-1;
187 while (p > d) {
eb160463 188 *p-- = (U8)UTF_TO_NATIVE((uv & UTF_CONTINUATION_MASK) | UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK);
1d72bdf6
NIS
189 uv >>= UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT;
190 }
eb160463 191 *p = (U8)UTF_TO_NATIVE((uv & UTF_START_MASK(len)) | UTF_START_MARK(len));
1d72bdf6
NIS
192 return d+len;
193 }
194#else /* Non loop style */
a0ed51b3 195 if (uv < 0x800) {
eb160463
GS
196 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 6) | 0xc0);
197 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
198 return d;
199 }
200 if (uv < 0x10000) {
eb160463
GS
201 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 12) | 0xe0);
202 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
203 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
204 return d;
205 }
206 if (uv < 0x200000) {
eb160463
GS
207 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 18) | 0xf0);
208 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
209 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
210 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
211 return d;
212 }
213 if (uv < 0x4000000) {
eb160463
GS
214 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 24) | 0xf8);
215 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 18) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
216 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
217 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
218 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
219 return d;
220 }
221 if (uv < 0x80000000) {
eb160463
GS
222 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 30) | 0xfc);
223 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 24) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
224 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 18) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
225 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
226 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
227 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
228 return d;
229 }
6b8eaf93 230#ifdef HAS_QUAD
d7578b48 231 if (uv < UTF8_QUAD_MAX)
a0ed51b3
LW
232#endif
233 {
eb160463
GS
234 *d++ = 0xfe; /* Can't match U+FEFF! */
235 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 30) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
236 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 24) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
237 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 18) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
238 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
239 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
240 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
241 return d;
242 }
6b8eaf93 243#ifdef HAS_QUAD
a0ed51b3 244 {
eb160463
GS
245 *d++ = 0xff; /* Can't match U+FFFE! */
246 *d++ = 0x80; /* 6 Reserved bits */
247 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 60) & 0x0f) | 0x80); /* 2 Reserved bits */
248 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 54) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
249 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 48) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
250 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 42) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
251 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 36) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
252 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 30) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
253 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 24) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
254 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 18) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
255 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
256 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
257 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
258 return d;
259 }
260#endif
1d72bdf6 261#endif /* Loop style */
a0ed51b3 262}
9041c2e3 263
646ca15d
JH
264/*
265
f7d739d1 266Tests if the first C<len> bytes of string C<s> form a valid UTF-8
646ca15d 267character. Note that an INVARIANT (i.e. ASCII) character is a valid
f7d739d1 268UTF-8 character. The number of bytes in the UTF-8 character
646ca15d
JH
269will be returned if it is valid, otherwise 0.
270
271This is the "slow" version as opposed to the "fast" version which is
272the "unrolled" IS_UTF8_CHAR(). E.g. for t/uni/class.t the speed
273difference is a factor of 2 to 3. For lengths (UTF8SKIP(s)) of four
274or less you should use the IS_UTF8_CHAR(), for lengths of five or more
275you should use the _slow(). In practice this means that the _slow()
276will be used very rarely, since the maximum Unicode code point (as of
277Unicode 4.1) is U+10FFFF, which encodes in UTF-8 to four bytes. Only
278the "Perl extended UTF-8" (the infamous 'v-strings') will encode into
279five bytes or more.
280
281=cut */
c053b435 282STATIC STRLEN
5f66b61c 283S_is_utf8_char_slow(const U8 *s, const STRLEN len)
646ca15d 284{
cd7e6c88 285 dTHX; /* The function called below requires thread context */
646ca15d 286
cd7e6c88 287 STRLEN actual_len;
646ca15d 288
cd7e6c88 289 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_CHAR_SLOW;
646ca15d 290
cd7e6c88 291 utf8n_to_uvuni(s, len, &actual_len, UTF8_CHECK_ONLY);
646ca15d 292
cd7e6c88 293 return (actual_len == (STRLEN) -1) ? 0 : actual_len;
646ca15d 294}
9041c2e3
NIS
295
296/*
492a624f
KW
297=for apidoc is_utf8_char_buf
298
299Returns the number of bytes that comprise the first UTF-8 encoded character in
300buffer C<buf>. C<buf_end> should point to one position beyond the end of the
301buffer. 0 is returned if C<buf> does not point to a complete, valid UTF-8
302encoded character.
303
304Note that an INVARIANT character (i.e. ASCII on non-EBCDIC
305machines) is a valid UTF-8 character.
306
307=cut */
308
309STRLEN
310Perl_is_utf8_char_buf(const U8 *buf, const U8* buf_end)
311{
312
313 STRLEN len;
314
315 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_CHAR_BUF;
316
317 if (buf_end <= buf) {
318 return 0;
319 }
320
321 len = buf_end - buf;
322 if (len > UTF8SKIP(buf)) {
323 len = UTF8SKIP(buf);
324 }
325
326#ifdef IS_UTF8_CHAR
327 if (IS_UTF8_CHAR_FAST(len))
328 return IS_UTF8_CHAR(buf, len) ? len : 0;
329#endif /* #ifdef IS_UTF8_CHAR */
330 return is_utf8_char_slow(buf, len);
331}
332
333/*
87cea99e 334=for apidoc is_utf8_char
eebe1485 335
76848387
KW
336DEPRECATED!
337
5da9da9e 338Tests if some arbitrary number of bytes begins in a valid UTF-8
2bbc8d55
SP
339character. Note that an INVARIANT (i.e. ASCII on non-EBCDIC machines)
340character is a valid UTF-8 character. The actual number of bytes in the UTF-8
341character will be returned if it is valid, otherwise 0.
9041c2e3 342
76848387 343This function is deprecated due to the possibility that malformed input could
a1433954 344cause reading beyond the end of the input buffer. Use L</is_utf8_char_buf>
76848387 345instead.
e0328548 346
82686b01 347=cut */
76848387 348
067a85ef 349STRLEN
668b6d8d 350Perl_is_utf8_char(const U8 *s)
386d01d6 351{
7918f24d 352 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_CHAR;
492a624f 353
76848387 354 /* Assumes we have enough space, which is why this is deprecated */
492a624f 355 return is_utf8_char_buf(s, s + UTF8SKIP(s));
386d01d6
GS
356}
357
eaf7a4d2 358
6662521e 359/*
87cea99e 360=for apidoc is_utf8_string
6662521e 361
a1433954 362Returns true if the first C<len> bytes of string C<s> form a valid
9f7e3d64 363UTF-8 string, false otherwise. If C<len> is 0, it will be calculated
e0328548
KW
364using C<strlen(s)> (which means if you use this option, that C<s> has to have a
365terminating NUL byte). Note that all characters being ASCII constitute 'a
366valid UTF-8 string'.
6662521e 367
a1433954 368See also L</is_ascii_string>(), L</is_utf8_string_loclen>(), and L</is_utf8_string_loc>().
768c67ee 369
6662521e
GS
370=cut
371*/
372
8e84507e 373bool
668b6d8d 374Perl_is_utf8_string(const U8 *s, STRLEN len)
6662521e 375{
35da51f7 376 const U8* const send = s + (len ? len : strlen((const char *)s));
7fc63493 377 const U8* x = s;
067a85ef 378
7918f24d 379 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_STRING;
1aa99e6b 380
6662521e 381 while (x < send) {
1acdb0da 382 /* Inline the easy bits of is_utf8_char() here for speed... */
e0328548
KW
383 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*x)) {
384 x++;
385 }
1acdb0da
JH
386 else {
387 /* ... and call is_utf8_char() only if really needed. */
e0328548
KW
388 const STRLEN c = UTF8SKIP(x);
389 const U8* const next_char_ptr = x + c;
390
391 if (next_char_ptr > send) {
392 return FALSE;
393 }
394
768c67ee
JH
395 if (IS_UTF8_CHAR_FAST(c)) {
396 if (!IS_UTF8_CHAR(x, c))
e0328548 397 return FALSE;
3c614e38 398 }
e0328548
KW
399 else if (! is_utf8_char_slow(x, c)) {
400 return FALSE;
401 }
402 x = next_char_ptr;
1acdb0da 403 }
6662521e 404 }
768c67ee 405
067a85ef 406 return TRUE;
6662521e
GS
407}
408
67e989fb 409/*
814fafa7
NC
410Implemented as a macro in utf8.h
411
87cea99e 412=for apidoc is_utf8_string_loc
814fafa7 413
a1433954
KW
414Like L</is_utf8_string> but stores the location of the failure (in the
415case of "utf8ness failure") or the location C<s>+C<len> (in the case of
814fafa7
NC
416"utf8ness success") in the C<ep>.
417
a1433954 418See also L</is_utf8_string_loclen>() and L</is_utf8_string>().
814fafa7 419
87cea99e 420=for apidoc is_utf8_string_loclen
81cd54e3 421
a1433954
KW
422Like L</is_utf8_string>() but stores the location of the failure (in the
423case of "utf8ness failure") or the location C<s>+C<len> (in the case of
768c67ee
JH
424"utf8ness success") in the C<ep>, and the number of UTF-8
425encoded characters in the C<el>.
426
a1433954 427See also L</is_utf8_string_loc>() and L</is_utf8_string>().
81cd54e3
JH
428
429=cut
430*/
431
432bool
668b6d8d 433Perl_is_utf8_string_loclen(const U8 *s, STRLEN len, const U8 **ep, STRLEN *el)
81cd54e3 434{
35da51f7 435 const U8* const send = s + (len ? len : strlen((const char *)s));
7fc63493 436 const U8* x = s;
81cd54e3 437 STRLEN c;
3ebfea28 438 STRLEN outlen = 0;
7918f24d
NC
439
440 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_STRING_LOCLEN;
81cd54e3 441
81cd54e3 442 while (x < send) {
e0328548
KW
443 const U8* next_char_ptr;
444
81cd54e3
JH
445 /* Inline the easy bits of is_utf8_char() here for speed... */
446 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*x))
e0328548 447 next_char_ptr = x + 1;
81cd54e3 448 else {
768c67ee 449 /* ... and call is_utf8_char() only if really needed. */
768c67ee 450 c = UTF8SKIP(x);
e0328548
KW
451 next_char_ptr = c + x;
452 if (next_char_ptr > send) {
453 goto out;
454 }
768c67ee
JH
455 if (IS_UTF8_CHAR_FAST(c)) {
456 if (!IS_UTF8_CHAR(x, c))
457 c = 0;
458 } else
459 c = is_utf8_char_slow(x, c);
768c67ee
JH
460 if (!c)
461 goto out;
81cd54e3 462 }
e0328548 463 x = next_char_ptr;
3ebfea28 464 outlen++;
81cd54e3 465 }
768c67ee
JH
466
467 out:
3ebfea28
AL
468 if (el)
469 *el = outlen;
470
768c67ee
JH
471 if (ep)
472 *ep = x;
3ebfea28 473 return (x == send);
81cd54e3
JH
474}
475
476/*
768c67ee 477
87cea99e 478=for apidoc utf8n_to_uvuni
67e989fb 479
9041c2e3 480Bottom level UTF-8 decode routine.
746afd53
KW
481Returns the code point value of the first character in the string C<s>,
482which is assumed to be in UTF-8 (or UTF-EBCDIC) encoding, and no longer than
483C<curlen> bytes; C<*retlen> (if C<retlen> isn't NULL) will be set to
484the length, in bytes, of that character.
949cf498
KW
485
486The value of C<flags> determines the behavior when C<s> does not point to a
487well-formed UTF-8 character. If C<flags> is 0, when a malformation is found,
524080c4
KW
488zero is returned and C<*retlen> is set so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>) is the
489next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed character.
490Also, if UTF-8 warnings haven't been lexically disabled, a warning is raised.
949cf498
KW
491
492Various ALLOW flags can be set in C<flags> to allow (and not warn on)
493individual types of malformations, such as the sequence being overlong (that
494is, when there is a shorter sequence that can express the same code point;
495overlong sequences are expressly forbidden in the UTF-8 standard due to
496potential security issues). Another malformation example is the first byte of
497a character not being a legal first byte. See F<utf8.h> for the list of such
524080c4
KW
498flags. For allowed 0 length strings, this function returns 0; for allowed
499overlong sequences, the computed code point is returned; for all other allowed
500malformations, the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is returned, as these have no
501determinable reasonable value.
949cf498
KW
502
503The UTF8_CHECK_ONLY flag overrides the behavior when a non-allowed (by other
504flags) malformation is found. If this flag is set, the routine assumes that
505the caller will raise a warning, and this function will silently just set
d088425d
KW
506C<retlen> to C<-1> (cast to C<STRLEN>) and return zero.
507
508Note that this API requires disambiguation between successful decoding a NUL
509character, and an error return (unless the UTF8_CHECK_ONLY flag is set), as
510in both cases, 0 is returned. To disambiguate, upon a zero return, see if the
511first byte of C<s> is 0 as well. If so, the input was a NUL; if not, the input
512had an error.
949cf498
KW
513
514Certain code points are considered problematic. These are Unicode surrogates,
746afd53 515Unicode non-characters, and code points above the Unicode maximum of 0x10FFFF.
949cf498 516By default these are considered regular code points, but certain situations
5eafe189 517warrant special handling for them. If C<flags> contains
949cf498
KW
518UTF8_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE, all three classes are treated as
519malformations and handled as such. The flags UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE,
520UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR, and UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER (meaning above the legal Unicode
521maximum) can be set to disallow these categories individually.
522
523The flags UTF8_WARN_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE, UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE,
524UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR, and UTF8_WARN_SUPER will cause warning messages to be raised
525for their respective categories, but otherwise the code points are considered
526valid (not malformations). To get a category to both be treated as a
527malformation and raise a warning, specify both the WARN and DISALLOW flags.
528(But note that warnings are not raised if lexically disabled nor if
529UTF8_CHECK_ONLY is also specified.)
530
531Very large code points (above 0x7FFF_FFFF) are considered more problematic than
532the others that are above the Unicode legal maximum. There are several
eb83ed87
KW
533reasons: they requre at least 32 bits to represent them on ASCII platforms, are
534not representable at all on EBCDIC platforms, and the original UTF-8
535specification never went above this number (the current 0x10FFFF limit was
536imposed later). (The smaller ones, those that fit into 32 bits, are
537representable by a UV on ASCII platforms, but not by an IV, which means that
538the number of operations that can be performed on them is quite restricted.)
539The UTF-8 encoding on ASCII platforms for these large code points begins with a
540byte containing 0xFE or 0xFF. The UTF8_DISALLOW_FE_FF flag will cause them to
541be treated as malformations, while allowing smaller above-Unicode code points.
542(Of course UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER will treat all above-Unicode code points,
543including these, as malformations.) Similarly, UTF8_WARN_FE_FF acts just like
544the other WARN flags, but applies just to these code points.
949cf498
KW
545
546All other code points corresponding to Unicode characters, including private
547use and those yet to be assigned, are never considered malformed and never
548warn.
67e989fb 549
ec5f19d0 550Most code should use L</utf8_to_uvchr_buf>() rather than call this directly.
9041c2e3 551
37607a96
PK
552=cut
553*/
67e989fb 554
a0ed51b3 555UV
7fc63493 556Perl_utf8n_to_uvuni(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN curlen, STRLEN *retlen, U32 flags)
a0ed51b3 557{
97aff369 558 dVAR;
d4c19fe8 559 const U8 * const s0 = s;
eb83ed87 560 U8 overflow_byte = '\0'; /* Save byte in case of overflow */
0b8d30e8 561 U8 * send;
eb83ed87
KW
562 UV uv = *s;
563 STRLEN expectlen;
949cf498 564 SV* sv = NULL;
eb83ed87
KW
565 UV outlier_ret = 0; /* return value when input is in error or problematic
566 */
567 UV pack_warn = 0; /* Save result of packWARN() for later */
568 bool unexpected_non_continuation = FALSE;
569 bool overflowed = FALSE;
2f8f112e 570 bool do_overlong_test = TRUE; /* May have to skip this test */
a0dbb045 571
eb83ed87 572 const char* const malformed_text = "Malformed UTF-8 character";
7918f24d 573
eb83ed87 574 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8N_TO_UVUNI;
a0dbb045 575
eb83ed87
KW
576 /* The order of malformation tests here is important. We should consume as
577 * few bytes as possible in order to not skip any valid character. This is
578 * required by the Unicode Standard (section 3.9 of Unicode 6.0); see also
579 * http://unicode.org/reports/tr36 for more discussion as to why. For
580 * example, once we've done a UTF8SKIP, we can tell the expected number of
581 * bytes, and could fail right off the bat if the input parameters indicate
582 * that there are too few available. But it could be that just that first
583 * byte is garbled, and the intended character occupies fewer bytes. If we
584 * blindly assumed that the first byte is correct, and skipped based on
585 * that number, we could skip over a valid input character. So instead, we
586 * always examine the sequence byte-by-byte.
587 *
588 * We also should not consume too few bytes, otherwise someone could inject
589 * things. For example, an input could be deliberately designed to
590 * overflow, and if this code bailed out immediately upon discovering that,
591 * returning to the caller *retlen pointing to the very next byte (one
592 * which is actually part of of the overflowing sequence), that could look
593 * legitimate to the caller, which could discard the initial partial
594 * sequence and process the rest, inappropriately */
595
596 /* Zero length strings, if allowed, of necessity are zero */
b5b9af04 597 if (UNLIKELY(curlen == 0)) {
eb83ed87
KW
598 if (retlen) {
599 *retlen = 0;
600 }
a0dbb045 601
eb83ed87
KW
602 if (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_EMPTY) {
603 return 0;
604 }
605 if (! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
606 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (empty string)", malformed_text));
607 }
0c443dc2
JH
608 goto malformed;
609 }
610
eb83ed87
KW
611 expectlen = UTF8SKIP(s);
612
613 /* A well-formed UTF-8 character, as the vast majority of calls to this
614 * function will be for, has this expected length. For efficiency, set
615 * things up here to return it. It will be overriden only in those rare
616 * cases where a malformation is found */
617 if (retlen) {
618 *retlen = expectlen;
619 }
620
621 /* An invariant is trivially well-formed */
1d72bdf6 622 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(uv)) {
c4d5f83a 623 return (UV) (NATIVE_TO_UTF(*s));
a0ed51b3 624 }
67e989fb 625
eb83ed87 626 /* A continuation character can't start a valid sequence */
b5b9af04 627 if (UNLIKELY(UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(uv))) {
eb83ed87
KW
628 if (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_CONTINUATION) {
629 if (retlen) {
630 *retlen = 1;
631 }
632 return UNICODE_REPLACEMENT;
633 }
ba210ebe 634
eb83ed87
KW
635 if (! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
636 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (unexpected continuation byte 0x%02x, with no preceding start byte)", malformed_text, *s0));
637 }
638 curlen = 1;
ba210ebe
JH
639 goto malformed;
640 }
9041c2e3 641
1d72bdf6 642#ifdef EBCDIC
75383841 643 uv = NATIVE_TO_UTF(uv);
1d72bdf6
NIS
644#endif
645
eb83ed87
KW
646 /* Here is not a continuation byte, nor an invariant. The only thing left
647 * is a start byte (possibly for an overlong) */
ba210ebe 648
eb83ed87
KW
649 /* Remove the leading bits that indicate the number of bytes in the
650 * character's whole UTF-8 sequence, leaving just the bits that are part of
651 * the value */
652 uv &= UTF_START_MASK(expectlen);
ba210ebe 653
eb83ed87
KW
654 /* Now, loop through the remaining bytes in the character's sequence,
655 * accumulating each into the working value as we go. Be sure to not look
656 * past the end of the input string */
0b8d30e8
KW
657 send = (U8*) s0 + ((expectlen <= curlen) ? expectlen : curlen);
658
eb83ed87 659 for (s = s0 + 1; s < send; s++) {
b5b9af04 660 if (LIKELY(UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(*s))) {
eb83ed87
KW
661#ifndef EBCDIC /* Can't overflow in EBCDIC */
662 if (uv & UTF_ACCUMULATION_OVERFLOW_MASK) {
663
664 /* The original implementors viewed this malformation as more
665 * serious than the others (though I, khw, don't understand
666 * why, since other malformations also give very very wrong
667 * results), so there is no way to turn off checking for it.
668 * Set a flag, but keep going in the loop, so that we absorb
669 * the rest of the bytes that comprise the character. */
670 overflowed = TRUE;
671 overflow_byte = *s; /* Save for warning message's use */
672 }
673#endif
8850bf83 674 uv = UTF8_ACCUMULATE(uv, *s);
eb83ed87
KW
675 }
676 else {
677 /* Here, found a non-continuation before processing all expected
678 * bytes. This byte begins a new character, so quit, even if
679 * allowing this malformation. */
680 unexpected_non_continuation = TRUE;
681 break;
682 }
683 } /* End of loop through the character's bytes */
684
685 /* Save how many bytes were actually in the character */
686 curlen = s - s0;
687
688 /* The loop above finds two types of malformations: non-continuation and/or
689 * overflow. The non-continuation malformation is really a too-short
690 * malformation, as it means that the current character ended before it was
691 * expected to (being terminated prematurely by the beginning of the next
692 * character, whereas in the too-short malformation there just are too few
693 * bytes available to hold the character. In both cases, the check below
694 * that we have found the expected number of bytes would fail if executed.)
695 * Thus the non-continuation malformation is really unnecessary, being a
696 * subset of the too-short malformation. But there may be existing
697 * applications that are expecting the non-continuation type, so we retain
698 * it, and return it in preference to the too-short malformation. (If this
699 * code were being written from scratch, the two types might be collapsed
700 * into one.) I, khw, am also giving priority to returning the
701 * non-continuation and too-short malformations over overflow when multiple
702 * ones are present. I don't know of any real reason to prefer one over
703 * the other, except that it seems to me that multiple-byte errors trumps
704 * errors from a single byte */
b5b9af04 705 if (UNLIKELY(unexpected_non_continuation)) {
eb83ed87
KW
706 if (!(flags & UTF8_ALLOW_NON_CONTINUATION)) {
707 if (! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
708 if (curlen == 1) {
709 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (unexpected non-continuation byte 0x%02x, immediately after start byte 0x%02x)", malformed_text, *s, *s0));
710 }
711 else {
712 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (unexpected non-continuation byte 0x%02x, %d bytes after start byte 0x%02x, expected %d bytes)", malformed_text, *s, (int) curlen, *s0, (int)expectlen));
a0dbb045
JH
713 }
714 }
eb83ed87
KW
715 goto malformed;
716 }
717 uv = UNICODE_REPLACEMENT;
2f8f112e
KW
718
719 /* Skip testing for overlongs, as the REPLACEMENT may not be the same
720 * as what the original expectations were. */
721 do_overlong_test = FALSE;
eb83ed87
KW
722 if (retlen) {
723 *retlen = curlen;
724 }
725 }
b5b9af04 726 else if (UNLIKELY(curlen < expectlen)) {
eb83ed87
KW
727 if (! (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_SHORT)) {
728 if (! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
729 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (%d byte%s, need %d, after start byte 0x%02x)", malformed_text, (int)curlen, curlen == 1 ? "" : "s", (int)expectlen, *s0));
a0dbb045 730 }
eb83ed87
KW
731 goto malformed;
732 }
733 uv = UNICODE_REPLACEMENT;
2f8f112e 734 do_overlong_test = FALSE;
eb83ed87
KW
735 if (retlen) {
736 *retlen = curlen;
737 }
738 }
739
740#ifndef EBCDIC /* EBCDIC allows FE, FF, can't overflow */
2f8f112e 741 if ((*s0 & 0xFE) == 0xFE /* matches both FE, FF */
eb83ed87
KW
742 && (flags & (UTF8_WARN_FE_FF|UTF8_DISALLOW_FE_FF)))
743 {
744 /* By adding UTF8_CHECK_ONLY to the test, we avoid unnecessary
745 * generation of the sv, since no warnings are raised under CHECK */
746 if ((flags & (UTF8_WARN_FE_FF|UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) == UTF8_WARN_FE_FF
747 && ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8))
748 {
42303544
KW
749 /* This message is deliberately not of the same syntax as the other
750 * messages for malformations, for backwards compatibility in the
751 * unlikely event that code is relying on its precise earlier text
752 */
eb83ed87
KW
753 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s Code point beginning with byte 0x%02X is not Unicode, and not portable", malformed_text, *s0));
754 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
755 }
756 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_FE_FF) {
757 goto malformed;
ba210ebe 758 }
ba210ebe 759 }
b5b9af04 760 if (UNLIKELY(overflowed)) {
ba210ebe 761
eb83ed87
KW
762 /* If the first byte is FF, it will overflow a 32-bit word. If the
763 * first byte is FE, it will overflow a signed 32-bit word. The
764 * above preserves backward compatibility, since its message was used
765 * in earlier versions of this code in preference to overflow */
766 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (overflow at byte 0x%02x, after start byte 0x%02x)", malformed_text, overflow_byte, *s0));
ba210ebe 767 goto malformed;
eb83ed87
KW
768 }
769#endif
770
2f8f112e
KW
771 if (do_overlong_test
772 && expectlen > (STRLEN)UNISKIP(uv)
773 && ! (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_LONG))
774 {
eb83ed87
KW
775 /* The overlong malformation has lower precedence than the others.
776 * Note that if this malformation is allowed, we return the actual
777 * value, instead of the replacement character. This is because this
778 * value is actually well-defined. */
779 if (! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
780 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (%d byte%s, need %d, after start byte 0x%02x)", malformed_text, (int)expectlen, expectlen == 1 ? "": "s", UNISKIP(uv), *s0));
781 }
782 goto malformed;
783 }
784
785 /* Here, the input is considered to be well-formed , but could be a
786 * problematic code point that is not allowed by the input parameters. */
787 if (uv >= UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST /* isn't problematic if < this */
788 && (flags & (UTF8_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE
789 |UTF8_WARN_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE)))
790 {
949cf498 791 if (UNICODE_IS_SURROGATE(uv)) {
eb83ed87
KW
792 if ((flags & (UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE|UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) == UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE
793 && ckWARN2_d(WARN_UTF8, WARN_SURROGATE))
794 {
111d382d 795 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "UTF-16 surrogate U+%04"UVXf"", uv));
eb83ed87 796 pack_warn = packWARN2(WARN_UTF8, WARN_SURROGATE);
949cf498
KW
797 }
798 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE) {
799 goto disallowed;
800 }
801 }
949cf498 802 else if ((uv > PERL_UNICODE_MAX)) {
eb83ed87
KW
803 if ((flags & (UTF8_WARN_SUPER|UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) == UTF8_WARN_SUPER
804 && ckWARN2_d(WARN_UTF8, WARN_NON_UNICODE))
805 {
111d382d 806 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "Code point 0x%04"UVXf" is not Unicode, may not be portable", uv));
eb83ed87 807 pack_warn = packWARN2(WARN_UTF8, WARN_NON_UNICODE);
949cf498
KW
808 }
809 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER) {
810 goto disallowed;
811 }
812 }
4190d317
KW
813 else if (UNICODE_IS_NONCHAR(uv)) {
814 if ((flags & (UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR|UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) == UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR
815 && ckWARN2_d(WARN_UTF8, WARN_NONCHAR))
816 {
817 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "Unicode non-character U+%04"UVXf" is illegal for open interchange", uv));
818 pack_warn = packWARN2(WARN_UTF8, WARN_NONCHAR);
819 }
820 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR) {
821 goto disallowed;
822 }
823 }
949cf498 824
eb83ed87
KW
825 if (sv) {
826 outlier_ret = uv;
827 goto do_warn;
828 }
829
949cf498
KW
830 /* Here, this is not considered a malformed character, so drop through
831 * to return it */
a0ed51b3 832 }
ba210ebe 833
a0ed51b3 834 return uv;
ba210ebe 835
eb83ed87
KW
836 /* There are three cases which get to beyond this point. In all 3 cases:
837 * <sv> if not null points to a string to print as a warning.
838 * <curlen> is what <*retlen> should be set to if UTF8_CHECK_ONLY isn't
839 * set.
840 * <outlier_ret> is what return value to use if UTF8_CHECK_ONLY isn't set.
841 * This is done by initializing it to 0, and changing it only
842 * for case 1).
843 * The 3 cases are:
844 * 1) The input is valid but problematic, and to be warned about. The
845 * return value is the resultant code point; <*retlen> is set to
846 * <curlen>, the number of bytes that comprise the code point.
847 * <pack_warn> contains the result of packWARN() for the warning
848 * types. The entry point for this case is the label <do_warn>;
849 * 2) The input is a valid code point but disallowed by the parameters to
850 * this function. The return value is 0. If UTF8_CHECK_ONLY is set,
851 * <*relen> is -1; otherwise it is <curlen>, the number of bytes that
852 * comprise the code point. <pack_warn> contains the result of
853 * packWARN() for the warning types. The entry point for this case is
854 * the label <disallowed>.
855 * 3) The input is malformed. The return value is 0. If UTF8_CHECK_ONLY
856 * is set, <*relen> is -1; otherwise it is <curlen>, the number of
857 * bytes that comprise the malformation. All such malformations are
858 * assumed to be warning type <utf8>. The entry point for this case
859 * is the label <malformed>.
860 */
949cf498 861
ba210ebe
JH
862malformed:
863
eb83ed87
KW
864 if (sv && ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8)) {
865 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
866 }
867
868disallowed:
869
fcc8fcf6 870 if (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY) {
ba210ebe 871 if (retlen)
10edeb5d 872 *retlen = ((STRLEN) -1);
ba210ebe
JH
873 return 0;
874 }
875
eb83ed87 876do_warn:
5b311467 877
eb83ed87
KW
878 if (pack_warn) { /* <pack_warn> was initialized to 0, and changed only
879 if warnings are to be raised. */
f555bc63 880 const char * const string = SvPVX_const(sv);
a0dbb045 881
f555bc63
KW
882 if (PL_op)
883 Perl_warner(aTHX_ pack_warn, "%s in %s", string, OP_DESC(PL_op));
884 else
885 Perl_warner(aTHX_ pack_warn, "%s", string);
a0dbb045
JH
886 }
887
eb83ed87
KW
888 if (retlen) {
889 *retlen = curlen;
890 }
ba210ebe 891
eb83ed87 892 return outlier_ret;
a0ed51b3
LW
893}
894
8e84507e 895/*
ec5f19d0
KW
896=for apidoc utf8_to_uvchr_buf
897
898Returns the native code point of the first character in the string C<s> which
899is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; C<send> points to 1 beyond the end of C<s>.
524080c4 900C<*retlen> will be set to the length, in bytes, of that character.
ec5f19d0 901
524080c4
KW
902If C<s> does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character and UTF8 warnings are
903enabled, zero is returned and C<*retlen> is set (if C<retlen> isn't
904NULL) to -1. If those warnings are off, the computed value if well-defined (or
905the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, if not) is silently returned, and C<*retlen>
906is set (if C<retlen> isn't NULL) so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>) is the
907next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed character.
908See L</utf8n_to_uvuni> for details on when the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is returned.
ec5f19d0
KW
909
910=cut
911*/
912
913
914UV
915Perl_utf8_to_uvchr_buf(pTHX_ const U8 *s, const U8 *send, STRLEN *retlen)
916{
917 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_UVCHR_BUF;
918
919 assert(s < send);
920
921 return utf8n_to_uvchr(s, send - s, retlen,
922 ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) ? 0 : UTF8_ALLOW_ANY);
923}
924
27d6c58a 925/* Like L</utf8_to_uvchr_buf>(), but should only be called when it is known that
3986bb7c 926 * there are no malformations in the input UTF-8 string C<s>. surrogates,
6dd9dce9
KW
927 * non-character code points, and non-Unicode code points are allowed. A macro
928 * in utf8.h is used to normally avoid this function wrapper */
27d6c58a
KW
929
930UV
931Perl_valid_utf8_to_uvchr(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)
932{
3986bb7c
KW
933 const UV uv = valid_utf8_to_uvuni(s, retlen);
934
27d6c58a
KW
935 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_VALID_UTF8_TO_UVCHR;
936
3986bb7c 937 return UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv);
27d6c58a
KW
938}
939
ec5f19d0 940/*
87cea99e 941=for apidoc utf8_to_uvchr
9041c2e3 942
977c1d31
KW
943DEPRECATED!
944
6ee84de2 945Returns the native code point of the first character in the string C<s>
1e54db1a 946which is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; C<retlen> will be set to the
9041c2e3
NIS
947length, in bytes, of that character.
948
4b88fb76 949Some, but not all, UTF-8 malformations are detected, and in fact, some
977c1d31
KW
950malformed input could cause reading beyond the end of the input buffer, which
951is why this function is deprecated. Use L</utf8_to_uvchr_buf> instead.
4b88fb76 952
524080c4
KW
953If C<s> points to one of the detected malformations, and UTF8 warnings are
954enabled, zero is returned and C<*retlen> is set (if C<retlen> isn't
955NULL) to -1. If those warnings are off, the computed value if well-defined (or
956the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, if not) is silently returned, and C<*retlen>
957is set (if C<retlen> isn't NULL) so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>) is the
958next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed character.
959See L</utf8n_to_uvuni> for details on when the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is returned.
9041c2e3
NIS
960
961=cut
962*/
963
964UV
7fc63493 965Perl_utf8_to_uvchr(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)
9041c2e3 966{
7918f24d
NC
967 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_UVCHR;
968
2ff6c191 969 return utf8_to_uvchr_buf(s, s + UTF8_MAXBYTES, retlen);
9041c2e3
NIS
970}
971
972/*
ec5f19d0
KW
973=for apidoc utf8_to_uvuni_buf
974
975Returns the Unicode code point of the first character in the string C<s> which
976is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; C<send> points to 1 beyond the end of C<s>.
977C<retlen> will be set to the length, in bytes, of that character.
978
979This function should only be used when the returned UV is considered
980an index into the Unicode semantic tables (e.g. swashes).
981
524080c4
KW
982If C<s> does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character and UTF8 warnings are
983enabled, zero is returned and C<*retlen> is set (if C<retlen> isn't
984NULL) to -1. If those warnings are off, the computed value if well-defined (or
985the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, if not) is silently returned, and C<*retlen>
986is set (if C<retlen> isn't NULL) so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>) is the
987next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed character.
988See L</utf8n_to_uvuni> for details on when the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is returned.
ec5f19d0
KW
989
990=cut
991*/
992
993UV
994Perl_utf8_to_uvuni_buf(pTHX_ const U8 *s, const U8 *send, STRLEN *retlen)
995{
996 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_UVUNI_BUF;
997
998 assert(send > s);
999
1000 /* Call the low level routine asking for checks */
1001 return Perl_utf8n_to_uvuni(aTHX_ s, send -s, retlen,
1002 ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) ? 0 : UTF8_ALLOW_ANY);
1003}
1004
27d6c58a 1005/* Like L</utf8_to_uvuni_buf>(), but should only be called when it is known that
2114036c 1006 * there are no malformations in the input UTF-8 string C<s>. Surrogates,
3986bb7c 1007 * non-character code points, and non-Unicode code points are allowed */
27d6c58a
KW
1008
1009UV
1010Perl_valid_utf8_to_uvuni(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)
1011{
3986bb7c
KW
1012 UV expectlen = UTF8SKIP(s);
1013 const U8* send = s + expectlen;
1014 UV uv = NATIVE_TO_UTF(*s);
1015
27d6c58a
KW
1016 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_VALID_UTF8_TO_UVUNI;
1017
3986bb7c
KW
1018 if (retlen) {
1019 *retlen = expectlen;
1020 }
1021
1022 /* An invariant is trivially returned */
1023 if (expectlen == 1) {
1024 return uv;
1025 }
1026
1027 /* Remove the leading bits that indicate the number of bytes, leaving just
1028 * the bits that are part of the value */
1029 uv &= UTF_START_MASK(expectlen);
1030
1031 /* Now, loop through the remaining bytes, accumulating each into the
08bc774e
KW
1032 * working total as we go. (I khw tried unrolling the loop for up to 4
1033 * bytes, but there was no performance improvement) */
3986bb7c
KW
1034 for (++s; s < send; s++) {
1035 uv = UTF8_ACCUMULATE(uv, *s);
1036 }
1037
1038 return uv;
27d6c58a
KW
1039}
1040
ec5f19d0 1041/*
87cea99e 1042=for apidoc utf8_to_uvuni
9041c2e3 1043
977c1d31
KW
1044DEPRECATED!
1045
9041c2e3 1046Returns the Unicode code point of the first character in the string C<s>
1e54db1a 1047which is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; C<retlen> will be set to the
9041c2e3
NIS
1048length, in bytes, of that character.
1049
39e518fd
KW
1050This function should only be used when the returned UV is considered
1051an index into the Unicode semantic tables (e.g. swashes).
1052
4b88fb76 1053Some, but not all, UTF-8 malformations are detected, and in fact, some
977c1d31
KW
1054malformed input could cause reading beyond the end of the input buffer, which
1055is why this function is deprecated. Use L</utf8_to_uvuni_buf> instead.
9041c2e3 1056
524080c4
KW
1057If C<s> points to one of the detected malformations, and UTF8 warnings are
1058enabled, zero is returned and C<*retlen> is set (if C<retlen> doesn't point to
1059NULL) to -1. If those warnings are off, the computed value if well-defined (or
1060the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, if not) is silently returned, and C<*retlen>
1061is set (if C<retlen> isn't NULL) so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>) is the
1062next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed character.
1063See L</utf8n_to_uvuni> for details on when the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is returned.
8e84507e
NIS
1064
1065=cut
1066*/
1067
1068UV
7fc63493 1069Perl_utf8_to_uvuni(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)
8e84507e 1070{
7918f24d
NC
1071 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_UVUNI;
1072
4b88fb76 1073 return valid_utf8_to_uvuni(s, retlen);
8e84507e
NIS
1074}
1075
b76347f2 1076/*
87cea99e 1077=for apidoc utf8_length
b76347f2
JH
1078
1079Return the length of the UTF-8 char encoded string C<s> in characters.
02eb7b47
JH
1080Stops at C<e> (inclusive). If C<e E<lt> s> or if the scan would end
1081up past C<e>, croaks.
b76347f2
JH
1082
1083=cut
1084*/
1085
1086STRLEN
35a4481c 1087Perl_utf8_length(pTHX_ const U8 *s, const U8 *e)
b76347f2 1088{
97aff369 1089 dVAR;
b76347f2
JH
1090 STRLEN len = 0;
1091
7918f24d
NC
1092 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_LENGTH;
1093
8850bf83
JH
1094 /* Note: cannot use UTF8_IS_...() too eagerly here since e.g.
1095 * the bitops (especially ~) can create illegal UTF-8.
1096 * In other words: in Perl UTF-8 is not just for Unicode. */
1097
a3b680e6
AL
1098 if (e < s)
1099 goto warn_and_return;
b76347f2 1100 while (s < e) {
4cbf4130 1101 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
8e91ec7f
AV
1102 len++;
1103 }
1104
1105 if (e != s) {
1106 len--;
1107 warn_and_return:
9b387841
NC
1108 if (PL_op)
1109 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
1110 "%s in %s", unees, OP_DESC(PL_op));
1111 else
61a12c31 1112 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8), "%s", unees);
b76347f2
JH
1113 }
1114
1115 return len;
1116}
1117
b06226ff 1118/*
87cea99e 1119=for apidoc utf8_distance
b06226ff 1120
1e54db1a 1121Returns the number of UTF-8 characters between the UTF-8 pointers C<a>
b06226ff
JH
1122and C<b>.
1123
1124WARNING: use only if you *know* that the pointers point inside the
1125same UTF-8 buffer.
1126
37607a96
PK
1127=cut
1128*/
a0ed51b3 1129
02eb7b47 1130IV
35a4481c 1131Perl_utf8_distance(pTHX_ const U8 *a, const U8 *b)
a0ed51b3 1132{
7918f24d
NC
1133 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_DISTANCE;
1134
bf1665bc 1135 return (a < b) ? -1 * (IV) utf8_length(a, b) : (IV) utf8_length(b, a);
a0ed51b3
LW
1136}
1137
b06226ff 1138/*
87cea99e 1139=for apidoc utf8_hop
b06226ff 1140
8850bf83
JH
1141Return the UTF-8 pointer C<s> displaced by C<off> characters, either
1142forward or backward.
b06226ff
JH
1143
1144WARNING: do not use the following unless you *know* C<off> is within
8850bf83
JH
1145the UTF-8 data pointed to by C<s> *and* that on entry C<s> is aligned
1146on the first byte of character or just after the last byte of a character.
b06226ff 1147
37607a96
PK
1148=cut
1149*/
a0ed51b3
LW
1150
1151U8 *
4373e329 1152Perl_utf8_hop(pTHX_ const U8 *s, I32 off)
a0ed51b3 1153{
7918f24d
NC
1154 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_HOP;
1155
96a5add6 1156 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
8850bf83
JH
1157 /* Note: cannot use UTF8_IS_...() too eagerly here since e.g
1158 * the bitops (especially ~) can create illegal UTF-8.
1159 * In other words: in Perl UTF-8 is not just for Unicode. */
1160
a0ed51b3
LW
1161 if (off >= 0) {
1162 while (off--)
1163 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
1164 }
1165 else {
1166 while (off++) {
1167 s--;
8850bf83
JH
1168 while (UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(*s))
1169 s--;
a0ed51b3
LW
1170 }
1171 }
4373e329 1172 return (U8 *)s;
a0ed51b3
LW
1173}
1174
6940069f 1175/*
fed3ba5d
NC
1176=for apidoc bytes_cmp_utf8
1177
a1433954
KW
1178Compares the sequence of characters (stored as octets) in C<b>, C<blen> with the
1179sequence of characters (stored as UTF-8) in C<u>, C<ulen>. Returns 0 if they are
fed3ba5d
NC
1180equal, -1 or -2 if the first string is less than the second string, +1 or +2
1181if the first string is greater than the second string.
1182
1183-1 or +1 is returned if the shorter string was identical to the start of the
1184longer string. -2 or +2 is returned if the was a difference between characters
1185within the strings.
1186
1187=cut
1188*/
1189
1190int
1191Perl_bytes_cmp_utf8(pTHX_ const U8 *b, STRLEN blen, const U8 *u, STRLEN ulen)
1192{
1193 const U8 *const bend = b + blen;
1194 const U8 *const uend = u + ulen;
1195
1196 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_BYTES_CMP_UTF8;
1197
1198 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
1199
1200 while (b < bend && u < uend) {
1201 U8 c = *u++;
1202 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
1203 if (UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(c)) {
1204 if (u < uend) {
1205 U8 c1 = *u++;
1206 if (UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(c1)) {
356979f4 1207 c = UNI_TO_NATIVE(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(c, c1));
fed3ba5d
NC
1208 } else {
1209 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
1210 "Malformed UTF-8 character "
1211 "(unexpected non-continuation byte 0x%02x"
1212 ", immediately after start byte 0x%02x)"
1213 /* Dear diag.t, it's in the pod. */
1214 "%s%s", c1, c,
1215 PL_op ? " in " : "",
1216 PL_op ? OP_DESC(PL_op) : "");
1217 return -2;
1218 }
1219 } else {
1220 if (PL_op)
1221 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
1222 "%s in %s", unees, OP_DESC(PL_op));
1223 else
61a12c31 1224 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8), "%s", unees);
fed3ba5d
NC
1225 return -2; /* Really want to return undef :-) */
1226 }
1227 } else {
1228 return -2;
1229 }
1230 }
1231 if (*b != c) {
1232 return *b < c ? -2 : +2;
1233 }
1234 ++b;
1235 }
1236
1237 if (b == bend && u == uend)
1238 return 0;
1239
1240 return b < bend ? +1 : -1;
1241}
1242
1243/*
87cea99e 1244=for apidoc utf8_to_bytes
6940069f 1245
2bbc8d55 1246Converts a string C<s> of length C<len> from UTF-8 into native byte encoding.
a1433954
KW
1247Unlike L</bytes_to_utf8>, this over-writes the original string, and
1248updates C<len> to contain the new length.
67e989fb 1249Returns zero on failure, setting C<len> to -1.
6940069f 1250
a1433954 1251If you need a copy of the string, see L</bytes_from_utf8>.
95be277c 1252
6940069f
GS
1253=cut
1254*/
1255
1256U8 *
37607a96 1257Perl_utf8_to_bytes(pTHX_ U8 *s, STRLEN *len)
6940069f 1258{
d4c19fe8
AL
1259 U8 * const save = s;
1260 U8 * const send = s + *len;
6940069f 1261 U8 *d;
246fae53 1262
7918f24d
NC
1263 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_BYTES;
1264
1e54db1a 1265 /* ensure valid UTF-8 and chars < 256 before updating string */
d4c19fe8 1266 while (s < send) {
dcad2880
JH
1267 U8 c = *s++;
1268
1d72bdf6
NIS
1269 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c) &&
1270 (!UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(c) || (s >= send)
1271 || !(c = *s++) || !UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(c))) {
10edeb5d 1272 *len = ((STRLEN) -1);
dcad2880
JH
1273 return 0;
1274 }
246fae53 1275 }
dcad2880
JH
1276
1277 d = s = save;
6940069f 1278 while (s < send) {
ed646e6e 1279 STRLEN ulen;
4b88fb76 1280 *d++ = (U8)utf8_to_uvchr_buf(s, send, &ulen);
ed646e6e 1281 s += ulen;
6940069f
GS
1282 }
1283 *d = '\0';
246fae53 1284 *len = d - save;
6940069f
GS
1285 return save;
1286}
1287
1288/*
87cea99e 1289=for apidoc bytes_from_utf8
f9a63242 1290
2bbc8d55 1291Converts a string C<s> of length C<len> from UTF-8 into native byte encoding.
a1433954 1292Unlike L</utf8_to_bytes> but like L</bytes_to_utf8>, returns a pointer to
ef9edfd0
JH
1293the newly-created string, and updates C<len> to contain the new
1294length. Returns the original string if no conversion occurs, C<len>
1295is unchanged. Do nothing if C<is_utf8> points to 0. Sets C<is_utf8> to
2bbc8d55
SP
12960 if C<s> is converted or consisted entirely of characters that are invariant
1297in utf8 (i.e., US-ASCII on non-EBCDIC machines).
f9a63242 1298
37607a96
PK
1299=cut
1300*/
f9a63242
JH
1301
1302U8 *
e1ec3a88 1303Perl_bytes_from_utf8(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *len, bool *is_utf8)
f9a63242 1304{
f9a63242 1305 U8 *d;
e1ec3a88
AL
1306 const U8 *start = s;
1307 const U8 *send;
f9a63242
JH
1308 I32 count = 0;
1309
7918f24d
NC
1310 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_BYTES_FROM_UTF8;
1311
96a5add6 1312 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
f9a63242 1313 if (!*is_utf8)
73d840c0 1314 return (U8 *)start;
f9a63242 1315
1e54db1a 1316 /* ensure valid UTF-8 and chars < 256 before converting string */
f9a63242 1317 for (send = s + *len; s < send;) {
e1ec3a88 1318 U8 c = *s++;
1d72bdf6 1319 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
db42d148
NIS
1320 if (UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(c) && s < send &&
1321 (c = *s++) && UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(c))
1322 count++;
1323 else
73d840c0 1324 return (U8 *)start;
db42d148 1325 }
f9a63242
JH
1326 }
1327
35da51f7 1328 *is_utf8 = FALSE;
f9a63242 1329
212542aa 1330 Newx(d, (*len) - count + 1, U8);
ef9edfd0 1331 s = start; start = d;
f9a63242
JH
1332 while (s < send) {
1333 U8 c = *s++;
c4d5f83a
NIS
1334 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
1335 /* Then it is two-byte encoded */
356979f4 1336 c = UNI_TO_NATIVE(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(c, *s++));
c4d5f83a
NIS
1337 }
1338 *d++ = c;
f9a63242
JH
1339 }
1340 *d = '\0';
1341 *len = d - start;
73d840c0 1342 return (U8 *)start;
f9a63242
JH
1343}
1344
1345/*
87cea99e 1346=for apidoc bytes_to_utf8
6940069f 1347
ff97e5cf
KW
1348Converts a string C<s> of length C<len> bytes from the native encoding into
1349UTF-8.
6662521e 1350Returns a pointer to the newly-created string, and sets C<len> to
ff97e5cf 1351reflect the new length in bytes.
6940069f 1352
2bbc8d55
SP
1353A NUL character will be written after the end of the string.
1354
1355If you want to convert to UTF-8 from encodings other than
1356the native (Latin1 or EBCDIC),
a1433954 1357see L</sv_recode_to_utf8>().
c9ada85f 1358
497711e7 1359=cut
6940069f
GS
1360*/
1361
c682ebef
FC
1362/* This logic is duplicated in sv_catpvn_flags, so any bug fixes will
1363 likewise need duplication. */
1364
6940069f 1365U8*
35a4481c 1366Perl_bytes_to_utf8(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *len)
6940069f 1367{
35a4481c 1368 const U8 * const send = s + (*len);
6940069f
GS
1369 U8 *d;
1370 U8 *dst;
7918f24d
NC
1371
1372 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_BYTES_TO_UTF8;
96a5add6 1373 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
6940069f 1374
212542aa 1375 Newx(d, (*len) * 2 + 1, U8);
6940069f
GS
1376 dst = d;
1377
1378 while (s < send) {
35a4481c 1379 const UV uv = NATIVE_TO_ASCII(*s++);
c4d5f83a 1380 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(uv))
eb160463 1381 *d++ = (U8)UTF_TO_NATIVE(uv);
6940069f 1382 else {
eb160463
GS
1383 *d++ = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(uv);
1384 *d++ = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(uv);
6940069f
GS
1385 }
1386 }
1387 *d = '\0';
6662521e 1388 *len = d-dst;
6940069f
GS
1389 return dst;
1390}
1391
a0ed51b3 1392/*
dea0fc0b 1393 * Convert native (big-endian) or reversed (little-endian) UTF-16 to UTF-8.
a0ed51b3
LW
1394 *
1395 * Destination must be pre-extended to 3/2 source. Do not use in-place.
1396 * We optimize for native, for obvious reasons. */
1397
1398U8*
dea0fc0b 1399Perl_utf16_to_utf8(pTHX_ U8* p, U8* d, I32 bytelen, I32 *newlen)
a0ed51b3 1400{
dea0fc0b
JH
1401 U8* pend;
1402 U8* dstart = d;
1403
7918f24d
NC
1404 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF16_TO_UTF8;
1405
dea0fc0b 1406 if (bytelen & 1)
f5992bc4 1407 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: utf16_to_utf8: odd bytelen %"UVuf, (UV)bytelen);
dea0fc0b
JH
1408
1409 pend = p + bytelen;
1410
a0ed51b3 1411 while (p < pend) {
dea0fc0b
JH
1412 UV uv = (p[0] << 8) + p[1]; /* UTF-16BE */
1413 p += 2;
a0ed51b3 1414 if (uv < 0x80) {
e294cc5d
JH
1415#ifdef EBCDIC
1416 *d++ = UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv);
1417#else
eb160463 1418 *d++ = (U8)uv;
e294cc5d 1419#endif
a0ed51b3
LW
1420 continue;
1421 }
1422 if (uv < 0x800) {
eb160463
GS
1423 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 6) | 0xc0);
1424 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
1425 continue;
1426 }
52b9aa85 1427 if (uv >= 0xd800 && uv <= 0xdbff) { /* surrogates */
01ea242b 1428 if (p >= pend) {
dea0fc0b 1429 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Malformed UTF-16 surrogate");
01ea242b
NC
1430 } else {
1431 UV low = (p[0] << 8) + p[1];
1432 p += 2;
52b9aa85 1433 if (low < 0xdc00 || low > 0xdfff)
01ea242b
NC
1434 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Malformed UTF-16 surrogate");
1435 uv = ((uv - 0xd800) << 10) + (low - 0xdc00) + 0x10000;
1436 }
dbde1951
NC
1437 } else if (uv >= 0xdc00 && uv <= 0xdfff) {
1438 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Malformed UTF-16 surrogate");
a0ed51b3
LW
1439 }
1440 if (uv < 0x10000) {
eb160463
GS
1441 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 12) | 0xe0);
1442 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
1443 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
1444 continue;
1445 }
1446 else {
eb160463
GS
1447 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 18) | 0xf0);
1448 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
1449 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
1450 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
1451 continue;
1452 }
1453 }
dea0fc0b 1454 *newlen = d - dstart;
a0ed51b3
LW
1455 return d;
1456}
1457
1458/* Note: this one is slightly destructive of the source. */
1459
1460U8*
dea0fc0b 1461Perl_utf16_to_utf8_reversed(pTHX_ U8* p, U8* d, I32 bytelen, I32 *newlen)
a0ed51b3
LW
1462{
1463 U8* s = (U8*)p;
d4c19fe8 1464 U8* const send = s + bytelen;
7918f24d
NC
1465
1466 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF16_TO_UTF8_REVERSED;
1467
e0ea5e2d
NC
1468 if (bytelen & 1)
1469 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: utf16_to_utf8_reversed: odd bytelen %"UVuf,
1470 (UV)bytelen);
1471
a0ed51b3 1472 while (s < send) {
d4c19fe8 1473 const U8 tmp = s[0];
a0ed51b3
LW
1474 s[0] = s[1];
1475 s[1] = tmp;
1476 s += 2;
1477 }
dea0fc0b 1478 return utf16_to_utf8(p, d, bytelen, newlen);
a0ed51b3
LW
1479}
1480
c3fd2246
KW
1481/* for now these are all defined (inefficiently) in terms of the utf8 versions.
1482 * Note that the macros in handy.h that call these short-circuit calling them
1483 * for Latin-1 range inputs */
a0ed51b3
LW
1484
1485bool
84afefe6 1486Perl_is_uni_alnum(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1487{
89ebb4a3 1488 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1489 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1490 return is_utf8_alnum(tmpbuf);
1491}
1492
1493bool
84afefe6 1494Perl_is_uni_idfirst(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1495{
89ebb4a3 1496 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1497 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1498 return is_utf8_idfirst(tmpbuf);
1499}
1500
1501bool
84afefe6 1502Perl_is_uni_alpha(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1503{
89ebb4a3 1504 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1505 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1506 return is_utf8_alpha(tmpbuf);
1507}
1508
1509bool
84afefe6 1510Perl_is_uni_ascii(pTHX_ UV c)
4d61ec05 1511{
bc39fe24 1512 return isASCII(c);
4d61ec05
GS
1513}
1514
1515bool
bdd8600f
KW
1516Perl_is_uni_blank(pTHX_ UV c)
1517{
2cafb56b 1518 return isBLANK_uni(c);
bdd8600f
KW
1519}
1520
1521bool
84afefe6 1522Perl_is_uni_space(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1523{
add4123a 1524 return isSPACE_uni(c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1525}
1526
1527bool
84afefe6 1528Perl_is_uni_digit(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1529{
89ebb4a3 1530 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1531 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1532 return is_utf8_digit(tmpbuf);
1533}
1534
1535bool
84afefe6 1536Perl_is_uni_upper(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1537{
89ebb4a3 1538 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1539 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1540 return is_utf8_upper(tmpbuf);
1541}
1542
1543bool
84afefe6 1544Perl_is_uni_lower(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1545{
89ebb4a3 1546 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1547 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1548 return is_utf8_lower(tmpbuf);
1549}
1550
1551bool
84afefe6 1552Perl_is_uni_cntrl(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f 1553{
7b952154 1554 return isCNTRL_L1(c);
b8c5462f
JH
1555}
1556
1557bool
84afefe6 1558Perl_is_uni_graph(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f 1559{
89ebb4a3 1560 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1561 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
b8c5462f
JH
1562 return is_utf8_graph(tmpbuf);
1563}
1564
1565bool
84afefe6 1566Perl_is_uni_print(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1567{
89ebb4a3 1568 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1569 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1570 return is_utf8_print(tmpbuf);
1571}
1572
b8c5462f 1573bool
84afefe6 1574Perl_is_uni_punct(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f 1575{
89ebb4a3 1576 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1577 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
b8c5462f
JH
1578 return is_utf8_punct(tmpbuf);
1579}
1580
4d61ec05 1581bool
84afefe6 1582Perl_is_uni_xdigit(pTHX_ UV c)
4d61ec05 1583{
4ac6419d 1584 return isXDIGIT_uni(c);
4d61ec05
GS
1585}
1586
3a4c58c9
KW
1587UV
1588Perl__to_upper_title_latin1(pTHX_ const U8 c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp, const char S_or_s)
1589{
1590 /* We have the latin1-range values compiled into the core, so just use
1591 * those, converting the result to utf8. The only difference between upper
1592 * and title case in this range is that LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S is
1593 * either "SS" or "Ss". Which one to use is passed into the routine in
1594 * 'S_or_s' to avoid a test */
1595
1596 UV converted = toUPPER_LATIN1_MOD(c);
1597
1598 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UPPER_TITLE_LATIN1;
1599
1600 assert(S_or_s == 'S' || S_or_s == 's');
1601
1602 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(converted)) { /* No difference between the two for
1603 characters in this range */
1604 *p = (U8) converted;
1605 *lenp = 1;
1606 return converted;
1607 }
1608
1609 /* toUPPER_LATIN1_MOD gives the correct results except for three outliers,
1610 * which it maps to one of them, so as to only have to have one check for
1611 * it in the main case */
1612 if (UNLIKELY(converted == LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS)) {
1613 switch (c) {
1614 case LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS:
1615 converted = LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS;
1616 break;
1617 case MICRO_SIGN:
1618 converted = GREEK_CAPITAL_LETTER_MU;
1619 break;
1620 case LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S:
1621 *(p)++ = 'S';
1622 *p = S_or_s;
1623 *lenp = 2;
1624 return 'S';
1625 default:
1626 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: to_upper_title_latin1 did not expect '%c' to map to '%c'", c, LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS);
118e2215 1627 assert(0); /* NOTREACHED */
3a4c58c9
KW
1628 }
1629 }
1630
1631 *(p)++ = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI(converted);
1632 *p = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO(converted);
1633 *lenp = 2;
1634
1635 return converted;
1636}
1637
50bda2c3
KW
1638/* Call the function to convert a UTF-8 encoded character to the specified case.
1639 * Note that there may be more than one character in the result.
1640 * INP is a pointer to the first byte of the input character
1641 * OUTP will be set to the first byte of the string of changed characters. It
1642 * needs to have space for UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes
1643 * LENP will be set to the length in bytes of the string of changed characters
1644 *
1645 * The functions return the ordinal of the first character in the string of OUTP */
f90a9a02
KW
1646#define CALL_UPPER_CASE(INP, OUTP, LENP) Perl_to_utf8_case(aTHX_ INP, OUTP, LENP, &PL_utf8_toupper, "ToUc", "utf8::ToSpecUc")
1647#define CALL_TITLE_CASE(INP, OUTP, LENP) Perl_to_utf8_case(aTHX_ INP, OUTP, LENP, &PL_utf8_totitle, "ToTc", "utf8::ToSpecTc")
1648#define CALL_LOWER_CASE(INP, OUTP, LENP) Perl_to_utf8_case(aTHX_ INP, OUTP, LENP, &PL_utf8_tolower, "ToLc", "utf8::ToSpecLc")
50bda2c3
KW
1649
1650/* This additionally has the input parameter SPECIALS, which if non-zero will
1651 * cause this to use the SPECIALS hash for folding (meaning get full case
1652 * folding); otherwise, when zero, this implies a simple case fold */
f90a9a02 1653#define CALL_FOLD_CASE(INP, OUTP, LENP, SPECIALS) Perl_to_utf8_case(aTHX_ INP, OUTP, LENP, &PL_utf8_tofold, "ToCf", (SPECIALS) ? "utf8::ToSpecCf" : NULL)
c3fd2246 1654
84afefe6
JH
1655UV
1656Perl_to_uni_upper(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
a0ed51b3 1657{
3a4c58c9
KW
1658 dVAR;
1659
a1433954
KW
1660 /* Convert the Unicode character whose ordinal is <c> to its uppercase
1661 * version and store that in UTF-8 in <p> and its length in bytes in <lenp>.
1662 * Note that the <p> needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since
c3fd2246
KW
1663 * the changed version may be longer than the original character.
1664 *
1665 * The ordinal of the first character of the changed version is returned
1666 * (but note, as explained above, that there may be more.) */
1667
7918f24d
NC
1668 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UNI_UPPER;
1669
3a4c58c9
KW
1670 if (c < 256) {
1671 return _to_upper_title_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp, 'S');
1672 }
1673
0ebc6274 1674 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
3a4c58c9 1675 return CALL_UPPER_CASE(p, p, lenp);
a0ed51b3
LW
1676}
1677
84afefe6
JH
1678UV
1679Perl_to_uni_title(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
a0ed51b3 1680{
3a4c58c9
KW
1681 dVAR;
1682
7918f24d
NC
1683 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UNI_TITLE;
1684
3a4c58c9
KW
1685 if (c < 256) {
1686 return _to_upper_title_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp, 's');
1687 }
1688
0ebc6274 1689 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
3a4c58c9 1690 return CALL_TITLE_CASE(p, p, lenp);
a0ed51b3
LW
1691}
1692
afc16117
KW
1693STATIC U8
1694S_to_lower_latin1(pTHX_ const U8 c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
1695{
1696 /* We have the latin1-range values compiled into the core, so just use
1697 * those, converting the result to utf8. Since the result is always just
a1433954 1698 * one character, we allow <p> to be NULL */
afc16117
KW
1699
1700 U8 converted = toLOWER_LATIN1(c);
1701
1702 if (p != NULL) {
1703 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(converted)) {
1704 *p = converted;
1705 *lenp = 1;
1706 }
1707 else {
1708 *p = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI(converted);
1709 *(p+1) = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO(converted);
1710 *lenp = 2;
1711 }
1712 }
1713 return converted;
1714}
1715
84afefe6
JH
1716UV
1717Perl_to_uni_lower(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
a0ed51b3 1718{
968c5e6a
KW
1719 dVAR;
1720
7918f24d
NC
1721 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UNI_LOWER;
1722
afc16117
KW
1723 if (c < 256) {
1724 return to_lower_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp);
bca00c02
KW
1725 }
1726
afc16117 1727 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
968c5e6a 1728 return CALL_LOWER_CASE(p, p, lenp);
a0ed51b3
LW
1729}
1730
84afefe6 1731UV
f673fad4 1732Perl__to_fold_latin1(pTHX_ const U8 c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp, const bool flags)
a1dde8de 1733{
a1433954 1734 /* Corresponds to to_lower_latin1(), <flags> is TRUE if to use full case
f673fad4
KW
1735 * folding */
1736
a1dde8de
KW
1737 UV converted;
1738
1739 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_FOLD_LATIN1;
1740
1741 if (c == MICRO_SIGN) {
1742 converted = GREEK_SMALL_LETTER_MU;
1743 }
1744 else if (flags && c == LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S) {
1745 *(p)++ = 's';
1746 *p = 's';
1747 *lenp = 2;
1748 return 's';
1749 }
1750 else { /* In this range the fold of all other characters is their lower
1751 case */
1752 converted = toLOWER_LATIN1(c);
1753 }
1754
1755 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(converted)) {
1756 *p = (U8) converted;
1757 *lenp = 1;
1758 }
1759 else {
1760 *(p)++ = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI(converted);
1761 *p = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO(converted);
1762 *lenp = 2;
1763 }
1764
1765 return converted;
1766}
1767
1768UV
a0270393 1769Perl__to_uni_fold_flags(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp, const U8 flags)
84afefe6 1770{
4b593389 1771
a0270393
KW
1772 /* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change
1773 * <flags> bits meanings:
1774 * FOLD_FLAGS_FULL iff full folding is to be used;
1775 * FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE iff in locale
1776 * FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII iff non-ASCII to ASCII folds are prohibited
1777 */
4b593389 1778
36bb2ab6 1779 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UNI_FOLD_FLAGS;
7918f24d 1780
a1dde8de 1781 if (c < 256) {
a0270393
KW
1782 UV result = _to_fold_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp,
1783 cBOOL(((flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL)
1784 /* If ASCII-safe, don't allow full folding,
1785 * as that could include SHARP S => ss;
1786 * otherwise there is no crossing of
1787 * ascii/non-ascii in the latin1 range */
1788 && ! (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII))));
1789 /* It is illegal for the fold to cross the 255/256 boundary under
1790 * locale; in this case return the original */
1791 return (result > 256 && flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE)
1792 ? c
1793 : result;
a1dde8de
KW
1794 }
1795
a0270393
KW
1796 /* If no special needs, just use the macro */
1797 if ( ! (flags & (FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE|FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII))) {
1798 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
1799 return CALL_FOLD_CASE(p, p, lenp, flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL);
1800 }
1801 else { /* Otherwise, _to_utf8_fold_flags has the intelligence to deal with
1802 the special flags. */
1803 U8 utf8_c[UTF8_MAXBYTES + 1];
1804 uvchr_to_utf8(utf8_c, c);
1805 return _to_utf8_fold_flags(utf8_c, p, lenp, flags, NULL);
1806 }
84afefe6
JH
1807}
1808
ea317ccb
KW
1809/* for now these all assume no locale info available for Unicode > 255; and
1810 * the corresponding macros in handy.h (like isALNUM_LC_uvchr) should have been
1811 * called instead, so that these don't get called for < 255 */
a0ed51b3
LW
1812
1813bool
84afefe6 1814Perl_is_uni_alnum_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3
LW
1815{
1816 return is_uni_alnum(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1817}
1818
1819bool
84afefe6 1820Perl_is_uni_idfirst_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3
LW
1821{
1822 return is_uni_idfirst(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1823}
1824
1825bool
84afefe6 1826Perl_is_uni_alpha_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3
LW
1827{
1828 return is_uni_alpha(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1829}
1830
1831bool
84afefe6 1832Perl_is_uni_ascii_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
4d61ec05
GS
1833{
1834 return is_uni_ascii(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1835}
1836
1837bool
bdd8600f
KW
1838Perl_is_uni_blank_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
1839{
1840 return is_uni_blank(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1841}
1842
1843bool
84afefe6 1844Perl_is_uni_space_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3
LW
1845{
1846 return is_uni_space(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1847}
1848
1849bool
84afefe6 1850Perl_is_uni_digit_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3
LW
1851{
1852 return is_uni_digit(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1853}
1854
1855bool
84afefe6 1856Perl_is_uni_upper_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3
LW
1857{
1858 return is_uni_upper(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1859}
1860
1861bool
84afefe6 1862Perl_is_uni_lower_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3
LW
1863{
1864 return is_uni_lower(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1865}
1866
1867bool
84afefe6 1868Perl_is_uni_cntrl_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f
JH
1869{
1870 return is_uni_cntrl(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1871}
1872
1873bool
84afefe6 1874Perl_is_uni_graph_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f
JH
1875{
1876 return is_uni_graph(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1877}
1878
1879bool
84afefe6 1880Perl_is_uni_print_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3
LW
1881{
1882 return is_uni_print(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1883}
1884
b8c5462f 1885bool
84afefe6 1886Perl_is_uni_punct_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f
JH
1887{
1888 return is_uni_punct(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1889}
1890
4d61ec05 1891bool
84afefe6 1892Perl_is_uni_xdigit_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
4d61ec05
GS
1893{
1894 return is_uni_xdigit(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1895}
1896
b7ac61fa
JH
1897U32
1898Perl_to_uni_upper_lc(pTHX_ U32 c)
1899{
ee099d14
JH
1900 /* XXX returns only the first character -- do not use XXX */
1901 /* XXX no locale support yet */
1902 STRLEN len;
89ebb4a3 1903 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1];
ee099d14 1904 return (U32)to_uni_upper(c, tmpbuf, &len);
b7ac61fa
JH
1905}
1906
1907U32
1908Perl_to_uni_title_lc(pTHX_ U32 c)
1909{
ee099d14
JH
1910 /* XXX returns only the first character XXX -- do not use XXX */
1911 /* XXX no locale support yet */
1912 STRLEN len;
89ebb4a3 1913 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1];
ee099d14 1914 return (U32)to_uni_title(c, tmpbuf, &len);
b7ac61fa
JH
1915}
1916
1917U32
1918Perl_to_uni_lower_lc(pTHX_ U32 c)
1919{
ee099d14
JH
1920 /* XXX returns only the first character -- do not use XXX */
1921 /* XXX no locale support yet */
1922 STRLEN len;
89ebb4a3 1923 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1];
ee099d14 1924 return (U32)to_uni_lower(c, tmpbuf, &len);
b7ac61fa
JH
1925}
1926
26483009 1927PERL_STATIC_INLINE bool
5141f98e 1928S_is_utf8_common(pTHX_ const U8 *const p, SV **swash,
bde6a22d
NC
1929 const char *const swashname)
1930{
ea317ccb
KW
1931 /* returns a boolean giving whether or not the UTF8-encoded character that
1932 * starts at <p> is in the swash indicated by <swashname>. <swash>
1933 * contains a pointer to where the swash indicated by <swashname>
1934 * is to be stored; which this routine will do, so that future calls will
1935 * look at <*swash> and only generate a swash if it is not null
1936 *
1937 * Note that it is assumed that the buffer length of <p> is enough to
1938 * contain all the bytes that comprise the character. Thus, <*p> should
1939 * have been checked before this call for mal-formedness enough to assure
1940 * that. */
1941
97aff369 1942 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1943
1944 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_COMMON;
1945
492a624f
KW
1946 /* The API should have included a length for the UTF-8 character in <p>,
1947 * but it doesn't. We therefor assume that p has been validated at least
1948 * as far as there being enough bytes available in it to accommodate the
1949 * character without reading beyond the end, and pass that number on to the
1950 * validating routine */
1951 if (!is_utf8_char_buf(p, p + UTF8SKIP(p)))
bde6a22d 1952 return FALSE;
87367d5f
KW
1953 if (!*swash) {
1954 U8 flags = _CORE_SWASH_INIT_ACCEPT_INVLIST;
1955 *swash = _core_swash_init("utf8", swashname, &PL_sv_undef, 1, 0, NULL, &flags);
1956 }
bde6a22d
NC
1957 return swash_fetch(*swash, p, TRUE) != 0;
1958}
1959
1960bool
7fc63493 1961Perl_is_utf8_alnum(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 1962{
97aff369 1963 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1964
1965 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_ALNUM;
1966
671c33bf
NC
1967 /* NOTE: "IsWord", not "IsAlnum", since Alnum is a true
1968 * descendant of isalnum(3), in other words, it doesn't
1969 * contain the '_'. --jhi */
d4c19fe8 1970 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_alnum, "IsWord");
a0ed51b3
LW
1971}
1972
1973bool
7fc63493 1974Perl_is_utf8_idfirst(pTHX_ const U8 *p) /* The naming is historical. */
a0ed51b3 1975{
97aff369 1976 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1977
1978 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_IDFIRST;
1979
82686b01
JH
1980 if (*p == '_')
1981 return TRUE;
bde6a22d 1982 /* is_utf8_idstart would be more logical. */
d4c19fe8 1983 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_idstart, "IdStart");
82686b01
JH
1984}
1985
1986bool
c11ff943
KW
1987Perl_is_utf8_xidfirst(pTHX_ const U8 *p) /* The naming is historical. */
1988{
1989 dVAR;
1990
1991 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_XIDFIRST;
1992
1993 if (*p == '_')
1994 return TRUE;
1995 /* is_utf8_idstart would be more logical. */
1996 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_xidstart, "XIdStart");
1997}
1998
1999bool
b6912c02
KW
2000Perl__is_utf8__perl_idstart(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2001{
2002 dVAR;
2003
2004 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8__PERL_IDSTART;
2005
2006 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_perl_idstart, "_Perl_IDStart");
2007}
2008
2009bool
7fc63493 2010Perl_is_utf8_idcont(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
82686b01 2011{
97aff369 2012 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2013
2014 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_IDCONT;
2015
d4c19fe8 2016 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_idcont, "IdContinue");
a0ed51b3
LW
2017}
2018
2019bool
c11ff943
KW
2020Perl_is_utf8_xidcont(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2021{
2022 dVAR;
2023
2024 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_XIDCONT;
2025
c11ff943
KW
2026 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_idcont, "XIdContinue");
2027}
2028
2029bool
7fc63493 2030Perl_is_utf8_alpha(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2031{
97aff369 2032 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2033
2034 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_ALPHA;
2035
d4c19fe8 2036 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_alpha, "IsAlpha");
a0ed51b3
LW
2037}
2038
2039bool
7fc63493 2040Perl_is_utf8_ascii(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
b8c5462f 2041{
97aff369 2042 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2043
2044 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_ASCII;
2045
bc39fe24
KW
2046 /* ASCII characters are the same whether in utf8 or not. So the macro
2047 * works on both utf8 and non-utf8 representations. */
2048 return isASCII(*p);
b8c5462f
JH
2049}
2050
2051bool
bdd8600f
KW
2052Perl_is_utf8_blank(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2053{
2054 dVAR;
2055
2056 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_BLANK;
2057
2cafb56b 2058 return isBLANK_utf8(p);
bdd8600f
KW
2059}
2060
2061bool
7fc63493 2062Perl_is_utf8_space(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2063{
97aff369 2064 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2065
2066 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_SPACE;
2067
add4123a 2068 return isSPACE_utf8(p);
a0ed51b3
LW
2069}
2070
2071bool
d1eb3177
YO
2072Perl_is_utf8_perl_space(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2073{
2074 dVAR;
2075
2076 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_PERL_SPACE;
2077
c4428693
KW
2078 /* Only true if is an ASCII space-like character, and ASCII is invariant
2079 * under utf8, so can just use the macro */
2080 return isSPACE_A(*p);
d1eb3177
YO
2081}
2082
2083bool
2084Perl_is_utf8_perl_word(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2085{
2086 dVAR;
2087
2088 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_PERL_WORD;
2089
c4428693
KW
2090 /* Only true if is an ASCII word character, and ASCII is invariant
2091 * under utf8, so can just use the macro */
2092 return isWORDCHAR_A(*p);
d1eb3177
YO
2093}
2094
2095bool
7fc63493 2096Perl_is_utf8_digit(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2097{
97aff369 2098 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2099
2100 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_DIGIT;
2101
d4c19fe8 2102 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_digit, "IsDigit");
a0ed51b3
LW
2103}
2104
2105bool
d1eb3177
YO
2106Perl_is_utf8_posix_digit(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2107{
2108 dVAR;
2109
2110 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_POSIX_DIGIT;
2111
c4428693
KW
2112 /* Only true if is an ASCII digit character, and ASCII is invariant
2113 * under utf8, so can just use the macro */
2114 return isDIGIT_A(*p);
d1eb3177
YO
2115}
2116
2117bool
7fc63493 2118Perl_is_utf8_upper(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2119{
97aff369 2120 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2121
2122 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_UPPER;
2123
d4c19fe8 2124 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_upper, "IsUppercase");
a0ed51b3
LW
2125}
2126
2127bool
7fc63493 2128Perl_is_utf8_lower(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2129{
97aff369 2130 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2131
2132 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_LOWER;
2133
d4c19fe8 2134 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_lower, "IsLowercase");
a0ed51b3
LW
2135}
2136
2137bool
7fc63493 2138Perl_is_utf8_cntrl(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
b8c5462f 2139{
97aff369 2140 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2141
2142 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_CNTRL;
2143
a35d759a 2144 return isCNTRL_utf8(p);
b8c5462f
JH
2145}
2146
2147bool
7fc63493 2148Perl_is_utf8_graph(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
b8c5462f 2149{
97aff369 2150 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2151
2152 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_GRAPH;
2153
d4c19fe8 2154 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_graph, "IsGraph");
b8c5462f
JH
2155}
2156
2157bool
7fc63493 2158Perl_is_utf8_print(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2159{
97aff369 2160 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2161
2162 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_PRINT;
2163
d4c19fe8 2164 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_print, "IsPrint");
a0ed51b3
LW
2165}
2166
2167bool
7fc63493 2168Perl_is_utf8_punct(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
b8c5462f 2169{
97aff369 2170 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2171
2172 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_PUNCT;
2173
d4c19fe8 2174 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_punct, "IsPunct");
b8c5462f
JH
2175}
2176
2177bool
7fc63493 2178Perl_is_utf8_xdigit(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
b8c5462f 2179{
97aff369 2180 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2181
2182 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_XDIGIT;
2183
4ac6419d 2184 return is_XDIGIT_utf8(p);
b8c5462f
JH
2185}
2186
2187bool
7fc63493 2188Perl_is_utf8_mark(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2189{
97aff369 2190 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2191
2192 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_MARK;
2193
d4c19fe8 2194 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_mark, "IsM");
a0ed51b3
LW
2195}
2196
37e2e78e 2197bool
27d4fc33 2198Perl_is_utf8_X_regular_begin(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
37e2e78e
KW
2199{
2200 dVAR;
2201
27d4fc33 2202 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_X_REGULAR_BEGIN;
37e2e78e 2203
27d4fc33 2204 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_X_regular_begin, "_X_Regular_Begin");
37e2e78e
KW
2205}
2206
2207bool
2208Perl_is_utf8_X_extend(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2209{
2210 dVAR;
2211
2212 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_X_EXTEND;
2213
2214 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_X_extend, "_X_Extend");
2215}
2216
6b5c0936 2217/*
87cea99e 2218=for apidoc to_utf8_case
6b5c0936 2219
a1433954
KW
2220The C<p> contains the pointer to the UTF-8 string encoding
2221the character that is being converted. This routine assumes that the character
2222at C<p> is well-formed.
6b5c0936 2223
a1433954
KW
2224The C<ustrp> is a pointer to the character buffer to put the
2225conversion result to. The C<lenp> is a pointer to the length
6b5c0936
JH
2226of the result.
2227
a1433954 2228The C<swashp> is a pointer to the swash to use.
6b5c0936 2229
a1433954
KW
2230Both the special and normal mappings are stored in F<lib/unicore/To/Foo.pl>,
2231and loaded by SWASHNEW, using F<lib/utf8_heavy.pl>. The C<special> (usually,
0134edef 2232but not always, a multicharacter mapping), is tried first.
6b5c0936 2233
a1433954 2234The C<special> is a string like "utf8::ToSpecLower", which means the
0134edef
JH
2235hash %utf8::ToSpecLower. The access to the hash is through
2236Perl_to_utf8_case().
6b5c0936 2237
a1433954 2238The C<normal> is a string like "ToLower" which means the swash
0134edef
JH
2239%utf8::ToLower.
2240
2241=cut */
6b5c0936 2242
2104c8d9 2243UV
9a957fbc
AL
2244Perl_to_utf8_case(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp,
2245 SV **swashp, const char *normal, const char *special)
a0ed51b3 2246{
97aff369 2247 dVAR;
89ebb4a3 2248 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1];
0134edef 2249 STRLEN len = 0;
4b88fb76 2250 const UV uv0 = valid_utf8_to_uvchr(p, NULL);
1feea2c7
JH
2251 /* The NATIVE_TO_UNI() and UNI_TO_NATIVE() mappings
2252 * are necessary in EBCDIC, they are redundant no-ops
2253 * in ASCII-ish platforms, and hopefully optimized away. */
f54cb97a 2254 const UV uv1 = NATIVE_TO_UNI(uv0);
7918f24d
NC
2255
2256 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UTF8_CASE;
2257
9ae3ac1a
KW
2258 /* Note that swash_fetch() doesn't output warnings for these because it
2259 * assumes we will */
8457b38f 2260 if (uv1 >= UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST) {
9ae3ac1a 2261 if (uv1 <= UNICODE_SURROGATE_LAST) {
8457b38f
KW
2262 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_SURROGATE)) {
2263 const char* desc = (PL_op) ? OP_DESC(PL_op) : normal;
2264 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_SURROGATE),
2265 "Operation \"%s\" returns its argument for UTF-16 surrogate U+%04"UVXf"", desc, uv1);
2266 }
9ae3ac1a
KW
2267 }
2268 else if (UNICODE_IS_SUPER(uv1)) {
8457b38f
KW
2269 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_NON_UNICODE)) {
2270 const char* desc = (PL_op) ? OP_DESC(PL_op) : normal;
2271 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NON_UNICODE),
2272 "Operation \"%s\" returns its argument for non-Unicode code point 0x%04"UVXf"", desc, uv1);
2273 }
9ae3ac1a
KW
2274 }
2275
2276 /* Note that non-characters are perfectly legal, so no warning should
2277 * be given */
2278 }
2279
1feea2c7 2280 uvuni_to_utf8(tmpbuf, uv1);
0134edef
JH
2281
2282 if (!*swashp) /* load on-demand */
5ab9d2ef 2283 *swashp = _core_swash_init("utf8", normal, &PL_sv_undef, 4, 0, NULL, NULL);
0134edef 2284
a6f87d8c 2285 if (special) {
0134edef 2286 /* It might be "special" (sometimes, but not always,
2a37f04d 2287 * a multicharacter mapping) */
6673a63c 2288 HV * const hv = get_hv(special, 0);
b08cf34e
JH
2289 SV **svp;
2290
35da51f7 2291 if (hv &&
b08cf34e
JH
2292 (svp = hv_fetch(hv, (const char*)tmpbuf, UNISKIP(uv1), FALSE)) &&
2293 (*svp)) {
cfd0369c 2294 const char *s;
47654450 2295
cfd0369c 2296 s = SvPV_const(*svp, len);
47654450
JH
2297 if (len == 1)
2298 len = uvuni_to_utf8(ustrp, NATIVE_TO_UNI(*(U8*)s)) - ustrp;
2a37f04d 2299 else {
2f9475ad
JH
2300#ifdef EBCDIC
2301 /* If we have EBCDIC we need to remap the characters
2302 * since any characters in the low 256 are Unicode
2303 * code points, not EBCDIC. */
7cda7a3d 2304 U8 *t = (U8*)s, *tend = t + len, *d;
2f9475ad
JH
2305
2306 d = tmpbuf;
b08cf34e 2307 if (SvUTF8(*svp)) {
2f9475ad
JH
2308 STRLEN tlen = 0;
2309
2310 while (t < tend) {
6bd1c396 2311 const UV c = utf8_to_uvchr_buf(t, tend, &tlen);
2f9475ad
JH
2312 if (tlen > 0) {
2313 d = uvchr_to_utf8(d, UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
2314 t += tlen;
2315 }
2316 else
2317 break;
2318 }
2319 }
2320 else {
36fec512
JH
2321 while (t < tend) {
2322 d = uvchr_to_utf8(d, UNI_TO_NATIVE(*t));
2323 t++;
2324 }
2f9475ad
JH
2325 }
2326 len = d - tmpbuf;
2327 Copy(tmpbuf, ustrp, len, U8);
2328#else
d2dcd0fb 2329 Copy(s, ustrp, len, U8);
2f9475ad 2330#endif
29e98929 2331 }
983ffd37 2332 }
0134edef
JH
2333 }
2334
2335 if (!len && *swashp) {
2114036c 2336 const UV uv2 = swash_fetch(*swashp, tmpbuf, TRUE /* => is utf8 */);
d4c19fe8 2337
0134edef
JH
2338 if (uv2) {
2339 /* It was "normal" (a single character mapping). */
d4c19fe8 2340 const UV uv3 = UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv2);
e9101d72 2341 len = uvchr_to_utf8(ustrp, uv3) - ustrp;
2a37f04d
JH
2342 }
2343 }
1feea2c7 2344
cbe07460
KW
2345 if (len) {
2346 if (lenp) {
2347 *lenp = len;
2348 }
2349 return valid_utf8_to_uvchr(ustrp, 0);
2350 }
2351
2352 /* Here, there was no mapping defined, which means that the code point maps
2353 * to itself. Return the inputs */
bfdf22ec 2354 len = UTF8SKIP(p);
ca9fab46
KW
2355 if (p != ustrp) { /* Don't copy onto itself */
2356 Copy(p, ustrp, len, U8);
2357 }
0134edef 2358
2a37f04d
JH
2359 if (lenp)
2360 *lenp = len;
2361
cbe07460
KW
2362 return uv0;
2363
a0ed51b3
LW
2364}
2365
051a06d4
KW
2366STATIC UV
2367S_check_locale_boundary_crossing(pTHX_ const U8* const p, const UV result, U8* const ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)
2368{
2369 /* This is called when changing the case of a utf8-encoded character above
2370 * the Latin1 range, and the operation is in locale. If the result
2371 * contains a character that crosses the 255/256 boundary, disallow the
2372 * change, and return the original code point. See L<perlfunc/lc> for why;
2373 *
a1433954
KW
2374 * p points to the original string whose case was changed; assumed
2375 * by this routine to be well-formed
051a06d4
KW
2376 * result the code point of the first character in the changed-case string
2377 * ustrp points to the changed-case string (<result> represents its first char)
2378 * lenp points to the length of <ustrp> */
2379
2380 UV original; /* To store the first code point of <p> */
2381
2382 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_CHECK_LOCALE_BOUNDARY_CROSSING;
2383
2384 assert(! UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p) && ! UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p));
2385
2386 /* We know immediately if the first character in the string crosses the
2387 * boundary, so can skip */
2388 if (result > 255) {
2389
2390 /* Look at every character in the result; if any cross the
2391 * boundary, the whole thing is disallowed */
2392 U8* s = ustrp + UTF8SKIP(ustrp);
2393 U8* e = ustrp + *lenp;
2394 while (s < e) {
2395 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*s) || UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*s))
2396 {
2397 goto bad_crossing;
2398 }
2399 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
2400 }
2401
2402 /* Here, no characters crossed, result is ok as-is */
2403 return result;
2404 }
2405
2406bad_crossing:
2407
2408 /* Failed, have to return the original */
4b88fb76 2409 original = valid_utf8_to_uvchr(p, lenp);
051a06d4
KW
2410 Copy(p, ustrp, *lenp, char);
2411 return original;
2412}
2413
d3e79532 2414/*
87cea99e 2415=for apidoc to_utf8_upper
d3e79532 2416
a1433954
KW
2417Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at C<p> to its uppercase version and
2418store that in UTF-8 in C<ustrp> and its length in bytes in C<lenp>. Note
89ebb4a3
JH
2419that the ustrp needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since
2420the uppercase version may be longer than the original character.
d3e79532
JH
2421
2422The first character of the uppercased version is returned
2423(but note, as explained above, that there may be more.)
2424
a1433954
KW
2425The character at C<p> is assumed by this routine to be well-formed.
2426
d3e79532
JH
2427=cut */
2428
051a06d4
KW
2429/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change:
2430 * <flags> is set iff locale semantics are to be used for code points < 256
2431 * <tainted_ptr> if non-null, *tainted_ptr will be set TRUE iff locale rules
2432 * were used in the calculation; otherwise unchanged. */
2433
2104c8d9 2434UV
051a06d4 2435Perl__to_utf8_upper_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, const bool flags, bool* tainted_ptr)
a0ed51b3 2436{
97aff369 2437 dVAR;
7918f24d 2438
051a06d4
KW
2439 UV result;
2440
2441 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_UPPER_FLAGS;
7918f24d 2442
3a4c58c9 2443 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p)) {
051a06d4
KW
2444 if (flags) {
2445 result = toUPPER_LC(*p);
2446 }
2447 else {
81c6c7ce 2448 return _to_upper_title_latin1(*p, ustrp, lenp, 'S');
051a06d4 2449 }
3a4c58c9
KW
2450 }
2451 else if UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p) {
051a06d4
KW
2452 if (flags) {
2453 result = toUPPER_LC(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)));
2454 }
2455 else {
81c6c7ce
KW
2456 return _to_upper_title_latin1(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)),
2457 ustrp, lenp, 'S');
051a06d4
KW
2458 }
2459 }
2460 else { /* utf8, ord above 255 */
2461 result = CALL_UPPER_CASE(p, ustrp, lenp);
2462
2463 if (flags) {
2464 result = check_locale_boundary_crossing(p, result, ustrp, lenp);
2465 }
2466 return result;
2467 }
2468
2469 /* Here, used locale rules. Convert back to utf8 */
2470 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(result)) {
2471 *ustrp = (U8) result;
2472 *lenp = 1;
2473 }
2474 else {
2475 *ustrp = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(result);
2476 *(ustrp + 1) = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(result);
2477 *lenp = 2;
3a4c58c9
KW
2478 }
2479
051a06d4
KW
2480 if (tainted_ptr) {
2481 *tainted_ptr = TRUE;
2482 }
2483 return result;
983ffd37 2484}
a0ed51b3 2485
d3e79532 2486/*
87cea99e 2487=for apidoc to_utf8_title
d3e79532 2488
a1433954
KW
2489Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at C<p> to its titlecase version and
2490store that in UTF-8 in C<ustrp> and its length in bytes in C<lenp>. Note
2491that the C<ustrp> needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the
89ebb4a3 2492titlecase version may be longer than the original character.
d3e79532
JH
2493
2494The first character of the titlecased version is returned
2495(but note, as explained above, that there may be more.)
2496
a1433954
KW
2497The character at C<p> is assumed by this routine to be well-formed.
2498
d3e79532
JH
2499=cut */
2500
051a06d4
KW
2501/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change:
2502 * <flags> is set iff locale semantics are to be used for code points < 256
2503 * Since titlecase is not defined in POSIX, uppercase is used instead
2504 * for these/
2505 * <tainted_ptr> if non-null, *tainted_ptr will be set TRUE iff locale rules
2506 * were used in the calculation; otherwise unchanged. */
2507
983ffd37 2508UV
051a06d4 2509Perl__to_utf8_title_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, const bool flags, bool* tainted_ptr)
983ffd37 2510{
97aff369 2511 dVAR;
7918f24d 2512
051a06d4
KW
2513 UV result;
2514
2515 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_TITLE_FLAGS;
7918f24d 2516
3a4c58c9 2517 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p)) {
051a06d4
KW
2518 if (flags) {
2519 result = toUPPER_LC(*p);
2520 }
2521 else {
81c6c7ce 2522 return _to_upper_title_latin1(*p, ustrp, lenp, 's');
051a06d4 2523 }
3a4c58c9
KW
2524 }
2525 else if UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p) {
051a06d4
KW
2526 if (flags) {
2527 result = toUPPER_LC(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)));
2528 }
2529 else {
81c6c7ce
KW
2530 return _to_upper_title_latin1(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)),
2531 ustrp, lenp, 's');
051a06d4
KW
2532 }
2533 }
2534 else { /* utf8, ord above 255 */
2535 result = CALL_TITLE_CASE(p, ustrp, lenp);
2536
2537 if (flags) {
2538 result = check_locale_boundary_crossing(p, result, ustrp, lenp);
2539 }
2540 return result;
2541 }
2542
2543 /* Here, used locale rules. Convert back to utf8 */
2544 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(result)) {
2545 *ustrp = (U8) result;
2546 *lenp = 1;
2547 }
2548 else {
2549 *ustrp = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(result);
2550 *(ustrp + 1) = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(result);
2551 *lenp = 2;
3a4c58c9
KW
2552 }
2553
051a06d4
KW
2554 if (tainted_ptr) {
2555 *tainted_ptr = TRUE;
2556 }
2557 return result;
a0ed51b3
LW
2558}
2559
d3e79532 2560/*
87cea99e 2561=for apidoc to_utf8_lower
d3e79532 2562
a1433954
KW
2563Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at C<p> to its lowercase version and
2564store that in UTF-8 in ustrp and its length in bytes in C<lenp>. Note
2565that the C<ustrp> needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the
89ebb4a3 2566lowercase version may be longer than the original character.
d3e79532
JH
2567
2568The first character of the lowercased version is returned
2569(but note, as explained above, that there may be more.)
2570
a1433954
KW
2571The character at C<p> is assumed by this routine to be well-formed.
2572
d3e79532
JH
2573=cut */
2574
051a06d4
KW
2575/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change:
2576 * <flags> is set iff locale semantics are to be used for code points < 256
2577 * <tainted_ptr> if non-null, *tainted_ptr will be set TRUE iff locale rules
2578 * were used in the calculation; otherwise unchanged. */
2579
2104c8d9 2580UV
051a06d4 2581Perl__to_utf8_lower_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, const bool flags, bool* tainted_ptr)
a0ed51b3 2582{
051a06d4
KW
2583 UV result;
2584
97aff369 2585 dVAR;
7918f24d 2586
051a06d4 2587 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_LOWER_FLAGS;
7918f24d 2588
968c5e6a 2589 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p)) {
051a06d4
KW
2590 if (flags) {
2591 result = toLOWER_LC(*p);
2592 }
2593 else {
81c6c7ce 2594 return to_lower_latin1(*p, ustrp, lenp);
051a06d4 2595 }
968c5e6a
KW
2596 }
2597 else if UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p) {
051a06d4
KW
2598 if (flags) {
2599 result = toLOWER_LC(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)));
2600 }
2601 else {
81c6c7ce
KW
2602 return to_lower_latin1(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)),
2603 ustrp, lenp);
051a06d4 2604 }
968c5e6a 2605 }
051a06d4
KW
2606 else { /* utf8, ord above 255 */
2607 result = CALL_LOWER_CASE(p, ustrp, lenp);
2608
2609 if (flags) {
2610 result = check_locale_boundary_crossing(p, result, ustrp, lenp);
2611 }
968c5e6a 2612
051a06d4
KW
2613 return result;
2614 }
2615
2616 /* Here, used locale rules. Convert back to utf8 */
2617 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(result)) {
2618 *ustrp = (U8) result;
2619 *lenp = 1;
2620 }
2621 else {
2622 *ustrp = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(result);
2623 *(ustrp + 1) = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(result);
2624 *lenp = 2;
2625 }
2626
2627 if (tainted_ptr) {
2628 *tainted_ptr = TRUE;
2629 }
2630 return result;
b4e400f9
JH
2631}
2632
d3e79532 2633/*
87cea99e 2634=for apidoc to_utf8_fold
d3e79532 2635
a1433954
KW
2636Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at C<p> to its foldcase version and
2637store that in UTF-8 in C<ustrp> and its length in bytes in C<lenp>. Note
2638that the C<ustrp> needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the
d3e79532
JH
2639foldcase version may be longer than the original character (up to
2640three characters).
2641
2642The first character of the foldcased version is returned
2643(but note, as explained above, that there may be more.)
2644
a1433954
KW
2645The character at C<p> is assumed by this routine to be well-formed.
2646
d3e79532
JH
2647=cut */
2648
051a06d4
KW
2649/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change,
2650 * in <flags>
2651 * bit FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE is set iff locale semantics are to be used for code
2652 * points < 256. Since foldcase is not defined in
2653 * POSIX, lowercase is used instead
2654 * bit FOLD_FLAGS_FULL is set iff full case folds are to be used;
2655 * otherwise simple folds
a0270393
KW
2656 * bit FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII is set iff folds of non-ASCII to ASCII are
2657 * prohibited
051a06d4
KW
2658 * <tainted_ptr> if non-null, *tainted_ptr will be set TRUE iff locale rules
2659 * were used in the calculation; otherwise unchanged. */
36bb2ab6 2660
b4e400f9 2661UV
051a06d4 2662Perl__to_utf8_fold_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, U8 flags, bool* tainted_ptr)
b4e400f9 2663{
97aff369 2664 dVAR;
7918f24d 2665
051a06d4
KW
2666 UV result;
2667
36bb2ab6 2668 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_FOLD_FLAGS;
7918f24d 2669
a0270393
KW
2670 /* These are mutually exclusive */
2671 assert (! ((flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE) && (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII)));
2672
50ba90ff
KW
2673 assert(p != ustrp); /* Otherwise overwrites */
2674
a1dde8de 2675 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p)) {
051a06d4
KW
2676 if (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE) {
2677 result = toLOWER_LC(*p);
2678 }
2679 else {
81c6c7ce
KW
2680 return _to_fold_latin1(*p, ustrp, lenp,
2681 cBOOL(flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL));
051a06d4 2682 }
a1dde8de
KW
2683 }
2684 else if UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p) {
051a06d4
KW
2685 if (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE) {
2686 result = toLOWER_LC(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)));
2687 }
2688 else {
81c6c7ce 2689 return _to_fold_latin1(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)),
a0270393
KW
2690 ustrp, lenp,
2691 cBOOL((flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL
2692 /* If ASCII safe, don't allow full
2693 * folding, as that could include SHARP
2694 * S => ss; otherwise there is no
2695 * crossing of ascii/non-ascii in the
2696 * latin1 range */
2697 && ! (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII))));
051a06d4 2698 }
a1dde8de 2699 }
051a06d4 2700 else { /* utf8, ord above 255 */
a0270393 2701 result = CALL_FOLD_CASE(p, ustrp, lenp, flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL);
a1dde8de 2702
051a06d4 2703 if ((flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE)) {
a0270393 2704 return check_locale_boundary_crossing(p, result, ustrp, lenp);
051a06d4 2705 }
a0270393
KW
2706 else if (! (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII)) {
2707 return result;
2708 }
2709 else {
2710 /* This is called when changing the case of a utf8-encoded
2711 * character above the Latin1 range, and the result should not
2712 * contain an ASCII character. */
2713
2714 UV original; /* To store the first code point of <p> */
2715
2716 /* Look at every character in the result; if any cross the
2717 * boundary, the whole thing is disallowed */
2718 U8* s = ustrp;
2719 U8* e = ustrp + *lenp;
2720 while (s < e) {
2721 if (isASCII(*s)) {
2722 /* Crossed, have to return the original */
2723 original = valid_utf8_to_uvchr(p, lenp);
2724 Copy(p, ustrp, *lenp, char);
2725 return original;
2726 }
2727 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
2728 }
051a06d4 2729
a0270393
KW
2730 /* Here, no characters crossed, result is ok as-is */
2731 return result;
2732 }
051a06d4
KW
2733 }
2734
2735 /* Here, used locale rules. Convert back to utf8 */
2736 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(result)) {
2737 *ustrp = (U8) result;
2738 *lenp = 1;
2739 }
2740 else {
2741 *ustrp = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(result);
2742 *(ustrp + 1) = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(result);
2743 *lenp = 2;
2744 }
2745
2746 if (tainted_ptr) {
2747 *tainted_ptr = TRUE;
2748 }
2749 return result;
a0ed51b3
LW
2750}
2751
711a919c 2752/* Note:
f90a9a02 2753 * Returns a "swash" which is a hash described in utf8.c:Perl_swash_fetch().
711a919c
ST
2754 * C<pkg> is a pointer to a package name for SWASHNEW, should be "utf8".
2755 * For other parameters, see utf8::SWASHNEW in lib/utf8_heavy.pl.
2756 */
c4a5db0c 2757
a0ed51b3 2758SV*
7fc63493 2759Perl_swash_init(pTHX_ const char* pkg, const char* name, SV *listsv, I32 minbits, I32 none)
a0ed51b3 2760{
c4a5db0c
KW
2761 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SWASH_INIT;
2762
2763 /* Returns a copy of a swash initiated by the called function. This is the
2764 * public interface, and returning a copy prevents others from doing
2765 * mischief on the original */
2766
5d3d13d1 2767 return newSVsv(_core_swash_init(pkg, name, listsv, minbits, none, NULL, NULL));
c4a5db0c
KW
2768}
2769
2770SV*
5d3d13d1 2771Perl__core_swash_init(pTHX_ const char* pkg, const char* name, SV *listsv, I32 minbits, I32 none, SV* invlist, U8* const flags_p)
c4a5db0c
KW
2772{
2773 /* Initialize and return a swash, creating it if necessary. It does this
87367d5f
KW
2774 * by calling utf8_heavy.pl in the general case. The returned value may be
2775 * the swash's inversion list instead if the input parameters allow it.
2776 * Which is returned should be immaterial to callers, as the only
923b6d4e
KW
2777 * operations permitted on a swash, swash_fetch(), _get_swash_invlist(),
2778 * and swash_to_invlist() handle both these transparently.
c4a5db0c
KW
2779 *
2780 * This interface should only be used by functions that won't destroy or
2781 * adversely change the swash, as doing so affects all other uses of the
2782 * swash in the program; the general public should use 'Perl_swash_init'
2783 * instead.
2784 *
2785 * pkg is the name of the package that <name> should be in.
2786 * name is the name of the swash to find. Typically it is a Unicode
2787 * property name, including user-defined ones
2788 * listsv is a string to initialize the swash with. It must be of the form
2789 * documented as the subroutine return value in
2790 * L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties>
2791 * minbits is the number of bits required to represent each data element.
2792 * It is '1' for binary properties.
2793 * none I (khw) do not understand this one, but it is used only in tr///.
9a53f6cf 2794 * invlist is an inversion list to initialize the swash with (or NULL)
83199d38
KW
2795 * flags_p if non-NULL is the address of various input and output flag bits
2796 * to the routine, as follows: ('I' means is input to the routine;
2797 * 'O' means output from the routine. Only flags marked O are
2798 * meaningful on return.)
2799 * _CORE_SWASH_INIT_USER_DEFINED_PROPERTY indicates if the swash
2800 * came from a user-defined property. (I O)
5d3d13d1
KW
2801 * _CORE_SWASH_INIT_RETURN_IF_UNDEF indicates that instead of croaking
2802 * when the swash cannot be located, to simply return NULL. (I)
87367d5f
KW
2803 * _CORE_SWASH_INIT_ACCEPT_INVLIST indicates that the caller will accept a
2804 * return of an inversion list instead of a swash hash if this routine
2805 * thinks that would result in faster execution of swash_fetch() later
2806 * on. (I)
9a53f6cf
KW
2807 *
2808 * Thus there are three possible inputs to find the swash: <name>,
2809 * <listsv>, and <invlist>. At least one must be specified. The result
2810 * will be the union of the specified ones, although <listsv>'s various
2811 * actions can intersect, etc. what <name> gives.
2812 *
2813 * <invlist> is only valid for binary properties */
c4a5db0c 2814
27da23d5 2815 dVAR;
c4a5db0c 2816 SV* retval = &PL_sv_undef;
83199d38 2817 HV* swash_hv = NULL;
87367d5f
KW
2818 const int invlist_swash_boundary =
2819 (flags_p && *flags_p & _CORE_SWASH_INIT_ACCEPT_INVLIST)
2820 ? 512 /* Based on some benchmarking, but not extensive, see commit
2821 message */
2822 : -1; /* Never return just an inversion list */
9a53f6cf
KW
2823
2824 assert(listsv != &PL_sv_undef || strNE(name, "") || invlist);
2825 assert(! invlist || minbits == 1);
2826
2827 /* If data was passed in to go out to utf8_heavy to find the swash of, do
2828 * so */
2829 if (listsv != &PL_sv_undef || strNE(name, "")) {
69794297
KW
2830 dSP;
2831 const size_t pkg_len = strlen(pkg);
2832 const size_t name_len = strlen(name);
2833 HV * const stash = gv_stashpvn(pkg, pkg_len, 0);
2834 SV* errsv_save;
2835 GV *method;
2836
2837 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__CORE_SWASH_INIT;
2838
2839 PUSHSTACKi(PERLSI_MAGIC);
ce3b816e 2840 ENTER;
69794297
KW
2841 SAVEHINTS();
2842 save_re_context();
650f067c
JL
2843 /* We might get here via a subroutine signature which uses a utf8
2844 * parameter name, at which point PL_subname will have been set
2845 * but not yet used. */
2846 save_item(PL_subname);
69794297
KW
2847 if (PL_parser && PL_parser->error_count)
2848 SAVEI8(PL_parser->error_count), PL_parser->error_count = 0;
2849 method = gv_fetchmeth(stash, "SWASHNEW", 8, -1);
2850 if (!method) { /* demand load utf8 */
2851 ENTER;
2852 errsv_save = newSVsv(ERRSV);
36048493 2853 SAVEFREESV(errsv_save);
69794297
KW
2854 /* It is assumed that callers of this routine are not passing in
2855 * any user derived data. */
2856 /* Need to do this after save_re_context() as it will set
2857 * PL_tainted to 1 while saving $1 etc (see the code after getrx:
2858 * in Perl_magic_get). Even line to create errsv_save can turn on
2859 * PL_tainted. */
284167a5
SM
2860#ifndef NO_TAINT_SUPPORT
2861 SAVEBOOL(TAINT_get);
2862 TAINT_NOT;
2863#endif
69794297
KW
2864 Perl_load_module(aTHX_ PERL_LOADMOD_NOIMPORT, newSVpvn(pkg,pkg_len),
2865 NULL);
eed484f9
DD
2866 {
2867 SV * const errsv = ERRSV;
2868 if (!SvTRUE_NN(errsv))
2869 sv_setsv(errsv, errsv_save);
2870 }
69794297
KW
2871 LEAVE;
2872 }
2873 SPAGAIN;
2874 PUSHMARK(SP);
2875 EXTEND(SP,5);
2876 mPUSHp(pkg, pkg_len);
2877 mPUSHp(name, name_len);
2878 PUSHs(listsv);
2879 mPUSHi(minbits);
2880 mPUSHi(none);
2881 PUTBACK;
f8be5cf0 2882 errsv_save = newSVsv(ERRSV);
36048493 2883 SAVEFREESV(errsv_save);
69794297
KW
2884 /* If we already have a pointer to the method, no need to use
2885 * call_method() to repeat the lookup. */
c41800a8
KW
2886 if (method
2887 ? call_sv(MUTABLE_SV(method), G_SCALAR)
69794297
KW
2888 : call_sv(newSVpvs_flags("SWASHNEW", SVs_TEMP), G_SCALAR | G_METHOD))
2889 {
2890 retval = *PL_stack_sp--;
2891 SvREFCNT_inc(retval);
2892 }
eed484f9
DD
2893 {
2894 SV * const errsv = ERRSV;
2895 if (!SvTRUE_NN(errsv))
2896 sv_setsv(errsv, errsv_save);
2897 }
ce3b816e 2898 LEAVE;
69794297
KW
2899 POPSTACK;
2900 if (IN_PERL_COMPILETIME) {
2901 CopHINTS_set(PL_curcop, PL_hints);
2902 }
2903 if (!SvROK(retval) || SvTYPE(SvRV(retval)) != SVt_PVHV) {
2904 if (SvPOK(retval))
2905
2906 /* If caller wants to handle missing properties, let them */
5d3d13d1 2907 if (flags_p && *flags_p & _CORE_SWASH_INIT_RETURN_IF_UNDEF) {
69794297
KW
2908 return NULL;
2909 }
2910 Perl_croak(aTHX_
2911 "Can't find Unicode property definition \"%"SVf"\"",
2912 SVfARG(retval));
2913 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "SWASHNEW didn't return an HV ref");
2914 }
9a53f6cf 2915 } /* End of calling the module to find the swash */
36eb48b4 2916
83199d38
KW
2917 /* If this operation fetched a swash, and we will need it later, get it */
2918 if (retval != &PL_sv_undef
2919 && (minbits == 1 || (flags_p
2920 && ! (*flags_p
2921 & _CORE_SWASH_INIT_USER_DEFINED_PROPERTY))))
2922 {
2923 swash_hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(retval));
2924
2925 /* If we don't already know that there is a user-defined component to
2926 * this swash, and the user has indicated they wish to know if there is
2927 * one (by passing <flags_p>), find out */
2928 if (flags_p && ! (*flags_p & _CORE_SWASH_INIT_USER_DEFINED_PROPERTY)) {
2929 SV** user_defined = hv_fetchs(swash_hv, "USER_DEFINED", FALSE);
2930 if (user_defined && SvUV(*user_defined)) {
2931 *flags_p |= _CORE_SWASH_INIT_USER_DEFINED_PROPERTY;
2932 }
2933 }
2934 }
2935
36eb48b4
KW
2936 /* Make sure there is an inversion list for binary properties */
2937 if (minbits == 1) {
2938 SV** swash_invlistsvp = NULL;
2939 SV* swash_invlist = NULL;
9a53f6cf 2940 bool invlist_in_swash_is_valid = FALSE;
02c85471
FC
2941 bool swash_invlist_unclaimed = FALSE; /* whether swash_invlist has
2942 an unclaimed reference count */
36eb48b4 2943
9a53f6cf 2944 /* If this operation fetched a swash, get its already existing
83199d38 2945 * inversion list, or create one for it */
36eb48b4 2946
83199d38 2947 if (swash_hv) {
5c9f4bd2 2948 swash_invlistsvp = hv_fetchs(swash_hv, "V", FALSE);
9a53f6cf
KW
2949 if (swash_invlistsvp) {
2950 swash_invlist = *swash_invlistsvp;
2951 invlist_in_swash_is_valid = TRUE;
2952 }
2953 else {
36eb48b4 2954 swash_invlist = _swash_to_invlist(retval);
02c85471 2955 swash_invlist_unclaimed = TRUE;
9a53f6cf
KW
2956 }
2957 }
2958
2959 /* If an inversion list was passed in, have to include it */
2960 if (invlist) {
2961
2962 /* Any fetched swash will by now have an inversion list in it;
2963 * otherwise <swash_invlist> will be NULL, indicating that we
2964 * didn't fetch a swash */
2965 if (swash_invlist) {
2966
2967 /* Add the passed-in inversion list, which invalidates the one
2968 * already stored in the swash */
2969 invlist_in_swash_is_valid = FALSE;
2970 _invlist_union(invlist, swash_invlist, &swash_invlist);
2971 }
2972 else {
2973
87367d5f
KW
2974 /* Here, there is no swash already. Set up a minimal one, if
2975 * we are going to return a swash */
2976 if ((int) _invlist_len(invlist) > invlist_swash_boundary) {
971d486f 2977 swash_hv = newHV();
4aca0fe6 2978 retval = newRV_noinc(MUTABLE_SV(swash_hv));
87367d5f 2979 }
9a53f6cf
KW
2980 swash_invlist = invlist;
2981 }
9a53f6cf
KW
2982 }
2983
2984 /* Here, we have computed the union of all the passed-in data. It may
2985 * be that there was an inversion list in the swash which didn't get
2986 * touched; otherwise save the one computed one */
87367d5f
KW
2987 if (! invlist_in_swash_is_valid
2988 && (int) _invlist_len(swash_invlist) > invlist_swash_boundary)
2989 {
5c9f4bd2 2990 if (! hv_stores(MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(retval)), "V", swash_invlist))
69794297
KW
2991 {
2992 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: hv_store() unexpectedly failed");
2993 }
cc34d8c5
FC
2994 /* We just stole a reference count. */
2995 if (swash_invlist_unclaimed) swash_invlist_unclaimed = FALSE;
2996 else SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN(swash_invlist);
9a53f6cf 2997 }
87367d5f 2998
c41800a8 2999 /* Use the inversion list stand-alone if small enough */
87367d5f
KW
3000 if ((int) _invlist_len(swash_invlist) <= invlist_swash_boundary) {
3001 SvREFCNT_dec(retval);
02c85471
FC
3002 if (!swash_invlist_unclaimed)
3003 SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN(swash_invlist);
3004 retval = newRV_noinc(swash_invlist);
87367d5f 3005 }
36eb48b4
KW
3006 }
3007
a0ed51b3
LW
3008 return retval;
3009}
3010
035d37be
JH
3011
3012/* This API is wrong for special case conversions since we may need to
3013 * return several Unicode characters for a single Unicode character
3014 * (see lib/unicore/SpecCase.txt) The SWASHGET in lib/utf8_heavy.pl is
3015 * the lower-level routine, and it is similarly broken for returning
38684baa
KW
3016 * multiple values. --jhi
3017 * For those, you should use to_utf8_case() instead */
b0e3252e 3018/* Now SWASHGET is recasted into S_swatch_get in this file. */
680c470c
ST
3019
3020/* Note:
3021 * Returns the value of property/mapping C<swash> for the first character
3022 * of the string C<ptr>. If C<do_utf8> is true, the string C<ptr> is
3023 * assumed to be in utf8. If C<do_utf8> is false, the string C<ptr> is
3024 * assumed to be in native 8-bit encoding. Caches the swatch in C<swash>.
af2af982
KW
3025 *
3026 * A "swash" is a hash which contains initially the keys/values set up by
3027 * SWASHNEW. The purpose is to be able to completely represent a Unicode
3028 * property for all possible code points. Things are stored in a compact form
3029 * (see utf8_heavy.pl) so that calculation is required to find the actual
3030 * property value for a given code point. As code points are looked up, new
3031 * key/value pairs are added to the hash, so that the calculation doesn't have
3032 * to ever be re-done. Further, each calculation is done, not just for the
3033 * desired one, but for a whole block of code points adjacent to that one.
3034 * For binary properties on ASCII machines, the block is usually for 64 code
3035 * points, starting with a code point evenly divisible by 64. Thus if the
3036 * property value for code point 257 is requested, the code goes out and
3037 * calculates the property values for all 64 code points between 256 and 319,
3038 * and stores these as a single 64-bit long bit vector, called a "swatch",
3039 * under the key for code point 256. The key is the UTF-8 encoding for code
3040 * point 256, minus the final byte. Thus, if the length of the UTF-8 encoding
3041 * for a code point is 13 bytes, the key will be 12 bytes long. If the value
3042 * for code point 258 is then requested, this code realizes that it would be
3043 * stored under the key for 256, and would find that value and extract the
3044 * relevant bit, offset from 256.
3045 *
3046 * Non-binary properties are stored in as many bits as necessary to represent
3047 * their values (32 currently, though the code is more general than that), not
3048 * as single bits, but the principal is the same: the value for each key is a
3049 * vector that encompasses the property values for all code points whose UTF-8
3050 * representations are represented by the key. That is, for all code points
3051 * whose UTF-8 representations are length N bytes, and the key is the first N-1
3052 * bytes of that.
680c470c 3053 */
a0ed51b3 3054UV
680c470c 3055Perl_swash_fetch(pTHX_ SV *swash, const U8 *ptr, bool do_utf8)
a0ed51b3 3056{
27da23d5 3057 dVAR;
ef8f7699 3058 HV *const hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(swash));
3568d838
JH
3059 U32 klen;
3060 U32 off;
a0ed51b3 3061 STRLEN slen;
7d85a32c 3062 STRLEN needents;
cfd0369c 3063 const U8 *tmps = NULL;
a0ed51b3 3064 U32 bit;
979f2922 3065 SV *swatch;
3568d838 3066 U8 tmputf8[2];
35da51f7 3067 const UV c = NATIVE_TO_ASCII(*ptr);
3568d838 3068
7918f24d
NC
3069 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SWASH_FETCH;
3070
87367d5f
KW
3071 /* If it really isn't a hash, it isn't really swash; must be an inversion
3072 * list */
3073 if (SvTYPE(hv) != SVt_PVHV) {
3074 return _invlist_contains_cp((SV*)hv,
3075 (do_utf8)
3076 ? valid_utf8_to_uvchr(ptr, NULL)
3077 : c);
3078 }
3079
dbe7a391 3080 /* Convert to utf8 if not already */
3568d838 3081 if (!do_utf8 && !UNI_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
979f2922
ST
3082 tmputf8[0] = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(c);
3083 tmputf8[1] = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(c);
3084 ptr = tmputf8;
3568d838
JH
3085 }
3086 /* Given a UTF-X encoded char 0xAA..0xYY,0xZZ
37e2e78e 3087 * then the "swatch" is a vec() for all the chars which start
3568d838
JH
3088 * with 0xAA..0xYY
3089 * So the key in the hash (klen) is length of encoded char -1
3090 */
3091 klen = UTF8SKIP(ptr) - 1;
3092 off = ptr[klen];
a0ed51b3 3093
979f2922 3094 if (klen == 0) {
37e2e78e 3095 /* If char is invariant then swatch is for all the invariant chars
1e54db1a 3096 * In both UTF-8 and UTF-8-MOD that happens to be UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK
7d85a32c 3097 */
979f2922
ST
3098 needents = UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK;
3099 off = NATIVE_TO_UTF(ptr[klen]);
3100 }
3101 else {
7d85a32c 3102 /* If char is encoded then swatch is for the prefix */
979f2922
ST
3103 needents = (1 << UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT);
3104 off = NATIVE_TO_UTF(ptr[klen]) & UTF_CONTINUATION_MASK;
3105 }
7d85a32c 3106
a0ed51b3
LW
3107 /*
3108 * This single-entry cache saves about 1/3 of the utf8 overhead in test
3109 * suite. (That is, only 7-8% overall over just a hash cache. Still,
3110 * it's nothing to sniff at.) Pity we usually come through at least
3111 * two function calls to get here...
3112 *
3113 * NB: this code assumes that swatches are never modified, once generated!
3114 */
3115
3568d838 3116 if (hv == PL_last_swash_hv &&
a0ed51b3 3117 klen == PL_last_swash_klen &&
27da23d5 3118 (!klen || memEQ((char *)ptr, (char *)PL_last_swash_key, klen)) )
a0ed51b3
LW
3119 {
3120 tmps = PL_last_swash_tmps;
3121 slen = PL_last_swash_slen;
3122 }
3123 else {
3124 /* Try our second-level swatch cache, kept in a hash. */
e1ec3a88 3125 SV** svp = hv_fetch(hv, (const char*)ptr, klen, FALSE);
a0ed51b3 3126
b0e3252e 3127 /* If not cached, generate it via swatch_get */
979f2922
ST
3128 if (!svp || !SvPOK(*svp)
3129 || !(tmps = (const U8*)SvPV_const(*svp, slen))) {
2b9d42f0
NIS
3130 /* We use utf8n_to_uvuni() as we want an index into
3131 Unicode tables, not a native character number.
3132 */
aec46f14 3133 const UV code_point = utf8n_to_uvuni(ptr, UTF8_MAXBYTES, 0,
872c91ae
JH
3134 ckWARN(WARN_UTF8) ?
3135 0 : UTF8_ALLOW_ANY);
b0e3252e 3136 swatch = swatch_get(swash,
979f2922 3137 /* On EBCDIC & ~(0xA0-1) isn't a useful thing to do */
361ee0fe 3138 (klen) ? (code_point & ~((UV)needents - 1)) : 0,
979f2922
ST
3139 needents);
3140
923e4eb5 3141 if (IN_PERL_COMPILETIME)
623e6609 3142 CopHINTS_set(PL_curcop, PL_hints);
a0ed51b3 3143
979f2922 3144 svp = hv_store(hv, (const char *)ptr, klen, swatch, 0);
a0ed51b3 3145
979f2922
ST
3146 if (!svp || !(tmps = (U8*)SvPV(*svp, slen))
3147 || (slen << 3) < needents)
5637ef5b
NC
3148 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swash_fetch got improper swatch, "
3149 "svp=%p, tmps=%p, slen=%"UVuf", needents=%"UVuf,
3150 svp, tmps, (UV)slen, (UV)needents);
a0ed51b3
LW
3151 }
3152
3153 PL_last_swash_hv = hv;
16d8f38a 3154 assert(klen <= sizeof(PL_last_swash_key));
eac04b2e 3155 PL_last_swash_klen = (U8)klen;
cfd0369c
NC
3156 /* FIXME change interpvar.h? */
3157 PL_last_swash_tmps = (U8 *) tmps;
a0ed51b3
LW
3158 PL_last_swash_slen = slen;
3159 if (klen)
3160 Copy(ptr, PL_last_swash_key, klen, U8);
3161 }
3162
9faf8d75 3163 switch ((int)((slen << 3) / needents)) {
a0ed51b3
LW
3164 case 1:
3165 bit = 1 << (off & 7);
3166 off >>= 3;
3167 return (tmps[off] & bit) != 0;
3168 case 8:
3169 return tmps[off];
3170 case 16:
3171 off <<= 1;
3172 return (tmps[off] << 8) + tmps[off + 1] ;
3173 case 32:
3174 off <<= 2;
3175 return (tmps[off] << 24) + (tmps[off+1] << 16) + (tmps[off+2] << 8) + tmps[off + 3] ;
3176 }
5637ef5b
NC
3177 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swash_fetch got swatch of unexpected bit width, "
3178 "slen=%"UVuf", needents=%"UVuf, (UV)slen, (UV)needents);
670f1322 3179 NORETURN_FUNCTION_END;
a0ed51b3 3180}
2b9d42f0 3181
319009ee
KW
3182/* Read a single line of the main body of the swash input text. These are of
3183 * the form:
3184 * 0053 0056 0073
3185 * where each number is hex. The first two numbers form the minimum and
3186 * maximum of a range, and the third is the value associated with the range.
3187 * Not all swashes should have a third number
3188 *
3189 * On input: l points to the beginning of the line to be examined; it points
3190 * to somewhere in the string of the whole input text, and is
3191 * terminated by a \n or the null string terminator.
3192 * lend points to the null terminator of that string
3193 * wants_value is non-zero if the swash expects a third number
3194 * typestr is the name of the swash's mapping, like 'ToLower'
3195 * On output: *min, *max, and *val are set to the values read from the line.
3196 * returns a pointer just beyond the line examined. If there was no
3197 * valid min number on the line, returns lend+1
3198 */
3199
3200STATIC U8*
3201S_swash_scan_list_line(pTHX_ U8* l, U8* const lend, UV* min, UV* max, UV* val,
3202 const bool wants_value, const U8* const typestr)
3203{
3204 const int typeto = typestr[0] == 'T' && typestr[1] == 'o';
3205 STRLEN numlen; /* Length of the number */
02470786
KW
3206 I32 flags = PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT
3207 | PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX
3208 | PERL_SCAN_SILENT_NON_PORTABLE;
319009ee
KW
3209
3210 /* nl points to the next \n in the scan */
3211 U8* const nl = (U8*)memchr(l, '\n', lend - l);
3212
3213 /* Get the first number on the line: the range minimum */
3214 numlen = lend - l;
3215 *min = grok_hex((char *)l, &numlen, &flags, NULL);
3216 if (numlen) /* If found a hex number, position past it */
3217 l += numlen;
3218 else if (nl) { /* Else, go handle next line, if any */
3219 return nl + 1; /* 1 is length of "\n" */
3220 }
3221 else { /* Else, no next line */
3222 return lend + 1; /* to LIST's end at which \n is not found */
3223 }
3224
3225 /* The max range value follows, separated by a BLANK */
3226 if (isBLANK(*l)) {
3227 ++l;
02470786
KW
3228 flags = PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT
3229 | PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX
3230 | PERL_SCAN_SILENT_NON_PORTABLE;
319009ee
KW
3231 numlen = lend - l;
3232 *max = grok_hex((char *)l, &numlen, &flags, NULL);
3233 if (numlen)
3234 l += numlen;
3235 else /* If no value here, it is a single element range */
3236 *max = *min;
3237
3238 /* Non-binary tables have a third entry: what the first element of the
3239 * range maps to */
3240 if (wants_value) {
3241 if (isBLANK(*l)) {
3242 ++l;
f90a9a02
KW
3243
3244 /* The ToLc, etc table mappings are not in hex, and must be
3245 * corrected by adding the code point to them */
3246 if (typeto) {
3247 char *after_strtol = (char *) lend;
3248 *val = Strtol((char *)l, &after_strtol, 10);
3249 l = (U8 *) after_strtol;
f90a9a02
KW
3250 }
3251 else { /* Other tables are in hex, and are the correct result
3252 without tweaking */
a9d188b3
KW
3253 flags = PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT
3254 | PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX
3255 | PERL_SCAN_SILENT_NON_PORTABLE;
3256 numlen = lend - l;
3257 *val = grok_hex((char *)l, &numlen, &flags, NULL);
3258 if (numlen)
3259 l += numlen;
3260 else
3261 *val = 0;
f90a9a02 3262 }
319009ee
KW
3263 }
3264 else {
3265 *val = 0;
3266 if (typeto) {
dcbac5bb 3267 /* diag_listed_as: To%s: illegal mapping '%s' */
319009ee
KW
3268 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "%s: illegal mapping '%s'",
3269 typestr, l);
3270 }
3271 }
3272 }
3273 else
3274 *val = 0; /* bits == 1, then any val should be ignored */
3275 }
3276 else { /* Nothing following range min, should be single element with no
3277 mapping expected */
3278 *max = *min;
3279 if (wants_value) {
3280 *val = 0;
3281 if (typeto) {
dcbac5bb 3282 /* diag_listed_as: To%s: illegal mapping '%s' */
319009ee
KW
3283 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "%s: illegal mapping '%s'", typestr, l);
3284 }
3285 }
3286 else
3287 *val = 0; /* bits == 1, then val should be ignored */
3288 }
3289
3290 /* Position to next line if any, or EOF */
3291 if (nl)
3292 l = nl + 1;
3293 else
3294 l = lend;
3295
3296 return l;
3297}
3298
979f2922
ST
3299/* Note:
3300 * Returns a swatch (a bit vector string) for a code point sequence
3301 * that starts from the value C<start> and comprises the number C<span>.
3302 * A C<swash> must be an object created by SWASHNEW (see lib/utf8_heavy.pl).
3303 * Should be used via swash_fetch, which will cache the swatch in C<swash>.
3304 */
3305STATIC SV*
b0e3252e 3306S_swatch_get(pTHX_ SV* swash, UV start, UV span)
979f2922
ST
3307{
3308 SV *swatch;
77f9f126 3309 U8 *l, *lend, *x, *xend, *s, *send;
979f2922 3310 STRLEN lcur, xcur, scur;
ef8f7699 3311 HV *const hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(swash));
5c9f4bd2 3312 SV** const invlistsvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "V", FALSE);
36eb48b4 3313
88d45d28
KW
3314 SV** listsvp = NULL; /* The string containing the main body of the table */
3315 SV** extssvp = NULL;
3316 SV** invert_it_svp = NULL;
3317 U8* typestr = NULL;
786861f5
KW
3318 STRLEN bits;
3319 STRLEN octets; /* if bits == 1, then octets == 0 */
3320 UV none;
3321 UV end = start + span;
972dd592 3322
36eb48b4 3323 if (invlistsvp == NULL) {
786861f5
KW
3324 SV** const bitssvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "BITS", FALSE);
3325 SV** const nonesvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "NONE", FALSE);
3326 SV** const typesvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "TYPE", FALSE);
3327 extssvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "EXTRAS", FALSE);
3328 listsvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "LIST", FALSE);
3329 invert_it_svp = hv_fetchs(hv, "INVERT_IT", FALSE);
3330
3331 bits = SvUV(*bitssvp);
3332 none = SvUV(*nonesvp);
3333 typestr = (U8*)SvPV_nolen(*typesvp);
3334 }
36eb48b4
KW
3335 else {
3336 bits = 1;
3337 none = 0;
3338 }
786861f5 3339 octets = bits >> 3; /* if bits == 1, then octets == 0 */
979f2922 3340
b0e3252e 3341 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SWATCH_GET;
7918f24d 3342
979f2922 3343 if (bits != 1 && bits != 8 && bits != 16 && bits != 32) {
b0e3252e 3344 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swatch_get doesn't expect bits %"UVuf,
660a4616 3345 (UV)bits);
979f2922
ST
3346 }
3347
84ea5ef6
KW
3348 /* If overflowed, use the max possible */
3349 if (end < start) {
3350 end = UV_MAX;
3351 span = end - start;
3352 }
3353
979f2922 3354 /* create and initialize $swatch */
979f2922 3355 scur = octets ? (span * octets) : (span + 7) / 8;
e524fe40
NC
3356 swatch = newSV(scur);
3357 SvPOK_on(swatch);
979f2922
ST
3358 s = (U8*)SvPVX(swatch);
3359 if (octets && none) {
0bd48802 3360 const U8* const e = s + scur;
979f2922
ST
3361 while (s < e) {
3362 if (bits == 8)
3363 *s++ = (U8)(none & 0xff);
3364 else if (bits == 16) {
3365 *s++ = (U8)((none >> 8) & 0xff);
3366 *s++ = (U8)( none & 0xff);
3367 }
3368 else if (bits == 32) {
3369 *s++ = (U8)((none >> 24) & 0xff);
3370 *s++ = (U8)((none >> 16) & 0xff);
3371 *s++ = (U8)((none >> 8) & 0xff);
3372 *s++ = (U8)( none & 0xff);
3373 }
3374 }
3375 *s = '\0';
3376 }
3377 else {
3378 (void)memzero((U8*)s, scur + 1);
3379 }
3380 SvCUR_set(swatch, scur);
3381 s = (U8*)SvPVX(swatch);
3382
36eb48b4
KW
3383 if (invlistsvp) { /* If has an inversion list set up use that */
3384 _invlist_populate_swatch(*invlistsvp, start, end, s);
3385 return swatch;
3386 }
3387
3388 /* read $swash->{LIST} */
979f2922
ST
3389 l = (U8*)SvPV(*listsvp, lcur);
3390 lend = l + lcur;
3391 while (l < lend) {
8ed25d53 3392 UV min, max, val, upper;
319009ee
KW
3393 l = S_swash_scan_list_line(aTHX_ l, lend, &min, &max, &val,
3394 cBOOL(octets), typestr);
3395 if (l > lend) {
979f2922
ST
3396 break;
3397 }
3398
972dd592 3399 /* If looking for something beyond this range, go try the next one */
979f2922
ST
3400 if (max < start)
3401 continue;
3402
8ed25d53
KW
3403 /* <end> is generally 1 beyond where we want to set things, but at the
3404 * platform's infinity, where we can't go any higher, we want to
3405 * include the code point at <end> */
3406 upper = (max < end)
3407 ? max
3408 : (max != UV_MAX || end != UV_MAX)
3409 ? end - 1
3410 : end;
3411
979f2922 3412 if (octets) {
35da51f7 3413 UV key;
979f2922
ST
3414 if (min < start) {
3415 if (!none || val < none) {
3416 val += start - min;
3417 }
3418 min = start;
3419 }
8ed25d53 3420 for (key = min; key <= upper; key++) {
979f2922 3421 STRLEN offset;
979f2922
ST
3422 /* offset must be non-negative (start <= min <= key < end) */
3423 offset = octets * (key - start);
3424 if (bits == 8)
3425 s[offset] = (U8)(val & 0xff);
3426 else if (bits == 16) {
3427 s[offset ] = (U8)((val >> 8) & 0xff);
3428 s[offset + 1] = (U8)( val & 0xff);
3429 }
3430 else if (bits == 32) {
3431 s[offset ] = (U8)((val >> 24) & 0xff);
3432 s[offset + 1] = (U8)((val >> 16) & 0xff);
3433 s[offset + 2] = (U8)((val >> 8) & 0xff);
3434 s[offset + 3] = (U8)( val & 0xff);
3435 }
3436
3437 if (!none || val < none)
3438 ++val;
3439 }
3440 }
711a919c 3441 else { /* bits == 1, then val should be ignored */
35da51f7 3442 UV key;
979f2922
ST
3443 if (min < start)
3444 min = start;
6cb05c12 3445
8ed25d53 3446 for (key = min; key <= upper; key++) {
0bd48802 3447 const STRLEN offset = (STRLEN)(key - start);
979f2922
ST
3448 s[offset >> 3] |= 1 << (offset & 7);
3449 }
3450 }
3451 } /* while */
979f2922 3452
9479a769 3453 /* Invert if the data says it should be. Assumes that bits == 1 */
77f9f126 3454 if (invert_it_svp && SvUV(*invert_it_svp)) {
0bda3001
KW
3455
3456 /* Unicode properties should come with all bits above PERL_UNICODE_MAX
3457 * be 0, and their inversion should also be 0, as we don't succeed any
3458 * Unicode property matches for non-Unicode code points */
3459 if (start <= PERL_UNICODE_MAX) {
3460
3461 /* The code below assumes that we never cross the
3462 * Unicode/above-Unicode boundary in a range, as otherwise we would
3463 * have to figure out where to stop flipping the bits. Since this
3464 * boundary is divisible by a large power of 2, and swatches comes
3465 * in small powers of 2, this should be a valid assumption */
3466 assert(start + span - 1 <= PERL_UNICODE_MAX);
3467
507a8485
KW
3468 send = s + scur;
3469 while (s < send) {
3470 *s = ~(*s);
3471 s++;
3472 }
0bda3001 3473 }
77f9f126
KW
3474 }
3475
d73c39c5
KW
3476 /* read $swash->{EXTRAS}
3477 * This code also copied to swash_to_invlist() below */
979f2922
ST
3478 x = (U8*)SvPV(*extssvp, xcur);
3479 xend = x + xcur;
3480 while (x < xend) {
3481 STRLEN namelen;
3482 U8 *namestr;
3483 SV** othersvp;
3484 HV* otherhv;
3485 STRLEN otherbits;
3486 SV **otherbitssvp, *other;
711a919c 3487 U8 *s, *o, *nl;
979f2922
ST
3488 STRLEN slen, olen;
3489
35da51f7 3490 const U8 opc = *x++;
979f2922
ST
3491 if (opc == '\n')
3492 continue;
3493
3494 nl = (U8*)memchr(x, '\n', xend - x);
3495
3496 if (opc != '-' && opc != '+' && opc != '!' && opc != '&') {
3497 if (nl) {
3498 x = nl + 1; /* 1 is length of "\n" */
3499 continue;
3500 }
3501 else {
3502 x = xend; /* to EXTRAS' end at which \n is not found */
3503 break;
3504 }
3505 }
3506
3507 namestr = x;
3508 if (nl) {
3509 namelen = nl - namestr;
3510 x = nl + 1;
3511 }
3512 else {
3513 namelen = xend - namestr;
3514 x = xend;
3515 }
3516
3517 othersvp = hv_fetch(hv, (char *)namestr, namelen, FALSE);
ef8f7699 3518 otherhv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(*othersvp));
017a3ce5 3519 otherbitssvp = hv_fetchs(otherhv, "BITS", FALSE);
979f2922
ST
3520 otherbits = (STRLEN)SvUV(*otherbitssvp);
3521 if (bits < otherbits)
5637ef5b
NC
3522 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swatch_get found swatch size mismatch, "
3523 "bits=%"UVuf", otherbits=%"UVuf, (UV)bits, (UV)otherbits);
979f2922
ST
3524
3525 /* The "other" swatch must be destroyed after. */
b0e3252e 3526 other = swatch_get(*othersvp, start, span);
979f2922
ST
3527 o = (U8*)SvPV(other, olen);
3528
3529 if (!olen)
b0e3252e 3530 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swatch_get got improper swatch");
979f2922
ST
3531
3532 s = (U8*)SvPV(swatch, slen);
3533 if (bits == 1 && otherbits == 1) {
3534 if (slen != olen)
5637ef5b
NC
3535 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swatch_get found swatch length "
3536 "mismatch, slen=%"UVuf", olen=%"UVuf,
3537 (UV)slen, (UV)olen);
979f2922
ST
3538
3539 switch (opc) {
3540 case '+':
3541 while (slen--)
3542 *s++ |= *o++;
3543 break;
3544 case '!':
3545 while (slen--)
3546 *s++ |= ~*o++;
3547 break;
3548 case '-':
3549 while (slen--)
3550 *s++ &= ~*o++;
3551 break;
3552 case '&':
3553 while (slen--)
3554 *s++ &= *o++;
3555 break;
3556 default:
3557 break;
3558 }
3559 }
711a919c 3560 else {
979f2922
ST
3561 STRLEN otheroctets = otherbits >> 3;
3562 STRLEN offset = 0;
35da51f7 3563 U8* const send = s + slen;
979f2922
ST
3564
3565 while (s < send) {
3566 UV otherval = 0;
3567
3568 if (otherbits == 1) {
3569 otherval = (o[offset >> 3] >> (offset & 7)) & 1;
3570 ++offset;
3571 }
3572 else {
3573 STRLEN vlen = otheroctets;
3574 otherval = *o++;
3575 while (--vlen) {
3576 otherval <<= 8;
3577 otherval |= *o++;
3578 }
3579 }
3580
711a919c 3581 if (opc == '+' && otherval)
6f207bd3 3582 NOOP; /* replace with otherval */
979f2922
ST
3583 else if (opc == '!' && !otherval)
3584 otherval = 1;
3585 else if (opc == '-' && otherval)
3586 otherval = 0;
3587 else if (opc == '&' && !otherval)
3588 otherval = 0;
3589 else {
711a919c 3590 s += octets; /* no replacement */
979f2922
ST
3591 continue;
3592 }
3593
3594 if (bits == 8)
3595 *s++ = (U8)( otherval & 0xff);
3596 else if (bits == 16) {
3597 *s++ = (U8)((otherval >> 8) & 0xff);
3598 *s++ = (U8)( otherval & 0xff);
3599 }
3600 else if (bits == 32) {
3601 *s++ = (U8)((otherval >> 24) & 0xff);
3602 *s++ = (U8)((otherval >> 16) & 0xff);
3603 *s++ = (U8)((otherval >> 8) & 0xff);
3604 *s++ = (U8)( otherval & 0xff);
3605 }
3606 }
3607 }
3608 sv_free(other); /* through with it! */
3609 } /* while */
3610 return swatch;
3611}
3612
064c021d 3613HV*
4c2e1131 3614Perl__swash_inversion_hash(pTHX_ SV* const swash)
064c021d
KW
3615{
3616
79a2a0e8 3617 /* Subject to change or removal. For use only in regcomp.c and regexec.c
5662e334
KW
3618 * Can't be used on a property that is subject to user override, as it
3619 * relies on the value of SPECIALS in the swash which would be set by
3620 * utf8_heavy.pl to the hash in the non-overriden file, and hence is not set
3621 * for overridden properties
064c021d
KW
3622 *
3623 * Returns a hash which is the inversion and closure of a swash mapping.
3624 * For example, consider the input lines:
3625 * 004B 006B
3626 * 004C 006C
3627 * 212A 006B
3628 *
3629 * The returned hash would have two keys, the utf8 for 006B and the utf8 for
3630 * 006C. The value for each key is an array. For 006C, the array would
3631 * have a two elements, the utf8 for itself, and for 004C. For 006B, there
3632 * would be three elements in its array, the utf8 for 006B, 004B and 212A.
3633 *
3634 * Essentially, for any code point, it gives all the code points that map to
3635 * it, or the list of 'froms' for that point.
3636 *
5662e334
KW
3637 * Currently it ignores any additions or deletions from other swashes,
3638 * looking at just the main body of the swash, and if there are SPECIALS
3639 * in the swash, at that hash
3640 *
3641 * The specials hash can be extra code points, and most likely consists of
3642 * maps from single code points to multiple ones (each expressed as a string
3643 * of utf8 characters). This function currently returns only 1-1 mappings.
3644 * However consider this possible input in the specials hash:
3645 * "\xEF\xAC\x85" => "\x{0073}\x{0074}", # U+FB05 => 0073 0074
3646 * "\xEF\xAC\x86" => "\x{0073}\x{0074}", # U+FB06 => 0073 0074
3647 *
3648 * Both FB05 and FB06 map to the same multi-char sequence, which we don't
3649 * currently handle. But it also means that FB05 and FB06 are equivalent in
3650 * a 1-1 mapping which we should handle, and this relationship may not be in
3651 * the main table. Therefore this function examines all the multi-char
3652 * sequences and adds the 1-1 mappings that come out of that. */
064c021d
KW
3653
3654 U8 *l, *lend;
3655 STRLEN lcur;
3656 HV *const hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(swash));
3657
923b6d4e
KW
3658 /* The string containing the main body of the table. This will have its
3659 * assertion fail if the swash has been converted to its inversion list */
064c021d
KW
3660 SV** const listsvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "LIST", FALSE);
3661
3662 SV** const typesvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "TYPE", FALSE);
3663 SV** const bitssvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "BITS", FALSE);
3664 SV** const nonesvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "NONE", FALSE);
3665 /*SV** const extssvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "EXTRAS", FALSE);*/
3666 const U8* const typestr = (U8*)SvPV_nolen(*typesvp);
3667 const STRLEN bits = SvUV(*bitssvp);
3668 const STRLEN octets = bits >> 3; /* if bits == 1, then octets == 0 */
3669 const UV none = SvUV(*nonesvp);
5662e334 3670 SV **specials_p = hv_fetchs(hv, "SPECIALS", 0);
064c021d
KW
3671
3672 HV* ret = newHV();
3673
3674 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__SWASH_INVERSION_HASH;
3675
3676 /* Must have at least 8 bits to get the mappings */
3677 if (bits != 8 && bits != 16 && bits != 32) {
3678 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swash_inversion_hash doesn't expect bits %"UVuf,
3679 (UV)bits);
3680 }
3681
5662e334
KW
3682 if (specials_p) { /* It might be "special" (sometimes, but not always, a
3683 mapping to more than one character */
3684
3685 /* Construct an inverse mapping hash for the specials */
3686 HV * const specials_hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(*specials_p));
3687 HV * specials_inverse = newHV();
3688 char *char_from; /* the lhs of the map */
3689 I32 from_len; /* its byte length */
3690 char *char_to; /* the rhs of the map */
3691 I32 to_len; /* its byte length */
3692 SV *sv_to; /* and in a sv */
3693 AV* from_list; /* list of things that map to each 'to' */
3694
3695 hv_iterinit(specials_hv);
3696
3697 /* The keys are the characters (in utf8) that map to the corresponding
3698 * utf8 string value. Iterate through the list creating the inverse
3699 * list. */
3700 while ((sv_to = hv_iternextsv(specials_hv, &char_from, &from_len))) {
3701 SV** listp;
3702 if (! SvPOK(sv_to)) {
5637ef5b
NC
3703 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: value returned from hv_iternextsv() "
3704 "unexpectedly is not a string, flags=%lu",
3705 (unsigned long)SvFLAGS(sv_to));
5662e334 3706 }
4b88fb76 3707 /*DEBUG_U(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Found mapping from %"UVXf", First char of to is %"UVXf"\n", valid_utf8_to_uvchr((U8*) char_from, 0), valid_utf8_to_uvchr((U8*) SvPVX(sv_to), 0)));*/
5662e334
KW
3708
3709 /* Each key in the inverse list is a mapped-to value, and the key's
3710 * hash value is a list of the strings (each in utf8) that map to
3711 * it. Those strings are all one character long */
3712 if ((listp = hv_fetch(specials_inverse,
3713 SvPVX(sv_to),
3714 SvCUR(sv_to), 0)))
3715 {
3716 from_list = (AV*) *listp;
3717 }
3718 else { /* No entry yet for it: create one */
3719 from_list = newAV();
3720 if (! hv_store(specials_inverse,