This is a live mirror of the Perl 5 development currently hosted at https://github.com/perl/perl5
Sync change 25229 to .h source files
[perl5.git] / pod / perlfunc.pod
CommitLineData
a0d0e21e
LW
1=head1 NAME
2
3perlfunc - Perl builtin functions
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7The functions in this section can serve as terms in an expression.
8They fall into two major categories: list operators and named unary
9operators. These differ in their precedence relationship with a
10following comma. (See the precedence table in L<perlop>.) List
11operators take more than one argument, while unary operators can never
12take more than one argument. Thus, a comma terminates the argument of
13a unary operator, but merely separates the arguments of a list
14operator. A unary operator generally provides a scalar context to its
2b5ab1e7 15argument, while a list operator may provide either scalar or list
a0d0e21e 16contexts for its arguments. If it does both, the scalar arguments will
5f05dabc 17be first, and the list argument will follow. (Note that there can ever
0f31cffe 18be only one such list argument.) For instance, splice() has three scalar
2b5ab1e7
TC
19arguments followed by a list, whereas gethostbyname() has four scalar
20arguments.
a0d0e21e
LW
21
22In the syntax descriptions that follow, list operators that expect a
23list (and provide list context for the elements of the list) are shown
24with LIST as an argument. Such a list may consist of any combination
25of scalar arguments or list values; the list values will be included
26in the list as if each individual element were interpolated at that
27point in the list, forming a longer single-dimensional list value.
28Elements of the LIST should be separated by commas.
29
30Any function in the list below may be used either with or without
31parentheses around its arguments. (The syntax descriptions omit the
5f05dabc 32parentheses.) If you use the parentheses, the simple (but occasionally
19799a22 33surprising) rule is this: It I<looks> like a function, therefore it I<is> a
a0d0e21e
LW
34function, and precedence doesn't matter. Otherwise it's a list
35operator or unary operator, and precedence does matter. And whitespace
36between the function and left parenthesis doesn't count--so you need to
37be careful sometimes:
38
68dc0745
PP
39 print 1+2+4; # Prints 7.
40 print(1+2) + 4; # Prints 3.
41 print (1+2)+4; # Also prints 3!
42 print +(1+2)+4; # Prints 7.
43 print ((1+2)+4); # Prints 7.
a0d0e21e
LW
44
45If you run Perl with the B<-w> switch it can warn you about this. For
46example, the third line above produces:
47
48 print (...) interpreted as function at - line 1.
49 Useless use of integer addition in void context at - line 1.
50
2b5ab1e7
TC
51A few functions take no arguments at all, and therefore work as neither
52unary nor list operators. These include such functions as C<time>
53and C<endpwent>. For example, C<time+86_400> always means
54C<time() + 86_400>.
55
a0d0e21e 56For functions that can be used in either a scalar or list context,
54310121 57nonabortive failure is generally indicated in a scalar context by
a0d0e21e
LW
58returning the undefined value, and in a list context by returning the
59null list.
60
5a964f20
TC
61Remember the following important rule: There is B<no rule> that relates
62the behavior of an expression in list context to its behavior in scalar
63context, or vice versa. It might do two totally different things.
a0d0e21e 64Each operator and function decides which sort of value it would be most
2b5ab1e7 65appropriate to return in scalar context. Some operators return the
5a964f20 66length of the list that would have been returned in list context. Some
a0d0e21e
LW
67operators return the first value in the list. Some operators return the
68last value in the list. Some operators return a count of successful
69operations. In general, they do what you want, unless you want
70consistency.
71
d1be9408 72A named array in scalar context is quite different from what would at
5a964f20
TC
73first glance appear to be a list in scalar context. You can't get a list
74like C<(1,2,3)> into being in scalar context, because the compiler knows
75the context at compile time. It would generate the scalar comma operator
76there, not the list construction version of the comma. That means it
77was never a list to start with.
78
79In general, functions in Perl that serve as wrappers for system calls
f86cebdf 80of the same name (like chown(2), fork(2), closedir(2), etc.) all return
5a964f20
TC
81true when they succeed and C<undef> otherwise, as is usually mentioned
82in the descriptions below. This is different from the C interfaces,
19799a22
GS
83which return C<-1> on failure. Exceptions to this rule are C<wait>,
84C<waitpid>, and C<syscall>. System calls also set the special C<$!>
5a964f20
TC
85variable on failure. Other functions do not, except accidentally.
86
cb1a09d0
AD
87=head2 Perl Functions by Category
88
89Here are Perl's functions (including things that look like
5a964f20 90functions, like some keywords and named operators)
cb1a09d0
AD
91arranged by category. Some functions appear in more
92than one place.
93
13a2d996 94=over 4
cb1a09d0
AD
95
96=item Functions for SCALARs or strings
97
22fae026 98C<chomp>, C<chop>, C<chr>, C<crypt>, C<hex>, C<index>, C<lc>, C<lcfirst>,
945c54fd
JH
99C<length>, C<oct>, C<ord>, C<pack>, C<q/STRING/>, C<qq/STRING/>, C<reverse>,
100C<rindex>, C<sprintf>, C<substr>, C<tr///>, C<uc>, C<ucfirst>, C<y///>
cb1a09d0
AD
101
102=item Regular expressions and pattern matching
103
ab4f32c2 104C<m//>, C<pos>, C<quotemeta>, C<s///>, C<split>, C<study>, C<qr//>
cb1a09d0
AD
105
106=item Numeric functions
107
22fae026
TM
108C<abs>, C<atan2>, C<cos>, C<exp>, C<hex>, C<int>, C<log>, C<oct>, C<rand>,
109C<sin>, C<sqrt>, C<srand>
cb1a09d0
AD
110
111=item Functions for real @ARRAYs
112
22fae026 113C<pop>, C<push>, C<shift>, C<splice>, C<unshift>
cb1a09d0
AD
114
115=item Functions for list data
116
ab4f32c2 117C<grep>, C<join>, C<map>, C<qw/STRING/>, C<reverse>, C<sort>, C<unpack>
cb1a09d0
AD
118
119=item Functions for real %HASHes
120
22fae026 121C<delete>, C<each>, C<exists>, C<keys>, C<values>
cb1a09d0
AD
122
123=item Input and output functions
124
22fae026
TM
125C<binmode>, C<close>, C<closedir>, C<dbmclose>, C<dbmopen>, C<die>, C<eof>,
126C<fileno>, C<flock>, C<format>, C<getc>, C<print>, C<printf>, C<read>,
127C<readdir>, C<rewinddir>, C<seek>, C<seekdir>, C<select>, C<syscall>,
128C<sysread>, C<sysseek>, C<syswrite>, C<tell>, C<telldir>, C<truncate>,
129C<warn>, C<write>
cb1a09d0
AD
130
131=item Functions for fixed length data or records
132
22fae026 133C<pack>, C<read>, C<syscall>, C<sysread>, C<syswrite>, C<unpack>, C<vec>
cb1a09d0
AD
134
135=item Functions for filehandles, files, or directories
136
22fae026 137C<-I<X>>, C<chdir>, C<chmod>, C<chown>, C<chroot>, C<fcntl>, C<glob>,
5ff3f7a4 138C<ioctl>, C<link>, C<lstat>, C<mkdir>, C<open>, C<opendir>,
1e278fd9
JH
139C<readlink>, C<rename>, C<rmdir>, C<stat>, C<symlink>, C<sysopen>,
140C<umask>, C<unlink>, C<utime>
cb1a09d0
AD
141
142=item Keywords related to the control flow of your perl program
143
98293880
JH
144C<caller>, C<continue>, C<die>, C<do>, C<dump>, C<eval>, C<exit>,
145C<goto>, C<last>, C<next>, C<redo>, C<return>, C<sub>, C<wantarray>
cb1a09d0 146
54310121 147=item Keywords related to scoping
cb1a09d0 148
4375e838 149C<caller>, C<import>, C<local>, C<my>, C<our>, C<package>, C<use>
cb1a09d0
AD
150
151=item Miscellaneous functions
152
4375e838 153C<defined>, C<dump>, C<eval>, C<formline>, C<local>, C<my>, C<our>, C<reset>,
22fae026 154C<scalar>, C<undef>, C<wantarray>
cb1a09d0
AD
155
156=item Functions for processes and process groups
157
22fae026 158C<alarm>, C<exec>, C<fork>, C<getpgrp>, C<getppid>, C<getpriority>, C<kill>,
ab4f32c2 159C<pipe>, C<qx/STRING/>, C<setpgrp>, C<setpriority>, C<sleep>, C<system>,
22fae026 160C<times>, C<wait>, C<waitpid>
cb1a09d0
AD
161
162=item Keywords related to perl modules
163
22fae026 164C<do>, C<import>, C<no>, C<package>, C<require>, C<use>
cb1a09d0
AD
165
166=item Keywords related to classes and object-orientedness
167
22fae026
TM
168C<bless>, C<dbmclose>, C<dbmopen>, C<package>, C<ref>, C<tie>, C<tied>,
169C<untie>, C<use>
cb1a09d0
AD
170
171=item Low-level socket functions
172
22fae026
TM
173C<accept>, C<bind>, C<connect>, C<getpeername>, C<getsockname>,
174C<getsockopt>, C<listen>, C<recv>, C<send>, C<setsockopt>, C<shutdown>,
737dd4b4 175C<socket>, C<socketpair>
cb1a09d0
AD
176
177=item System V interprocess communication functions
178
22fae026
TM
179C<msgctl>, C<msgget>, C<msgrcv>, C<msgsnd>, C<semctl>, C<semget>, C<semop>,
180C<shmctl>, C<shmget>, C<shmread>, C<shmwrite>
cb1a09d0
AD
181
182=item Fetching user and group info
183
22fae026
TM
184C<endgrent>, C<endhostent>, C<endnetent>, C<endpwent>, C<getgrent>,
185C<getgrgid>, C<getgrnam>, C<getlogin>, C<getpwent>, C<getpwnam>,
186C<getpwuid>, C<setgrent>, C<setpwent>
cb1a09d0
AD
187
188=item Fetching network info
189
22fae026
TM
190C<endprotoent>, C<endservent>, C<gethostbyaddr>, C<gethostbyname>,
191C<gethostent>, C<getnetbyaddr>, C<getnetbyname>, C<getnetent>,
192C<getprotobyname>, C<getprotobynumber>, C<getprotoent>,
193C<getservbyname>, C<getservbyport>, C<getservent>, C<sethostent>,
194C<setnetent>, C<setprotoent>, C<setservent>
cb1a09d0
AD
195
196=item Time-related functions
197
22fae026 198C<gmtime>, C<localtime>, C<time>, C<times>
cb1a09d0 199
37798a01
PP
200=item Functions new in perl5
201
22fae026 202C<abs>, C<bless>, C<chomp>, C<chr>, C<exists>, C<formline>, C<glob>,
b76cc8ba 203C<import>, C<lc>, C<lcfirst>, C<map>, C<my>, C<no>, C<our>, C<prototype>,
4375e838 204C<qx>, C<qw>, C<readline>, C<readpipe>, C<ref>, C<sub*>, C<sysopen>, C<tie>,
22fae026 205C<tied>, C<uc>, C<ucfirst>, C<untie>, C<use>
37798a01
PP
206
207* - C<sub> was a keyword in perl4, but in perl5 it is an
5a964f20 208operator, which can be used in expressions.
37798a01
PP
209
210=item Functions obsoleted in perl5
211
22fae026 212C<dbmclose>, C<dbmopen>
37798a01 213
cb1a09d0
AD
214=back
215
60f9f73c
JH
216=head2 Portability
217
2b5ab1e7
TC
218Perl was born in Unix and can therefore access all common Unix
219system calls. In non-Unix environments, the functionality of some
220Unix system calls may not be available, or details of the available
221functionality may differ slightly. The Perl functions affected
60f9f73c
JH
222by this are:
223
224C<-X>, C<binmode>, C<chmod>, C<chown>, C<chroot>, C<crypt>,
225C<dbmclose>, C<dbmopen>, C<dump>, C<endgrent>, C<endhostent>,
226C<endnetent>, C<endprotoent>, C<endpwent>, C<endservent>, C<exec>,
ef5a6dd7
JH
227C<fcntl>, C<flock>, C<fork>, C<getgrent>, C<getgrgid>, C<gethostbyname>,
228C<gethostent>, C<getlogin>, C<getnetbyaddr>, C<getnetbyname>, C<getnetent>,
54d7b083 229C<getppid>, C<getpgrp>, C<getpriority>, C<getprotobynumber>,
60f9f73c
JH
230C<getprotoent>, C<getpwent>, C<getpwnam>, C<getpwuid>,
231C<getservbyport>, C<getservent>, C<getsockopt>, C<glob>, C<ioctl>,
232C<kill>, C<link>, C<lstat>, C<msgctl>, C<msgget>, C<msgrcv>,
2b5ab1e7 233C<msgsnd>, C<open>, C<pipe>, C<readlink>, C<rename>, C<select>, C<semctl>,
60f9f73c
JH
234C<semget>, C<semop>, C<setgrent>, C<sethostent>, C<setnetent>,
235C<setpgrp>, C<setpriority>, C<setprotoent>, C<setpwent>,
236C<setservent>, C<setsockopt>, C<shmctl>, C<shmget>, C<shmread>,
737dd4b4 237C<shmwrite>, C<socket>, C<socketpair>,
80cbd5ad
JH
238C<stat>, C<symlink>, C<syscall>, C<sysopen>, C<system>,
239C<times>, C<truncate>, C<umask>, C<unlink>,
2b5ab1e7 240C<utime>, C<wait>, C<waitpid>
60f9f73c
JH
241
242For more information about the portability of these functions, see
243L<perlport> and other available platform-specific documentation.
244
cb1a09d0
AD
245=head2 Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions
246
a0d0e21e
LW
247=over 8
248
5b3c99c0 249=item -X FILEHANDLE
a0d0e21e 250
5b3c99c0 251=item -X EXPR
a0d0e21e 252
5b3c99c0 253=item -X
a0d0e21e
LW
254
255A file test, where X is one of the letters listed below. This unary
256operator takes one argument, either a filename or a filehandle, and
257tests the associated file to see if something is true about it. If the
7660c0ab 258argument is omitted, tests C<$_>, except for C<-t>, which tests STDIN.
19799a22 259Unless otherwise documented, it returns C<1> for true and C<''> for false, or
a0d0e21e
LW
260the undefined value if the file doesn't exist. Despite the funny
261names, precedence is the same as any other named unary operator, and
262the argument may be parenthesized like any other unary operator. The
263operator may be any of:
7e778d91
IZ
264X<-r>X<-w>X<-x>X<-o>X<-R>X<-W>X<-X>X<-O>X<-e>X<-z>X<-s>X<-f>X<-d>X<-l>X<-p>
265X<-S>X<-b>X<-c>X<-t>X<-u>X<-g>X<-k>X<-T>X<-B>X<-M>X<-A>X<-C>
a0d0e21e
LW
266
267 -r File is readable by effective uid/gid.
268 -w File is writable by effective uid/gid.
269 -x File is executable by effective uid/gid.
270 -o File is owned by effective uid.
271
272 -R File is readable by real uid/gid.
273 -W File is writable by real uid/gid.
274 -X File is executable by real uid/gid.
275 -O File is owned by real uid.
276
277 -e File exists.
8e7e0aa8
MJD
278 -z File has zero size (is empty).
279 -s File has nonzero size (returns size in bytes).
a0d0e21e
LW
280
281 -f File is a plain file.
282 -d File is a directory.
283 -l File is a symbolic link.
9c4d0f16 284 -p File is a named pipe (FIFO), or Filehandle is a pipe.
a0d0e21e
LW
285 -S File is a socket.
286 -b File is a block special file.
287 -c File is a character special file.
288 -t Filehandle is opened to a tty.
289
290 -u File has setuid bit set.
291 -g File has setgid bit set.
292 -k File has sticky bit set.
293
121910a4 294 -T File is an ASCII text file (heuristic guess).
2cdbc966 295 -B File is a "binary" file (opposite of -T).
a0d0e21e 296
95a3fe12 297 -M Script start time minus file modification time, in days.
a0d0e21e 298 -A Same for access time.
95a3fe12 299 -C Same for inode change time (Unix, may differ for other platforms)
a0d0e21e 300
a0d0e21e
LW
301Example:
302
303 while (<>) {
5b3eff12 304 chomp;
a0d0e21e 305 next unless -f $_; # ignore specials
5a964f20 306 #...
a0d0e21e
LW
307 }
308
5ff3f7a4
GS
309The interpretation of the file permission operators C<-r>, C<-R>,
310C<-w>, C<-W>, C<-x>, and C<-X> is by default based solely on the mode
311of the file and the uids and gids of the user. There may be other
312reasons you can't actually read, write, or execute the file. Such
313reasons may be for example network filesystem access controls, ACLs
314(access control lists), read-only filesystems, and unrecognized
315executable formats.
316
2b5ab1e7
TC
317Also note that, for the superuser on the local filesystems, the C<-r>,
318C<-R>, C<-w>, and C<-W> tests always return 1, and C<-x> and C<-X> return 1
5ff3f7a4
GS
319if any execute bit is set in the mode. Scripts run by the superuser
320may thus need to do a stat() to determine the actual mode of the file,
2b5ab1e7 321or temporarily set their effective uid to something else.
5ff3f7a4
GS
322
323If you are using ACLs, there is a pragma called C<filetest> that may
324produce more accurate results than the bare stat() mode bits.
5ff3f7a4
GS
325When under the C<use filetest 'access'> the above-mentioned filetests
326will test whether the permission can (not) be granted using the
468541a8 327access() family of system calls. Also note that the C<-x> and C<-X> may
5ff3f7a4
GS
328under this pragma return true even if there are no execute permission
329bits set (nor any extra execute permission ACLs). This strangeness is
330due to the underlying system calls' definitions. Read the
331documentation for the C<filetest> pragma for more information.
332
a0d0e21e
LW
333Note that C<-s/a/b/> does not do a negated substitution. Saying
334C<-exp($foo)> still works as expected, however--only single letters
335following a minus are interpreted as file tests.
336
337The C<-T> and C<-B> switches work as follows. The first block or so of the
338file is examined for odd characters such as strange control codes or
61eff3bc 339characters with the high bit set. If too many strange characters (>30%)
a0d0e21e
LW
340are found, it's a C<-B> file, otherwise it's a C<-T> file. Also, any file
341containing null in the first block is considered a binary file. If C<-T>
9124316e 342or C<-B> is used on a filehandle, the current IO buffer is examined
19799a22 343rather than the first block. Both C<-T> and C<-B> return true on a null
54310121 344file, or a file at EOF when testing a filehandle. Because you have to
4633a7c4
LW
345read a file to do the C<-T> test, on most occasions you want to use a C<-f>
346against the file first, as in C<next unless -f $file && -T $file>.
a0d0e21e 347
19799a22 348If any of the file tests (or either the C<stat> or C<lstat> operators) are given
28757baa 349the special filehandle consisting of a solitary underline, then the stat
a0d0e21e
LW
350structure of the previous file test (or stat operator) is used, saving
351a system call. (This doesn't work with C<-t>, and you need to remember
352that lstat() and C<-l> will leave values in the stat structure for the
5c9aa243
RGS
353symbolic link, not the real file.) (Also, if the stat buffer was filled by
354a C<lstat> call, C<-T> and C<-B> will reset it with the results of C<stat _>).
355Example:
a0d0e21e
LW
356
357 print "Can do.\n" if -r $a || -w _ || -x _;
358
359 stat($filename);
360 print "Readable\n" if -r _;
361 print "Writable\n" if -w _;
362 print "Executable\n" if -x _;
363 print "Setuid\n" if -u _;
364 print "Setgid\n" if -g _;
365 print "Sticky\n" if -k _;
366 print "Text\n" if -T _;
367 print "Binary\n" if -B _;
368
fbb0b3b3
RGS
369As of Perl 5.9.1, as a form of purely syntactic sugar, you can stack file
370test operators, in a way that C<-f -w -x $file> is equivalent to
371C<-x $file && -w _ && -f _>. (This is only syntax fancy : if you use
372the return value of C<-f $file> as an argument to another filetest
373operator, no special magic will happen.)
374
a0d0e21e
LW
375=item abs VALUE
376
54310121 377=item abs
bbce6d69 378
a0d0e21e 379Returns the absolute value of its argument.
7660c0ab 380If VALUE is omitted, uses C<$_>.
a0d0e21e
LW
381
382=item accept NEWSOCKET,GENERICSOCKET
383
f86cebdf 384Accepts an incoming socket connect, just as the accept(2) system call
19799a22 385does. Returns the packed address if it succeeded, false otherwise.
2b5ab1e7 386See the example in L<perlipc/"Sockets: Client/Server Communication">.
a0d0e21e 387
8d2a6795
GS
388On systems that support a close-on-exec flag on files, the flag will
389be set for the newly opened file descriptor, as determined by the
390value of $^F. See L<perlvar/$^F>.
391
a0d0e21e
LW
392=item alarm SECONDS
393
54310121 394=item alarm
bbce6d69 395
a0d0e21e 396Arranges to have a SIGALRM delivered to this process after the
d400eac8
JH
397specified number of wallclock seconds have elapsed. If SECONDS is not
398specified, the value stored in C<$_> is used. (On some machines,
399unfortunately, the elapsed time may be up to one second less or more
400than you specified because of how seconds are counted, and process
401scheduling may delay the delivery of the signal even further.)
402
403Only one timer may be counting at once. Each call disables the
404previous timer, and an argument of C<0> may be supplied to cancel the
405previous timer without starting a new one. The returned value is the
406amount of time remaining on the previous timer.
a0d0e21e 407
4633a7c4 408For delays of finer granularity than one second, you may use Perl's
19799a22
GS
409four-argument version of select() leaving the first three arguments
410undefined, or you might be able to use the C<syscall> interface to
83df6a1d
JH
411access setitimer(2) if your system supports it. The Time::HiRes
412module (from CPAN, and starting from Perl 5.8 part of the standard
413distribution) may also prove useful.
2b5ab1e7 414
68f8bed4
JH
415It is usually a mistake to intermix C<alarm> and C<sleep> calls.
416(C<sleep> may be internally implemented in your system with C<alarm>)
a0d0e21e 417
19799a22
GS
418If you want to use C<alarm> to time out a system call you need to use an
419C<eval>/C<die> pair. You can't rely on the alarm causing the system call to
f86cebdf 420fail with C<$!> set to C<EINTR> because Perl sets up signal handlers to
19799a22 421restart system calls on some systems. Using C<eval>/C<die> always works,
5a964f20 422modulo the caveats given in L<perlipc/"Signals">.
ff68c719
PP
423
424 eval {
f86cebdf 425 local $SIG{ALRM} = sub { die "alarm\n" }; # NB: \n required
36477c24 426 alarm $timeout;
ff68c719 427 $nread = sysread SOCKET, $buffer, $size;
36477c24 428 alarm 0;
ff68c719 429 };
ff68c719 430 if ($@) {
f86cebdf 431 die unless $@ eq "alarm\n"; # propagate unexpected errors
ff68c719
PP
432 # timed out
433 }
434 else {
435 # didn't
436 }
437
91d81acc
JH
438For more information see L<perlipc>.
439
a0d0e21e
LW
440=item atan2 Y,X
441
442Returns the arctangent of Y/X in the range -PI to PI.
443
ca6e1c26 444For the tangent operation, you may use the C<Math::Trig::tan>
28757baa
PP
445function, or use the familiar relation:
446
447 sub tan { sin($_[0]) / cos($_[0]) }
448
a0d0e21e
LW
449=item bind SOCKET,NAME
450
451Binds a network address to a socket, just as the bind system call
19799a22 452does. Returns true if it succeeded, false otherwise. NAME should be a
4633a7c4
LW
453packed address of the appropriate type for the socket. See the examples in
454L<perlipc/"Sockets: Client/Server Communication">.
a0d0e21e 455
fae2c0fb 456=item binmode FILEHANDLE, LAYER
1c1fc3ea 457
a0d0e21e
LW
458=item binmode FILEHANDLE
459
1cbfc93d
NIS
460Arranges for FILEHANDLE to be read or written in "binary" or "text"
461mode on systems where the run-time libraries distinguish between
462binary and text files. If FILEHANDLE is an expression, the value is
463taken as the name of the filehandle. Returns true on success,
b5fe5ca2 464otherwise it returns C<undef> and sets C<$!> (errno).
1cbfc93d 465
d807c6f4
JH
466On some systems (in general, DOS and Windows-based systems) binmode()
467is necessary when you're not working with a text file. For the sake
468of portability it is a good idea to always use it when appropriate,
469and to never use it when it isn't appropriate. Also, people can
470set their I/O to be by default UTF-8 encoded Unicode, not bytes.
471
472In other words: regardless of platform, use binmode() on binary data,
473like for example images.
474
475If LAYER is present it is a single string, but may contain multiple
476directives. The directives alter the behaviour of the file handle.
477When LAYER is present using binmode on text file makes sense.
478
fae2c0fb 479If LAYER is omitted or specified as C<:raw> the filehandle is made
0226bbdb
NIS
480suitable for passing binary data. This includes turning off possible CRLF
481translation and marking it as bytes (as opposed to Unicode characters).
749683d2
YST
482Note that, despite what may be implied in I<"Programming Perl"> (the
483Camel) or elsewhere, C<:raw> is I<not> the simply inverse of C<:crlf>
fae2c0fb 484-- other layers which would affect binary nature of the stream are
0226bbdb
NIS
485I<also> disabled. See L<PerlIO>, L<perlrun> and the discussion about the
486PERLIO environment variable.
01e6739c 487
d807c6f4
JH
488The C<:bytes>, C<:crlf>, and C<:utf8>, and any other directives of the
489form C<:...>, are called I/O I<layers>. The C<open> pragma can be used to
490establish default I/O layers. See L<open>.
491
fae2c0fb
RGS
492I<The LAYER parameter of the binmode() function is described as "DISCIPLINE"
493in "Programming Perl, 3rd Edition". However, since the publishing of this
494book, by many known as "Camel III", the consensus of the naming of this
495functionality has moved from "discipline" to "layer". All documentation
496of this version of Perl therefore refers to "layers" rather than to
497"disciplines". Now back to the regularly scheduled documentation...>
498
01e6739c 499To mark FILEHANDLE as UTF-8, use C<:utf8>.
1cbfc93d 500
ed53a2bb 501In general, binmode() should be called after open() but before any I/O
01e6739c
NIS
502is done on the filehandle. Calling binmode() will normally flush any
503pending buffered output data (and perhaps pending input data) on the
fae2c0fb 504handle. An exception to this is the C<:encoding> layer that
01e6739c 505changes the default character encoding of the handle, see L<open>.
fae2c0fb 506The C<:encoding> layer sometimes needs to be called in
3874323d
JH
507mid-stream, and it doesn't flush the stream. The C<:encoding>
508also implicitly pushes on top of itself the C<:utf8> layer because
509internally Perl will operate on UTF-8 encoded Unicode characters.
16fe6d59 510
19799a22 511The operating system, device drivers, C libraries, and Perl run-time
30168b04
GS
512system all work together to let the programmer treat a single
513character (C<\n>) as the line terminator, irrespective of the external
514representation. On many operating systems, the native text file
515representation matches the internal representation, but on some
516platforms the external representation of C<\n> is made up of more than
517one character.
518
68bd7414
NIS
519Mac OS, all variants of Unix, and Stream_LF files on VMS use a single
520character to end each line in the external representation of text (even
5e12dbfa 521though that single character is CARRIAGE RETURN on Mac OS and LINE FEED
01e6739c
NIS
522on Unix and most VMS files). In other systems like OS/2, DOS and the
523various flavors of MS-Windows your program sees a C<\n> as a simple C<\cJ>,
524but what's stored in text files are the two characters C<\cM\cJ>. That
525means that, if you don't use binmode() on these systems, C<\cM\cJ>
526sequences on disk will be converted to C<\n> on input, and any C<\n> in
527your program will be converted back to C<\cM\cJ> on output. This is what
528you want for text files, but it can be disastrous for binary files.
30168b04
GS
529
530Another consequence of using binmode() (on some systems) is that
531special end-of-file markers will be seen as part of the data stream.
532For systems from the Microsoft family this means that if your binary
4375e838 533data contains C<\cZ>, the I/O subsystem will regard it as the end of
30168b04
GS
534the file, unless you use binmode().
535
536binmode() is not only important for readline() and print() operations,
537but also when using read(), seek(), sysread(), syswrite() and tell()
538(see L<perlport> for more details). See the C<$/> and C<$\> variables
539in L<perlvar> for how to manually set your input and output
540line-termination sequences.
a0d0e21e 541
4633a7c4 542=item bless REF,CLASSNAME
a0d0e21e
LW
543
544=item bless REF
545
2b5ab1e7
TC
546This function tells the thingy referenced by REF that it is now an object
547in the CLASSNAME package. If CLASSNAME is omitted, the current package
19799a22 548is used. Because a C<bless> is often the last thing in a constructor,
2b5ab1e7
TC
549it returns the reference for convenience. Always use the two-argument
550version if the function doing the blessing might be inherited by a
551derived class. See L<perltoot> and L<perlobj> for more about the blessing
552(and blessings) of objects.
a0d0e21e 553
57668c4d 554Consider always blessing objects in CLASSNAMEs that are mixed case.
2b5ab1e7
TC
555Namespaces with all lowercase names are considered reserved for
556Perl pragmata. Builtin types have all uppercase names, so to prevent
557confusion, you may wish to avoid such package names as well. Make sure
558that CLASSNAME is a true value.
60ad88b8
GS
559
560See L<perlmod/"Perl Modules">.
561
a0d0e21e
LW
562=item caller EXPR
563
564=item caller
565
5a964f20 566Returns the context of the current subroutine call. In scalar context,
28757baa 567returns the caller's package name if there is a caller, that is, if
19799a22 568we're in a subroutine or C<eval> or C<require>, and the undefined value
5a964f20 569otherwise. In list context, returns
a0d0e21e 570
748a9306 571 ($package, $filename, $line) = caller;
a0d0e21e
LW
572
573With EXPR, it returns some extra information that the debugger uses to
574print a stack trace. The value of EXPR indicates how many call frames
575to go back before the current one.
576
f3aa04c2 577 ($package, $filename, $line, $subroutine, $hasargs,
e476b1b5 578 $wantarray, $evaltext, $is_require, $hints, $bitmask) = caller($i);
e7ea3e70 579
951ba7fe 580Here $subroutine may be C<(eval)> if the frame is not a subroutine
19799a22 581call, but an C<eval>. In such a case additional elements $evaltext and
7660c0ab 582C<$is_require> are set: C<$is_require> is true if the frame is created by a
19799a22 583C<require> or C<use> statement, $evaltext contains the text of the
277ddfaf 584C<eval EXPR> statement. In particular, for an C<eval BLOCK> statement,
951ba7fe 585$filename is C<(eval)>, but $evaltext is undefined. (Note also that
0fc9dec4
RGS
586each C<use> statement creates a C<require> frame inside an C<eval EXPR>
587frame.) $subroutine may also be C<(unknown)> if this particular
588subroutine happens to have been deleted from the symbol table.
589C<$hasargs> is true if a new instance of C<@_> was set up for the frame.
590C<$hints> and C<$bitmask> contain pragmatic hints that the caller was
591compiled with. The C<$hints> and C<$bitmask> values are subject to change
592between versions of Perl, and are not meant for external use.
748a9306
LW
593
594Furthermore, when called from within the DB package, caller returns more
7660c0ab 595detailed information: it sets the list variable C<@DB::args> to be the
54310121 596arguments with which the subroutine was invoked.
748a9306 597
7660c0ab 598Be aware that the optimizer might have optimized call frames away before
19799a22 599C<caller> had a chance to get the information. That means that C<caller(N)>
7660c0ab 600might not return information about the call frame you expect it do, for
b76cc8ba 601C<< N > 1 >>. In particular, C<@DB::args> might have information from the
19799a22 602previous time C<caller> was called.
7660c0ab 603
a0d0e21e
LW
604=item chdir EXPR
605
c4aca7d0
GA
606=item chdir FILEHANDLE
607
608=item chdir DIRHANDLE
609
ce2984c3
PF
610=item chdir
611
ffce7b87 612Changes the working directory to EXPR, if possible. If EXPR is omitted,
0bfc1ec4 613changes to the directory specified by C<$ENV{HOME}>, if set; if not,
ffce7b87 614changes to the directory specified by C<$ENV{LOGDIR}>. (Under VMS, the
b4ad75f0
AMS
615variable C<$ENV{SYS$LOGIN}> is also checked, and used if it is set.) If
616neither is set, C<chdir> does nothing. It returns true upon success,
617false otherwise. See the example under C<die>.
a0d0e21e 618
c4aca7d0
GA
619On systems that support fchdir, you might pass a file handle or
620directory handle as argument. On systems that don't support fchdir,
621passing handles produces a fatal error at run time.
622
a0d0e21e
LW
623=item chmod LIST
624
625Changes the permissions of a list of files. The first element of the
4633a7c4 626list must be the numerical mode, which should probably be an octal
4ad40acf 627number, and which definitely should I<not> be a string of octal digits:
2f9daede 628C<0644> is okay, C<'0644'> is not. Returns the number of files
dc848c6f 629successfully changed. See also L</oct>, if all you have is a string.
a0d0e21e
LW
630
631 $cnt = chmod 0755, 'foo', 'bar';
632 chmod 0755, @executables;
f86cebdf
GS
633 $mode = '0644'; chmod $mode, 'foo'; # !!! sets mode to
634 # --w----r-T
2f9daede
TPG
635 $mode = '0644'; chmod oct($mode), 'foo'; # this is better
636 $mode = 0644; chmod $mode, 'foo'; # this is best
a0d0e21e 637
c4aca7d0
GA
638On systems that support fchmod, you might pass file handles among the
639files. On systems that don't support fchmod, passing file handles
640produces a fatal error at run time.
641
642 open(my $fh, "<", "foo");
643 my $perm = (stat $fh)[2] & 07777;
644 chmod($perm | 0600, $fh);
645
ca6e1c26
JH
646You can also import the symbolic C<S_I*> constants from the Fcntl
647module:
648
649 use Fcntl ':mode';
650
651 chmod S_IRWXU|S_IRGRP|S_IXGRP|S_IROTH|S_IXOTH, @executables;
652 # This is identical to the chmod 0755 of the above example.
653
a0d0e21e
LW
654=item chomp VARIABLE
655
313c9f5c 656=item chomp( LIST )
a0d0e21e
LW
657
658=item chomp
659
2b5ab1e7
TC
660This safer version of L</chop> removes any trailing string
661that corresponds to the current value of C<$/> (also known as
28757baa
PP
662$INPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR in the C<English> module). It returns the total
663number of characters removed from all its arguments. It's often used to
664remove the newline from the end of an input record when you're worried
2b5ab1e7
TC
665that the final record may be missing its newline. When in paragraph
666mode (C<$/ = "">), it removes all trailing newlines from the string.
4c5a6083
GS
667When in slurp mode (C<$/ = undef>) or fixed-length record mode (C<$/> is
668a reference to an integer or the like, see L<perlvar>) chomp() won't
b76cc8ba 669remove anything.
19799a22 670If VARIABLE is omitted, it chomps C<$_>. Example:
a0d0e21e
LW
671
672 while (<>) {
673 chomp; # avoid \n on last field
674 @array = split(/:/);
5a964f20 675 # ...
a0d0e21e
LW
676 }
677
4bf21a6d
RD
678If VARIABLE is a hash, it chomps the hash's values, but not its keys.
679
a0d0e21e
LW
680You can actually chomp anything that's an lvalue, including an assignment:
681
682 chomp($cwd = `pwd`);
683 chomp($answer = <STDIN>);
684
685If you chomp a list, each element is chomped, and the total number of
686characters removed is returned.
687
442a8c12
NC
688If the C<encoding> pragma is in scope then the lengths returned are
689calculated from the length of C<$/> in Unicode characters, which is not
690always the same as the length of C<$/> in the native encoding.
691
15e44fd8
RGS
692Note that parentheses are necessary when you're chomping anything
693that is not a simple variable. This is because C<chomp $cwd = `pwd`;>
694is interpreted as C<(chomp $cwd) = `pwd`;>, rather than as
695C<chomp( $cwd = `pwd` )> which you might expect. Similarly,
696C<chomp $a, $b> is interpreted as C<chomp($a), $b> rather than
697as C<chomp($a, $b)>.
698
a0d0e21e
LW
699=item chop VARIABLE
700
313c9f5c 701=item chop( LIST )
a0d0e21e
LW
702
703=item chop
704
705Chops off the last character of a string and returns the character
5b3eff12 706chopped. It is much more efficient than C<s/.$//s> because it neither
7660c0ab 707scans nor copies the string. If VARIABLE is omitted, chops C<$_>.
4bf21a6d
RD
708If VARIABLE is a hash, it chops the hash's values, but not its keys.
709
5b3eff12 710You can actually chop anything that's an lvalue, including an assignment.
a0d0e21e
LW
711
712If you chop a list, each element is chopped. Only the value of the
19799a22 713last C<chop> is returned.
a0d0e21e 714
19799a22 715Note that C<chop> returns the last character. To return all but the last
748a9306
LW
716character, use C<substr($string, 0, -1)>.
717
15e44fd8
RGS
718See also L</chomp>.
719
a0d0e21e
LW
720=item chown LIST
721
722Changes the owner (and group) of a list of files. The first two
19799a22
GS
723elements of the list must be the I<numeric> uid and gid, in that
724order. A value of -1 in either position is interpreted by most
725systems to leave that value unchanged. Returns the number of files
726successfully changed.
a0d0e21e
LW
727
728 $cnt = chown $uid, $gid, 'foo', 'bar';
729 chown $uid, $gid, @filenames;
730
c4aca7d0
GA
731On systems that support fchown, you might pass file handles among the
732files. On systems that don't support fchown, passing file handles
733produces a fatal error at run time.
734
54310121 735Here's an example that looks up nonnumeric uids in the passwd file:
a0d0e21e
LW
736
737 print "User: ";
19799a22 738 chomp($user = <STDIN>);
5a964f20 739 print "Files: ";
19799a22 740 chomp($pattern = <STDIN>);
a0d0e21e
LW
741
742 ($login,$pass,$uid,$gid) = getpwnam($user)
743 or die "$user not in passwd file";
744
5a964f20 745 @ary = glob($pattern); # expand filenames
a0d0e21e
LW
746 chown $uid, $gid, @ary;
747
54310121 748On most systems, you are not allowed to change the ownership of the
4633a7c4
LW
749file unless you're the superuser, although you should be able to change
750the group to any of your secondary groups. On insecure systems, these
751restrictions may be relaxed, but this is not a portable assumption.
19799a22
GS
752On POSIX systems, you can detect this condition this way:
753
754 use POSIX qw(sysconf _PC_CHOWN_RESTRICTED);
755 $can_chown_giveaway = not sysconf(_PC_CHOWN_RESTRICTED);
4633a7c4 756
a0d0e21e
LW
757=item chr NUMBER
758
54310121 759=item chr
bbce6d69 760
a0d0e21e 761Returns the character represented by that NUMBER in the character set.
a0ed51b3 762For example, C<chr(65)> is C<"A"> in either ASCII or Unicode, and
1e54db1a
JH
763chr(0x263a) is a Unicode smiley face. Note that characters from 128
764to 255 (inclusive) are by default not encoded in UTF-8 Unicode for
765backward compatibility reasons (but see L<encoding>).
aaa68c4a 766
8a064bd6
JH
767Negative values give the Unicode replacement character (chr(0xfffd)),
768except under the L</bytes> pragma, where low eight bits of the value
769(truncated to an integer) are used.
770
974da8e5
JH
771If NUMBER is omitted, uses C<$_>.
772
b76cc8ba 773For the reverse, use L</ord>.
a0d0e21e 774
974da8e5
JH
775Note that under the C<bytes> pragma the NUMBER is masked to
776the low eight bits.
777
778See L<perlunicode> and L<encoding> for more about Unicode.
bbce6d69 779
a0d0e21e
LW
780=item chroot FILENAME
781
54310121 782=item chroot
bbce6d69 783
5a964f20 784This function works like the system call by the same name: it makes the
4633a7c4 785named directory the new root directory for all further pathnames that
951ba7fe 786begin with a C</> by your process and all its children. (It doesn't
28757baa 787change your current working directory, which is unaffected.) For security
4633a7c4 788reasons, this call is restricted to the superuser. If FILENAME is
19799a22 789omitted, does a C<chroot> to C<$_>.
a0d0e21e
LW
790
791=item close FILEHANDLE
792
6a518fbc
TP
793=item close
794
9124316e
JH
795Closes the file or pipe associated with the file handle, returning
796true only if IO buffers are successfully flushed and closes the system
797file descriptor. Closes the currently selected filehandle if the
798argument is omitted.
fb73857a
PP
799
800You don't have to close FILEHANDLE if you are immediately going to do
19799a22
GS
801another C<open> on it, because C<open> will close it for you. (See
802C<open>.) However, an explicit C<close> on an input file resets the line
803counter (C<$.>), while the implicit close done by C<open> does not.
fb73857a 804
dede8123
RGS
805If the file handle came from a piped open, C<close> will additionally
806return false if one of the other system calls involved fails, or if the
fb73857a 807program exits with non-zero status. (If the only problem was that the
dede8123 808program exited non-zero, C<$!> will be set to C<0>.) Closing a pipe
2b5ab1e7 809also waits for the process executing on the pipe to complete, in case you
b76cc8ba 810want to look at the output of the pipe afterwards, and
e5218da5
GA
811implicitly puts the exit status value of that command into C<$?> and
812C<${^CHILD_ERROR_NATIVE}>.
5a964f20 813
73689b13
GS
814Prematurely closing the read end of a pipe (i.e. before the process
815writing to it at the other end has closed it) will result in a
816SIGPIPE being delivered to the writer. If the other end can't
817handle that, be sure to read all the data before closing the pipe.
818
fb73857a 819Example:
a0d0e21e 820
fb73857a
PP
821 open(OUTPUT, '|sort >foo') # pipe to sort
822 or die "Can't start sort: $!";
5a964f20 823 #... # print stuff to output
fb73857a
PP
824 close OUTPUT # wait for sort to finish
825 or warn $! ? "Error closing sort pipe: $!"
826 : "Exit status $? from sort";
827 open(INPUT, 'foo') # get sort's results
828 or die "Can't open 'foo' for input: $!";
a0d0e21e 829
5a964f20
TC
830FILEHANDLE may be an expression whose value can be used as an indirect
831filehandle, usually the real filehandle name.
a0d0e21e
LW
832
833=item closedir DIRHANDLE
834
19799a22 835Closes a directory opened by C<opendir> and returns the success of that
5a964f20
TC
836system call.
837
a0d0e21e
LW
838=item connect SOCKET,NAME
839
840Attempts to connect to a remote socket, just as the connect system call
19799a22 841does. Returns true if it succeeded, false otherwise. NAME should be a
4633a7c4
LW
842packed address of the appropriate type for the socket. See the examples in
843L<perlipc/"Sockets: Client/Server Communication">.
a0d0e21e 844
cb1a09d0
AD
845=item continue BLOCK
846
847Actually a flow control statement rather than a function. If there is a
98293880
JH
848C<continue> BLOCK attached to a BLOCK (typically in a C<while> or
849C<foreach>), it is always executed just before the conditional is about to
850be evaluated again, just like the third part of a C<for> loop in C. Thus
cb1a09d0
AD
851it can be used to increment a loop variable, even when the loop has been
852continued via the C<next> statement (which is similar to the C C<continue>
853statement).
854
98293880 855C<last>, C<next>, or C<redo> may appear within a C<continue>
19799a22
GS
856block. C<last> and C<redo> will behave as if they had been executed within
857the main block. So will C<next>, but since it will execute a C<continue>
1d2dff63
GS
858block, it may be more entertaining.
859
860 while (EXPR) {
861 ### redo always comes here
862 do_something;
863 } continue {
864 ### next always comes here
865 do_something_else;
866 # then back the top to re-check EXPR
867 }
868 ### last always comes here
869
870Omitting the C<continue> section is semantically equivalent to using an
19799a22 871empty one, logically enough. In that case, C<next> goes directly back
1d2dff63
GS
872to check the condition at the top of the loop.
873
a0d0e21e
LW
874=item cos EXPR
875
d6217f1e
GS
876=item cos
877
5a964f20 878Returns the cosine of EXPR (expressed in radians). If EXPR is omitted,
7660c0ab 879takes cosine of C<$_>.
a0d0e21e 880
ca6e1c26 881For the inverse cosine operation, you may use the C<Math::Trig::acos()>
28757baa
PP
882function, or use this relation:
883
884 sub acos { atan2( sqrt(1 - $_[0] * $_[0]), $_[0] ) }
885
a0d0e21e
LW
886=item crypt PLAINTEXT,SALT
887
ef2e6798
MS
888Creates a digest string exactly like the crypt(3) function in the C
889library (assuming that you actually have a version there that has not
890been extirpated as a potential munition).
891
892crypt() is a one-way hash function. The PLAINTEXT and SALT is turned
893into a short string, called a digest, which is returned. The same
894PLAINTEXT and SALT will always return the same string, but there is no
895(known) way to get the original PLAINTEXT from the hash. Small
896changes in the PLAINTEXT or SALT will result in large changes in the
897digest.
898
899There is no decrypt function. This function isn't all that useful for
900cryptography (for that, look for F<Crypt> modules on your nearby CPAN
901mirror) and the name "crypt" is a bit of a misnomer. Instead it is
902primarily used to check if two pieces of text are the same without
903having to transmit or store the text itself. An example is checking
904if a correct password is given. The digest of the password is stored,
905not the password itself. The user types in a password which is
906crypt()'d with the same salt as the stored digest. If the two digests
907match the password is correct.
908
909When verifying an existing digest string you should use the digest as
910the salt (like C<crypt($plain, $digest) eq $digest>). The SALT used
911to create the digest is visible as part of the digest so this ensures
912crypt() will hash the new string with the same salt as the digest.
913This allows your code to work with the standard L<crypt|/crypt> and
914with more exotic implementations. In other words, do not assume
915anything about the returned string itself, or how many bytes in the
916digest matter.
85c16d83
JH
917
918Traditionally the result is a string of 13 bytes: two first bytes of
919the salt, followed by 11 bytes from the set C<[./0-9A-Za-z]>, and only
ef2e6798
MS
920the first eight bytes of the digest string mattered, but alternative
921hashing schemes (like MD5), higher level security schemes (like C2),
922and implementations on non-UNIX platforms may produce different
923strings.
85c16d83
JH
924
925When choosing a new salt create a random two character string whose
926characters come from the set C<[./0-9A-Za-z]> (like C<join '', ('.',
d3989d75
CW
927'/', 0..9, 'A'..'Z', 'a'..'z')[rand 64, rand 64]>). This set of
928characters is just a recommendation; the characters allowed in
929the salt depend solely on your system's crypt library, and Perl can't
930restrict what salts C<crypt()> accepts.
e71965be 931
a0d0e21e
LW
932Here's an example that makes sure that whoever runs this program knows
933their own password:
934
935 $pwd = (getpwuid($<))[1];
a0d0e21e
LW
936
937 system "stty -echo";
938 print "Password: ";
e71965be 939 chomp($word = <STDIN>);
a0d0e21e
LW
940 print "\n";
941 system "stty echo";
942
e71965be 943 if (crypt($word, $pwd) ne $pwd) {
a0d0e21e
LW
944 die "Sorry...\n";
945 } else {
946 print "ok\n";
54310121 947 }
a0d0e21e 948
9f8f0c9d 949Of course, typing in your own password to whoever asks you
748a9306 950for it is unwise.
a0d0e21e 951
ef2e6798 952The L<crypt|/crypt> function is unsuitable for hashing large quantities
19799a22 953of data, not least of all because you can't get the information
ef2e6798 954back. Look at the L<Digest> module for more robust algorithms.
19799a22 955
f2791508
JH
956If using crypt() on a Unicode string (which I<potentially> has
957characters with codepoints above 255), Perl tries to make sense
958of the situation by trying to downgrade (a copy of the string)
959the string back to an eight-bit byte string before calling crypt()
960(on that copy). If that works, good. If not, crypt() dies with
961C<Wide character in crypt>.
85c16d83 962
aa689395 963=item dbmclose HASH
a0d0e21e 964
19799a22 965[This function has been largely superseded by the C<untie> function.]
a0d0e21e 966
aa689395 967Breaks the binding between a DBM file and a hash.
a0d0e21e 968
19799a22 969=item dbmopen HASH,DBNAME,MASK
a0d0e21e 970
19799a22 971[This function has been largely superseded by the C<tie> function.]
a0d0e21e 972
7b8d334a 973This binds a dbm(3), ndbm(3), sdbm(3), gdbm(3), or Berkeley DB file to a
19799a22
GS
974hash. HASH is the name of the hash. (Unlike normal C<open>, the first
975argument is I<not> a filehandle, even though it looks like one). DBNAME
aa689395
PP
976is the name of the database (without the F<.dir> or F<.pag> extension if
977any). If the database does not exist, it is created with protection
19799a22
GS
978specified by MASK (as modified by the C<umask>). If your system supports
979only the older DBM functions, you may perform only one C<dbmopen> in your
aa689395 980program. In older versions of Perl, if your system had neither DBM nor
19799a22 981ndbm, calling C<dbmopen> produced a fatal error; it now falls back to
aa689395
PP
982sdbm(3).
983
984If you don't have write access to the DBM file, you can only read hash
985variables, not set them. If you want to test whether you can write,
19799a22 986either use file tests or try setting a dummy hash entry inside an C<eval>,
aa689395 987which will trap the error.
a0d0e21e 988
19799a22
GS
989Note that functions such as C<keys> and C<values> may return huge lists
990when used on large DBM files. You may prefer to use the C<each>
a0d0e21e
LW
991function to iterate over large DBM files. Example:
992
993 # print out history file offsets
994 dbmopen(%HIST,'/usr/lib/news/history',0666);
995 while (($key,$val) = each %HIST) {
996 print $key, ' = ', unpack('L',$val), "\n";
997 }
998 dbmclose(%HIST);
999
cb1a09d0 1000See also L<AnyDBM_File> for a more general description of the pros and
184e9718 1001cons of the various dbm approaches, as well as L<DB_File> for a particularly
cb1a09d0 1002rich implementation.
4633a7c4 1003
2b5ab1e7
TC
1004You can control which DBM library you use by loading that library
1005before you call dbmopen():
1006
1007 use DB_File;
1008 dbmopen(%NS_Hist, "$ENV{HOME}/.netscape/history.db")
1009 or die "Can't open netscape history file: $!";
1010
a0d0e21e
LW
1011=item defined EXPR
1012
54310121 1013=item defined
bbce6d69 1014
2f9daede
TPG
1015Returns a Boolean value telling whether EXPR has a value other than
1016the undefined value C<undef>. If EXPR is not present, C<$_> will be
1017checked.
1018
1019Many operations return C<undef> to indicate failure, end of file,
1020system error, uninitialized variable, and other exceptional
1021conditions. This function allows you to distinguish C<undef> from
1022other values. (A simple Boolean test will not distinguish among
7660c0ab 1023C<undef>, zero, the empty string, and C<"0">, which are all equally
2f9daede 1024false.) Note that since C<undef> is a valid scalar, its presence
19799a22 1025doesn't I<necessarily> indicate an exceptional condition: C<pop>
2f9daede
TPG
1026returns C<undef> when its argument is an empty array, I<or> when the
1027element to return happens to be C<undef>.
1028
f10b0346
GS
1029You may also use C<defined(&func)> to check whether subroutine C<&func>
1030has ever been defined. The return value is unaffected by any forward
04891299 1031declarations of C<&func>. Note that a subroutine which is not defined
847c7ebe
DD
1032may still be callable: its package may have an C<AUTOLOAD> method that
1033makes it spring into existence the first time that it is called -- see
1034L<perlsub>.
f10b0346
GS
1035
1036Use of C<defined> on aggregates (hashes and arrays) is deprecated. It
1037used to report whether memory for that aggregate has ever been
1038allocated. This behavior may disappear in future versions of Perl.
1039You should instead use a simple test for size:
1040
1041 if (@an_array) { print "has array elements\n" }
1042 if (%a_hash) { print "has hash members\n" }
2f9daede
TPG
1043
1044When used on a hash element, it tells you whether the value is defined,
dc848c6f 1045not whether the key exists in the hash. Use L</exists> for the latter
2f9daede 1046purpose.
a0d0e21e
LW
1047
1048Examples:
1049
1050 print if defined $switch{'D'};
1051 print "$val\n" while defined($val = pop(@ary));
1052 die "Can't readlink $sym: $!"
1053 unless defined($value = readlink $sym);
a0d0e21e 1054 sub foo { defined &$bar ? &$bar(@_) : die "No bar"; }
2f9daede 1055 $debugging = 0 unless defined $debugging;
a0d0e21e 1056
19799a22 1057Note: Many folks tend to overuse C<defined>, and then are surprised to
7660c0ab 1058discover that the number C<0> and C<""> (the zero-length string) are, in fact,
2f9daede 1059defined values. For example, if you say
a5f75d66
AD
1060
1061 "ab" =~ /a(.*)b/;
1062
7660c0ab 1063The pattern match succeeds, and C<$1> is defined, despite the fact that it
a5f75d66 1064matched "nothing". But it didn't really match nothing--rather, it
2b5ab1e7 1065matched something that happened to be zero characters long. This is all
a5f75d66 1066very above-board and honest. When a function returns an undefined value,
2f9daede 1067it's an admission that it couldn't give you an honest answer. So you
19799a22 1068should use C<defined> only when you're questioning the integrity of what
7660c0ab 1069you're trying to do. At other times, a simple comparison to C<0> or C<""> is
2f9daede
TPG
1070what you want.
1071
dc848c6f 1072See also L</undef>, L</exists>, L</ref>.
2f9daede 1073
a0d0e21e
LW
1074=item delete EXPR
1075
01020589
GS
1076Given an expression that specifies a hash element, array element, hash slice,
1077or array slice, deletes the specified element(s) from the hash or array.
8216c1fd 1078In the case of an array, if the array elements happen to be at the end,
b76cc8ba 1079the size of the array will shrink to the highest element that tests
8216c1fd 1080true for exists() (or 0 if no such element exists).
a0d0e21e 1081
eba0920a
EM
1082Returns a list with the same number of elements as the number of elements
1083for which deletion was attempted. Each element of that list consists of
1084either the value of the element deleted, or the undefined value. In scalar
1085context, this means that you get the value of the last element deleted (or
1086the undefined value if that element did not exist).
1087
1088 %hash = (foo => 11, bar => 22, baz => 33);
1089 $scalar = delete $hash{foo}; # $scalar is 11
1090 $scalar = delete @hash{qw(foo bar)}; # $scalar is 22
1091 @array = delete @hash{qw(foo bar baz)}; # @array is (undef,undef,33)
1092
1093Deleting from C<%ENV> modifies the environment. Deleting from
01020589
GS
1094a hash tied to a DBM file deletes the entry from the DBM file. Deleting
1095from a C<tie>d hash or array may not necessarily return anything.
1096
8ea97a1e
GS
1097Deleting an array element effectively returns that position of the array
1098to its initial, uninitialized state. Subsequently testing for the same
8216c1fd
GS
1099element with exists() will return false. Note that deleting array
1100elements in the middle of an array will not shift the index of the ones
1101after them down--use splice() for that. See L</exists>.
8ea97a1e 1102
01020589 1103The following (inefficiently) deletes all the values of %HASH and @ARRAY:
a0d0e21e 1104
5f05dabc
PP
1105 foreach $key (keys %HASH) {
1106 delete $HASH{$key};
a0d0e21e
LW
1107 }
1108
01020589
GS
1109 foreach $index (0 .. $#ARRAY) {
1110 delete $ARRAY[$index];
1111 }
1112
1113And so do these:
5f05dabc 1114
01020589
GS
1115 delete @HASH{keys %HASH};
1116
9740c838 1117 delete @ARRAY[0 .. $#ARRAY];
5f05dabc 1118
2b5ab1e7 1119But both of these are slower than just assigning the empty list
01020589
GS
1120or undefining %HASH or @ARRAY:
1121
1122 %HASH = (); # completely empty %HASH
1123 undef %HASH; # forget %HASH ever existed
2b5ab1e7 1124
01020589
GS
1125 @ARRAY = (); # completely empty @ARRAY
1126 undef @ARRAY; # forget @ARRAY ever existed
2b5ab1e7
TC
1127
1128Note that the EXPR can be arbitrarily complicated as long as the final
01020589
GS
1129operation is a hash element, array element, hash slice, or array slice
1130lookup:
a0d0e21e
LW
1131
1132 delete $ref->[$x][$y]{$key};
5f05dabc 1133 delete @{$ref->[$x][$y]}{$key1, $key2, @morekeys};
a0d0e21e 1134
01020589
GS
1135 delete $ref->[$x][$y][$index];
1136 delete @{$ref->[$x][$y]}[$index1, $index2, @moreindices];
1137
a0d0e21e
LW
1138=item die LIST
1139
19799a22
GS
1140Outside an C<eval>, prints the value of LIST to C<STDERR> and
1141exits with the current value of C<$!> (errno). If C<$!> is C<0>,
61eff3bc
JH
1142exits with the value of C<<< ($? >> 8) >>> (backtick `command`
1143status). If C<<< ($? >> 8) >>> is C<0>, exits with C<255>. Inside
19799a22
GS
1144an C<eval(),> the error message is stuffed into C<$@> and the
1145C<eval> is terminated with the undefined value. This makes
1146C<die> the way to raise an exception.
a0d0e21e
LW
1147
1148Equivalent examples:
1149
1150 die "Can't cd to spool: $!\n" unless chdir '/usr/spool/news';
54310121 1151 chdir '/usr/spool/news' or die "Can't cd to spool: $!\n"
a0d0e21e 1152
ccac6780 1153If the last element of LIST does not end in a newline, the current
df37ec69
WW
1154script line number and input line number (if any) are also printed,
1155and a newline is supplied. Note that the "input line number" (also
1156known as "chunk") is subject to whatever notion of "line" happens to
1157be currently in effect, and is also available as the special variable
1158C<$.>. See L<perlvar/"$/"> and L<perlvar/"$.">.
1159
1160Hint: sometimes appending C<", stopped"> to your message will cause it
1161to make better sense when the string C<"at foo line 123"> is appended.
1162Suppose you are running script "canasta".
a0d0e21e
LW
1163
1164 die "/etc/games is no good";
1165 die "/etc/games is no good, stopped";
1166
1167produce, respectively
1168
1169 /etc/games is no good at canasta line 123.
1170 /etc/games is no good, stopped at canasta line 123.
1171
2b5ab1e7 1172See also exit(), warn(), and the Carp module.
a0d0e21e 1173
7660c0ab
A
1174If LIST is empty and C<$@> already contains a value (typically from a
1175previous eval) that value is reused after appending C<"\t...propagated">.
fb73857a
PP
1176This is useful for propagating exceptions:
1177
1178 eval { ... };
1179 die unless $@ =~ /Expected exception/;
1180
ad216e65
JH
1181If LIST is empty and C<$@> contains an object reference that has a
1182C<PROPAGATE> method, that method will be called with additional file
1183and line number parameters. The return value replaces the value in
28a5cf3b 1184C<$@>. i.e. as if C<< $@ = eval { $@->PROPAGATE(__FILE__, __LINE__) }; >>
ad216e65
JH
1185were called.
1186
7660c0ab 1187If C<$@> is empty then the string C<"Died"> is used.
fb73857a 1188
52531d10
GS
1189die() can also be called with a reference argument. If this happens to be
1190trapped within an eval(), $@ contains the reference. This behavior permits
1191a more elaborate exception handling implementation using objects that
4375e838 1192maintain arbitrary state about the nature of the exception. Such a scheme
52531d10
GS
1193is sometimes preferable to matching particular string values of $@ using
1194regular expressions. Here's an example:
1195
da279afe 1196 use Scalar::Util 'blessed';
1197
52531d10
GS
1198 eval { ... ; die Some::Module::Exception->new( FOO => "bar" ) };
1199 if ($@) {
da279afe 1200 if (blessed($@) && $@->isa("Some::Module::Exception")) {
52531d10
GS
1201 # handle Some::Module::Exception
1202 }
1203 else {
1204 # handle all other possible exceptions
1205 }
1206 }
1207
19799a22 1208Because perl will stringify uncaught exception messages before displaying
52531d10
GS
1209them, you may want to overload stringification operations on such custom
1210exception objects. See L<overload> for details about that.
1211
19799a22
GS
1212You can arrange for a callback to be run just before the C<die>
1213does its deed, by setting the C<$SIG{__DIE__}> hook. The associated
1214handler will be called with the error text and can change the error
1215message, if it sees fit, by calling C<die> again. See
1216L<perlvar/$SIG{expr}> for details on setting C<%SIG> entries, and
1217L<"eval BLOCK"> for some examples. Although this feature was meant
1218to be run only right before your program was to exit, this is not
1219currently the case--the C<$SIG{__DIE__}> hook is currently called
1220even inside eval()ed blocks/strings! If one wants the hook to do
1221nothing in such situations, put
fb73857a
PP
1222
1223 die @_ if $^S;
1224
19799a22
GS
1225as the first line of the handler (see L<perlvar/$^S>). Because
1226this promotes strange action at a distance, this counterintuitive
b76cc8ba 1227behavior may be fixed in a future release.
774d564b 1228
a0d0e21e
LW
1229=item do BLOCK
1230
1231Not really a function. Returns the value of the last command in the
1232sequence of commands indicated by BLOCK. When modified by a loop
98293880
JH
1233modifier, executes the BLOCK once before testing the loop condition.
1234(On other statements the loop modifiers test the conditional first.)
a0d0e21e 1235
4968c1e4 1236C<do BLOCK> does I<not> count as a loop, so the loop control statements
2b5ab1e7
TC
1237C<next>, C<last>, or C<redo> cannot be used to leave or restart the block.
1238See L<perlsyn> for alternative strategies.
4968c1e4 1239
a0d0e21e
LW
1240=item do SUBROUTINE(LIST)
1241
1242A deprecated form of subroutine call. See L<perlsub>.
1243
1244=item do EXPR
1245
1246Uses the value of EXPR as a filename and executes the contents of the
ea63ef19 1247file as a Perl script.
a0d0e21e
LW
1248
1249 do 'stat.pl';
1250
1251is just like
1252
986b19de 1253 eval `cat stat.pl`;
a0d0e21e 1254
2b5ab1e7 1255except that it's more efficient and concise, keeps track of the current
ea63ef19 1256filename for error messages, searches the @INC directories, and updates
2b5ab1e7
TC
1257C<%INC> if the file is found. See L<perlvar/Predefined Names> for these
1258variables. It also differs in that code evaluated with C<do FILENAME>
1259cannot see lexicals in the enclosing scope; C<eval STRING> does. It's the
1260same, however, in that it does reparse the file every time you call it,
1261so you probably don't want to do this inside a loop.
a0d0e21e 1262
8e30cc93 1263If C<do> cannot read the file, it returns undef and sets C<$!> to the
2b5ab1e7 1264error. If C<do> can read the file but cannot compile it, it
8e30cc93
G
1265returns undef and sets an error message in C<$@>. If the file is
1266successfully compiled, C<do> returns the value of the last expression
1267evaluated.
1268
a0d0e21e 1269Note that inclusion of library modules is better done with the
19799a22 1270C<use> and C<require> operators, which also do automatic error checking
4633a7c4 1271and raise an exception if there's a problem.
a0d0e21e 1272
5a964f20
TC
1273You might like to use C<do> to read in a program configuration
1274file. Manual error checking can be done this way:
1275
b76cc8ba 1276 # read in config files: system first, then user
f86cebdf 1277 for $file ("/share/prog/defaults.rc",
b76cc8ba 1278 "$ENV{HOME}/.someprogrc")
2b5ab1e7 1279 {
5a964f20 1280 unless ($return = do $file) {
f86cebdf
GS
1281 warn "couldn't parse $file: $@" if $@;
1282 warn "couldn't do $file: $!" unless defined $return;
1283 warn "couldn't run $file" unless $return;
5a964f20
TC
1284 }
1285 }
1286
a0d0e21e
LW
1287=item dump LABEL
1288
1614b0e3
JD
1289=item dump
1290
19799a22
GS
1291This function causes an immediate core dump. See also the B<-u>
1292command-line switch in L<perlrun>, which does the same thing.
1293Primarily this is so that you can use the B<undump> program (not
1294supplied) to turn your core dump into an executable binary after
1295having initialized all your variables at the beginning of the
1296program. When the new binary is executed it will begin by executing
1297a C<goto LABEL> (with all the restrictions that C<goto> suffers).
1298Think of it as a goto with an intervening core dump and reincarnation.
1299If C<LABEL> is omitted, restarts the program from the top.
1300
1301B<WARNING>: Any files opened at the time of the dump will I<not>
1302be open any more when the program is reincarnated, with possible
b76cc8ba 1303resulting confusion on the part of Perl.
19799a22
GS
1304
1305This function is now largely obsolete, partly because it's very
1306hard to convert a core file into an executable, and because the
1307real compiler backends for generating portable bytecode and compilable
ac206dc8
RGS
1308C code have superseded it. That's why you should now invoke it as
1309C<CORE::dump()>, if you don't want to be warned against a possible
1310typo.
19799a22
GS
1311
1312If you're looking to use L<dump> to speed up your program, consider
1313generating bytecode or native C code as described in L<perlcc>. If
1314you're just trying to accelerate a CGI script, consider using the
210b36aa 1315C<mod_perl> extension to B<Apache>, or the CPAN module, CGI::Fast.
19799a22 1316You might also consider autoloading or selfloading, which at least
b76cc8ba 1317make your program I<appear> to run faster.
5a964f20 1318
aa689395
PP
1319=item each HASH
1320
5a964f20 1321When called in list context, returns a 2-element list consisting of the
aa689395 1322key and value for the next element of a hash, so that you can iterate over
74fc8b5f 1323it. When called in scalar context, returns only the key for the next
e902a979 1324element in the hash.
2f9daede 1325
ab192400 1326Entries are returned in an apparently random order. The actual random
504f80c1
JH
1327order is subject to change in future versions of perl, but it is
1328guaranteed to be in the same order as either the C<keys> or C<values>
4546b9e6
JH
1329function would produce on the same (unmodified) hash. Since Perl
13305.8.1 the ordering is different even between different runs of Perl
1331for security reasons (see L<perlsec/"Algorithmic Complexity Attacks">).
ab192400
GS
1332
1333When the hash is entirely read, a null array is returned in list context
19799a22
GS
1334(which when assigned produces a false (C<0>) value), and C<undef> in
1335scalar context. The next call to C<each> after that will start iterating
1336again. There is a single iterator for each hash, shared by all C<each>,
1337C<keys>, and C<values> function calls in the program; it can be reset by
2f9daede
TPG
1338reading all the elements from the hash, or by evaluating C<keys HASH> or
1339C<values HASH>. If you add or delete elements of a hash while you're
74fc8b5f
MJD
1340iterating over it, you may get entries skipped or duplicated, so
1341don't. Exception: It is always safe to delete the item most recently
1342returned by C<each()>, which means that the following code will work:
1343
1344 while (($key, $value) = each %hash) {
1345 print $key, "\n";
1346 delete $hash{$key}; # This is safe
1347 }
aa689395 1348
f86cebdf 1349The following prints out your environment like the printenv(1) program,
aa689395 1350only in a different order:
a0d0e21e
LW
1351
1352 while (($key,$value) = each %ENV) {
1353 print "$key=$value\n";
1354 }
1355
19799a22 1356See also C<keys>, C<values> and C<sort>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1357
1358=item eof FILEHANDLE
1359
4633a7c4
LW
1360=item eof ()
1361
a0d0e21e
LW
1362=item eof
1363
1364Returns 1 if the next read on FILEHANDLE will return end of file, or if
1365FILEHANDLE is not open. FILEHANDLE may be an expression whose value
5a964f20 1366gives the real filehandle. (Note that this function actually
19799a22 1367reads a character and then C<ungetc>s it, so isn't very useful in an
748a9306 1368interactive context.) Do not read from a terminal file (or call
19799a22 1369C<eof(FILEHANDLE)> on it) after end-of-file is reached. File types such
748a9306
LW
1370as terminals may lose the end-of-file condition if you do.
1371
820475bd
GS
1372An C<eof> without an argument uses the last file read. Using C<eof()>
1373with empty parentheses is very different. It refers to the pseudo file
1374formed from the files listed on the command line and accessed via the
61eff3bc
JH
1375C<< <> >> operator. Since C<< <> >> isn't explicitly opened,
1376as a normal filehandle is, an C<eof()> before C<< <> >> has been
820475bd 1377used will cause C<@ARGV> to be examined to determine if input is
67408cae 1378available. Similarly, an C<eof()> after C<< <> >> has returned
efdd0218
RB
1379end-of-file will assume you are processing another C<@ARGV> list,
1380and if you haven't set C<@ARGV>, will read input from C<STDIN>;
1381see L<perlop/"I/O Operators">.
820475bd 1382
61eff3bc 1383In a C<< while (<>) >> loop, C<eof> or C<eof(ARGV)> can be used to
820475bd
GS
1384detect the end of each file, C<eof()> will only detect the end of the
1385last file. Examples:
a0d0e21e 1386
748a9306
LW
1387 # reset line numbering on each input file
1388 while (<>) {
b76cc8ba 1389 next if /^\s*#/; # skip comments
748a9306 1390 print "$.\t$_";
5a964f20
TC
1391 } continue {
1392 close ARGV if eof; # Not eof()!
748a9306
LW
1393 }
1394
a0d0e21e
LW
1395 # insert dashes just before last line of last file
1396 while (<>) {
6ac88b13 1397 if (eof()) { # check for end of last file
a0d0e21e
LW
1398 print "--------------\n";
1399 }
1400 print;
6ac88b13 1401 last if eof(); # needed if we're reading from a terminal
a0d0e21e
LW
1402 }
1403
a0d0e21e 1404Practical hint: you almost never need to use C<eof> in Perl, because the
3ce0d271
GS
1405input operators typically return C<undef> when they run out of data, or if
1406there was an error.
a0d0e21e
LW
1407
1408=item eval EXPR
1409
1410=item eval BLOCK
1411
ce2984c3
PF
1412=item eval
1413
c7cc6f1c
GS
1414In the first form, the return value of EXPR is parsed and executed as if it
1415were a little Perl program. The value of the expression (which is itself
5a964f20 1416determined within scalar context) is first parsed, and if there weren't any
be3174d2
GS
1417errors, executed in the lexical context of the current Perl program, so
1418that any variable settings or subroutine and format definitions remain
1419afterwards. Note that the value is parsed every time the eval executes.
1420If EXPR is omitted, evaluates C<$_>. This form is typically used to
1421delay parsing and subsequent execution of the text of EXPR until run time.
c7cc6f1c
GS
1422
1423In the second form, the code within the BLOCK is parsed only once--at the
1424same time the code surrounding the eval itself was parsed--and executed
1425within the context of the current Perl program. This form is typically
1426used to trap exceptions more efficiently than the first (see below), while
1427also providing the benefit of checking the code within BLOCK at compile
1428time.
1429
1430The final semicolon, if any, may be omitted from the value of EXPR or within
1431the BLOCK.
1432
1433In both forms, the value returned is the value of the last expression
5a964f20 1434evaluated inside the mini-program; a return statement may be also used, just
c7cc6f1c 1435as with subroutines. The expression providing the return value is evaluated
5a964f20 1436in void, scalar, or list context, depending on the context of the eval itself.
c7cc6f1c 1437See L</wantarray> for more on how the evaluation context can be determined.
a0d0e21e 1438
19799a22
GS
1439If there is a syntax error or runtime error, or a C<die> statement is
1440executed, an undefined value is returned by C<eval>, and C<$@> is set to the
a0d0e21e 1441error message. If there was no error, C<$@> is guaranteed to be a null
19799a22 1442string. Beware that using C<eval> neither silences perl from printing
c7cc6f1c 1443warnings to STDERR, nor does it stuff the text of warning messages into C<$@>.
d9984052
A
1444To do either of those, you have to use the C<$SIG{__WARN__}> facility, or
1445turn off warnings inside the BLOCK or EXPR using S<C<no warnings 'all'>>.
1446See L</warn>, L<perlvar>, L<warnings> and L<perllexwarn>.
a0d0e21e 1447
19799a22
GS
1448Note that, because C<eval> traps otherwise-fatal errors, it is useful for
1449determining whether a particular feature (such as C<socket> or C<symlink>)
a0d0e21e
LW
1450is implemented. It is also Perl's exception trapping mechanism, where
1451the die operator is used to raise exceptions.
1452
1453If the code to be executed doesn't vary, you may use the eval-BLOCK
1454form to trap run-time errors without incurring the penalty of
1455recompiling each time. The error, if any, is still returned in C<$@>.
1456Examples:
1457
54310121 1458 # make divide-by-zero nonfatal
a0d0e21e
LW
1459 eval { $answer = $a / $b; }; warn $@ if $@;
1460
1461 # same thing, but less efficient
1462 eval '$answer = $a / $b'; warn $@ if $@;
1463
1464 # a compile-time error
5a964f20 1465 eval { $answer = }; # WRONG
a0d0e21e
LW
1466
1467 # a run-time error
1468 eval '$answer ='; # sets $@
1469
2b5ab1e7
TC
1470Due to the current arguably broken state of C<__DIE__> hooks, when using
1471the C<eval{}> form as an exception trap in libraries, you may wish not
1472to trigger any C<__DIE__> hooks that user code may have installed.
1473You can use the C<local $SIG{__DIE__}> construct for this purpose,
1474as shown in this example:
774d564b
PP
1475
1476 # a very private exception trap for divide-by-zero
f86cebdf
GS
1477 eval { local $SIG{'__DIE__'}; $answer = $a / $b; };
1478 warn $@ if $@;
774d564b
PP
1479
1480This is especially significant, given that C<__DIE__> hooks can call
19799a22 1481C<die> again, which has the effect of changing their error messages:
774d564b
PP
1482
1483 # __DIE__ hooks may modify error messages
1484 {
f86cebdf
GS
1485 local $SIG{'__DIE__'} =
1486 sub { (my $x = $_[0]) =~ s/foo/bar/g; die $x };
c7cc6f1c
GS
1487 eval { die "foo lives here" };
1488 print $@ if $@; # prints "bar lives here"
774d564b
PP
1489 }
1490
19799a22 1491Because this promotes action at a distance, this counterintuitive behavior
2b5ab1e7
TC
1492may be fixed in a future release.
1493
19799a22 1494With an C<eval>, you should be especially careful to remember what's
a0d0e21e
LW
1495being looked at when:
1496
1497 eval $x; # CASE 1
1498 eval "$x"; # CASE 2
1499
1500 eval '$x'; # CASE 3
1501 eval { $x }; # CASE 4
1502
5a964f20 1503 eval "\$$x++"; # CASE 5
a0d0e21e
LW
1504 $$x++; # CASE 6
1505
2f9daede 1506Cases 1 and 2 above behave identically: they run the code contained in
19799a22 1507the variable $x. (Although case 2 has misleading double quotes making
2f9daede 1508the reader wonder what else might be happening (nothing is).) Cases 3
7660c0ab 1509and 4 likewise behave in the same way: they run the code C<'$x'>, which
19799a22 1510does nothing but return the value of $x. (Case 4 is preferred for
2f9daede
TPG
1511purely visual reasons, but it also has the advantage of compiling at
1512compile-time instead of at run-time.) Case 5 is a place where
19799a22 1513normally you I<would> like to use double quotes, except that in this
2f9daede
TPG
1514particular situation, you can just use symbolic references instead, as
1515in case 6.
a0d0e21e 1516
4968c1e4 1517C<eval BLOCK> does I<not> count as a loop, so the loop control statements
2b5ab1e7 1518C<next>, C<last>, or C<redo> cannot be used to leave or restart the block.
4968c1e4 1519
d819b83a
DM
1520Note that as a very special case, an C<eval ''> executed within the C<DB>
1521package doesn't see the usual surrounding lexical scope, but rather the
1522scope of the first non-DB piece of code that called it. You don't normally
1523need to worry about this unless you are writing a Perl debugger.
1524
a0d0e21e
LW
1525=item exec LIST
1526
8bf3b016
GS
1527=item exec PROGRAM LIST
1528
19799a22
GS
1529The C<exec> function executes a system command I<and never returns>--
1530use C<system> instead of C<exec> if you want it to return. It fails and
1531returns false only if the command does not exist I<and> it is executed
fb73857a 1532directly instead of via your system's command shell (see below).
a0d0e21e 1533
19799a22
GS
1534Since it's a common mistake to use C<exec> instead of C<system>, Perl
1535warns you if there is a following statement which isn't C<die>, C<warn>,
1536or C<exit> (if C<-w> is set - but you always do that). If you
1537I<really> want to follow an C<exec> with some other statement, you
55d729e4
GS
1538can use one of these styles to avoid the warning:
1539
5a964f20
TC
1540 exec ('foo') or print STDERR "couldn't exec foo: $!";
1541 { exec ('foo') }; print STDERR "couldn't exec foo: $!";
55d729e4 1542
5a964f20 1543If there is more than one argument in LIST, or if LIST is an array
f86cebdf 1544with more than one value, calls execvp(3) with the arguments in LIST.
5a964f20
TC
1545If there is only one scalar argument or an array with one element in it,
1546the argument is checked for shell metacharacters, and if there are any,
1547the entire argument is passed to the system's command shell for parsing
1548(this is C</bin/sh -c> on Unix platforms, but varies on other platforms).
1549If there are no shell metacharacters in the argument, it is split into
b76cc8ba 1550words and passed directly to C<execvp>, which is more efficient.
19799a22 1551Examples:
a0d0e21e 1552
19799a22
GS
1553 exec '/bin/echo', 'Your arguments are: ', @ARGV;
1554 exec "sort $outfile | uniq";
a0d0e21e
LW
1555
1556If you don't really want to execute the first argument, but want to lie
1557to the program you are executing about its own name, you can specify
1558the program you actually want to run as an "indirect object" (without a
1559comma) in front of the LIST. (This always forces interpretation of the
54310121 1560LIST as a multivalued list, even if there is only a single scalar in
a0d0e21e
LW
1561the list.) Example:
1562
1563 $shell = '/bin/csh';
1564 exec $shell '-sh'; # pretend it's a login shell
1565
1566or, more directly,
1567
1568 exec {'/bin/csh'} '-sh'; # pretend it's a login shell
1569
bb32b41a
GS
1570When the arguments get executed via the system shell, results will
1571be subject to its quirks and capabilities. See L<perlop/"`STRING`">
1572for details.
1573
19799a22
GS
1574Using an indirect object with C<exec> or C<system> is also more
1575secure. This usage (which also works fine with system()) forces
1576interpretation of the arguments as a multivalued list, even if the
1577list had just one argument. That way you're safe from the shell
1578expanding wildcards or splitting up words with whitespace in them.
5a964f20
TC
1579
1580 @args = ( "echo surprise" );
1581
2b5ab1e7 1582 exec @args; # subject to shell escapes
f86cebdf 1583 # if @args == 1
2b5ab1e7 1584 exec { $args[0] } @args; # safe even with one-arg list
5a964f20
TC
1585
1586The first version, the one without the indirect object, ran the I<echo>
1587program, passing it C<"surprise"> an argument. The second version
1588didn't--it tried to run a program literally called I<"echo surprise">,
1589didn't find it, and set C<$?> to a non-zero value indicating failure.
1590
0f897271
GS
1591Beginning with v5.6.0, Perl will attempt to flush all files opened for
1592output before the exec, but this may not be supported on some platforms
1593(see L<perlport>). To be safe, you may need to set C<$|> ($AUTOFLUSH
1594in English) or call the C<autoflush()> method of C<IO::Handle> on any
1595open handles in order to avoid lost output.
1596
19799a22 1597Note that C<exec> will not call your C<END> blocks, nor will it call
7660c0ab
A
1598any C<DESTROY> methods in your objects.
1599
a0d0e21e
LW
1600=item exists EXPR
1601
01020589 1602Given an expression that specifies a hash element or array element,
8ea97a1e
GS
1603returns true if the specified element in the hash or array has ever
1604been initialized, even if the corresponding value is undefined. The
1605element is not autovivified if it doesn't exist.
a0d0e21e 1606
01020589
GS
1607 print "Exists\n" if exists $hash{$key};
1608 print "Defined\n" if defined $hash{$key};
1609 print "True\n" if $hash{$key};
1610
1611 print "Exists\n" if exists $array[$index];
1612 print "Defined\n" if defined $array[$index];
1613 print "True\n" if $array[$index];
a0d0e21e 1614
8ea97a1e 1615A hash or array element can be true only if it's defined, and defined if
a0d0e21e
LW
1616it exists, but the reverse doesn't necessarily hold true.
1617
afebc493
GS
1618Given an expression that specifies the name of a subroutine,
1619returns true if the specified subroutine has ever been declared, even
1620if it is undefined. Mentioning a subroutine name for exists or defined
847c7ebe
DD
1621does not count as declaring it. Note that a subroutine which does not
1622exist may still be callable: its package may have an C<AUTOLOAD>
1623method that makes it spring into existence the first time that it is
1624called -- see L<perlsub>.
afebc493
GS
1625
1626 print "Exists\n" if exists &subroutine;
1627 print "Defined\n" if defined &subroutine;
1628
a0d0e21e 1629Note that the EXPR can be arbitrarily complicated as long as the final
afebc493 1630operation is a hash or array key lookup or subroutine name:
a0d0e21e 1631
2b5ab1e7
TC
1632 if (exists $ref->{A}->{B}->{$key}) { }
1633 if (exists $hash{A}{B}{$key}) { }
1634
01020589
GS
1635 if (exists $ref->{A}->{B}->[$ix]) { }
1636 if (exists $hash{A}{B}[$ix]) { }
1637
afebc493
GS
1638 if (exists &{$ref->{A}{B}{$key}}) { }
1639
01020589
GS
1640Although the deepest nested array or hash will not spring into existence
1641just because its existence was tested, any intervening ones will.
61eff3bc 1642Thus C<< $ref->{"A"} >> and C<< $ref->{"A"}->{"B"} >> will spring
01020589
GS
1643into existence due to the existence test for the $key element above.
1644This happens anywhere the arrow operator is used, including even:
5a964f20 1645
2b5ab1e7
TC
1646 undef $ref;
1647 if (exists $ref->{"Some key"}) { }
1648 print $ref; # prints HASH(0x80d3d5c)
1649
1650This surprising autovivification in what does not at first--or even
1651second--glance appear to be an lvalue context may be fixed in a future
5a964f20 1652release.
a0d0e21e 1653
afebc493
GS
1654Use of a subroutine call, rather than a subroutine name, as an argument
1655to exists() is an error.
1656
1657 exists &sub; # OK
1658 exists &sub(); # Error
1659
a0d0e21e
LW
1660=item exit EXPR
1661
ce2984c3
PF
1662=item exit
1663
2b5ab1e7 1664Evaluates EXPR and exits immediately with that value. Example:
a0d0e21e
LW
1665
1666 $ans = <STDIN>;
1667 exit 0 if $ans =~ /^[Xx]/;
1668
19799a22 1669See also C<die>. If EXPR is omitted, exits with C<0> status. The only
2b5ab1e7
TC
1670universally recognized values for EXPR are C<0> for success and C<1>
1671for error; other values are subject to interpretation depending on the
1672environment in which the Perl program is running. For example, exiting
167369 (EX_UNAVAILABLE) from a I<sendmail> incoming-mail filter will cause
1674the mailer to return the item undelivered, but that's not true everywhere.
a0d0e21e 1675
19799a22
GS
1676Don't use C<exit> to abort a subroutine if there's any chance that
1677someone might want to trap whatever error happened. Use C<die> instead,
1678which can be trapped by an C<eval>.
28757baa 1679
19799a22 1680The exit() function does not always exit immediately. It calls any
2b5ab1e7 1681defined C<END> routines first, but these C<END> routines may not
19799a22 1682themselves abort the exit. Likewise any object destructors that need to
2b5ab1e7
TC
1683be called are called before the real exit. If this is a problem, you
1684can call C<POSIX:_exit($status)> to avoid END and destructor processing.
87275199 1685See L<perlmod> for details.
5a964f20 1686
a0d0e21e
LW
1687=item exp EXPR
1688
54310121 1689=item exp
bbce6d69 1690
b76cc8ba 1691Returns I<e> (the natural logarithm base) to the power of EXPR.
a0d0e21e
LW
1692If EXPR is omitted, gives C<exp($_)>.
1693
1694=item fcntl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR
1695
f86cebdf 1696Implements the fcntl(2) function. You'll probably have to say
a0d0e21e
LW
1697
1698 use Fcntl;
1699
0ade1984 1700first to get the correct constant definitions. Argument processing and
b76cc8ba 1701value return works just like C<ioctl> below.
a0d0e21e
LW
1702For example:
1703
1704 use Fcntl;
5a964f20
TC
1705 fcntl($filehandle, F_GETFL, $packed_return_buffer)
1706 or die "can't fcntl F_GETFL: $!";
1707
554ad1fc 1708You don't have to check for C<defined> on the return from C<fcntl>.
951ba7fe
GS
1709Like C<ioctl>, it maps a C<0> return from the system call into
1710C<"0 but true"> in Perl. This string is true in boolean context and C<0>
2b5ab1e7
TC
1711in numeric context. It is also exempt from the normal B<-w> warnings
1712on improper numeric conversions.
5a964f20 1713
19799a22 1714Note that C<fcntl> will produce a fatal error if used on a machine that
2b5ab1e7
TC
1715doesn't implement fcntl(2). See the Fcntl module or your fcntl(2)
1716manpage to learn what functions are available on your system.
a0d0e21e 1717
be2f7487 1718Here's an example of setting a filehandle named C<REMOTE> to be
1719non-blocking at the system level. You'll have to negotiate C<$|>
1720on your own, though.
1721
1722 use Fcntl qw(F_GETFL F_SETFL O_NONBLOCK);
1723
1724 $flags = fcntl(REMOTE, F_GETFL, 0)
1725 or die "Can't get flags for the socket: $!\n";
1726
1727 $flags = fcntl(REMOTE, F_SETFL, $flags | O_NONBLOCK)
1728 or die "Can't set flags for the socket: $!\n";
1729
a0d0e21e
LW
1730=item fileno FILEHANDLE
1731
2b5ab1e7
TC
1732Returns the file descriptor for a filehandle, or undefined if the
1733filehandle is not open. This is mainly useful for constructing
19799a22 1734bitmaps for C<select> and low-level POSIX tty-handling operations.
2b5ab1e7
TC
1735If FILEHANDLE is an expression, the value is taken as an indirect
1736filehandle, generally its name.
5a964f20 1737
b76cc8ba 1738You can use this to find out whether two handles refer to the
5a964f20
TC
1739same underlying descriptor:
1740
1741 if (fileno(THIS) == fileno(THAT)) {
1742 print "THIS and THAT are dups\n";
b76cc8ba
NIS
1743 }
1744
1745(Filehandles connected to memory objects via new features of C<open> may
1746return undefined even though they are open.)
1747
a0d0e21e
LW
1748
1749=item flock FILEHANDLE,OPERATION
1750
19799a22
GS
1751Calls flock(2), or an emulation of it, on FILEHANDLE. Returns true
1752for success, false on failure. Produces a fatal error if used on a
2b5ab1e7 1753machine that doesn't implement flock(2), fcntl(2) locking, or lockf(3).
19799a22 1754C<flock> is Perl's portable file locking interface, although it locks
2b5ab1e7
TC
1755only entire files, not records.
1756
1757Two potentially non-obvious but traditional C<flock> semantics are
1758that it waits indefinitely until the lock is granted, and that its locks
1759B<merely advisory>. Such discretionary locks are more flexible, but offer
19799a22
GS
1760fewer guarantees. This means that files locked with C<flock> may be
1761modified by programs that do not also use C<flock>. See L<perlport>,
2b5ab1e7
TC
1762your port's specific documentation, or your system-specific local manpages
1763for details. It's best to assume traditional behavior if you're writing
1764portable programs. (But if you're not, you should as always feel perfectly
1765free to write for your own system's idiosyncrasies (sometimes called
1766"features"). Slavish adherence to portability concerns shouldn't get
1767in the way of your getting your job done.)
a3cb178b 1768
8ebc5c01
PP
1769OPERATION is one of LOCK_SH, LOCK_EX, or LOCK_UN, possibly combined with
1770LOCK_NB. These constants are traditionally valued 1, 2, 8 and 4, but
ea3105be 1771you can use the symbolic names if you import them from the Fcntl module,
68dc0745
PP
1772either individually, or as a group using the ':flock' tag. LOCK_SH
1773requests a shared lock, LOCK_EX requests an exclusive lock, and LOCK_UN
ea3105be
GS
1774releases a previously requested lock. If LOCK_NB is bitwise-or'ed with
1775LOCK_SH or LOCK_EX then C<flock> will return immediately rather than blocking
68dc0745
PP
1776waiting for the lock (check the return status to see if you got it).
1777
2b5ab1e7
TC
1778To avoid the possibility of miscoordination, Perl now flushes FILEHANDLE
1779before locking or unlocking it.
8ebc5c01 1780
f86cebdf 1781Note that the emulation built with lockf(3) doesn't provide shared
8ebc5c01 1782locks, and it requires that FILEHANDLE be open with write intent. These
2b5ab1e7 1783are the semantics that lockf(3) implements. Most if not all systems
f86cebdf 1784implement lockf(3) in terms of fcntl(2) locking, though, so the
8ebc5c01
PP
1785differing semantics shouldn't bite too many people.
1786
becacb53
TM
1787Note that the fcntl(2) emulation of flock(3) requires that FILEHANDLE
1788be open with read intent to use LOCK_SH and requires that it be open
1789with write intent to use LOCK_EX.
1790
19799a22
GS
1791Note also that some versions of C<flock> cannot lock things over the
1792network; you would need to use the more system-specific C<fcntl> for
f86cebdf
GS
1793that. If you like you can force Perl to ignore your system's flock(2)
1794function, and so provide its own fcntl(2)-based emulation, by passing
8ebc5c01
PP
1795the switch C<-Ud_flock> to the F<Configure> program when you configure
1796perl.
4633a7c4
LW
1797
1798Here's a mailbox appender for BSD systems.
a0d0e21e 1799
7e1af8bc 1800 use Fcntl ':flock'; # import LOCK_* constants
a0d0e21e
LW
1801
1802 sub lock {
7e1af8bc 1803 flock(MBOX,LOCK_EX);
a0d0e21e
LW
1804 # and, in case someone appended
1805 # while we were waiting...
1806 seek(MBOX, 0, 2);
1807 }
1808
1809 sub unlock {
7e1af8bc 1810 flock(MBOX,LOCK_UN);
a0d0e21e
LW
1811 }
1812
1813 open(MBOX, ">>/usr/spool/mail/$ENV{'USER'}")
1814 or die "Can't open mailbox: $!";
1815
1816 lock();
1817 print MBOX $msg,"\n\n";
1818 unlock();
1819
2b5ab1e7
TC
1820On systems that support a real flock(), locks are inherited across fork()
1821calls, whereas those that must resort to the more capricious fcntl()
1822function lose the locks, making it harder to write servers.
1823
cb1a09d0 1824See also L<DB_File> for other flock() examples.
a0d0e21e
LW
1825
1826=item fork
1827
2b5ab1e7
TC
1828Does a fork(2) system call to create a new process running the
1829same program at the same point. It returns the child pid to the
1830parent process, C<0> to the child process, or C<undef> if the fork is
1831unsuccessful. File descriptors (and sometimes locks on those descriptors)
1832are shared, while everything else is copied. On most systems supporting
1833fork(), great care has gone into making it extremely efficient (for
1834example, using copy-on-write technology on data pages), making it the
1835dominant paradigm for multitasking over the last few decades.
5a964f20 1836
0f897271
GS
1837Beginning with v5.6.0, Perl will attempt to flush all files opened for
1838output before forking the child process, but this may not be supported
1839on some platforms (see L<perlport>). To be safe, you may need to set
1840C<$|> ($AUTOFLUSH in English) or call the C<autoflush()> method of
1841C<IO::Handle> on any open handles in order to avoid duplicate output.
a0d0e21e 1842
19799a22 1843If you C<fork> without ever waiting on your children, you will
2b5ab1e7
TC
1844accumulate zombies. On some systems, you can avoid this by setting
1845C<$SIG{CHLD}> to C<"IGNORE">. See also L<perlipc> for more examples of
1846forking and reaping moribund children.
cb1a09d0 1847
28757baa
PP
1848Note that if your forked child inherits system file descriptors like
1849STDIN and STDOUT that are actually connected by a pipe or socket, even
2b5ab1e7 1850if you exit, then the remote server (such as, say, a CGI script or a
19799a22 1851backgrounded job launched from a remote shell) won't think you're done.
2b5ab1e7 1852You should reopen those to F</dev/null> if it's any issue.
28757baa 1853
cb1a09d0
AD
1854=item format
1855
19799a22 1856Declare a picture format for use by the C<write> function. For
cb1a09d0
AD
1857example:
1858
54310121 1859 format Something =
cb1a09d0
AD
1860 Test: @<<<<<<<< @||||| @>>>>>
1861 $str, $%, '$' . int($num)
1862 .
1863
1864 $str = "widget";
184e9718 1865 $num = $cost/$quantity;
cb1a09d0
AD
1866 $~ = 'Something';
1867 write;
1868
1869See L<perlform> for many details and examples.
1870
8903cb82 1871=item formline PICTURE,LIST
a0d0e21e 1872
5a964f20 1873This is an internal function used by C<format>s, though you may call it,
a0d0e21e
LW
1874too. It formats (see L<perlform>) a list of values according to the
1875contents of PICTURE, placing the output into the format output
7660c0ab 1876accumulator, C<$^A> (or C<$ACCUMULATOR> in English).
19799a22 1877Eventually, when a C<write> is done, the contents of
a0d0e21e 1878C<$^A> are written to some filehandle, but you could also read C<$^A>
7660c0ab 1879yourself and then set C<$^A> back to C<"">. Note that a format typically
19799a22 1880does one C<formline> per line of form, but the C<formline> function itself
748a9306 1881doesn't care how many newlines are embedded in the PICTURE. This means
4633a7c4 1882that the C<~> and C<~~> tokens will treat the entire PICTURE as a single line.
748a9306
LW
1883You may therefore need to use multiple formlines to implement a single
1884record format, just like the format compiler.
1885
19799a22 1886Be careful if you put double quotes around the picture, because an C<@>
748a9306 1887character may be taken to mean the beginning of an array name.
19799a22 1888C<formline> always returns true. See L<perlform> for other examples.
a0d0e21e
LW
1889
1890=item getc FILEHANDLE
1891
1892=item getc
1893
1894Returns the next character from the input file attached to FILEHANDLE,
b5fe5ca2
SR
1895or the undefined value at end of file, or if there was an error (in
1896the latter case C<$!> is set). If FILEHANDLE is omitted, reads from
1897STDIN. This is not particularly efficient. However, it cannot be
1898used by itself to fetch single characters without waiting for the user
1899to hit enter. For that, try something more like:
4633a7c4
LW
1900
1901 if ($BSD_STYLE) {
1902 system "stty cbreak </dev/tty >/dev/tty 2>&1";
1903 }
1904 else {
54310121 1905 system "stty", '-icanon', 'eol', "\001";
4633a7c4
LW
1906 }
1907
1908 $key = getc(STDIN);
1909
1910 if ($BSD_STYLE) {
1911 system "stty -cbreak </dev/tty >/dev/tty 2>&1";
1912 }
1913 else {
5f05dabc 1914 system "stty", 'icanon', 'eol', '^@'; # ASCII null
4633a7c4
LW
1915 }
1916 print "\n";
1917
54310121
PP
1918Determination of whether $BSD_STYLE should be set
1919is left as an exercise to the reader.
cb1a09d0 1920
19799a22 1921The C<POSIX::getattr> function can do this more portably on
2b5ab1e7
TC
1922systems purporting POSIX compliance. See also the C<Term::ReadKey>
1923module from your nearest CPAN site; details on CPAN can be found on
1924L<perlmodlib/CPAN>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1925
1926=item getlogin
1927
5a964f20
TC
1928Implements the C library function of the same name, which on most
1929systems returns the current login from F</etc/utmp>, if any. If null,
19799a22 1930use C<getpwuid>.
a0d0e21e 1931
f86702cc 1932 $login = getlogin || getpwuid($<) || "Kilroy";
a0d0e21e 1933
19799a22
GS
1934Do not consider C<getlogin> for authentication: it is not as
1935secure as C<getpwuid>.
4633a7c4 1936
a0d0e21e
LW
1937=item getpeername SOCKET
1938
1939Returns the packed sockaddr address of other end of the SOCKET connection.
1940
4633a7c4
LW
1941 use Socket;
1942 $hersockaddr = getpeername(SOCK);
19799a22 1943 ($port, $iaddr) = sockaddr_in($hersockaddr);
4633a7c4
LW
1944 $herhostname = gethostbyaddr($iaddr, AF_INET);
1945 $herstraddr = inet_ntoa($iaddr);
a0d0e21e
LW
1946
1947=item getpgrp PID
1948
47e29363 1949Returns the current process group for the specified PID. Use
7660c0ab 1950a PID of C<0> to get the current process group for the
4633a7c4 1951current process. Will raise an exception if used on a machine that
f86cebdf 1952doesn't implement getpgrp(2). If PID is omitted, returns process
19799a22 1953group of current process. Note that the POSIX version of C<getpgrp>
7660c0ab 1954does not accept a PID argument, so only C<PID==0> is truly portable.
a0d0e21e
LW
1955
1956=item getppid
1957
1958Returns the process id of the parent process.
1959
4d76a344
RGS
1960Note for Linux users: on Linux, the C functions C<getpid()> and
1961C<getppid()> return different values from different threads. In order to
1962be portable, this behavior is not reflected by the perl-level function
1963C<getppid()>, that returns a consistent value across threads. If you want
e3256f86
RGS
1964to call the underlying C<getppid()>, you may use the CPAN module
1965C<Linux::Pid>.
4d76a344 1966
a0d0e21e
LW
1967=item getpriority WHICH,WHO
1968
4633a7c4
LW
1969Returns the current priority for a process, a process group, or a user.
1970(See L<getpriority(2)>.) Will raise a fatal exception if used on a
f86cebdf 1971machine that doesn't implement getpriority(2).
a0d0e21e
LW
1972
1973=item getpwnam NAME
1974
1975=item getgrnam NAME
1976
1977=item gethostbyname NAME
1978
1979=item getnetbyname NAME
1980
1981=item getprotobyname NAME
1982
1983=item getpwuid UID
1984
1985=item getgrgid GID
1986
1987=item getservbyname NAME,PROTO
1988
1989=item gethostbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE
1990
1991=item getnetbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE
1992
1993=item getprotobynumber NUMBER
1994
1995=item getservbyport PORT,PROTO
1996
1997=item getpwent
1998
1999=item getgrent
2000
2001=item gethostent
2002
2003=item getnetent
2004
2005=item getprotoent
2006
2007=item getservent
2008
2009=item setpwent
2010
2011=item setgrent
2012
2013=item sethostent STAYOPEN
2014
2015=item setnetent STAYOPEN
2016
2017=item setprotoent STAYOPEN
2018
2019=item setservent STAYOPEN
2020
2021=item endpwent
2022
2023=item endgrent
2024
2025=item endhostent
2026
2027=item endnetent
2028
2029=item endprotoent
2030
2031=item endservent
2032
2033These routines perform the same functions as their counterparts in the
5a964f20 2034system library. In list context, the return values from the
a0d0e21e
LW
2035various get routines are as follows:
2036
2037 ($name,$passwd,$uid,$gid,
6ee623d5 2038 $quota,$comment,$gcos,$dir,$shell,$expire) = getpw*
a0d0e21e
LW
2039 ($name,$passwd,$gid,$members) = getgr*
2040 ($name,$aliases,$addrtype,$length,@addrs) = gethost*
2041 ($name,$aliases,$addrtype,$net) = getnet*
2042 ($name,$aliases,$proto) = getproto*
2043 ($name,$aliases,$port,$proto) = getserv*
2044
2045(If the entry doesn't exist you get a null list.)
2046
4602f195
JH
2047The exact meaning of the $gcos field varies but it usually contains
2048the real name of the user (as opposed to the login name) and other
2049information pertaining to the user. Beware, however, that in many
2050system users are able to change this information and therefore it
106325ad 2051cannot be trusted and therefore the $gcos is tainted (see
2959b6e3
JH
2052L<perlsec>). The $passwd and $shell, user's encrypted password and
2053login shell, are also tainted, because of the same reason.
4602f195 2054
5a964f20 2055In scalar context, you get the name, unless the function was a
a0d0e21e
LW
2056lookup by name, in which case you get the other thing, whatever it is.
2057(If the entry doesn't exist you get the undefined value.) For example:
2058
5a964f20
TC
2059 $uid = getpwnam($name);
2060 $name = getpwuid($num);
2061 $name = getpwent();
2062 $gid = getgrnam($name);
08a33e13 2063 $name = getgrgid($num);
5a964f20
TC
2064 $name = getgrent();
2065 #etc.
a0d0e21e 2066
4602f195
JH
2067In I<getpw*()> the fields $quota, $comment, and $expire are special
2068cases in the sense that in many systems they are unsupported. If the
2069$quota is unsupported, it is an empty scalar. If it is supported, it
2070usually encodes the disk quota. If the $comment field is unsupported,
2071it is an empty scalar. If it is supported it usually encodes some
2072administrative comment about the user. In some systems the $quota
2073field may be $change or $age, fields that have to do with password
2074aging. In some systems the $comment field may be $class. The $expire
2075field, if present, encodes the expiration period of the account or the
2076password. For the availability and the exact meaning of these fields
2077in your system, please consult your getpwnam(3) documentation and your
2078F<pwd.h> file. You can also find out from within Perl what your
2079$quota and $comment fields mean and whether you have the $expire field
2080by using the C<Config> module and the values C<d_pwquota>, C<d_pwage>,
2081C<d_pwchange>, C<d_pwcomment>, and C<d_pwexpire>. Shadow password
2082files are only supported if your vendor has implemented them in the
2083intuitive fashion that calling the regular C library routines gets the
5d3a0a3b
GS
2084shadow versions if you're running under privilege or if there exists
2085the shadow(3) functions as found in System V ( this includes Solaris
2086and Linux.) Those systems which implement a proprietary shadow password
2087facility are unlikely to be supported.
6ee623d5 2088
19799a22 2089The $members value returned by I<getgr*()> is a space separated list of
a0d0e21e
LW
2090the login names of the members of the group.
2091
2092For the I<gethost*()> functions, if the C<h_errno> variable is supported in
2093C, it will be returned to you via C<$?> if the function call fails. The
7660c0ab 2094C<@addrs> value returned by a successful call is a list of the raw
a0d0e21e
LW
2095addresses returned by the corresponding system library call. In the
2096Internet domain, each address is four bytes long and you can unpack it
2097by saying something like:
2098
f337b084 2099 ($a,$b,$c,$d) = unpack('W4',$addr[0]);
a0d0e21e 2100
2b5ab1e7
TC
2101The Socket library makes this slightly easier:
2102
2103 use Socket;
2104 $iaddr = inet_aton("127.1"); # or whatever address
2105 $name = gethostbyaddr($iaddr, AF_INET);
2106
2107 # or going the other way
19799a22 2108 $straddr = inet_ntoa($iaddr);
2b5ab1e7 2109
19799a22
GS
2110If you get tired of remembering which element of the return list
2111contains which return value, by-name interfaces are provided
2112in standard modules: C<File::stat>, C<Net::hostent>, C<Net::netent>,
2113C<Net::protoent>, C<Net::servent>, C<Time::gmtime>, C<Time::localtime>,
2114and C<User::grent>. These override the normal built-ins, supplying
2115versions that return objects with the appropriate names
2116for each field. For example:
5a964f20
TC
2117
2118 use File::stat;
2119 use User::pwent;
2120 $is_his = (stat($filename)->uid == pwent($whoever)->uid);
2121
b76cc8ba
NIS
2122Even though it looks like they're the same method calls (uid),
2123they aren't, because a C<File::stat> object is different from
19799a22 2124a C<User::pwent> object.
5a964f20 2125
a0d0e21e
LW
2126=item getsockname SOCKET
2127
19799a22
GS
2128Returns the packed sockaddr address of this end of the SOCKET connection,
2129in case you don't know the address because you have several different
2130IPs that the connection might have come in on.
a0d0e21e 2131
4633a7c4
LW
2132 use Socket;
2133 $mysockaddr = getsockname(SOCK);
19799a22 2134 ($port, $myaddr) = sockaddr_in($mysockaddr);
b76cc8ba 2135 printf "Connect to %s [%s]\n",
19799a22
GS
2136 scalar gethostbyaddr($myaddr, AF_INET),
2137 inet_ntoa($myaddr);
a0d0e21e
LW
2138
2139=item getsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME
2140
636e6b1f
TH
2141Queries the option named OPTNAME associated with SOCKET at a given LEVEL.
2142Options may exist at multiple protocol levels depending on the socket
2143type, but at least the uppermost socket level SOL_SOCKET (defined in the
2144C<Socket> module) will exist. To query options at another level the
2145protocol number of the appropriate protocol controlling the option
2146should be supplied. For example, to indicate that an option is to be
2147interpreted by the TCP protocol, LEVEL should be set to the protocol
2148number of TCP, which you can get using getprotobyname.
2149
2150The call returns a packed string representing the requested socket option,
2151or C<undef> if there is an error (the error reason will be in $!). What
2152exactly is in the packed string depends in the LEVEL and OPTNAME, consult
2153your system documentation for details. A very common case however is that
2154the option is an integer, in which case the result will be an packed
2155integer which you can decode using unpack with the C<i> (or C<I>) format.
2156
2157An example testing if Nagle's algorithm is turned on on a socket:
2158
4852725b 2159 use Socket qw(:all);
636e6b1f
TH
2160
2161 defined(my $tcp = getprotobyname("tcp"))
2162 or die "Could not determine the protocol number for tcp";
4852725b
DD
2163 # my $tcp = IPPROTO_TCP; # Alternative
2164 my $packed = getsockopt($socket, $tcp, TCP_NODELAY)
2165 or die "Could not query TCP_NODELAY socket option: $!";
636e6b1f
TH
2166 my $nodelay = unpack("I", $packed);
2167 print "Nagle's algorithm is turned ", $nodelay ? "off\n" : "on\n";
2168
a0d0e21e
LW
2169
2170=item glob EXPR
2171
0a753a76
PP
2172=item glob
2173
d9a9d457
JL
2174In list context, returns a (possibly empty) list of filename expansions on
2175the value of EXPR such as the standard Unix shell F</bin/csh> would do. In
2176scalar context, glob iterates through such filename expansions, returning
2177undef when the list is exhausted. This is the internal function
2178implementing the C<< <*.c> >> operator, but you can use it directly. If
2179EXPR is omitted, C<$_> is used. The C<< <*.c> >> operator is discussed in
2180more detail in L<perlop/"I/O Operators">.
a0d0e21e 2181
3a4b19e4
GS
2182Beginning with v5.6.0, this operator is implemented using the standard
2183C<File::Glob> extension. See L<File::Glob> for details.
2184
a0d0e21e
LW
2185=item gmtime EXPR
2186
ce2984c3
PF
2187=item gmtime
2188
d1be9408 2189Converts a time as returned by the time function to an 8-element list
54310121 2190with the time localized for the standard Greenwich time zone.
4633a7c4 2191Typically used as follows:
a0d0e21e 2192
b76cc8ba 2193 # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
48a26b3a 2194 ($sec,$min,$hour,$mday,$mon,$year,$wday,$yday) =
a0d0e21e
LW
2195 gmtime(time);
2196
48a26b3a
GS
2197All list elements are numeric, and come straight out of the C `struct
2198tm'. $sec, $min, and $hour are the seconds, minutes, and hours of the
2199specified time. $mday is the day of the month, and $mon is the month
2200itself, in the range C<0..11> with 0 indicating January and 11
2201indicating December. $year is the number of years since 1900. That
2202is, $year is C<123> in year 2023. $wday is the day of the week, with
22030 indicating Sunday and 3 indicating Wednesday. $yday is the day of
b76cc8ba 2204the year, in the range C<0..364> (or C<0..365> in leap years.)
48a26b3a
GS
2205
2206Note that the $year element is I<not> simply the last two digits of
2207the year. If you assume it is, then you create non-Y2K-compliant
2208programs--and you wouldn't want to do that, would you?
2f9daede 2209
abd75f24
GS
2210The proper way to get a complete 4-digit year is simply:
2211
2212 $year += 1900;
2213
2214And to get the last two digits of the year (e.g., '01' in 2001) do:
2215
2216 $year = sprintf("%02d", $year % 100);
2217
48a26b3a 2218If EXPR is omitted, C<gmtime()> uses the current time (C<gmtime(time)>).
a0d0e21e 2219
48a26b3a 2220In scalar context, C<gmtime()> returns the ctime(3) value:
0a753a76
PP
2221
2222 $now_string = gmtime; # e.g., "Thu Oct 13 04:54:34 1994"
2223
fe86afc2
NC
2224If you need local time instead of GMT use the L</localtime> builtin.
2225See also the C<timegm> function provided by the C<Time::Local> module,
2226and the strftime(3) and mktime(3) functions available via the L<POSIX> module.
7660c0ab 2227
fe86afc2
NC
2228This scalar value is B<not> locale dependent (see L<perllocale>), but is
2229instead a Perl builtin. To get somewhat similar but locale dependent date
2230strings, see the example in L</localtime>.
0a753a76 2231
62aa5637
MS
2232See L<perlport/gmtime> for portability concerns.
2233
a0d0e21e
LW
2234=item goto LABEL
2235
748a9306
LW
2236=item goto EXPR
2237
a0d0e21e
LW
2238=item goto &NAME
2239
7660c0ab 2240The C<goto-LABEL> form finds the statement labeled with LABEL and resumes
a0d0e21e 2241execution there. It may not be used to go into any construct that
7660c0ab 2242requires initialization, such as a subroutine or a C<foreach> loop. It
0a753a76 2243also can't be used to go into a construct that is optimized away,
19799a22 2244or to get out of a block or subroutine given to C<sort>.
0a753a76 2245It can be used to go almost anywhere else within the dynamic scope,
a0d0e21e 2246including out of subroutines, but it's usually better to use some other
19799a22 2247construct such as C<last> or C<die>. The author of Perl has never felt the
7660c0ab 2248need to use this form of C<goto> (in Perl, that is--C is another matter).
1b6921cb
BT
2249(The difference being that C does not offer named loops combined with
2250loop control. Perl does, and this replaces most structured uses of C<goto>
2251in other languages.)
a0d0e21e 2252
7660c0ab
A
2253The C<goto-EXPR> form expects a label name, whose scope will be resolved
2254dynamically. This allows for computed C<goto>s per FORTRAN, but isn't
748a9306
LW
2255necessarily recommended if you're optimizing for maintainability:
2256
2257 goto ("FOO", "BAR", "GLARCH")[$i];
2258
1b6921cb
BT
2259The C<goto-&NAME> form is quite different from the other forms of
2260C<goto>. In fact, it isn't a goto in the normal sense at all, and
2261doesn't have the stigma associated with other gotos. Instead, it
2262exits the current subroutine (losing any changes set by local()) and
2263immediately calls in its place the named subroutine using the current
2264value of @_. This is used by C<AUTOLOAD> subroutines that wish to
2265load another subroutine and then pretend that the other subroutine had
2266been called in the first place (except that any modifications to C<@_>
6cb9131c
GS
2267in the current subroutine are propagated to the other subroutine.)
2268After the C<goto>, not even C<caller> will be able to tell that this
2269routine was called first.
2270
2271NAME needn't be the name of a subroutine; it can be a scalar variable
2272containing a code reference, or a block which evaluates to a code
2273reference.
a0d0e21e
LW
2274
2275=item grep BLOCK LIST
2276
2277=item grep EXPR,LIST
2278
2b5ab1e7
TC
2279This is similar in spirit to, but not the same as, grep(1) and its
2280relatives. In particular, it is not limited to using regular expressions.
2f9daede 2281
a0d0e21e 2282Evaluates the BLOCK or EXPR for each element of LIST (locally setting
7660c0ab 2283C<$_> to each element) and returns the list value consisting of those
19799a22
GS
2284elements for which the expression evaluated to true. In scalar
2285context, returns the number of times the expression was true.
a0d0e21e
LW
2286
2287 @foo = grep(!/^#/, @bar); # weed out comments
2288
2289or equivalently,
2290
2291 @foo = grep {!/^#/} @bar; # weed out comments
2292
be3174d2
GS
2293Note that C<$_> is an alias to the list value, so it can be used to
2294modify the elements of the LIST. While this is useful and supported,
2295it can cause bizarre results if the elements of LIST are not variables.
2b5ab1e7
TC
2296Similarly, grep returns aliases into the original list, much as a for
2297loop's index variable aliases the list elements. That is, modifying an
19799a22
GS
2298element of a list returned by grep (for example, in a C<foreach>, C<map>
2299or another C<grep>) actually modifies the element in the original list.
2b5ab1e7 2300This is usually something to be avoided when writing clear code.
a0d0e21e 2301
a4fb8298
RGS
2302If C<$_> is lexical in the scope where the C<grep> appears (because it has
2303been declared with C<my $_>) then, in addition the be locally aliased to
2304the list elements, C<$_> keeps being lexical inside the block; i.e. it
2305can't be seen from the outside, avoiding any potential side-effects.
2306
19799a22 2307See also L</map> for a list composed of the results of the BLOCK or EXPR.
38325410 2308
a0d0e21e
LW
2309=item hex EXPR
2310
54310121 2311=item hex
bbce6d69 2312
2b5ab1e7 2313Interprets EXPR as a hex string and returns the corresponding value.
38366c11 2314(To convert strings that might start with either C<0>, C<0x>, or C<0b>, see
2b5ab1e7 2315L</oct>.) If EXPR is omitted, uses C<$_>.
2f9daede
TPG
2316
2317 print hex '0xAf'; # prints '175'
2318 print hex 'aF'; # same
a0d0e21e 2319
19799a22 2320Hex strings may only represent integers. Strings that would cause
53305cf1 2321integer overflow trigger a warning. Leading whitespace is not stripped,
38366c11
DN
2322unlike oct(). To present something as hex, look into L</printf>,
2323L</sprintf>, or L</unpack>.
19799a22 2324
ce2984c3 2325=item import LIST
a0d0e21e 2326
19799a22 2327There is no builtin C<import> function. It is just an ordinary
4633a7c4 2328method (subroutine) defined (or inherited) by modules that wish to export
19799a22 2329names to another module. The C<use> function calls the C<import> method
cea6626f 2330for the package used. See also L</use>, L<perlmod>, and L<Exporter>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2331
2332=item index STR,SUBSTR,POSITION
2333
2334=item index STR,SUBSTR
2335
2b5ab1e7
TC
2336The index function searches for one string within another, but without
2337the wildcard-like behavior of a full regular-expression pattern match.
2338It returns the position of the first occurrence of SUBSTR in STR at
2339or after POSITION. If POSITION is omitted, starts searching from the
2340beginning of the string. The return value is based at C<0> (or whatever
2341you've set the C<$[> variable to--but don't do that). If the substring
2342is not found, returns one less than the base, ordinarily C<-1>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2343
2344=item int EXPR
2345
54310121 2346=item int
bbce6d69 2347
7660c0ab 2348Returns the integer portion of EXPR. If EXPR is omitted, uses C<$_>.
2b5ab1e7
TC
2349You should not use this function for rounding: one because it truncates
2350towards C<0>, and two because machine representations of floating point
2351numbers can sometimes produce counterintuitive results. For example,
2352C<int(-6.725/0.025)> produces -268 rather than the correct -269; that's
2353because it's really more like -268.99999999999994315658 instead. Usually,
19799a22 2354the C<sprintf>, C<printf>, or the C<POSIX::floor> and C<POSIX::ceil>
2b5ab1e7 2355functions will serve you better than will int().
a0d0e21e
LW
2356
2357=item ioctl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR
2358
2b5ab1e7 2359Implements the ioctl(2) function. You'll probably first have to say
a0d0e21e 2360
a11c483f 2361 require "sys/ioctl.ph"; # probably in $Config{archlib}/ioctl.ph
a0d0e21e 2362
a11c483f 2363to get the correct function definitions. If F<sys/ioctl.ph> doesn't
a0d0e21e 2364exist or doesn't have the correct definitions you'll have to roll your
61eff3bc 2365own, based on your C header files such as F<< <sys/ioctl.h> >>.
5a964f20 2366(There is a Perl script called B<h2ph> that comes with the Perl kit that
54310121 2367may help you in this, but it's nontrivial.) SCALAR will be read and/or
4633a7c4 2368written depending on the FUNCTION--a pointer to the string value of SCALAR
19799a22 2369will be passed as the third argument of the actual C<ioctl> call. (If SCALAR
4633a7c4
LW
2370has no string value but does have a numeric value, that value will be
2371passed rather than a pointer to the string value. To guarantee this to be
19799a22
GS
2372true, add a C<0> to the scalar before using it.) The C<pack> and C<unpack>
2373functions may be needed to manipulate the values of structures used by
b76cc8ba 2374C<ioctl>.
a0d0e21e 2375
19799a22 2376The return value of C<ioctl> (and C<fcntl>) is as follows:
a0d0e21e
LW
2377
2378 if OS returns: then Perl returns:
2379 -1 undefined value
2380 0 string "0 but true"
2381 anything else that number
2382
19799a22 2383Thus Perl returns true on success and false on failure, yet you can
a0d0e21e
LW
2384still easily determine the actual value returned by the operating
2385system:
2386
2b5ab1e7 2387 $retval = ioctl(...) || -1;
a0d0e21e
LW
2388 printf "System returned %d\n", $retval;
2389
be2f7487 2390The special string C<"0 but true"> is exempt from B<-w> complaints
5a964f20
TC
2391about improper numeric conversions.
2392
a0d0e21e
LW
2393=item join EXPR,LIST
2394
2b5ab1e7
TC
2395Joins the separate strings of LIST into a single string with fields
2396separated by the value of EXPR, and returns that new string. Example:
a0d0e21e 2397
2b5ab1e7 2398 $rec = join(':', $login,$passwd,$uid,$gid,$gcos,$home,$shell);
a0d0e21e 2399
eb6e2d6f
GS
2400Beware that unlike C<split>, C<join> doesn't take a pattern as its
2401first argument. Compare L</split>.
a0d0e21e 2402
aa689395
PP
2403=item keys HASH
2404
504f80c1
JH
2405Returns a list consisting of all the keys of the named hash.
2406(In scalar context, returns the number of keys.)
2407
2408The keys are returned in an apparently random order. The actual
2409random order is subject to change in future versions of perl, but it
2410is guaranteed to be the same order as either the C<values> or C<each>
4546b9e6
JH
2411function produces (given that the hash has not been modified). Since
2412Perl 5.8.1 the ordering is different even between different runs of
2413Perl for security reasons (see L<perlsec/"Algorithmic Complexity
d6df3700 2414Attacks">).
504f80c1
JH
2415
2416As a side effect, calling keys() resets the HASH's internal iterator,
2f65b2f0
RGS
2417see L</each>. (In particular, calling keys() in void context resets
2418the iterator with no other overhead.)
a0d0e21e 2419
aa689395 2420Here is yet another way to print your environment:
a0d0e21e
LW
2421
2422 @keys = keys %ENV;
2423 @values = values %ENV;
b76cc8ba 2424 while (@keys) {
a0d0e21e
LW
2425 print pop(@keys), '=', pop(@values), "\n";
2426 }
2427
2428or how about sorted by key:
2429
2430 foreach $key (sort(keys %ENV)) {
2431 print $key, '=', $ENV{$key}, "\n";
2432 }
2433
8ea1e5d4
GS
2434The returned values are copies of the original keys in the hash, so
2435modifying them will not affect the original hash. Compare L</values>.
2436
19799a22 2437To sort a hash by value, you'll need to use a C<sort> function.
aa689395 2438Here's a descending numeric sort of a hash by its values:
4633a7c4 2439
5a964f20 2440 foreach $key (sort { $hash{$b} <=> $hash{$a} } keys %hash) {
4633a7c4
LW
2441 printf "%4d %s\n", $hash{$key}, $key;
2442 }
2443
19799a22 2444As an lvalue C<keys> allows you to increase the number of hash buckets
aa689395
PP
2445allocated for the given hash. This can gain you a measure of efficiency if
2446you know the hash is going to get big. (This is similar to pre-extending
2447an array by assigning a larger number to $#array.) If you say
55497cff
PP
2448
2449 keys %hash = 200;
2450
ab192400
GS
2451then C<%hash> will have at least 200 buckets allocated for it--256 of them,
2452in fact, since it rounds up to the next power of two. These
55497cff
PP
2453buckets will be retained even if you do C<%hash = ()>, use C<undef
2454%hash> if you want to free the storage while C<%hash> is still in scope.
2455You can't shrink the number of buckets allocated for the hash using
19799a22 2456C<keys> in this way (but you needn't worry about doing this by accident,
55497cff
PP
2457as trying has no effect).
2458
19799a22 2459See also C<each>, C<values> and C<sort>.
ab192400 2460
b350dd2f 2461=item kill SIGNAL, LIST
a0d0e21e 2462
b350dd2f 2463Sends a signal to a list of processes. Returns the number of
517db077
GS
2464processes successfully signaled (which is not necessarily the
2465same as the number actually killed).
a0d0e21e
LW
2466
2467 $cnt = kill 1, $child1, $child2;
2468 kill 9, @goners;
2469
b350dd2f 2470If SIGNAL is zero, no signal is sent to the process. This is a
1e9c1022 2471useful way to check that a child process is alive and hasn't changed
b350dd2f
GS
2472its UID. See L<perlport> for notes on the portability of this
2473construct.
2474
2475Unlike in the shell, if SIGNAL is negative, it kills
4633a7c4
LW
2476process groups instead of processes. (On System V, a negative I<PROCESS>
2477number will also kill process groups, but that's not portable.) That
2478means you usually want to use positive not negative signals. You may also
1e9c1022
JL
2479use a signal name in quotes.
2480
2481See L<perlipc/"Signals"> for more details.
a0d0e21e
LW
2482
2483=item last LABEL
2484
2485=item last
2486
2487The C<last> command is like the C<break> statement in C (as used in
2488loops); it immediately exits the loop in question. If the LABEL is
2489omitted, the command refers to the innermost enclosing loop. The
2490C<continue> block, if any, is not executed:
2491
4633a7c4
LW
2492 LINE: while (<STDIN>) {
2493 last LINE if /^$/; # exit when done with header
5a964f20 2494 #...
a0d0e21e
LW
2495 }
2496
4968c1e4 2497C<last> cannot be used to exit a block which returns a value such as
2b5ab1e7
TC
2498C<eval {}>, C<sub {}> or C<do {}>, and should not be used to exit
2499a grep() or map() operation.
4968c1e4 2500
6c1372ed
GS
2501Note that a block by itself is semantically identical to a loop
2502that executes once. Thus C<last> can be used to effect an early
2503exit out of such a block.
2504
98293880
JH
2505See also L</continue> for an illustration of how C<last>, C<next>, and
2506C<redo> work.
1d2dff63 2507
a0d0e21e
LW
2508=item lc EXPR
2509
54310121 2510=item lc
bbce6d69 2511
d1be9408 2512Returns a lowercased version of EXPR. This is the internal function
ad0029c4
JH
2513implementing the C<\L> escape in double-quoted strings. Respects
2514current LC_CTYPE locale if C<use locale> in force. See L<perllocale>
983ffd37 2515and L<perlunicode> for more details about locale and Unicode support.
a0d0e21e 2516
7660c0ab 2517If EXPR is omitted, uses C<$_>.
bbce6d69 2518
a0d0e21e
LW
2519=item lcfirst EXPR
2520
54310121 2521=item lcfirst
bbce6d69 2522
ad0029c4
JH
2523Returns the value of EXPR with the first character lowercased. This
2524is the internal function implementing the C<\l> escape in
2525double-quoted strings. Respects current LC_CTYPE locale if C<use
983ffd37
JH
2526locale> in force. See L<perllocale> and L<perlunicode> for more
2527details about locale and Unicode support.
a0d0e21e 2528
7660c0ab 2529If EXPR is omitted, uses C<$_>.
bbce6d69 2530
a0d0e21e
LW
2531=item length EXPR
2532
54310121 2533=item length
bbce6d69 2534
974da8e5 2535Returns the length in I<characters> of the value of EXPR. If EXPR is
b76cc8ba 2536omitted, returns length of C<$_>. Note that this cannot be used on
2b5ab1e7
TC
2537an entire array or hash to find out how many elements these have.
2538For that, use C<scalar @array> and C<scalar keys %hash> respectively.
a0d0e21e 2539
974da8e5
JH
2540Note the I<characters>: if the EXPR is in Unicode, you will get the
2541number of characters, not the number of bytes. To get the length
2542in bytes, use C<do { use bytes; length(EXPR) }>, see L<bytes>.
2543
a0d0e21e
LW
2544=item link OLDFILE,NEWFILE
2545
19799a22 2546Creates a new filename linked to the old filename. Returns true for
b76cc8ba 2547success, false otherwise.
a0d0e21e
LW
2548
2549=item listen SOCKET,QUEUESIZE
2550
19799a22 2551Does the same thing that the listen system call does. Returns true if
b76cc8ba 2552it succeeded, false otherwise. See the example in
cea6626f 2553L<perlipc/"Sockets: Client/Server Communication">.
a0d0e21e
LW
2554
2555=item local EXPR
2556
19799a22 2557You really probably want to be using C<my> instead, because C<local> isn't
b76cc8ba 2558what most people think of as "local". See
13a2d996 2559L<perlsub/"Private Variables via my()"> for details.
2b5ab1e7 2560
5a964f20
TC
2561A local modifies the listed variables to be local to the enclosing
2562block, file, or eval. If more than one value is listed, the list must
2563be placed in parentheses. See L<perlsub/"Temporary Values via local()">
2564for details, including issues with tied arrays and hashes.
a0d0e21e 2565
a0d0e21e
LW
2566=item localtime EXPR
2567
ba053783
AL
2568=item localtime
2569
19799a22 2570Converts a time as returned by the time function to a 9-element list
5f05dabc 2571with the time analyzed for the local time zone. Typically used as
a0d0e21e
LW
2572follows:
2573
54310121 2574 # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
a0d0e21e 2575 ($sec,$min,$hour,$mday,$mon,$year,$wday,$yday,$isdst) =
ba053783 2576 localtime(time);
a0d0e21e 2577
48a26b3a 2578All list elements are numeric, and come straight out of the C `struct
ba053783
AL
2579tm'. C<$sec>, C<$min>, and C<$hour> are the seconds, minutes, and hours
2580of the specified time.
48a26b3a 2581
ba053783
AL
2582C<$mday> is the day of the month, and C<$mon> is the month itself, in
2583the range C<0..11> with 0 indicating January and 11 indicating December.
2584This makes it easy to get a month name from a list:
54310121 2585
ba053783
AL
2586 my @abbr = qw( Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec );
2587 print "$abbr[$mon] $mday";
2588 # $mon=9, $mday=18 gives "Oct 18"
abd75f24 2589
ba053783
AL
2590C<$year> is the number of years since 1900, not just the last two digits
2591of the year. That is, C<$year> is C<123> in year 2023. The proper way
2592to get a complete 4-digit year is simply:
abd75f24 2593
ba053783 2594 $year += 1900;
abd75f24 2595
ba053783
AL
2596To get the last two digits of the year (e.g., '01' in 2001) do:
2597
2598 $year = sprintf("%02d", $year % 100);
2599
2600C<$wday> is the day of the week, with 0 indicating Sunday and 3 indicating
2601Wednesday. C<$yday> is the day of the year, in the range C<0..364>
2602(or C<0..365> in leap years.)
2603
2604C<$isdst> is true if the specified time occurs during Daylight Saving
2605Time, false otherwise.
abd75f24 2606
48a26b3a 2607If EXPR is omitted, C<localtime()> uses the current time (C<localtime(time)>).
a0d0e21e 2608
48a26b3a 2609In scalar context, C<localtime()> returns the ctime(3) value:
a0d0e21e 2610
5f05dabc 2611 $now_string = localtime; # e.g., "Thu Oct 13 04:54:34 1994"
a0d0e21e 2612
fe86afc2
NC
2613This scalar value is B<not> locale dependent but is a Perl builtin. For GMT
2614instead of local time use the L</gmtime> builtin. See also the
2615C<Time::Local> module (to convert the second, minutes, hours, ... back to
2616the integer value returned by time()), and the L<POSIX> module's strftime(3)
2617and mktime(3) functions.
2618
2619To get somewhat similar but locale dependent date strings, set up your
2620locale environment variables appropriately (please see L<perllocale>) and
2621try for example:
a3cb178b 2622
5a964f20 2623 use POSIX qw(strftime);
2b5ab1e7 2624 $now_string = strftime "%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Y", localtime;
fe86afc2
NC
2625 # or for GMT formatted appropriately for your locale:
2626 $now_string = strftime "%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Y", gmtime;
a3cb178b
GS
2627
2628Note that the C<%a> and C<%b>, the short forms of the day of the week
2629and the month of the year, may not necessarily be three characters wide.
a0d0e21e 2630
62aa5637
MS
2631See L<perlport/localtime> for portability concerns.
2632
07698885 2633=item lock THING
19799a22 2634
01e6739c 2635This function places an advisory lock on a shared variable, or referenced
03730085 2636object contained in I<THING> until the lock goes out of scope.
a6d5524e 2637
f3a23afb 2638lock() is a "weak keyword" : this means that if you've defined a function
67408cae 2639by this name (before any calls to it), that function will be called
03730085
AB
2640instead. (However, if you've said C<use threads>, lock() is always a
2641keyword.) See L<threads>.
19799a22 2642
a0d0e21e
LW
2643=item log EXPR
2644
54310121 2645=item log
bbce6d69 2646
2b5ab1e7
TC
2647Returns the natural logarithm (base I<e>) of EXPR. If EXPR is omitted,
2648returns log of C<$_>. To get the log of another base, use basic algebra:
19799a22 2649The base-N log of a number is equal to the natural log of that number
2b5ab1e7
TC
2650divided by the natural log of N. For example:
2651
2652 sub log10 {
2653 my $n = shift;
2654 return log($n)/log(10);
b76cc8ba 2655 }
2b5ab1e7
TC
2656
2657See also L</exp> for the inverse operation.
a0d0e21e 2658
a0d0e21e
LW
2659=item lstat EXPR
2660
54310121 2661=item lstat
bbce6d69 2662
19799a22 2663Does the same thing as the C<stat> function (including setting the
5a964f20
TC
2664special C<_> filehandle) but stats a symbolic link instead of the file
2665the symbolic link points to. If symbolic links are unimplemented on
c837d5b4
DP
2666your system, a normal C<stat> is done. For much more detailed
2667information, please see the documentation for C<stat>.
a0d0e21e 2668
7660c0ab 2669If EXPR is omitted, stats C<$_>.
bbce6d69 2670
a0d0e21e
LW
2671=item m//
2672
2673The match operator. See L<perlop>.
2674
2675=item map BLOCK LIST
2676
2677=item map EXPR,LIST
2678
19799a22
GS
2679Evaluates the BLOCK or EXPR for each element of LIST (locally setting
2680C<$_> to each element) and returns the list value composed of the
2681results of each such evaluation. In scalar context, returns the
2682total number of elements so generated. Evaluates BLOCK or EXPR in
2683list context, so each element of LIST may produce zero, one, or
2684more elements in the returned value.
dd99ebda 2685
a0d0e21e
LW
2686 @chars = map(chr, @nums);
2687
2688translates a list of numbers to the corresponding characters. And
2689
4633a7c4 2690 %hash = map { getkey($_) => $_ } @array;
a0d0e21e
LW
2691
2692is just a funny way to write
2693
2694 %hash = ();
2695 foreach $_ (@array) {
4633a7c4 2696 $hash{getkey($_)} = $_;
a0d0e21e
LW
2697 }
2698
be3174d2
GS
2699Note that C<$_> is an alias to the list value, so it can be used to
2700modify the elements of the LIST. While this is useful and supported,
2701it can cause bizarre results if the elements of LIST are not variables.
2b5ab1e7
TC
2702Using a regular C<foreach> loop for this purpose would be clearer in
2703most cases. See also L</grep> for an array composed of those items of
2704the original list for which the BLOCK or EXPR evaluates to true.
fb73857a 2705
a4fb8298
RGS
2706If C<$_> is lexical in the scope where the C<map> appears (because it has
2707been declared with C<my $_>) then, in addition the be locally aliased to
2708the list elements, C<$_> keeps being lexical inside the block; i.e. it
2709can't be seen from the outside, avoiding any potential side-effects.
2710
205fdb4d
NC
2711C<{> starts both hash references and blocks, so C<map { ...> could be either
2712the start of map BLOCK LIST or map EXPR, LIST. Because perl doesn't look
2713ahead for the closing C<}> it has to take a guess at which its dealing with
2714based what it finds just after the C<{>. Usually it gets it right, but if it
2715doesn't it won't realize something is wrong until it gets to the C<}> and
2716encounters the missing (or unexpected) comma. The syntax error will be
2717reported close to the C<}> but you'll need to change something near the C<{>
2718such as using a unary C<+> to give perl some help:
2719
2720 %hash = map { "\L$_", 1 } @array # perl guesses EXPR. wrong
2721 %hash = map { +"\L$_", 1 } @array # perl guesses BLOCK. right
2722 %hash = map { ("\L$_", 1) } @array # this also works
2723 %hash = map { lc($_), 1 } @array # as does this.
2724 %hash = map +( lc($_), 1 ), @array # this is EXPR and works!
cea6626f 2725
205fdb4d
NC
2726 %hash = map ( lc($_), 1 ), @array # evaluates to (1, @array)
2727
2728or to force an anon hash constructor use C<+{>
2729
2730 @hashes = map +{ lc($_), 1 }, @array # EXPR, so needs , at end
2731
2732and you get list of anonymous hashes each with only 1 entry.
2733
19799a22 2734=item mkdir FILENAME,MASK
a0d0e21e 2735
5a211162
GS
2736=item mkdir FILENAME
2737
491873e5
RGS
2738=item mkdir
2739
0591cd52 2740Creates the directory specified by FILENAME, with permissions
19799a22
GS
2741specified by MASK (as modified by C<umask>). If it succeeds it
2742returns true, otherwise it returns false and sets C<$!> (errno).
491873e5
RGS
2743If omitted, MASK defaults to 0777. If omitted, FILENAME defaults
2744to C<$_>.
0591cd52 2745
19799a22 2746In general, it is better to create directories with permissive MASK,
0591cd52 2747and let the user modify that with their C<umask>, than it is to supply
19799a22 2748a restrictive MASK and give the user no way to be more permissive.
0591cd52
NT
2749The exceptions to this rule are when the file or directory should be
2750kept private (mail files, for instance). The perlfunc(1) entry on
19799a22 2751C<umask> discusses the choice of MASK in more detail.
a0d0e21e 2752
cc1852e8
JH
2753Note that according to the POSIX 1003.1-1996 the FILENAME may have any
2754number of trailing slashes. Some operating and filesystems do not get
2755this right, so Perl automatically removes all trailing slashes to keep
2756everyone happy.
2757
a0d0e21e
LW
2758=item msgctl ID,CMD,ARG
2759
f86cebdf 2760Calls the System V IPC function msgctl(2). You'll probably have to say
0ade1984
JH
2761
2762 use IPC::SysV;
2763
7660c0ab
A
2764first to get the correct constant definitions. If CMD is C<IPC_STAT>,
2765then ARG must be a variable which will hold the returned C<msqid_ds>
951ba7fe
GS
2766structure. Returns like C<ioctl>: the undefined value for error,
2767C<"0 but true"> for zero, or the actual return value otherwise. See also
4755096e 2768L<perlipc/"SysV IPC">, C<IPC::SysV>, and C<IPC::Semaphore> documentation.
a0d0e21e
LW
2769
2770=item msgget KEY,FLAGS
2771
f86cebdf 2772Calls the System V IPC function msgget(2). Returns the message queue
4755096e
GS
2773id, or the undefined value if there is an error. See also
2774L<perlipc/"SysV IPC"> and C<IPC::SysV> and C<IPC::Msg> documentation.
a0d0e21e 2775
a0d0e21e
LW
2776=item msgrcv ID,VAR,SIZE,TYPE,FLAGS
2777
2778Calls the System V IPC function msgrcv to receive a message from
2779message queue ID into variable VAR with a maximum message size of
41d6edb2
JH
2780SIZE. Note that when a message is received, the message type as a
2781native long integer will be the first thing in VAR, followed by the
2782actual message. This packing may be opened with C<unpack("l! a*")>.
2783Taints the variable. Returns true if successful, or false if there is
4755096e
GS
2784an error. See also L<perlipc/"SysV IPC">, C<IPC::SysV>, and
2785C<IPC::SysV::Msg> documentation.
41d6edb2
JH
2786
2787=item msgsnd ID,MSG,FLAGS
2788
2789Calls the System V IPC function msgsnd to send the message MSG to the
2790message queue ID. MSG must begin with the native long integer message
2791type, and be followed by the length of the actual message, and finally
2792the message itself. This kind of packing can be achieved with
2793C<pack("l! a*", $type, $message)>. Returns true if successful,
2794or false if there is an error. See also C<IPC::SysV>
2795and C<IPC::SysV::Msg> documentation.
a0d0e21e
LW
2796
2797=item my EXPR
2798
307ea6df
JH
2799=item my TYPE EXPR
2800
1d2de774 2801=item my EXPR : ATTRS
09bef843 2802
1d2de774 2803=item my TYPE EXPR : ATTRS
307ea6df 2804
19799a22 2805A C<my> declares the listed variables to be local (lexically) to the
1d2de774
JH
2806enclosing block, file, or C<eval>. If more than one value is listed,
2807the list must be placed in parentheses.
307ea6df 2808
1d2de774
JH
2809The exact semantics and interface of TYPE and ATTRS are still
2810evolving. TYPE is currently bound to the use of C<fields> pragma,
307ea6df
JH
2811and attributes are handled using the C<attributes> pragma, or starting
2812from Perl 5.8.0 also via the C<Attribute::Handlers> module. See
2813L<perlsub/"Private Variables via my()"> for details, and L<fields>,
2814L<attributes>, and L<Attribute::Handlers>.
4633a7c4 2815
a0d0e21e
LW
2816=item next LABEL
2817
2818=item next
2819
2820The C<next> command is like the C<continue> statement in C; it starts
2821the next iteration of the loop:
2822
4633a7c4
LW
2823 LINE: while (<STDIN>) {
2824 next LINE if /^#/; # discard comments
5a964f20 2825 #...
a0d0e21e
LW
2826 }
2827
2828Note that if there were a C<continue> block on the above, it would get
2829executed even on discarded lines. If the LABEL is omitted, the command
2830refers to the innermost enclosing loop.
2831
4968c1e4 2832C<next> cannot be used to exit a block which returns a value such as
2b5ab1e7
TC
2833C<eval {}>, C<sub {}> or C<do {}>, and should not be used to exit
2834a grep() or map() operation.
4968c1e4 2835
6c1372ed
GS
2836Note that a block by itself is semantically identical to a loop
2837that executes once. Thus C<next> will exit such a block early.
2838
98293880
JH
2839See also L</continue> for an illustration of how C<last>, C<next>, and
2840C<redo> work.
1d2dff63 2841
4a66ea5a
RGS
2842=item no Module VERSION LIST
2843
2844=item no Module VERSION
2845
a0d0e21e
LW
2846=item no Module LIST
2847
4a66ea5a
RGS
2848=item no Module
2849
593b9c14 2850See the C<use> function, of which C<no> is the opposite.
a0d0e21e
LW
2851
2852=item oct EXPR
2853
54310121 2854=item oct
bbce6d69 2855
4633a7c4 2856Interprets EXPR as an octal string and returns the corresponding
4f19785b
WSI
2857value. (If EXPR happens to start off with C<0x>, interprets it as a
2858hex string. If EXPR starts off with C<0b>, it is interpreted as a
53305cf1
NC
2859binary string. Leading whitespace is ignored in all three cases.)
2860The following will handle decimal, binary, octal, and hex in the standard
2861Perl or C notation:
a0d0e21e
LW
2862
2863 $val = oct($val) if $val =~ /^0/;
2864
19799a22
GS
2865If EXPR is omitted, uses C<$_>. To go the other way (produce a number
2866in octal), use sprintf() or printf():
2867
2868 $perms = (stat("filename"))[2] & 07777;
2869 $oct_perms = sprintf "%lo", $perms;
2870
2871The oct() function is commonly used when a string such as C<644> needs
2872to be converted into a file mode, for example. (Although perl will
2873automatically convert strings into numbers as needed, this automatic
2874conversion assumes base 10.)
a0d0e21e
LW
2875
2876=item open FILEHANDLE,EXPR
2877
68bd7414
NIS
2878=item open FILEHANDLE,MODE,EXPR
2879
2880=item open FILEHANDLE,MODE,EXPR,LIST
2881
ba964c95
T
2882=item open FILEHANDLE,MODE,REFERENCE
2883
a0d0e21e
LW
2884=item open FILEHANDLE
2885
2886Opens the file whose filename is given by EXPR, and associates it with
ed53a2bb
JH
2887FILEHANDLE.
2888
2889(The following is a comprehensive reference to open(): for a gentler
2890introduction you may consider L<perlopentut>.)
2891
a28cd5c9
NT
2892If FILEHANDLE is an undefined scalar variable (or array or hash element)
2893the variable is assigned a reference to a new anonymous filehandle,
2894otherwise if FILEHANDLE is an expression, its value is used as the name of
2895the real filehandle wanted. (This is considered a symbolic reference, so
2896C<use strict 'refs'> should I<not> be in effect.)
ed53a2bb
JH
2897
2898If EXPR is omitted, the scalar variable of the same name as the
2899FILEHANDLE contains the filename. (Note that lexical variables--those
2900declared with C<my>--will not work for this purpose; so if you're
67408cae 2901using C<my>, specify EXPR in your call to open.)
ed53a2bb
JH
2902
2903If three or more arguments are specified then the mode of opening and
2904the file name are separate. If MODE is C<< '<' >> or nothing, the file
2905is opened for input. If MODE is C<< '>' >>, the file is truncated and
2906opened for output, being created if necessary. If MODE is C<<< '>>' >>>,
b76cc8ba 2907the file is opened for appending, again being created if necessary.
5a964f20 2908
ed53a2bb
JH
2909You can put a C<'+'> in front of the C<< '>' >> or C<< '<' >> to
2910indicate that you want both read and write access to the file; thus
2911C<< '+<' >> is almost always preferred for read/write updates--the C<<
2912'+>' >> mode would clobber the file first. You can't usually use
2913either read-write mode for updating textfiles, since they have
2914variable length records. See the B<-i> switch in L<perlrun> for a
2915better approach. The file is created with permissions of C<0666>
2916modified by the process' C<umask> value.
2917
2918These various prefixes correspond to the fopen(3) modes of C<'r'>,
2919C<'r+'>, C<'w'>, C<'w+'>, C<'a'>, and C<'a+'>.
5f05dabc 2920
6170680b
IZ
2921In the 2-arguments (and 1-argument) form of the call the mode and
2922filename should be concatenated (in this order), possibly separated by
68bd7414
NIS
2923spaces. It is possible to omit the mode in these forms if the mode is
2924C<< '<' >>.
6170680b 2925
7660c0ab 2926If the filename begins with C<'|'>, the filename is interpreted as a
5a964f20 2927command to which output is to be piped, and if the filename ends with a
f244e06d
GS
2928C<'|'>, the filename is interpreted as a command which pipes output to
2929us. See L<perlipc/"Using open() for IPC">
19799a22 2930for more examples of this. (You are not allowed to C<open> to a command
5a964f20 2931that pipes both in I<and> out, but see L<IPC::Open2>, L<IPC::Open3>,
4a4eefd0
GS
2932and L<perlipc/"Bidirectional Communication with Another Process">
2933for alternatives.)
cb1a09d0 2934
ed53a2bb
JH
2935For three or more arguments if MODE is C<'|-'>, the filename is
2936interpreted as a command to which output is to be piped, and if MODE
2937is C<'-|'>, the filename is interpreted as a command which pipes
2938output to us. In the 2-arguments (and 1-argument) form one should
2939replace dash (C<'-'>) with the command.
2940See L<perlipc/"Using open() for IPC"> for more examples of this.
2941(You are not allowed to C<open> to a command that pipes both in I<and>
2942out, but see L<IPC::Open2>, L<IPC::Open3>, and
2943L<perlipc/"Bidirectional Communication"> for alternatives.)
2944
2945In the three-or-more argument form of pipe opens, if LIST is specified
2946(extra arguments after the command name) then LIST becomes arguments
2947to the command invoked if the platform supports it. The meaning of
2948C<open> with more than three arguments for non-pipe modes is not yet
2949specified. Experimental "layers" may give extra LIST arguments
2950meaning.
6170680b
IZ
2951
2952In the 2-arguments (and 1-argument) form opening C<'-'> opens STDIN
b76cc8ba 2953and opening C<< '>-' >> opens STDOUT.
6170680b 2954
fae2c0fb
RGS
2955You may use the three-argument form of open to specify IO "layers"
2956(sometimes also referred to as "disciplines") to be applied to the handle
2957that affect how the input and output are processed (see L<open> and
2958L<PerlIO> for more details). For example
7207e29d 2959
9124316e
JH
2960 open(FH, "<:utf8", "file")
2961
2962will open the UTF-8 encoded file containing Unicode characters,
fae2c0fb
RGS
2963see L<perluniintro>. (Note that if layers are specified in the
2964three-arg form then default layers set by the C<open> pragma are
01e6739c 2965ignored.)
ed53a2bb
JH
2966
2967Open returns nonzero upon success, the undefined value otherwise. If
2968the C<open> involved a pipe, the return value happens to be the pid of
2969the subprocess.
cb1a09d0 2970
ed53a2bb
JH
2971If you're running Perl on a system that distinguishes between text
2972files and binary files, then you should check out L</binmode> for tips
2973for dealing with this. The key distinction between systems that need
2974C<binmode> and those that don't is their text file formats. Systems
8939ba94 2975like Unix, Mac OS, and Plan 9, which delimit lines with a single
ed53a2bb
JH
2976character, and which encode that character in C as C<"\n">, do not
2977need C<binmode>. The rest need it.
cb1a09d0 2978
fb73857a 2979When opening a file, it's usually a bad idea to continue normal execution
19799a22
GS
2980if the request failed, so C<open> is frequently used in connection with
2981C<die>. Even if C<die> won't do what you want (say, in a CGI script,
fb73857a 2982where you want to make a nicely formatted error message (but there are
5a964f20 2983modules that can help with that problem)) you should always check
19799a22 2984the return value from opening a file. The infrequent exception is when
fb73857a
PP
2985working with an unopened filehandle is actually what you want to do.
2986
ed53a2bb
JH
2987As a special case the 3 arg form with a read/write mode and the third
2988argument being C<undef>:
b76cc8ba
NIS
2989
2990 open(TMP, "+>", undef) or die ...
2991
f253e835
JH
2992opens a filehandle to an anonymous temporary file. Also using "+<"
2993works for symmetry, but you really should consider writing something
2994to the temporary file first. You will need to seek() to do the
2995reading.
b76cc8ba 2996
2ce64696 2997Since v5.8.0, perl has built using PerlIO by default. Unless you've
28a5cf3b 2998changed this (i.e. Configure -Uuseperlio), you can open file handles to
2ce64696 2999"in memory" files held in Perl scalars via:
ba964c95 3000
b996200f
SB
3001 open($fh, '>', \$variable) || ..
3002
3003Though if you try to re-open C<STDOUT> or C<STDERR> as an "in memory"
3004file, you have to close it first:
3005
3006 close STDOUT;
3007 open STDOUT, '>', \$variable or die "Can't open STDOUT: $!";
ba964c95 3008
cb1a09d0 3009Examples:
a0d0e21e
LW
3010
3011 $ARTICLE = 100;
3012 open ARTICLE or die "Can't find article $ARTICLE: $!\n";
3013 while (<ARTICLE>) {...
3014
6170680b 3015 open(LOG, '>>/usr/spool/news/twitlog'); # (log is reserved)
fb73857a 3016 # if the open fails, output is discarded
a0d0e21e 3017
6170680b 3018 open(DBASE, '+<', 'dbase.mine') # open for update
fb73857a 3019 or die "Can't open 'dbase.mine' for update: $!";
cb1a09d0 3020
6170680b
IZ
3021 open(DBASE, '+<dbase.mine') # ditto
3022 or die "Can't open 'dbase.mine' for update: $!";
3023
3024 open(ARTICLE, '-|', "caesar <$article") # decrypt article
fb73857a 3025 or die "Can't start caesar: $!";
a0d0e21e 3026
6170680b
IZ
3027 open(ARTICLE, "caesar <$article |") # ditto
3028 or die "Can't start caesar: $!";
3029
2359510d 3030 open(EXTRACT, "|sort >Tmp$$") # $$ is our process id
fb73857a 3031 or die "Can't start sort: $!";
a0d0e21e 3032
ba964c95
T
3033 # in memory files
3034 open(MEMORY,'>', \$var)
3035 or die "Can't open memory file: $!";
3036 print MEMORY "foo!\n"; # output will end up in $var
3037
a0d0e21e
LW
3038 # process argument list of files along with any includes
3039
3040 foreach $file (@ARGV) {
3041 process($file, 'fh00');
3042 }
3043
3044 sub process {
5a964f20 3045 my($filename, $input) = @_;
a0d0e21e
LW
3046 $input++; # this is a string increment
3047 unless (open($input, $filename)) {
3048 print STDERR "Can't open $filename: $!\n";
3049 return;
3050 }
3051
5a964f20 3052 local $_;
a0d0e21e
LW
3053 while (<$input>) { # note use of indirection
3054 if (/^#include "(.*)"/) {
3055 process($1, $input);
3056 next;
3057 }
5a964f20 3058 #... # whatever
a0d0e21e
LW
3059 }
3060 }
3061
ae4c5402 3062See L<perliol> for detailed info on PerlIO.
2ce64696 3063
a0d0e21e 3064You may also, in the Bourne shell tradition, specify an EXPR beginning
00cafafa
JH
3065with C<< '>&' >>, in which case the rest of the string is interpreted
3066as the name of a filehandle (or file descriptor, if numeric) to be
3067duped (as L<dup(2)>) and opened. You may use C<&> after C<< > >>,
3068C<<< >> >>>, C<< < >>, C<< +> >>, C<<< +>> >>>, and C<< +< >>.
3069The mode you specify should match the mode of the original filehandle.
3070(Duping a filehandle does not take into account any existing contents
3071of IO buffers.) If you use the 3 arg form then you can pass either a
3072number, the name of a filehandle or the normal "reference to a glob".
6170680b 3073
eae1b76b
SB
3074Here is a script that saves, redirects, and restores C<STDOUT> and
3075C<STDERR> using various methods:
a0d0e21e
LW
3076
3077 #!/usr/bin/perl
eae1b76b
SB
3078 open my $oldout, ">&STDOUT" or die "Can't dup STDOUT: $!";
3079 open OLDERR, ">&", \*STDERR or die "Can't dup STDERR: $!";
818c4caa 3080
eae1b76b
SB
3081 open STDOUT, '>', "foo.out" or die "Can't redirect STDOUT: $!";
3082 open STDERR, ">&STDOUT" or die "Can't dup STDOUT: $!";
a0d0e21e 3083
eae1b76b
SB
3084 select STDERR; $| = 1; # make unbuffered
3085 select STDOUT; $| = 1; # make unbuffered
a0d0e21e
LW
3086
3087 print STDOUT "stdout 1\n"; # this works for
3088 print STDERR "stderr 1\n"; # subprocesses too
3089
eae1b76b
SB
3090 open STDOUT, ">&", $oldout or die "Can't dup \$oldout: $!";
3091 open STDERR, ">&OLDERR" or die "Can't dup OLDERR: $!";
a0d0e21e
LW
3092
3093 print STDOUT "stdout 2\n";
3094 print STDERR "stderr 2\n";
3095
ef8b303f
JH
3096If you specify C<< '<&=X' >>, where C<X> is a file descriptor number
3097or a filehandle, then Perl will do an equivalent of C's C<fdopen> of
3098that file descriptor (and not call L<dup(2)>); this is more
3099parsimonious of file descriptors. For example:
a0d0e21e 3100
00cafafa 3101 # open for input, reusing the fileno of $fd
a0d0e21e 3102 open(FILEHANDLE, "<&=$fd")
df632fdf 3103
b76cc8ba 3104or
df632fdf 3105
b76cc8ba 3106 open(FILEHANDLE, "<&=", $fd)
a0d0e21e 3107
00cafafa
JH
3108or
3109
3110 # open for append, using the fileno of OLDFH
3111 open(FH, ">>&=", OLDFH)
3112
3113or
3114
3115 open(FH, ">>&=OLDFH")
3116
ef8b303f
JH
3117Being parsimonious on filehandles is also useful (besides being
3118parsimonious) for example when something is dependent on file
3119descriptors, like for example locking using flock(). If you do just
3120C<< open(A, '>>&B') >>, the filehandle A will not have the same file
3121descriptor as B, and therefore flock(A) will not flock(B), and vice
3122versa. But with C<< open(A, '>>&=B') >> the filehandles will share
3123the same file descriptor.
3124
3125Note that if you are using Perls older than 5.8.0, Perl will be using
3126the standard C libraries' fdopen() to implement the "=" functionality.
3127On many UNIX systems fdopen() fails when file descriptors exceed a
3128certain value, typically 255. For Perls 5.8.0 and later, PerlIO is
3129most often the default.
4af147f6 3130
df632fdf
JH
3131You can see whether Perl has been compiled with PerlIO or not by
3132running C<perl -V> and looking for C<useperlio=> line. If C<useperlio>
3133is C<define>, you have PerlIO, otherwise you don't.
3134
6170680b
IZ
3135If you open a pipe on the command C<'-'>, i.e., either C<'|-'> or C<'-|'>
3136with 2-arguments (or 1-argument) form of open(), then
a0d0e21e 3137there is an implicit fork done, and the return value of open is the pid
7660c0ab 3138of the child within the parent process, and C<0> within the child
184e9718 3139process. (Use C<defined($pid)> to determine whether the open was successful.)
a0d0e21e
LW
3140The filehandle behaves normally for the parent, but i/o to that
3141filehandle is piped from/to the STDOUT/STDIN of the child process.
3142In the child process the filehandle isn't opened--i/o happens from/to
3143the new STDOUT or STDIN. Typically this is used like the normal
3144piped open when you want to exercise more control over just how the
3145pipe command gets executed, such as when you are running setuid, and
54310121 3146don't want to have to scan shell commands for metacharacters.
6170680b 3147The following triples are more or less equivalent:
a0d0e21e
LW
3148
3149 open(FOO, "|tr '[a-z]' '[A-Z]'");
6170680b
IZ
3150 open(FOO, '|-', "tr '[a-z]' '[A-Z]'");
3151 open(FOO, '|-') || exec 'tr', '[a-z]', '[A-Z]';
b76cc8ba 3152 open(FOO, '|-', "tr", '[a-z]', '[A-Z]');
a0d0e21e
LW
3153
3154 open(FOO, "cat -n '$file'|");
6170680b
IZ
3155 open(FOO, '-|', "cat -n '$file'");
3156 open(FOO, '-|') || exec 'cat', '-n', $file;
b76cc8ba
NIS
3157 open(FOO, '-|', "cat", '-n', $file);
3158
3159The last example in each block shows the pipe as "list form", which is
64da03b2
JH
3160not yet supported on all platforms. A good rule of thumb is that if
3161your platform has true C<fork()> (in other words, if your platform is
3162UNIX) you can use the list form.
a0d0e21e 3163
4633a7c4
LW
3164See L<perlipc/"Safe Pipe Opens"> for more examples of this.
3165
0f897271
GS
3166Beginning with v5.6.0, Perl will attempt to flush all files opened for
3167output before any operation that may do a fork, but this may not be
3168supported on some platforms (see L<perlport>). To be safe, you may need
3169to set C<$|> ($AUTOFLUSH in English) or call the C<autoflush()> method
3170of C<IO::Handle> on any open handles.
3171
ed53a2bb
JH
3172On systems that support a close-on-exec flag on files, the flag will
3173be set for the newly opened file descriptor as determined by the value
3174of $^F. See L<perlvar/$^F>.
a0d0e21e 3175
0dccf244 3176Closing any piped filehandle causes the parent process to wait for the
e5218da5
GA
3177child to finish, and returns the status value in C<$?> and
3178C<${^CHILD_ERROR_NATIVE}>.
0dccf244 3179
ed53a2bb
JH
3180The filename passed to 2-argument (or 1-argument) form of open() will
3181have leading and trailing whitespace deleted, and the normal
3182redirection characters honored. This property, known as "magic open",
5a964f20 3183can often be used to good effect. A user could specify a filename of
7660c0ab 3184F<"rsh cat file |">, or you could change certain filenames as needed:
5a964f20
TC
3185
3186 $filename =~ s/(.*\.gz)\s*$/gzip -dc < $1|/;
3187 open(FH, $filename) or die "Can't open $filename: $!";
3188
6170680b
IZ
3189Use 3-argument form to open a file with arbitrary weird characters in it,
3190
3191 open(FOO, '<', $file);
3192
3193otherwise it's necessary to protect any leading and trailing whitespace:
5a964f20
TC
3194
3195 $file =~ s#^(\s)#./$1#;
3196 open(FOO, "< $file\0");
3197
a31a806a 3198(this may not work on some bizarre filesystems). One should
106325ad 3199conscientiously choose between the I<magic> and 3-arguments form
6170680b
IZ
3200of open():
3201
3202 open IN, $ARGV[0];
3203
3204will allow the user to specify an argument of the form C<"rsh cat file |">,
3205but will not work on a filename which happens to have a trailing space, while
3206
3207 open IN, '<', $ARGV[0];
3208
3209will have exactly the opposite restrictions.
3210
19799a22 3211If you want a "real" C C<open> (see L<open(2)> on your system), then you
6170680b
IZ
3212should use the C<sysopen> function, which involves no such magic (but
3213may use subtly different filemodes than Perl open(), which is mapped
3214to C fopen()). This is
5a964f20
TC
3215another way to protect your filenames from interpretation. For example:
3216
3217 use IO::Handle;
3218 sysopen(HANDLE, $path, O_RDWR|O_CREAT|O_EXCL)
3219 or die "sysopen $path: $!";
3220 $oldfh = select(HANDLE); $| = 1; select($oldfh);
38762f02 3221 print HANDLE "stuff $$\n";
5a964f20
TC
3222 seek(HANDLE, 0, 0);
3223 print "File contains: ", <HANDLE>;
3224
7660c0ab
A
3225Using the constructor from the C<IO::Handle> package (or one of its
3226subclasses, such as C<IO::File> or C<IO::Socket>), you can generate anonymous
5a964f20
TC
3227filehandles that have the scope of whatever variables hold references to
3228them, and automatically close whenever and however you leave that scope:
c07a80fd 3229
5f05dabc 3230 use IO::File;
5a964f20 3231 #...
c07a80fd
PP
3232 sub read_myfile_munged {
3233 my $ALL = shift;
5f05dabc 3234 my $handle = new IO::File;
c07a80fd
PP
3235 open($handle, "myfile") or die "myfile: $!";
3236 $first = <$handle>
3237 or return (); # Automatically closed here.
3238 mung $first or die "mung failed"; # Or here.
3239 return $first, <$handle> if $ALL; # Or here.
3240 $first; # Or here.
3241 }
3242
b687b08b 3243See L</seek> for some details about mixing reading and writing.
a0d0e21e
LW
3244
3245=item opendir DIRHANDLE,EXPR
3246
19799a22
GS
3247Opens a directory named EXPR for processing by C<readdir>, C<telldir>,
3248C<seekdir>, C<rewinddir>, and C<closedir>. Returns true if successful.
a28cd5c9
NT
3249DIRHANDLE may be an expression whose value can be used as an indirect
3250dirhandle, usually the real dirhandle name. If DIRHANDLE is an undefined
3251scalar variable (or array or hash element), the variable is assigned a
3252reference to a new anonymous dirhandle.
a0d0e21e
LW
3253DIRHANDLEs have their own namespace separate from FILEHANDLEs.
3254
3255=item ord EXPR
3256
54310121 3257=item ord
bbce6d69