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Bug fix for storing shared objects in shared structures
[perl5.git] / pod / perlapi.pod
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1-*- buffer-read-only: t -*-
2
3!!!!!!! DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE !!!!!!!
4This file is built by autodoc.pl extracting documentation from the C source
5files.
6
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7=head1 NAME
8
9perlapi - autogenerated documentation for the perl public API
10
11=head1 DESCRIPTION
d8c40edc 12X<Perl API> X<API> X<api>
954c1994 13
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14This file contains the documentation of the perl public API generated by
15embed.pl, specifically a listing of functions, macros, flags, and variables
16that may be used by extension writers. The interfaces of any functions that
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17are not listed here are subject to change without notice. For this reason,
18blindly using functions listed in proto.h is to be avoided when writing
19extensions.
20
21Note that all Perl API global variables must be referenced with the C<PL_>
22prefix. Some macros are provided for compatibility with the older,
23unadorned names, but this support may be disabled in a future release.
24
25The listing is alphabetical, case insensitive.
26
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27
28=head1 "Gimme" Values
29
30=over 8
31
32=item GIMME
d8c40edc 33X<GIMME>
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34
35A backward-compatible version of C<GIMME_V> which can only return
36C<G_SCALAR> or C<G_ARRAY>; in a void context, it returns C<G_SCALAR>.
37Deprecated. Use C<GIMME_V> instead.
38
39 U32 GIMME
40
41=for hackers
42Found in file op.h
43
44=item GIMME_V
d8c40edc 45X<GIMME_V>
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46
47The XSUB-writer's equivalent to Perl's C<wantarray>. Returns C<G_VOID>,
48C<G_SCALAR> or C<G_ARRAY> for void, scalar or list context,
49respectively.
50
51 U32 GIMME_V
52
53=for hackers
54Found in file op.h
55
56=item G_ARRAY
d8c40edc 57X<G_ARRAY>
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58
59Used to indicate list context. See C<GIMME_V>, C<GIMME> and
60L<perlcall>.
61
62=for hackers
63Found in file cop.h
64
65=item G_DISCARD
d8c40edc 66X<G_DISCARD>
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67
68Indicates that arguments returned from a callback should be discarded. See
69L<perlcall>.
70
71=for hackers
72Found in file cop.h
73
74=item G_EVAL
d8c40edc 75X<G_EVAL>
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76
77Used to force a Perl C<eval> wrapper around a callback. See
78L<perlcall>.
79
80=for hackers
81Found in file cop.h
82
83=item G_NOARGS
d8c40edc 84X<G_NOARGS>
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85
86Indicates that no arguments are being sent to a callback. See
87L<perlcall>.
88
89=for hackers
90Found in file cop.h
91
92=item G_SCALAR
d8c40edc 93X<G_SCALAR>
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94
95Used to indicate scalar context. See C<GIMME_V>, C<GIMME>, and
96L<perlcall>.
97
98=for hackers
99Found in file cop.h
100
101=item G_VOID
d8c40edc 102X<G_VOID>
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103
104Used to indicate void context. See C<GIMME_V> and L<perlcall>.
105
106=for hackers
107Found in file cop.h
108
109
110=back
111
112=head1 Array Manipulation Functions
113
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114=over 8
115
116=item AvFILL
d8c40edc 117X<AvFILL>
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118
119Same as C<av_len()>. Deprecated, use C<av_len()> instead.
120
121 int AvFILL(AV* av)
122
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123=for hackers
124Found in file av.h
125
954c1994 126=item av_clear
d8c40edc 127X<av_clear>
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128
129Clears an array, making it empty. Does not free the memory used by the
130array itself.
131
132 void av_clear(AV* ar)
133
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134=for hackers
135Found in file av.c
136
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137=item av_create_and_push
138X<av_create_and_push>
139
140Push an SV onto the end of the array, creating the array if necessary.
141A small internal helper function to remove a commonly duplicated idiom.
142
143NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be
144removed without notice.
145
146 void av_create_and_push(AV **const avp, SV *const val)
147
148=for hackers
149Found in file av.c
150
151=item av_create_and_unshift_one
152X<av_create_and_unshift_one>
153
154Unshifts an SV onto the beginning of the array, creating the array if
155necessary.
156A small internal helper function to remove a commonly duplicated idiom.
157
158NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be
159removed without notice.
160
161 SV** av_create_and_unshift_one(AV **const avp, SV *const val)
162
163=for hackers
164Found in file av.c
165
f3b76584 166=item av_delete
d8c40edc 167X<av_delete>
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168
169Deletes the element indexed by C<key> from the array. Returns the
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170deleted element. If C<flags> equals C<G_DISCARD>, the element is freed
171and null is returned.
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172
173 SV* av_delete(AV* ar, I32 key, I32 flags)
174
175=for hackers
176Found in file av.c
177
178=item av_exists
d8c40edc 179X<av_exists>
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180
181Returns true if the element indexed by C<key> has been initialized.
182
183This relies on the fact that uninitialized array elements are set to
184C<&PL_sv_undef>.
185
186 bool av_exists(AV* ar, I32 key)
187
188=for hackers
189Found in file av.c
190
954c1994 191=item av_extend
d8c40edc 192X<av_extend>
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193
194Pre-extend an array. The C<key> is the index to which the array should be
195extended.
196
197 void av_extend(AV* ar, I32 key)
198
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199=for hackers
200Found in file av.c
201
954c1994 202=item av_fetch
d8c40edc 203X<av_fetch>
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204
205Returns the SV at the specified index in the array. The C<key> is the
206index. If C<lval> is set then the fetch will be part of a store. Check
207that the return value is non-null before dereferencing it to a C<SV*>.
208
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209See L<perlguts/"Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays"> for
210more information on how to use this function on tied arrays.
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211
212 SV** av_fetch(AV* ar, I32 key, I32 lval)
213
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214=for hackers
215Found in file av.c
216
f3b76584 217=item av_fill
d8c40edc 218X<av_fill>
f3b76584 219
1d51329b 220Set the highest index in the array to the given number, equivalent to
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221Perl's C<$#array = $fill;>.
222
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223The number of elements in the an array will be C<fill + 1> after
224av_fill() returns. If the array was previously shorter then the
225additional elements appended are set to C<PL_sv_undef>. If the array
226was longer, then the excess elements are freed. C<av_fill(av, -1)> is
227the same as C<av_clear(av)>.
228
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229 void av_fill(AV* ar, I32 fill)
230
231=for hackers
232Found in file av.c
233
954c1994 234=item av_len
d8c40edc 235X<av_len>
954c1994 236
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237Returns the highest index in the array. The number of elements in the
238array is C<av_len(av) + 1>. Returns -1 if the array is empty.
954c1994 239
35a4481c 240 I32 av_len(const AV* ar)
954c1994 241
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242=for hackers
243Found in file av.c
244
954c1994 245=item av_make
d8c40edc 246X<av_make>
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247
248Creates a new AV and populates it with a list of SVs. The SVs are copied
249into the array, so they may be freed after the call to av_make. The new AV
250will have a reference count of 1.
251
252 AV* av_make(I32 size, SV** svp)
253
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254=for hackers
255Found in file av.c
256
954c1994 257=item av_pop
d8c40edc 258X<av_pop>
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259
260Pops an SV off the end of the array. Returns C<&PL_sv_undef> if the array
261is empty.
262
263 SV* av_pop(AV* ar)
264
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265=for hackers
266Found in file av.c
267
954c1994 268=item av_push
d8c40edc 269X<av_push>
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270
271Pushes an SV onto the end of the array. The array will grow automatically
272to accommodate the addition.
273
274 void av_push(AV* ar, SV* val)
275
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276=for hackers
277Found in file av.c
278
954c1994 279=item av_shift
d8c40edc 280X<av_shift>
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281
282Shifts an SV off the beginning of the array.
283
284 SV* av_shift(AV* ar)
285
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286=for hackers
287Found in file av.c
288
954c1994 289=item av_store
d8c40edc 290X<av_store>
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291
292Stores an SV in an array. The array index is specified as C<key>. The
293return value will be NULL if the operation failed or if the value did not
294need to be actually stored within the array (as in the case of tied
295arrays). Otherwise it can be dereferenced to get the original C<SV*>. Note
296that the caller is responsible for suitably incrementing the reference
297count of C<val> before the call, and decrementing it if the function
298returned NULL.
299
96f1132b 300See L<perlguts/"Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays"> for
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301more information on how to use this function on tied arrays.
302
303 SV** av_store(AV* ar, I32 key, SV* val)
304
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305=for hackers
306Found in file av.c
307
954c1994 308=item av_undef
d8c40edc 309X<av_undef>
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310
311Undefines the array. Frees the memory used by the array itself.
312
313 void av_undef(AV* ar)
314
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315=for hackers
316Found in file av.c
317
954c1994 318=item av_unshift
d8c40edc 319X<av_unshift>
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320
321Unshift the given number of C<undef> values onto the beginning of the
322array. The array will grow automatically to accommodate the addition. You
323must then use C<av_store> to assign values to these new elements.
324
325 void av_unshift(AV* ar, I32 num)
326
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327=for hackers
328Found in file av.c
329
94bdecf9 330=item get_av
d8c40edc 331X<get_av>
9f2ea798 332
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333Returns the AV of the specified Perl array. If C<create> is set and the
334Perl variable does not exist then it will be created. If C<create> is not
335set and the variable does not exist then NULL is returned.
9f2ea798 336
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337NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.
338
339 AV* get_av(const char* name, I32 create)
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340
341=for hackers
94bdecf9 342Found in file perl.c
9f2ea798 343
94bdecf9 344=item newAV
d8c40edc 345X<newAV>
f9a63242 346
94bdecf9 347Creates a new AV. The reference count is set to 1.
f9a63242 348
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349 AV* newAV()
350
351=for hackers
352Found in file av.c
353
94bdecf9 354=item sortsv
d8c40edc 355X<sortsv>
497711e7 356
94bdecf9 357Sort an array. Here is an example:
497711e7 358
94bdecf9 359 sortsv(AvARRAY(av), av_len(av)+1, Perl_sv_cmp_locale);
eebe1485 360
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361Currently this always uses mergesort. See sortsv_flags for a more
362flexible routine.
641d4181 363
aa924a5a 364 void sortsv(SV** array, size_t num_elts, SVCOMPARE_t cmp)
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365
366=for hackers
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367Found in file pp_sort.c
368
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369=item sortsv_flags
370X<sortsv_flags>
371
372Sort an array, with various options.
373
374 void sortsv_flags(SV** array, size_t num_elts, SVCOMPARE_t cmp, U32 flags)
375
376=for hackers
377Found in file pp_sort.c
378
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379
380=back
381
382=head1 Callback Functions
383
384=over 8
497711e7 385
954c1994 386=item call_argv
d8c40edc 387X<call_argv>
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388
389Performs a callback to the specified Perl sub. See L<perlcall>.
390
391NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.
392
8f42b153 393 I32 call_argv(const char* sub_name, I32 flags, char** argv)
954c1994 394
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395=for hackers
396Found in file perl.c
397
954c1994 398=item call_method
d8c40edc 399X<call_method>
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400
401Performs a callback to the specified Perl method. The blessed object must
402be on the stack. See L<perlcall>.
403
404NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.
405
406 I32 call_method(const char* methname, I32 flags)
407
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408=for hackers
409Found in file perl.c
410
954c1994 411=item call_pv
d8c40edc 412X<call_pv>
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413
414Performs a callback to the specified Perl sub. See L<perlcall>.
415
416NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.
417
418 I32 call_pv(const char* sub_name, I32 flags)
419
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420=for hackers
421Found in file perl.c
422
954c1994 423=item call_sv
d8c40edc 424X<call_sv>
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425
426Performs a callback to the Perl sub whose name is in the SV. See
427L<perlcall>.
428
429NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.
430
431 I32 call_sv(SV* sv, I32 flags)
432
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433=for hackers
434Found in file perl.c
435
94bdecf9 436=item ENTER
d8c40edc 437X<ENTER>
954c1994 438
94bdecf9 439Opening bracket on a callback. See C<LEAVE> and L<perlcall>.
954c1994 440
94bdecf9 441 ENTER;
954c1994 442
497711e7 443=for hackers
94bdecf9 444Found in file scope.h
497711e7 445
94bdecf9 446=item eval_pv
d8c40edc 447X<eval_pv>
954c1994 448
94bdecf9 449Tells Perl to C<eval> the given string and return an SV* result.
954c1994 450
94bdecf9 451NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.
954c1994 452
94bdecf9 453 SV* eval_pv(const char* p, I32 croak_on_error)
497711e7 454
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455=for hackers
456Found in file perl.c
954c1994 457
94bdecf9 458=item eval_sv
d8c40edc 459X<eval_sv>
c9d5ac95 460
94bdecf9 461Tells Perl to C<eval> the string in the SV.
c9d5ac95 462
94bdecf9 463NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.
954c1994 464
94bdecf9 465 I32 eval_sv(SV* sv, I32 flags)
954c1994 466
497711e7 467=for hackers
94bdecf9 468Found in file perl.c
497711e7 469
94bdecf9 470=item FREETMPS
d8c40edc 471X<FREETMPS>
954c1994 472
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473Closing bracket for temporaries on a callback. See C<SAVETMPS> and
474L<perlcall>.
954c1994 475
94bdecf9 476 FREETMPS;
954c1994 477
497711e7 478=for hackers
94bdecf9 479Found in file scope.h
beab0874 480
94bdecf9 481=item LEAVE
d8c40edc 482X<LEAVE>
beab0874 483
94bdecf9 484Closing bracket on a callback. See C<ENTER> and L<perlcall>.
beab0874 485
94bdecf9 486 LEAVE;
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487
488=for hackers
94bdecf9 489Found in file scope.h
beab0874 490
94bdecf9 491=item SAVETMPS
d8c40edc 492X<SAVETMPS>
9f2ea798 493
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494Opening bracket for temporaries on a callback. See C<FREETMPS> and
495L<perlcall>.
9f2ea798 496
94bdecf9 497 SAVETMPS;
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498
499=for hackers
94bdecf9 500Found in file scope.h
9f2ea798 501
9f2ea798 502
94bdecf9 503=back
9f2ea798 504
94bdecf9 505=head1 Character classes
9f2ea798 506
94bdecf9 507=over 8
9f2ea798 508
94bdecf9 509=item isALNUM
d8c40edc 510X<isALNUM>
954c1994 511
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512Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is an ASCII alphanumeric
513character (including underscore) or digit.
954c1994 514
94bdecf9 515 bool isALNUM(char ch)
954c1994 516
497711e7 517=for hackers
94bdecf9 518Found in file handy.h
497711e7 519
94bdecf9 520=item isALPHA
d8c40edc 521X<isALPHA>
954c1994 522
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523Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is an ASCII alphabetic
524character.
954c1994 525
94bdecf9 526 bool isALPHA(char ch)
954c1994 527
497711e7 528=for hackers
94bdecf9 529Found in file handy.h
497711e7 530
94bdecf9 531=item isDIGIT
d8c40edc 532X<isDIGIT>
954c1994 533
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534Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is an ASCII
535digit.
954c1994 536
94bdecf9 537 bool isDIGIT(char ch)
954c1994 538
497711e7 539=for hackers
94bdecf9 540Found in file handy.h
497711e7 541
94bdecf9 542=item isLOWER
d8c40edc 543X<isLOWER>
954c1994 544
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545Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is a lowercase
546character.
954c1994 547
94bdecf9 548 bool isLOWER(char ch)
954c1994 549
497711e7 550=for hackers
94bdecf9 551Found in file handy.h
497711e7 552
94bdecf9 553=item isSPACE
d8c40edc 554X<isSPACE>
954c1994 555
94bdecf9 556Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is whitespace.
954c1994 557
94bdecf9 558 bool isSPACE(char ch)
954c1994 559
497711e7 560=for hackers
94bdecf9 561Found in file handy.h
497711e7 562
94bdecf9 563=item isUPPER
d8c40edc 564X<isUPPER>
954c1994 565
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566Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is an uppercase
567character.
954c1994 568
94bdecf9 569 bool isUPPER(char ch)
954c1994 570
497711e7 571=for hackers
94bdecf9 572Found in file handy.h
497711e7 573
94bdecf9 574=item toLOWER
d8c40edc 575X<toLOWER>
954c1994 576
94bdecf9 577Converts the specified character to lowercase.
954c1994 578
94bdecf9 579 char toLOWER(char ch)
954c1994 580
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581=for hackers
582Found in file handy.h
583
584=item toUPPER
d8c40edc 585X<toUPPER>
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586
587Converts the specified character to uppercase.
588
589 char toUPPER(char ch)
954c1994 590
497711e7 591=for hackers
94bdecf9 592Found in file handy.h
497711e7 593
954c1994 594
94bdecf9 595=back
954c1994 596
94bdecf9 597=head1 Cloning an interpreter
954c1994 598
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599=over 8
600
601=item perl_clone
d8c40edc 602X<perl_clone>
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603
604Create and return a new interpreter by cloning the current one.
605
4be49ee6 606perl_clone takes these flags as parameters:
c78c2b74 607
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608CLONEf_COPY_STACKS - is used to, well, copy the stacks also,
609without it we only clone the data and zero the stacks,
610with it we copy the stacks and the new perl interpreter is
611ready to run at the exact same point as the previous one.
612The pseudo-fork code uses COPY_STACKS while the
878090d5 613threads->create doesn't.
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614
615CLONEf_KEEP_PTR_TABLE
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616perl_clone keeps a ptr_table with the pointer of the old
617variable as a key and the new variable as a value,
618this allows it to check if something has been cloned and not
619clone it again but rather just use the value and increase the
620refcount. If KEEP_PTR_TABLE is not set then perl_clone will kill
621the ptr_table using the function
622C<ptr_table_free(PL_ptr_table); PL_ptr_table = NULL;>,
623reason to keep it around is if you want to dup some of your own
624variable who are outside the graph perl scans, example of this
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625code is in threads.xs create
626
627CLONEf_CLONE_HOST
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628This is a win32 thing, it is ignored on unix, it tells perls
629win32host code (which is c++) to clone itself, this is needed on
630win32 if you want to run two threads at the same time,
631if you just want to do some stuff in a separate perl interpreter
632and then throw it away and return to the original one,
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633you don't need to do anything.
634
94bdecf9 635 PerlInterpreter* perl_clone(PerlInterpreter* interp, UV flags)
954c1994 636
497711e7 637=for hackers
94bdecf9 638Found in file sv.c
497711e7 639
954c1994 640
94bdecf9 641=back
954c1994 642
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643=head1 CV Manipulation Functions
644
645=over 8
646
647=item CvSTASH
d8c40edc 648X<CvSTASH>
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649
650Returns the stash of the CV.
651
652 HV* CvSTASH(CV* cv)
954c1994 653
497711e7 654=for hackers
94bdecf9 655Found in file cv.h
497711e7 656
94bdecf9 657=item get_cv
d8c40edc 658X<get_cv>
954c1994 659
36dfb072 660Uses C<strlen> to get the length of C<name>, then calls C<get_cvn_flags>.
954c1994 661
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662NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.
663
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664 CV* get_cv(const char* name, I32 flags)
665
666=for hackers
667Found in file perl.c
668
669=item get_cvn_flags
670X<get_cvn_flags>
671
672Returns the CV of the specified Perl subroutine. C<flags> are passed to
673C<gv_fetchpvn_flags>. If C<GV_ADD> is set and the Perl subroutine does not
674exist then it will be declared (which has the same effect as saying
675C<sub name;>). If C<GV_ADD> is not set and the subroutine does not exist
676then NULL is returned.
677
678NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.
679
680 CV* get_cvn_flags(const char* name, STRLEN len, I32 flags)
954c1994 681
497711e7 682=for hackers
94bdecf9 683Found in file perl.c
497711e7 684
7c9e965c 685
94bdecf9 686=back
7c9e965c 687
94bdecf9 688=head1 Embedding Functions
7c9e965c 689
94bdecf9 690=over 8
7c9e965c 691
7dafbf52 692=item cv_undef
d8c40edc 693X<cv_undef>
7dafbf52
DM
694
695Clear out all the active components of a CV. This can happen either
696by an explicit C<undef &foo>, or by the reference count going to zero.
697In the former case, we keep the CvOUTSIDE pointer, so that any anonymous
698children can still follow the full lexical scope chain.
699
700 void cv_undef(CV* cv)
701
702=for hackers
703Found in file op.c
704
94bdecf9 705=item load_module
d8c40edc 706X<load_module>
7c9e965c 707
94bdecf9
JH
708Loads the module whose name is pointed to by the string part of name.
709Note that the actual module name, not its filename, should be given.
710Eg, "Foo::Bar" instead of "Foo/Bar.pm". flags can be any of
711PERL_LOADMOD_DENY, PERL_LOADMOD_NOIMPORT, or PERL_LOADMOD_IMPORT_OPS
712(or 0 for no flags). ver, if specified, provides version semantics
713similar to C<use Foo::Bar VERSION>. The optional trailing SV*
714arguments can be used to specify arguments to the module's import()
715method, similar to C<use Foo::Bar VERSION LIST>.
7c9e965c 716
94bdecf9 717 void load_module(U32 flags, SV* name, SV* ver, ...)
7c9e965c
JP
718
719=for hackers
94bdecf9 720Found in file op.c
7c9e965c 721
62375a60 722=item nothreadhook
d8c40edc 723X<nothreadhook>
62375a60
NIS
724
725Stub that provides thread hook for perl_destruct when there are
726no threads.
727
728 int nothreadhook()
729
730=for hackers
731Found in file perl.c
732
94bdecf9 733=item perl_alloc
d8c40edc 734X<perl_alloc>
954c1994 735
94bdecf9 736Allocates a new Perl interpreter. See L<perlembed>.
954c1994 737
94bdecf9 738 PerlInterpreter* perl_alloc()
954c1994 739
497711e7 740=for hackers
94bdecf9 741Found in file perl.c
497711e7 742
94bdecf9 743=item perl_construct
d8c40edc 744X<perl_construct>
89423764 745
94bdecf9 746Initializes a new Perl interpreter. See L<perlembed>.
89423764 747
94bdecf9 748 void perl_construct(PerlInterpreter* interp)
89423764
GS
749
750=for hackers
94bdecf9 751Found in file perl.c
954c1994 752
94bdecf9 753=item perl_destruct
d8c40edc 754X<perl_destruct>
954c1994 755
94bdecf9 756Shuts down a Perl interpreter. See L<perlembed>.
954c1994 757
94bdecf9 758 int perl_destruct(PerlInterpreter* interp)
954c1994 759
497711e7
GS
760=for hackers
761Found in file perl.c
762
94bdecf9 763=item perl_free
d8c40edc 764X<perl_free>
954c1994 765
94bdecf9 766Releases a Perl interpreter. See L<perlembed>.
954c1994 767
94bdecf9 768 void perl_free(PerlInterpreter* interp)
954c1994 769
497711e7
GS
770=for hackers
771Found in file perl.c
772
94bdecf9 773=item perl_parse
d8c40edc 774X<perl_parse>
954c1994 775
94bdecf9 776Tells a Perl interpreter to parse a Perl script. See L<perlembed>.
954c1994 777
94bdecf9 778 int perl_parse(PerlInterpreter* interp, XSINIT_t xsinit, int argc, char** argv, char** env)
954c1994 779
94bdecf9
JH
780=for hackers
781Found in file perl.c
782
783=item perl_run
d8c40edc 784X<perl_run>
94bdecf9
JH
785
786Tells a Perl interpreter to run. See L<perlembed>.
787
788 int perl_run(PerlInterpreter* interp)
954c1994 789
497711e7
GS
790=for hackers
791Found in file perl.c
792
94bdecf9 793=item require_pv
d8c40edc 794X<require_pv>
954c1994 795
94bdecf9
JH
796Tells Perl to C<require> the file named by the string argument. It is
797analogous to the Perl code C<eval "require '$file'">. It's even
2307c6d0 798implemented that way; consider using load_module instead.
954c1994
GS
799
800NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.
801
94bdecf9 802 void require_pv(const char* pv)
954c1994 803
497711e7
GS
804=for hackers
805Found in file perl.c
806
954c1994 807
94bdecf9 808=back
954c1994 809
3df15adc
YO
810=head1 Functions in file dump.c
811
812
813=over 8
814
815=item pv_display
816X<pv_display>
817
818 char *pv_display(SV *dsv, const char *pv, STRLEN cur, STRLEN len,
819 STRLEN pvlim, U32 flags)
820
821Similar to
822
823 pv_escape(dsv,pv,cur,pvlim,PERL_PV_ESCAPE_QUOTE);
824
825except that an additional "\0" will be appended to the string when
826len > cur and pv[cur] is "\0".
827
828Note that the final string may be up to 7 chars longer than pvlim.
829
830 char* pv_display(SV *dsv, const char *pv, STRLEN cur, STRLEN len, STRLEN pvlim)
831
832=for hackers
833Found in file dump.c
834
835=item pv_escape
836X<pv_escape>
837
ddc5bc0f
YO
838 |const STRLEN count|const STRLEN max
839 |STRLEN const *escaped, const U32 flags
840
3df15adc 841Escapes at most the first "count" chars of pv and puts the results into
ddc5bc0f 842dsv such that the size of the escaped string will not exceed "max" chars
3df15adc
YO
843and will not contain any incomplete escape sequences.
844
ddc5bc0f
YO
845If flags contains PERL_PV_ESCAPE_QUOTE then any double quotes in the string
846will also be escaped.
3df15adc
YO
847
848Normally the SV will be cleared before the escaped string is prepared,
ddc5bc0f
YO
849but when PERL_PV_ESCAPE_NOCLEAR is set this will not occur.
850
38a44b82 851If PERL_PV_ESCAPE_UNI is set then the input string is treated as Unicode,
ddc5bc0f 852if PERL_PV_ESCAPE_UNI_DETECT is set then the input string is scanned
38a44b82 853using C<is_utf8_string()> to determine if it is Unicode.
ddc5bc0f
YO
854
855If PERL_PV_ESCAPE_ALL is set then all input chars will be output
856using C<\x01F1> style escapes, otherwise only chars above 255 will be
857escaped using this style, other non printable chars will use octal or
858common escaped patterns like C<\n>. If PERL_PV_ESCAPE_NOBACKSLASH
859then all chars below 255 will be treated as printable and
860will be output as literals.
861
862If PERL_PV_ESCAPE_FIRSTCHAR is set then only the first char of the
863string will be escaped, regardles of max. If the string is utf8 and
864the chars value is >255 then it will be returned as a plain hex
865sequence. Thus the output will either be a single char,
866an octal escape sequence, a special escape like C<\n> or a 3 or
867more digit hex value.
868
44a2ac75
YO
869If PERL_PV_ESCAPE_RE is set then the escape char used will be a '%' and
870not a '\\'. This is because regexes very often contain backslashed
871sequences, whereas '%' is not a particularly common character in patterns.
872
ddc5bc0f 873Returns a pointer to the escaped text as held by dsv.
3df15adc 874
ddc5bc0f
YO
875NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.
876
877 char* pv_escape(SV *dsv, char const * const str, const STRLEN count, const STRLEN max, STRLEN * const escaped, const U32 flags)
878
879=for hackers
880Found in file dump.c
3df15adc 881
ddc5bc0f
YO
882=item pv_pretty
883X<pv_pretty>
884
885 |const STRLEN count|const STRLEN max\
886 |const char const *start_color| const char const *end_color\
887 |const U32 flags
888
889Converts a string into something presentable, handling escaping via
95b611b0 890pv_escape() and supporting quoting and ellipses.
ddc5bc0f
YO
891
892If the PERL_PV_PRETTY_QUOTE flag is set then the result will be
893double quoted with any double quotes in the string escaped. Otherwise
894if the PERL_PV_PRETTY_LTGT flag is set then the result be wrapped in
895angle brackets.
896
95b611b0
RGS
897If the PERL_PV_PRETTY_ELLIPSES flag is set and not all characters in
898string were output then an ellipsis C<...> will be appended to the
ddc5bc0f
YO
899string. Note that this happens AFTER it has been quoted.
900
901If start_color is non-null then it will be inserted after the opening
902quote (if there is one) but before the escaped text. If end_color
903is non-null then it will be inserted after the escaped text but before
95b611b0 904any quotes or ellipses.
ddc5bc0f
YO
905
906Returns a pointer to the prettified text as held by dsv.
907
3df15adc
YO
908NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.
909
ddc5bc0f 910 char* pv_pretty(SV *dsv, char const * const str, const STRLEN count, const STRLEN max, char const * const start_color, char const * const end_color, const U32 flags)
3df15adc
YO
911
912=for hackers
913Found in file dump.c
914
915
916=back
917
9244d4ad
RGS
918=head1 Functions in file mathoms.c
919
920
921=over 8
922
923=item gv_fetchmethod
924X<gv_fetchmethod>
925
926See L<gv_fetchmethod_autoload>.
927
928 GV* gv_fetchmethod(HV* stash, const char* name)
929
930=for hackers
931Found in file mathoms.c
932
b47163a2
NC
933=item pack_cat
934X<pack_cat>
935
936The engine implementing pack() Perl function. Note: parameters next_in_list and
937flags are not used. This call should not be used; use packlist instead.
938
939 void pack_cat(SV *cat, const char *pat, const char *patend, SV **beglist, SV **endlist, SV ***next_in_list, U32 flags)
940
941=for hackers
942Found in file mathoms.c
943
9244d4ad
RGS
944=item sv_2pvbyte_nolen
945X<sv_2pvbyte_nolen>
946
947Return a pointer to the byte-encoded representation of the SV.
948May cause the SV to be downgraded from UTF-8 as a side-effect.
949
950Usually accessed via the C<SvPVbyte_nolen> macro.
951
952 char* sv_2pvbyte_nolen(SV* sv)
953
954=for hackers
955Found in file mathoms.c
956
957=item sv_2pvutf8_nolen
958X<sv_2pvutf8_nolen>
959
960Return a pointer to the UTF-8-encoded representation of the SV.
961May cause the SV to be upgraded to UTF-8 as a side-effect.
962
963Usually accessed via the C<SvPVutf8_nolen> macro.
964
965 char* sv_2pvutf8_nolen(SV* sv)
966
967=for hackers
968Found in file mathoms.c
969
970=item sv_2pv_nolen
971X<sv_2pv_nolen>
972
973Like C<sv_2pv()>, but doesn't return the length too. You should usually
974use the macro wrapper C<SvPV_nolen(sv)> instead.
975 char* sv_2pv_nolen(SV* sv)
976
977=for hackers
978Found in file mathoms.c
979
980=item sv_catpvn_mg
981X<sv_catpvn_mg>
982
983Like C<sv_catpvn>, but also handles 'set' magic.
984
985 void sv_catpvn_mg(SV *sv, const char *ptr, STRLEN len)
986
987=for hackers
988Found in file mathoms.c
989
990=item sv_catsv_mg
991X<sv_catsv_mg>
992
993Like C<sv_catsv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
994
995 void sv_catsv_mg(SV *dstr, SV *sstr)
996
997=for hackers
998Found in file mathoms.c
999
1000=item sv_force_normal
1001X<sv_force_normal>
1002
1003Undo various types of fakery on an SV: if the PV is a shared string, make
1004a private copy; if we're a ref, stop refing; if we're a glob, downgrade to
1005an xpvmg. See also C<sv_force_normal_flags>.
1006
1007 void sv_force_normal(SV *sv)
1008
1009=for hackers
1010Found in file mathoms.c
1011
1012=item sv_iv
1013X<sv_iv>
1014
1015A private implementation of the C<SvIVx> macro for compilers which can't
1016cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the macro instead.
1017
1018 IV sv_iv(SV* sv)
1019
1020=for hackers
1021Found in file mathoms.c
1022
1023=item sv_nolocking
1024X<sv_nolocking>
1025
1026Dummy routine which "locks" an SV when there is no locking module present.
1027Exists to avoid test for a NULL function pointer and because it could
1028potentially warn under some level of strict-ness.
1029
1030"Superseded" by sv_nosharing().
1031
c48640ec 1032 void sv_nolocking(SV *sv)
9244d4ad
RGS
1033
1034=for hackers
1035Found in file mathoms.c
1036
1037=item sv_nounlocking
1038X<sv_nounlocking>
1039
1040Dummy routine which "unlocks" an SV when there is no locking module present.
1041Exists to avoid test for a NULL function pointer and because it could
1042potentially warn under some level of strict-ness.
1043
1044"Superseded" by sv_nosharing().
1045
c48640ec 1046 void sv_nounlocking(SV *sv)
9244d4ad
RGS
1047
1048=for hackers
1049Found in file mathoms.c
1050
1051=item sv_nv
1052X<sv_nv>
1053
1054A private implementation of the C<SvNVx> macro for compilers which can't
1055cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the macro instead.
1056
1057 NV sv_nv(SV* sv)
1058
1059=for hackers
1060Found in file mathoms.c
1061
1062=item sv_pv
1063X<sv_pv>
1064
1065Use the C<SvPV_nolen> macro instead
1066
1067 char* sv_pv(SV *sv)
1068
1069=for hackers
1070Found in file mathoms.c
1071
1072=item sv_pvbyte
1073X<sv_pvbyte>
1074
1075Use C<SvPVbyte_nolen> instead.
1076
1077 char* sv_pvbyte(SV *sv)
1078
1079=for hackers
1080Found in file mathoms.c
1081
1082=item sv_pvbyten
1083X<sv_pvbyten>
1084
1085A private implementation of the C<SvPVbyte> macro for compilers
1086which can't cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the macro
1087instead.
1088
1089 char* sv_pvbyten(SV *sv, STRLEN *len)
1090
1091=for hackers
1092Found in file mathoms.c
1093
1094=item sv_pvn
1095X<sv_pvn>
1096
1097A private implementation of the C<SvPV> macro for compilers which can't
1098cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the macro instead.
1099
1100 char* sv_pvn(SV *sv, STRLEN *len)
1101
1102=for hackers
1103Found in file mathoms.c
1104
1105=item sv_pvutf8
1106X<sv_pvutf8>
1107
1108Use the C<SvPVutf8_nolen> macro instead
1109
1110 char* sv_pvutf8(SV *sv)
1111
1112=for hackers
1113Found in file mathoms.c
1114
1115=item sv_pvutf8n
1116X<sv_pvutf8n>
1117
1118A private implementation of the C<SvPVutf8> macro for compilers
1119which can't cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the macro
1120instead.
1121
1122 char* sv_pvutf8n(SV *sv, STRLEN *len)
1123
1124=for hackers
1125Found in file mathoms.c
1126
1127=item sv_taint
1128X<sv_taint>
1129
1130Taint an SV. Use C<SvTAINTED_on> instead.
1131 void sv_taint(SV* sv)
1132
1133=for hackers
1134Found in file mathoms.c
1135
1136=item sv_unref
1137X<sv_unref>
1138
1139Unsets the RV status of the SV, and decrements the reference count of
1140whatever was being referenced by the RV. This can almost be thought of
1141as a reversal of C<newSVrv>. This is C<sv_unref_flags> with the C<flag>
1142being zero. See C<SvROK_off>.
1143
1144 void sv_unref(SV* sv)
1145
1146=for hackers
1147Found in file mathoms.c
1148
fed01289
SP
1149=item sv_usepvn
1150X<sv_usepvn>
1151
1152Tells an SV to use C<ptr> to find its string value. Implemented by
1153calling C<sv_usepvn_flags> with C<flags> of 0, hence does not handle 'set'
1154magic. See C<sv_usepvn_flags>.
1155
1156 void sv_usepvn(SV* sv, char* ptr, STRLEN len)
1157
1158=for hackers
1159Found in file mathoms.c
1160
1161=item sv_usepvn_mg
1162X<sv_usepvn_mg>
1163
1164Like C<sv_usepvn>, but also handles 'set' magic.
1165
1166 void sv_usepvn_mg(SV *sv, char *ptr, STRLEN len)
1167
1168=for hackers
1169Found in file mathoms.c
1170
9244d4ad
RGS
1171=item sv_uv
1172X<sv_uv>
1173
1174A private implementation of the C<SvUVx> macro for compilers which can't
1175cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the macro instead.
1176
1177 UV sv_uv(SV* sv)
1178
1179=for hackers
1180Found in file mathoms.c
1181
95be277c
NC
1182=item unpack_str
1183X<unpack_str>
1184
1185The engine implementing unpack() Perl function. Note: parameters strbeg, new_s
1186and ocnt are not used. This call should not be used, use unpackstring instead.
1187
1188 I32 unpack_str(const char *pat, const char *patend, const char *s, const char *strbeg, const char *strend, char **new_s, I32 ocnt, U32 flags)
1189
1190=for hackers
1191Found in file mathoms.c
1192
9244d4ad
RGS
1193
1194=back
1195
daad78fc
RGS
1196=head1 Functions in file pp_ctl.c
1197
1198
1199=over 8
1200
1201=item find_runcv
1202X<find_runcv>
1203
1204Locate the CV corresponding to the currently executing sub or eval.
1205If db_seqp is non_null, skip CVs that are in the DB package and populate
1206*db_seqp with the cop sequence number at the point that the DB:: code was
1207entered. (allows debuggers to eval in the scope of the breakpoint rather
1208than in the scope of the debugger itself).
1209
1210 CV* find_runcv(U32 *db_seqp)
1211
1212=for hackers
1213Found in file pp_ctl.c
1214
1215
1216=back
1217
6050d10e
JP
1218=head1 Functions in file pp_pack.c
1219
1220
1221=over 8
1222
7accc089 1223=item packlist
d8c40edc 1224X<packlist>
6050d10e
JP
1225
1226The engine implementing pack() Perl function.
1227
f7fe979e 1228 void packlist(SV *cat, const char *pat, const char *patend, SV **beglist, SV **endlist)
7accc089
JH
1229
1230=for hackers
1231Found in file pp_pack.c
1232
7accc089 1233=item unpackstring
d8c40edc 1234X<unpackstring>
6050d10e 1235
608d3aed
LW
1236The engine implementing unpack() Perl function. C<unpackstring> puts the
1237extracted list items on the stack and returns the number of elements.
1238Issue C<PUTBACK> before and C<SPAGAIN> after the call to this function.
6050d10e 1239
f7fe979e 1240 I32 unpackstring(const char *pat, const char *patend, const char *s, const char *strend, U32 flags)
7accc089
JH
1241
1242=for hackers
1243Found in file pp_pack.c
1244
6050d10e
JP
1245
1246=back
1247
94bdecf9 1248=head1 GV Functions
6e9d1081 1249
94bdecf9 1250=over 8
6e9d1081 1251
954c1994 1252=item GvSV
d8c40edc 1253X<GvSV>
954c1994
GS
1254
1255Return the SV from the GV.
1256
1257 SV* GvSV(GV* gv)
1258
497711e7
GS
1259=for hackers
1260Found in file gv.h
1261
9f435386
RGS
1262=item gv_const_sv
1263X<gv_const_sv>
1264
1265If C<gv> is a typeglob whose subroutine entry is a constant sub eligible for
1266inlining, or C<gv> is a placeholder reference that would be promoted to such
1267a typeglob, then returns the value returned by the sub. Otherwise, returns
1268NULL.
1269
1270 SV* gv_const_sv(GV* gv)
1271
1272=for hackers
1273Found in file gv.c
1274
954c1994 1275=item gv_fetchmeth
d8c40edc 1276X<gv_fetchmeth>
954c1994
GS
1277
1278Returns the glob with the given C<name> and a defined subroutine or
1279C<NULL>. The glob lives in the given C<stash>, or in the stashes
a453c169 1280accessible via @ISA and UNIVERSAL::.
954c1994
GS
1281
1282The argument C<level> should be either 0 or -1. If C<level==0>, as a
1283side-effect creates a glob with the given C<name> in the given C<stash>
1284which in the case of success contains an alias for the subroutine, and sets
e1a479c5 1285up caching info for this glob.
954c1994
GS
1286
1287This function grants C<"SUPER"> token as a postfix of the stash name. The
1288GV returned from C<gv_fetchmeth> may be a method cache entry, which is not
4929bf7b 1289visible to Perl code. So when calling C<call_sv>, you should not use
954c1994 1290the GV directly; instead, you should use the method's CV, which can be
1c846c1f 1291obtained from the GV with the C<GvCV> macro.
954c1994
GS
1292
1293 GV* gv_fetchmeth(HV* stash, const char* name, STRLEN len, I32 level)
1294
497711e7
GS
1295=for hackers
1296Found in file gv.c
1297
954c1994 1298=item gv_fetchmethod_autoload
d8c40edc 1299X<gv_fetchmethod_autoload>
954c1994
GS
1300
1301Returns the glob which contains the subroutine to call to invoke the method
1302on the C<stash>. In fact in the presence of autoloading this may be the
1303glob for "AUTOLOAD". In this case the corresponding variable $AUTOLOAD is
1c846c1f 1304already setup.
954c1994
GS
1305
1306The third parameter of C<gv_fetchmethod_autoload> determines whether
1307AUTOLOAD lookup is performed if the given method is not present: non-zero
1c846c1f 1308means yes, look for AUTOLOAD; zero means no, don't look for AUTOLOAD.
954c1994 1309Calling C<gv_fetchmethod> is equivalent to calling C<gv_fetchmethod_autoload>
1c846c1f 1310with a non-zero C<autoload> parameter.
954c1994
GS
1311
1312These functions grant C<"SUPER"> token as a prefix of the method name. Note
1313that if you want to keep the returned glob for a long time, you need to
1314check for it being "AUTOLOAD", since at the later time the call may load a
1315different subroutine due to $AUTOLOAD changing its value. Use the glob
1c846c1f 1316created via a side effect to do this.
954c1994
GS
1317
1318These functions have the same side-effects and as C<gv_fetchmeth> with
1319C<level==0>. C<name> should be writable if contains C<':'> or C<'
1320''>. The warning against passing the GV returned by C<gv_fetchmeth> to
1c846c1f 1321C<call_sv> apply equally to these functions.
954c1994
GS
1322
1323 GV* gv_fetchmethod_autoload(HV* stash, const char* name, I32 autoload)
1324
497711e7
GS
1325=for hackers
1326Found in file gv.c
1327
0c81b680 1328=item gv_fetchmeth_autoload
d8c40edc 1329X<gv_fetchmeth_autoload>
0c81b680
JH
1330
1331Same as gv_fetchmeth(), but looks for autoloaded subroutines too.
1332Returns a glob for the subroutine.
1333
1334For an autoloaded subroutine without a GV, will create a GV even
1335if C<level < 0>. For an autoloaded subroutine without a stub, GvCV()
1336of the result may be zero.
1337
1338 GV* gv_fetchmeth_autoload(HV* stash, const char* name, STRLEN len, I32 level)
1339
1340=for hackers
1341Found in file gv.c
1342
954c1994 1343=item gv_stashpv
d8c40edc 1344X<gv_stashpv>
954c1994 1345
da51bb9b 1346Returns a pointer to the stash for a specified package. Uses C<strlen> to
75c442e4 1347determine the length of C<name>, then calls C<gv_stashpvn()>.
bc96cb06 1348
da51bb9b 1349 HV* gv_stashpv(const char* name, I32 flags)
bc96cb06
SH
1350
1351=for hackers
1352Found in file gv.c
1353
1354=item gv_stashpvn
d8c40edc 1355X<gv_stashpvn>
bc96cb06 1356
da51bb9b
NC
1357Returns a pointer to the stash for a specified package. The C<namelen>
1358parameter indicates the length of the C<name>, in bytes. C<flags> is passed
1359to C<gv_fetchpvn_flags()>, so if set to C<GV_ADD> then the package will be
1360created if it does not already exist. If the package does not exist and
1361C<flags> is 0 (or any other setting that does not create packages) then NULL
1362is returned.
954c1994 1363
da51bb9b
NC
1364
1365 HV* gv_stashpvn(const char* name, U32 namelen, I32 flags)
954c1994 1366
497711e7
GS
1367=for hackers
1368Found in file gv.c
1369
3fe05580
MHM
1370=item gv_stashpvs
1371X<gv_stashpvs>
1372
1373Like C<gv_stashpvn>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.
1374
1375 HV* gv_stashpvs(const char* name, I32 create)
1376
1377=for hackers
1378Found in file handy.h
1379
954c1994 1380=item gv_stashsv
d8c40edc 1381X<gv_stashsv>
954c1994 1382
da51bb9b 1383Returns a pointer to the stash for a specified package. See C<gv_stashpvn>.
954c1994 1384
da51bb9b 1385 HV* gv_stashsv(SV* sv, I32 flags)
954c1994 1386
497711e7
GS
1387=for hackers
1388Found in file gv.c
1389
954c1994 1390
94bdecf9 1391=back
954c1994 1392
94bdecf9 1393=head1 Handy Values
497711e7 1394
94bdecf9 1395=over 8
954c1994 1396
e509e693 1397=item Nullav
d8c40edc 1398X<Nullav>
497711e7 1399
e509e693 1400Null AV pointer.
954c1994 1401
94bdecf9 1402=for hackers
e509e693 1403Found in file av.h
954c1994 1404
dd2155a4 1405=item Nullch
d8c40edc 1406X<Nullch>
94bdecf9
JH
1407
1408Null character pointer.
2307c6d0 1409
497711e7 1410=for hackers
94bdecf9 1411Found in file handy.h
497711e7 1412
e509e693 1413=item Nullcv
d8c40edc 1414X<Nullcv>
e509e693
SH
1415
1416Null CV pointer.
1417
1418=for hackers
1419Found in file cv.h
1420
1421=item Nullhv
d8c40edc 1422X<Nullhv>
e509e693
SH
1423
1424Null HV pointer.
1425
1426=for hackers
1427Found in file hv.h
1428
94bdecf9 1429=item Nullsv
d8c40edc 1430X<Nullsv>
954c1994 1431
94bdecf9 1432Null SV pointer.
954c1994 1433
497711e7 1434=for hackers
94bdecf9 1435Found in file handy.h
497711e7 1436
954c1994 1437
94bdecf9 1438=back
954c1994 1439
94bdecf9 1440=head1 Hash Manipulation Functions
497711e7 1441
94bdecf9 1442=over 8
954c1994 1443
94bdecf9 1444=item get_hv
d8c40edc 1445X<get_hv>
954c1994 1446
94bdecf9
JH
1447Returns the HV of the specified Perl hash. If C<create> is set and the
1448Perl variable does not exist then it will be created. If C<create> is not
1449set and the variable does not exist then NULL is returned.
497711e7 1450
94bdecf9 1451NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.
954c1994 1452
94bdecf9 1453 HV* get_hv(const char* name, I32 create)
954c1994 1454
497711e7 1455=for hackers
94bdecf9 1456Found in file perl.c
497711e7 1457
e509e693 1458=item HEf_SVKEY
d8c40edc 1459X<HEf_SVKEY>
e509e693
SH
1460
1461This flag, used in the length slot of hash entries and magic structures,
1462specifies the structure contains an C<SV*> pointer where a C<char*> pointer
1463is to be expected. (For information only--not to be used).
1464
1465=for hackers
1466Found in file hv.h
1467
954c1994 1468=item HeHASH
d8c40edc 1469X<HeHASH>
954c1994
GS
1470
1471Returns the computed hash stored in the hash entry.
1472
1473 U32 HeHASH(HE* he)
1474
497711e7
GS
1475=for hackers
1476Found in file hv.h
1477
954c1994 1478=item HeKEY
d8c40edc 1479X<HeKEY>
954c1994
GS
1480
1481Returns the actual pointer stored in the key slot of the hash entry. The
1482pointer may be either C<char*> or C<SV*>, depending on the value of
1483C<HeKLEN()>. Can be assigned to. The C<HePV()> or C<HeSVKEY()> macros are
1484usually preferable for finding the value of a key.
1485
1486 void* HeKEY(HE* he)
1487
497711e7
GS
1488=for hackers
1489Found in file hv.h
1490
954c1994 1491=item HeKLEN
d8c40edc 1492X<HeKLEN>
954c1994
GS
1493
1494If this is negative, and amounts to C<HEf_SVKEY>, it indicates the entry
1495holds an C<SV*> key. Otherwise, holds the actual length of the key. Can
1496be assigned to. The C<HePV()> macro is usually preferable for finding key
1497lengths.
1498
1499 STRLEN HeKLEN(HE* he)
1500
497711e7
GS
1501=for hackers
1502Found in file hv.h
1503
954c1994 1504=item HePV
d8c40edc 1505X<HePV>
954c1994
GS
1506
1507Returns the key slot of the hash entry as a C<char*> value, doing any
1508necessary dereferencing of possibly C<SV*> keys. The length of the string
1509is placed in C<len> (this is a macro, so do I<not> use C<&len>). If you do
1510not care about what the length of the key is, you may use the global
1511variable C<PL_na>, though this is rather less efficient than using a local
1512variable. Remember though, that hash keys in perl are free to contain
1513embedded nulls, so using C<strlen()> or similar is not a good way to find
1514the length of hash keys. This is very similar to the C<SvPV()> macro
1515described elsewhere in this document.
1516
1517 char* HePV(HE* he, STRLEN len)
1518
497711e7
GS
1519=for hackers
1520Found in file hv.h
1521
954c1994 1522=item HeSVKEY
d8c40edc 1523X<HeSVKEY>
954c1994 1524
458cb9d2 1525Returns the key as an C<SV*>, or C<NULL> if the hash entry does not
954c1994
GS
1526contain an C<SV*> key.
1527
1528 SV* HeSVKEY(HE* he)
1529
497711e7
GS
1530=for hackers
1531Found in file hv.h
1532
954c1994 1533=item HeSVKEY_force
d8c40edc 1534X<HeSVKEY_force>
954c1994
GS
1535
1536Returns the key as an C<SV*>. Will create and return a temporary mortal
1537C<SV*> if the hash entry contains only a C<char*> key.
1538
1539 SV* HeSVKEY_force(HE* he)
1540
497711e7
GS
1541=for hackers
1542Found in file hv.h
1543
954c1994 1544=item HeSVKEY_set
d8c40edc 1545X<HeSVKEY_set>
954c1994
GS
1546
1547Sets the key to a given C<SV*>, taking care to set the appropriate flags to
1548indicate the presence of an C<SV*> key, and returns the same
1549C<SV*>.
1550
1551 SV* HeSVKEY_set(HE* he, SV* sv)
1552
497711e7
GS
1553=for hackers
1554Found in file hv.h
1555
954c1994 1556=item HeVAL
d8c40edc 1557X<HeVAL>
954c1994
GS
1558
1559Returns the value slot (type C<SV*>) stored in the hash entry.
1560
1561 SV* HeVAL(HE* he)
1562
497711e7
GS
1563=for hackers
1564Found in file hv.h
1565
954c1994 1566=item HvNAME
d8c40edc 1567X<HvNAME>
954c1994 1568
9282b5fd
SH
1569Returns the package name of a stash, or NULL if C<stash> isn't a stash.
1570See C<SvSTASH>, C<CvSTASH>.
954c1994
GS
1571
1572 char* HvNAME(HV* stash)
1573
497711e7
GS
1574=for hackers
1575Found in file hv.h
1576
ecae49c0 1577=item hv_assert
d8c40edc 1578X<hv_assert>
ecae49c0
NC
1579
1580Check that a hash is in an internally consistent state.
1581
1582 void hv_assert(HV* tb)
1583
1584=for hackers
1585Found in file hv.c
1586
954c1994 1587=item hv_clear
d8c40edc 1588X<hv_clear>
954c1994
GS
1589
1590Clears a hash, making it empty.
1591
1592 void hv_clear(HV* tb)
1593
497711e7
GS
1594=for hackers
1595Found in file hv.c
1596
3540d4ce 1597=item hv_clear_placeholders
d8c40edc 1598X<hv_clear_placeholders>
3540d4ce
AB
1599
1600Clears any placeholders from a hash. If a restricted hash has any of its keys
1601marked as readonly and the key is subsequently deleted, the key is not actually
1602deleted but is marked by assigning it a value of &PL_sv_placeholder. This tags
1603it so it will be ignored by future operations such as iterating over the hash,
fa11829f 1604but will still allow the hash to have a value reassigned to the key at some
3540d4ce
AB
1605future point. This function clears any such placeholder keys from the hash.
1606See Hash::Util::lock_keys() for an example of its use.
1607
1608 void hv_clear_placeholders(HV* hb)
1609
1610=for hackers
1611Found in file hv.c
1612
954c1994 1613=item hv_delete
d8c40edc 1614X<hv_delete>
954c1994
GS
1615
1616Deletes a key/value pair in the hash. The value SV is removed from the
1c846c1f 1617hash and returned to the caller. The C<klen> is the length of the key.
954c1994
GS
1618The C<flags> value will normally be zero; if set to G_DISCARD then NULL
1619will be returned.
1620
da58a35d 1621 SV* hv_delete(HV* tb, const char* key, I32 klen, I32 flags)
954c1994 1622
497711e7
GS
1623=for hackers
1624Found in file hv.c
1625
954c1994 1626=item hv_delete_ent
d8c40edc 1627X<hv_delete_ent>
954c1994
GS
1628
1629Deletes a key/value pair in the hash. The value SV is removed from the
1630hash and returned to the caller. The C<flags> value will normally be zero;
1631if set to G_DISCARD then NULL will be returned. C<hash> can be a valid
1632precomputed hash value, or 0 to ask for it to be computed.
1633
1634 SV* hv_delete_ent(HV* tb, SV* key, I32 flags, U32 hash)
1635
497711e7
GS
1636=for hackers
1637Found in file hv.c
1638
954c1994 1639=item hv_exists
d8c40edc 1640X<hv_exists>
954c1994
GS
1641
1642Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified hash key exists. The
1643C<klen> is the length of the key.
1644
da58a35d 1645 bool hv_exists(HV* tb, const char* key, I32 klen)
954c1994 1646
497711e7
GS
1647=for hackers
1648Found in file hv.c
1649
954c1994 1650=item hv_exists_ent
d8c40edc 1651X<hv_exists_ent>
954c1994
GS
1652
1653Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified hash key exists. C<hash>
1654can be a valid precomputed hash value, or 0 to ask for it to be
1655computed.
1656
1657 bool hv_exists_ent(HV* tb, SV* key, U32 hash)
1658
497711e7
GS
1659=for hackers
1660Found in file hv.c
1661
954c1994 1662=item hv_fetch
d8c40edc 1663X<hv_fetch>
954c1994
GS
1664
1665Returns the SV which corresponds to the specified key in the hash. The
1666C<klen> is the length of the key. If C<lval> is set then the fetch will be
1667part of a store. Check that the return value is non-null before
f4758303 1668dereferencing it to an C<SV*>.
954c1994 1669
96f1132b 1670See L<perlguts/"Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays"> for more
954c1994
GS
1671information on how to use this function on tied hashes.
1672
da58a35d 1673 SV** hv_fetch(HV* tb, const char* key, I32 klen, I32 lval)
954c1994 1674
497711e7
GS
1675=for hackers
1676Found in file hv.c
1677
3fe05580
MHM
1678=item hv_fetchs
1679X<hv_fetchs>
1680
1681Like C<hv_fetch>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.
1682
1683 SV** hv_fetchs(HV* tb, const char* key, I32 lval)
1684
1685=for hackers
1686Found in file handy.h
1687
954c1994 1688=item hv_fetch_ent
d8c40edc 1689X<hv_fetch_ent>
954c1994
GS
1690
1691Returns the hash entry which corresponds to the specified key in the hash.
1692C<hash> must be a valid precomputed hash number for the given C<key>, or 0
1693if you want the function to compute it. IF C<lval> is set then the fetch
1694will be part of a store. Make sure the return value is non-null before
1695accessing it. The return value when C<tb> is a tied hash is a pointer to a
1696static location, so be sure to make a copy of the structure if you need to
1c846c1f 1697store it somewhere.
954c1994 1698
96f1132b 1699See L<perlguts/"Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays"> for more
954c1994
GS
1700information on how to use this function on tied hashes.
1701
1702 HE* hv_fetch_ent(HV* tb, SV* key, I32 lval, U32 hash)
1703
497711e7
GS
1704=for hackers
1705Found in file hv.c
1706
954c1994 1707=item hv_iterinit
d8c40edc 1708X<hv_iterinit>
954c1994
GS
1709
1710Prepares a starting point to traverse a hash table. Returns the number of
1711keys in the hash (i.e. the same as C<HvKEYS(tb)>). The return value is
1c846c1f 1712currently only meaningful for hashes without tie magic.
954c1994
GS
1713
1714NOTE: Before version 5.004_65, C<hv_iterinit> used to return the number of
1715hash buckets that happen to be in use. If you still need that esoteric
1716value, you can get it through the macro C<HvFILL(tb)>.
1717
641d4181 1718
954c1994
GS
1719 I32 hv_iterinit(HV* tb)
1720
497711e7
GS
1721=for hackers
1722Found in file hv.c
1723
954c1994 1724=item hv_iterkey
d8c40edc 1725X<hv_iterkey>
954c1994
GS
1726
1727Returns the key from the current position of the hash iterator. See
1728C<hv_iterinit>.
1729
1730 char* hv_iterkey(HE* entry, I32* retlen)
1731
497711e7
GS
1732=for hackers
1733Found in file hv.c
1734
954c1994 1735=item hv_iterkeysv
d8c40edc 1736X<hv_iterkeysv>
954c1994
GS
1737
1738Returns the key as an C<SV*> from the current position of the hash
1739iterator. The return value will always be a mortal copy of the key. Also
1740see C<hv_iterinit>.
1741
1742 SV* hv_iterkeysv(HE* entry)
1743
497711e7
GS
1744=for hackers
1745Found in file hv.c
1746
954c1994 1747=item hv_iternext
d8c40edc 1748X<hv_iternext>
954c1994
GS
1749
1750Returns entries from a hash iterator. See C<hv_iterinit>.
1751
641d4181
JH
1752You may call C<hv_delete> or C<hv_delete_ent> on the hash entry that the
1753iterator currently points to, without losing your place or invalidating your
1754iterator. Note that in this case the current entry is deleted from the hash
1755with your iterator holding the last reference to it. Your iterator is flagged
1756to free the entry on the next call to C<hv_iternext>, so you must not discard
1757your iterator immediately else the entry will leak - call C<hv_iternext> to
1758trigger the resource deallocation.
1759
954c1994
GS
1760 HE* hv_iternext(HV* tb)
1761
497711e7
GS
1762=for hackers
1763Found in file hv.c
1764
954c1994 1765=item hv_iternextsv
d8c40edc 1766X<hv_iternextsv>
954c1994
GS
1767
1768Performs an C<hv_iternext>, C<hv_iterkey>, and C<hv_iterval> in one
1769operation.
1770
1771 SV* hv_iternextsv(HV* hv, char** key, I32* retlen)
1772
497711e7
GS
1773=for hackers
1774Found in file hv.c
1775
641d4181 1776=item hv_iternext_flags
d8c40edc 1777X<hv_iternext_flags>
641d4181
JH
1778
1779Returns entries from a hash iterator. See C<hv_iterinit> and C<hv_iternext>.
1780The C<flags> value will normally be zero; if HV_ITERNEXT_WANTPLACEHOLDERS is
1781set the placeholders keys (for restricted hashes) will be returned in addition
1782to normal keys. By default placeholders are automatically skipped over.
384679aa
RGS
1783Currently a placeholder is implemented with a value that is
1784C<&Perl_sv_placeholder>. Note that the implementation of placeholders and
641d4181
JH
1785restricted hashes may change, and the implementation currently is
1786insufficiently abstracted for any change to be tidy.
1787
1788NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be
1789removed without notice.
1790
1791 HE* hv_iternext_flags(HV* tb, I32 flags)
1792
1793=for hackers
1794Found in file hv.c
1795
954c1994 1796=item hv_iterval
d8c40edc 1797X<hv_iterval>
954c1994
GS
1798
1799Returns the value from the current position of the hash iterator. See
1800C<hv_iterkey>.
1801
1802 SV* hv_iterval(HV* tb, HE* entry)
1803
497711e7
GS
1804=for hackers
1805Found in file hv.c
1806
954c1994 1807=item hv_magic
d8c40edc 1808X<hv_magic>
954c1994
GS
1809
1810Adds magic to a hash. See C<sv_magic>.
1811
1812 void hv_magic(HV* hv, GV* gv, int how)
1813
497711e7
GS
1814=for hackers
1815Found in file hv.c
1816
a3bcc51e 1817=item hv_scalar
d8c40edc 1818X<hv_scalar>
a3bcc51e
TP
1819
1820Evaluates the hash in scalar context and returns the result. Handles magic when the hash is tied.
1821
1822 SV* hv_scalar(HV* hv)
1823
1824=for hackers
1825Found in file hv.c
1826
954c1994 1827=item hv_store
d8c40edc 1828X<hv_store>
954c1994
GS
1829
1830Stores an SV in a hash. The hash key is specified as C<key> and C<klen> is
1831the length of the key. The C<hash> parameter is the precomputed hash
1832value; if it is zero then Perl will compute it. The return value will be
1833NULL if the operation failed or if the value did not need to be actually
1834stored within the hash (as in the case of tied hashes). Otherwise it can
1835be dereferenced to get the original C<SV*>. Note that the caller is
1836responsible for suitably incrementing the reference count of C<val> before
7e8c5dac
HS
1837the call, and decrementing it if the function returned NULL. Effectively
1838a successful hv_store takes ownership of one reference to C<val>. This is
1839usually what you want; a newly created SV has a reference count of one, so
1840if all your code does is create SVs then store them in a hash, hv_store
1841will own the only reference to the new SV, and your code doesn't need to do
1842anything further to tidy up. hv_store is not implemented as a call to
1843hv_store_ent, and does not create a temporary SV for the key, so if your
1844key data is not already in SV form then use hv_store in preference to
1845hv_store_ent.
954c1994 1846
96f1132b 1847See L<perlguts/"Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays"> for more
954c1994
GS
1848information on how to use this function on tied hashes.
1849
da58a35d 1850 SV** hv_store(HV* tb, const char* key, I32 klen, SV* val, U32 hash)
954c1994 1851
497711e7
GS
1852=for hackers
1853Found in file hv.c
1854
3fe05580
MHM
1855=item hv_stores
1856X<hv_stores>
1857
1858Like C<hv_store>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair
1859and omits the hash parameter.
1860
1861 SV** hv_stores(HV* tb, const char* key, NULLOK SV* val)
1862
1863=for hackers
1864Found in file handy.h
1865
954c1994 1866=item hv_store_ent
d8c40edc 1867X<hv_store_ent>
954c1994
GS
1868
1869Stores C<val> in a hash. The hash key is specified as C<key>. The C<hash>
1870parameter is the precomputed hash value; if it is zero then Perl will
1871compute it. The return value is the new hash entry so created. It will be
1872NULL if the operation failed or if the value did not need to be actually
1873stored within the hash (as in the case of tied hashes). Otherwise the
f22d8e4b 1874contents of the return value can be accessed using the C<He?> macros
954c1994
GS
1875described here. Note that the caller is responsible for suitably
1876incrementing the reference count of C<val> before the call, and
7e8c5dac
HS
1877decrementing it if the function returned NULL. Effectively a successful
1878hv_store_ent takes ownership of one reference to C<val>. This is
1879usually what you want; a newly created SV has a reference count of one, so
1880if all your code does is create SVs then store them in a hash, hv_store
1881will own the only reference to the new SV, and your code doesn't need to do
1882anything further to tidy up. Note that hv_store_ent only reads the C<key>;
1883unlike C<val> it does not take ownership of it, so maintaining the correct
1884reference count on C<key> is entirely the caller's responsibility. hv_store
1885is not implemented as a call to hv_store_ent, and does not create a temporary
1886SV for the key, so if your key data is not already in SV form then use
1887hv_store in preference to hv_store_ent.
954c1994 1888
96f1132b 1889See L<perlguts/"Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays"> for more
954c1994
GS
1890information on how to use this function on tied hashes.
1891
1892 HE* hv_store_ent(HV* tb, SV* key, SV* val, U32 hash)
1893
497711e7
GS
1894=for hackers
1895Found in file hv.c
1896
954c1994 1897=item hv_undef
d8c40edc 1898X<hv_undef>
954c1994
GS
1899
1900Undefines the hash.
1901
1902 void hv_undef(HV* tb)
1903
497711e7
GS
1904=for hackers
1905Found in file hv.c
1906
94bdecf9 1907=item newHV
d8c40edc 1908X<newHV>
d2cc3551 1909
94bdecf9 1910Creates a new HV. The reference count is set to 1.
d2cc3551 1911
94bdecf9 1912 HV* newHV()
d2cc3551
JH
1913
1914=for hackers
94bdecf9 1915Found in file hv.c
d2cc3551 1916
954c1994 1917
94bdecf9 1918=back
954c1994 1919
94bdecf9 1920=head1 Magical Functions
954c1994 1921
94bdecf9 1922=over 8
497711e7 1923
94bdecf9 1924=item mg_clear
d8c40edc 1925X<mg_clear>
954c1994 1926
94bdecf9 1927Clear something magical that the SV represents. See C<sv_magic>.
954c1994 1928
94bdecf9 1929 int mg_clear(SV* sv)
954c1994 1930
497711e7 1931=for hackers
94bdecf9 1932Found in file mg.c
497711e7 1933
94bdecf9 1934=item mg_copy
d8c40edc 1935X<mg_copy>
954c1994 1936
94bdecf9 1937Copies the magic from one SV to another. See C<sv_magic>.
954c1994 1938
94bdecf9 1939 int mg_copy(SV* sv, SV* nsv, const char* key, I32 klen)
954c1994 1940
497711e7 1941=for hackers
94bdecf9 1942Found in file mg.c
497711e7 1943
94bdecf9 1944=item mg_find
d8c40edc 1945X<mg_find>
954c1994 1946
94bdecf9 1947Finds the magic pointer for type matching the SV. See C<sv_magic>.
954c1994 1948
35a4481c 1949 MAGIC* mg_find(const SV* sv, int type)
954c1994 1950
497711e7 1951=for hackers
94bdecf9 1952Found in file mg.c
497711e7 1953
94bdecf9 1954=item mg_free
d8c40edc 1955X<mg_free>
954c1994 1956
94bdecf9 1957Free any magic storage used by the SV. See C<sv_magic>.
954c1994 1958
94bdecf9 1959 int mg_free(SV* sv)
954c1994 1960
497711e7 1961=for hackers
94bdecf9 1962Found in file mg.c
497711e7 1963
94bdecf9 1964=item mg_get
d8c40edc 1965X<mg_get>
eebe1485 1966
94bdecf9 1967Do magic after a value is retrieved from the SV. See C<sv_magic>.
282f25c9 1968
94bdecf9 1969 int mg_get(SV* sv)
eebe1485
SC
1970
1971=for hackers
94bdecf9 1972Found in file mg.c
eebe1485 1973
94bdecf9 1974=item mg_length
d8c40edc 1975X<mg_length>
eebe1485 1976
94bdecf9 1977Report on the SV's length. See C<sv_magic>.
eebe1485 1978
94bdecf9 1979 U32 mg_length(SV* sv)
eebe1485
SC
1980
1981=for hackers
94bdecf9 1982Found in file mg.c
eebe1485 1983
94bdecf9 1984=item mg_magical
d8c40edc 1985X<mg_magical>
954c1994 1986
94bdecf9 1987Turns on the magical status of an SV. See C<sv_magic>.
954c1994 1988
94bdecf9 1989 void mg_magical(SV* sv)
954c1994 1990
497711e7 1991=for hackers
94bdecf9 1992Found in file mg.c
497711e7 1993
94bdecf9 1994=item mg_set
d8c40edc 1995X<mg_set>
954c1994 1996
94bdecf9 1997Do magic after a value is assigned to the SV. See C<sv_magic>.
954c1994 1998
94bdecf9 1999 int mg_set(SV* sv)
954c1994 2000
497711e7 2001=for hackers
94bdecf9 2002Found in file mg.c
497711e7 2003
94bdecf9 2004=item SvGETMAGIC
d8c40edc 2005X<SvGETMAGIC>
954c1994 2006
94bdecf9
JH
2007Invokes C<mg_get> on an SV if it has 'get' magic. This macro evaluates its
2008argument more than once.
954c1994 2009
94bdecf9 2010 void SvGETMAGIC(SV* sv)
954c1994 2011
497711e7 2012=for hackers
94bdecf9 2013Found in file sv.h
497711e7 2014
a4f1a029 2015=item SvLOCK
d8c40edc 2016X<SvLOCK>
a4f1a029
NIS
2017
2018Arranges for a mutual exclusion lock to be obtained on sv if a suitable module
2019has been loaded.
2020
2021 void SvLOCK(SV* sv)
2022
2023=for hackers
2024Found in file sv.h
2025
94bdecf9 2026=item SvSETMAGIC
d8c40edc 2027X<SvSETMAGIC>
7d3fb230 2028
94bdecf9
JH
2029Invokes C<mg_set> on an SV if it has 'set' magic. This macro evaluates its
2030argument more than once.
7d3fb230 2031
94bdecf9 2032 void SvSETMAGIC(SV* sv)
7d3fb230
BS
2033
2034=for hackers
94bdecf9 2035Found in file sv.h
7d3fb230 2036
94bdecf9 2037=item SvSetMagicSV
d8c40edc 2038X<SvSetMagicSV>
954c1994 2039
94bdecf9 2040Like C<SvSetSV>, but does any set magic required afterwards.
954c1994 2041
94bdecf9 2042 void SvSetMagicSV(SV* dsb, SV* ssv)
954c1994 2043
497711e7 2044=for hackers
94bdecf9 2045Found in file sv.h
497711e7 2046
a4f1a029 2047=item SvSetMagicSV_nosteal
d8c40edc 2048X<SvSetMagicSV_nosteal>
a4f1a029 2049
80663158 2050Like C<SvSetSV_nosteal>, but does any set magic required afterwards.
a4f1a029
NIS
2051
2052 void SvSetMagicSV_nosteal(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)
2053
2054=for hackers
2055Found in file sv.h
2056
94bdecf9 2057=item SvSetSV
d8c40edc 2058X<SvSetSV>
954c1994 2059
94bdecf9
JH
2060Calls C<sv_setsv> if dsv is not the same as ssv. May evaluate arguments
2061more than once.
2062
2063 void SvSetSV(SV* dsb, SV* ssv)
954c1994 2064
497711e7 2065=for hackers
94bdecf9 2066Found in file sv.h
497711e7 2067
94bdecf9 2068=item SvSetSV_nosteal
d8c40edc 2069X<SvSetSV_nosteal>
954c1994 2070
94bdecf9
JH
2071Calls a non-destructive version of C<sv_setsv> if dsv is not the same as
2072ssv. May evaluate arguments more than once.
954c1994 2073
94bdecf9 2074 void SvSetSV_nosteal(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)
954c1994 2075
497711e7 2076=for hackers
94bdecf9 2077Found in file sv.h
497711e7 2078
a4f1a029 2079=item SvSHARE
d8c40edc 2080X<SvSHARE>
a4f1a029
NIS
2081
2082Arranges for sv to be shared between threads if a suitable module
2083has been loaded.
2084
2085 void SvSHARE(SV* sv)
2086
2087=for hackers
2088Found in file sv.h
2089
e509e693 2090=item SvUNLOCK
d8c40edc 2091X<SvUNLOCK>
e509e693
SH
2092
2093Releases a mutual exclusion lock on sv if a suitable module
2094has been loaded.
2095
2096 void SvUNLOCK(SV* sv)
2097
2098=for hackers
2099Found in file sv.h
2100
954c1994 2101
94bdecf9 2102=back
954c1994 2103
94bdecf9 2104=head1 Memory Management
954c1994 2105
94bdecf9 2106=over 8
497711e7 2107
94bdecf9 2108=item Copy
d8c40edc 2109X<Copy>
954c1994 2110
94bdecf9
JH
2111The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<memcpy> function. The C<src> is the
2112source, C<dest> is the destination, C<nitems> is the number of items, and C<type> is
2113the type. May fail on overlapping copies. See also C<Move>.
954c1994 2114
94bdecf9 2115 void Copy(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)
954c1994 2116
497711e7 2117=for hackers
94bdecf9 2118Found in file handy.h
497711e7 2119
e90e2364 2120=item CopyD
d8c40edc 2121X<CopyD>
e90e2364
NC
2122
2123Like C<Copy> but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers to tail-call
2124optimise.
2125
2126 void * CopyD(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)
2127
2128=for hackers
2129Found in file handy.h
2130
94bdecf9 2131=item Move
d8c40edc 2132X<Move>
954c1994 2133
94bdecf9
JH
2134The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<memmove> function. The C<src> is the
2135source, C<dest> is the destination, C<nitems> is the number of items, and C<type> is
2136the type. Can do overlapping moves. See also C<Copy>.
954c1994 2137
94bdecf9 2138 void Move(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)
954c1994 2139
497711e7 2140=for hackers
94bdecf9 2141Found in file handy.h
497711e7 2142
e90e2364 2143=item MoveD
d8c40edc 2144X<MoveD>
e90e2364
NC
2145
2146Like C<Move> but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers to tail-call
2147optimise.
2148
2149 void * MoveD(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)
2150
2151=for hackers
2152Found in file handy.h
2153
a02a5408 2154=item Newx
d8c40edc 2155X<Newx>
954c1994 2156
94bdecf9 2157The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<malloc> function.
954c1994 2158
c5008215
JC
2159In 5.9.3, Newx() and friends replace the older New() API, and drops
2160the first parameter, I<x>, a debug aid which allowed callers to identify
37b8b4c9 2161themselves. This aid has been superseded by a new build option,
c5008215
JC
2162PERL_MEM_LOG (see L<perlhack/PERL_MEM_LOG>). The older API is still
2163there for use in XS modules supporting older perls.
2164
a02a5408 2165 void Newx(void* ptr, int nitems, type)
954c1994 2166
497711e7 2167=for hackers
94bdecf9 2168Found in file handy.h
497711e7 2169
a02a5408 2170=item Newxc
d8c40edc 2171X<Newxc>
954c1994 2172
94bdecf9 2173The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<malloc> function, with
c5008215 2174cast. See also C<Newx>.
954c1994 2175
a02a5408 2176 void Newxc(void* ptr, int nitems, type, cast)
954c1994 2177
497711e7 2178=for hackers
94bdecf9 2179Found in file handy.h
954c1994 2180
a02a5408 2181=item Newxz
d8c40edc 2182X<Newxz>
954c1994 2183
94bdecf9 2184The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<malloc> function. The allocated
c5008215 2185memory is zeroed with C<memzero>. See also C<Newx>.
a02a5408
JC
2186
2187 void Newxz(void* ptr, int nitems, type)
954c1994 2188
497711e7
GS
2189=for hackers
2190Found in file handy.h
2191
9965345d 2192=item Poison
d8c40edc 2193X<Poison>
9965345d 2194
7e337ee0 2195PoisonWith(0xEF) for catching access to freed memory.
9965345d
JH
2196
2197 void Poison(void* dest, int nitems, type)
2198
2199=for hackers
2200Found in file handy.h
2201
3fe05580
MHM
2202=item PoisonFree
2203X<PoisonFree>
2204
2205PoisonWith(0xEF) for catching access to freed memory.
2206
2207 void PoisonFree(void* dest, int nitems, type)
2208
2209=for hackers
2210Found in file handy.h
2211
7e337ee0
JH
2212=item PoisonNew
2213X<PoisonNew>
2214
2215PoisonWith(0xAB) for catching access to allocated but uninitialized memory.
2216
2217 void PoisonNew(void* dest, int nitems, type)
2218
2219=for hackers
2220Found in file handy.h
2221
2222=item PoisonWith
2223X<PoisonWith>
2224
2225Fill up memory with a byte pattern (a byte repeated over and over
2226again) that hopefully catches attempts to access uninitialized memory.
2227
2228 void PoisonWith(void* dest, int nitems, type, U8 byte)
2229
2230=for hackers
2231Found in file handy.h
2232
94bdecf9 2233=item Renew
d8c40edc 2234X<Renew>
954c1994 2235
94bdecf9 2236The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<realloc> function.
954c1994 2237
94bdecf9 2238 void Renew(void* ptr, int nitems, type)
954c1994 2239
497711e7
GS
2240=for hackers
2241Found in file handy.h
2242
94bdecf9 2243=item Renewc
d8c40edc 2244X<Renewc>
954c1994 2245
94bdecf9
JH
2246The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<realloc> function, with
2247cast.
954c1994 2248
94bdecf9 2249 void Renewc(void* ptr, int nitems, type, cast)
954c1994 2250
497711e7 2251=for hackers
94bdecf9 2252Found in file handy.h
497711e7 2253
94bdecf9 2254=item Safefree
d8c40edc 2255X<Safefree>
954c1994 2256
94bdecf9 2257The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<free> function.
954c1994 2258
94bdecf9 2259 void Safefree(void* ptr)
954c1994 2260
497711e7
GS
2261=for hackers
2262Found in file handy.h
2263
94bdecf9 2264=item savepv
d8c40edc 2265X<savepv>
954c1994 2266
641d4181
JH
2267Perl's version of C<strdup()>. Returns a pointer to a newly allocated
2268string which is a duplicate of C<pv>. The size of the string is
2269determined by C<strlen()>. The memory allocated for the new string can
2270be freed with the C<Safefree()> function.
954c1994 2271
641d4181 2272 char* savepv(const char* pv)
954c1994 2273
497711e7 2274=for hackers
94bdecf9 2275Found in file util.c
497711e7 2276
94bdecf9 2277=item savepvn
d8c40edc 2278X<savepvn>
954c1994 2279
641d4181
JH
2280Perl's version of what C<strndup()> would be if it existed. Returns a
2281pointer to a newly allocated string which is a duplicate of the first
cbf82dd0
NC
2282C<len> bytes from C<pv>, plus a trailing NUL byte. The memory allocated for
2283the new string can be freed with the C<Safefree()> function.
954c1994 2284
641d4181 2285 char* savepvn(const char* pv, I32 len)
954c1994 2286
497711e7 2287=for hackers
94bdecf9 2288Found in file util.c
497711e7 2289
3fe05580
MHM
2290=item savepvs
2291X<savepvs>
2292
2293Like C<savepvn>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.
2294
2295 char* savepvs(const char* s)
2296
2297=for hackers
2298Found in file handy.h
2299
a4f1a029 2300=item savesharedpv
d8c40edc 2301X<savesharedpv>
a4f1a029 2302
641d4181
JH
2303A version of C<savepv()> which allocates the duplicate string in memory
2304which is shared between threads.
a4f1a029 2305
641d4181 2306 char* savesharedpv(const char* pv)
a4f1a029
NIS
2307
2308=for hackers
2309Found in file util.c
2310
d9095cec
NC
2311=item savesharedpvn
2312X<savesharedpvn>
2313
2314A version of C<savepvn()> which allocates the duplicate string in memory
2315which is shared between threads. (With the specific difference that a NULL
2316pointer is not acceptable)
2317
2318 char* savesharedpvn(const char *const pv, const STRLEN len)
2319
2320=for hackers
2321Found in file util.c
2322
766f8916 2323=item savesvpv
d8c40edc 2324X<savesvpv>
766f8916 2325
9c2fe30c 2326A version of C<savepv()>/C<savepvn()> which gets the string to duplicate from
766f8916
MHM
2327the passed in SV using C<SvPV()>
2328
2329 char* savesvpv(SV* sv)
2330
2331=for hackers
2332Found in file util.c
2333
94bdecf9 2334=item StructCopy
d8c40edc 2335X<StructCopy>
954c1994 2336
94bdecf9 2337This is an architecture-independent macro to copy one structure to another.
954c1994 2338
94bdecf9 2339 void StructCopy(type src, type dest, type)
954c1994 2340
497711e7 2341=for hackers
94bdecf9 2342Found in file handy.h
497711e7 2343
94bdecf9 2344=item Zero
d8c40edc 2345X<Zero>
954c1994 2346
94bdecf9
JH
2347The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<memzero> function. The C<dest> is the
2348destination, C<nitems> is the number of items, and C<type> is the type.
954c1994 2349
94bdecf9 2350 void Zero(void* dest, int nitems, type)
954c1994 2351
497711e7 2352=for hackers
94bdecf9 2353Found in file handy.h
497711e7 2354
e90e2364 2355=item ZeroD
d8c40edc 2356X<ZeroD>
e90e2364
NC
2357
2358Like C<Zero> but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers to tail-call
2359optimise.
2360
2361 void * ZeroD(void* dest, int nitems, type)
2362
2363=for hackers
2364Found in file handy.h
2365
954c1994 2366
94bdecf9 2367=back
954c1994 2368
94bdecf9 2369=head1 Miscellaneous Functions
954c1994 2370
94bdecf9 2371=over 8
497711e7 2372
94bdecf9 2373=item fbm_compile
d8c40edc 2374X<fbm_compile>
8b4ac5a4 2375
94bdecf9
JH
2376Analyses the string in order to make fast searches on it using fbm_instr()
2377-- the Boyer-Moore algorithm.
8b4ac5a4 2378
94bdecf9 2379 void fbm_compile(SV* sv, U32 flags)
8b4ac5a4
JH
2380
2381=for hackers
94bdecf9 2382Found in file util.c
8b4ac5a4 2383
94bdecf9 2384=item fbm_instr
d8c40edc 2385X<fbm_instr>
954c1994 2386
94bdecf9 2387Returns the location of the SV in the string delimited by C<str> and
bd61b366 2388C<strend>. It returns C<NULL> if the string can't be found. The C<sv>
94bdecf9
JH
2389does not have to be fbm_compiled, but the search will not be as fast
2390then.
954c1994 2391
94bdecf9 2392 char* fbm_instr(unsigned char* big, unsigned char* bigend, SV* littlesv, U32 flags)
954c1994 2393
497711e7 2394=for hackers
94bdecf9 2395Found in file util.c
497711e7 2396
94bdecf9 2397=item form
d8c40edc 2398X<form>
954c1994 2399
94bdecf9
JH
2400Takes a sprintf-style format pattern and conventional
2401(non-SV) arguments and returns the formatted string.
954c1994 2402
94bdecf9 2403 (char *) Perl_form(pTHX_ const char* pat, ...)
954c1994 2404
94bdecf9 2405can be used any place a string (char *) is required:
497711e7 2406
94bdecf9 2407 char * s = Perl_form("%d.%d",major,minor);
954c1994 2408
94bdecf9
JH
2409Uses a single private buffer so if you want to format several strings you
2410must explicitly copy the earlier strings away (and free the copies when you
2411are done).
954c1994 2412
94bdecf9 2413 char* form(const char* pat, ...)
954c1994 2414
497711e7 2415=for hackers
94bdecf9 2416Found in file util.c
497711e7 2417
94bdecf9 2418=item getcwd_sv
d8c40edc 2419X<getcwd_sv>
954c1994 2420
94bdecf9 2421Fill the sv with current working directory
954c1994 2422
94bdecf9 2423 int getcwd_sv(SV* sv)
954c1994 2424
497711e7 2425=for hackers
94bdecf9 2426Found in file util.c
497711e7 2427
d9fad198
JH
2428=item my_snprintf
2429X<my_snprintf>
2430
2431The C library C<snprintf> functionality, if available and
5b692037 2432standards-compliant (uses C<vsnprintf>, actually). However, if the
d9fad198 2433C<vsnprintf> is not available, will unfortunately use the unsafe
5b692037
JH
2434C<vsprintf> which can overrun the buffer (there is an overrun check,
2435but that may be too late). Consider using C<sv_vcatpvf> instead, or
2436getting C<vsnprintf>.
d9fad198
JH
2437
2438 int my_snprintf(char *buffer, const Size_t len, const char *format, ...)
2439
2440=for hackers
2441Found in file util.c
2442
9244d4ad
RGS
2443=item my_sprintf
2444X<my_sprintf>
2445
2446The C library C<sprintf>, wrapped if necessary, to ensure that it will return
2447the length of the string written to the buffer. Only rare pre-ANSI systems
2448need the wrapper function - usually this is a direct call to C<sprintf>.
2449
2450 int my_sprintf(char *buffer, const char *pat, ...)
2451
2452=for hackers
2453Found in file util.c
2454
d9fad198
JH
2455=item my_vsnprintf
2456X<my_vsnprintf>
2457
5b692037
JH
2458The C library C<vsnprintf> if available and standards-compliant.
2459However, if if the C<vsnprintf> is not available, will unfortunately
2460use the unsafe C<vsprintf> which can overrun the buffer (there is an
2461overrun check, but that may be too late). Consider using
2462C<sv_vcatpvf> instead, or getting C<vsnprintf>.
d9fad198
JH
2463
2464 int my_vsnprintf(char *buffer, const Size_t len, const char *format, va_list ap)
2465
2466=for hackers
2467Found in file util.c
2468
f333445c 2469=item new_version
d8c40edc 2470X<new_version>
f333445c
JP
2471
2472Returns a new version object based on the passed in SV:
2473
2474 SV *sv = new_version(SV *ver);
2475
2476Does not alter the passed in ver SV. See "upg_version" if you
2477want to upgrade the SV.
2478
2479 SV* new_version(SV *ver)
2480
2481=for hackers
2482Found in file util.c
2483
2484=item scan_version
d8c40edc 2485X<scan_version>
f333445c
JP
2486
2487Returns a pointer to the next character after the parsed
2488version string, as well as upgrading the passed in SV to
2489an RV.
2490
2491Function must be called with an already existing SV like
2492
137d6fc0 2493 sv = newSV(0);
8a0be661 2494 s = scan_version(s, SV *sv, bool qv);
f333445c
JP
2495
2496Performs some preprocessing to the string to ensure that
2497it has the correct characteristics of a version. Flags the
2498object if it contains an underscore (which denotes this
8a0be661 2499is an alpha version). The boolean qv denotes that the version
137d6fc0
JP
2500should be interpreted as if it had multiple decimals, even if
2501it doesn't.
f333445c 2502
9137345a 2503 const char* scan_version(const char *vstr, SV *sv, bool qv)
f333445c
JP
2504
2505=for hackers
2506Found in file util.c
2507
94bdecf9 2508=item strEQ
d8c40edc 2509X<strEQ>
954c1994 2510
94bdecf9 2511Test two strings to see if they are equal. Returns true or false.
954c1994 2512
94bdecf9 2513 bool strEQ(char* s1, char* s2)
954c1994 2514
497711e7 2515=for hackers
94bdecf9 2516Found in file handy.h
497711e7 2517
94bdecf9 2518=item strGE
d8c40edc 2519X<strGE>
1c846c1f 2520
94bdecf9
JH
2521Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is greater than or equal to
2522the second, C<s2>. Returns true or false.
1c846c1f 2523
94bdecf9 2524 bool strGE(char* s1, char* s2)
1c846c1f
NIS
2525
2526=for hackers
94bdecf9 2527Found in file handy.h
1c846c1f 2528
94bdecf9 2529=item strGT
d8c40edc 2530X<strGT>
954c1994 2531
94bdecf9
JH
2532Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is greater than the second,
2533C<s2>. Returns true or false.
954c1994 2534
94bdecf9 2535 bool strGT(char* s1, char* s2)
954c1994 2536
497711e7 2537=for hackers
94bdecf9 2538Found in file handy.h
497711e7 2539
94bdecf9 2540=item strLE
d8c40edc 2541X<strLE>
954c1994 2542
94bdecf9
JH
2543Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is less than or equal to the
2544second, C<s2>. Returns true or false.
954c1994 2545
94bdecf9 2546 bool strLE(char* s1, char* s2)
954c1994 2547
497711e7 2548=for hackers
94bdecf9 2549Found in file handy.h
497711e7 2550
94bdecf9 2551=item strLT
d8c40edc 2552X<strLT>
1a3327fb 2553
94bdecf9
JH
2554Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is less than the second,
2555C<s2>. Returns true or false.
1a3327fb 2556
94bdecf9 2557 bool strLT(char* s1, char* s2)
1a3327fb 2558
497711e7 2559=for hackers
94bdecf9 2560Found in file handy.h
497711e7 2561
94bdecf9 2562=item strNE
d8c40edc 2563X<strNE>
954c1994 2564
94bdecf9
JH
2565Test two strings to see if they are different. Returns true or
2566false.
2567
2568 bool strNE(char* s1, char* s2)
954c1994 2569
497711e7 2570=for hackers
94bdecf9 2571Found in file handy.h
497711e7 2572
94bdecf9 2573=item strnEQ
d8c40edc 2574X<strnEQ>
954c1994 2575
94bdecf9
JH
2576Test two strings to see if they are equal. The C<len> parameter indicates
2577the number of bytes to compare. Returns true or false. (A wrapper for
2578C<strncmp>).
2579
2580 bool strnEQ(char* s1, char* s2, STRLEN len)
954c1994 2581
497711e7 2582=for hackers
94bdecf9 2583Found in file handy.h
497711e7 2584
94bdecf9 2585=item strnNE
d8c40edc 2586X<strnNE>
954c1994 2587
94bdecf9
JH
2588Test two strings to see if they are different. The C<len> parameter
2589indicates the number of bytes to compare. Returns true or false. (A
2590wrapper for C<strncmp>).
954c1994 2591
94bdecf9 2592 bool strnNE(char* s1, char* s2, STRLEN len)
954c1994 2593
497711e7
GS
2594=for hackers
2595Found in file handy.h
2596
eba16661
JH
2597=item sv_destroyable
2598X<sv_destroyable>
2599
2600Dummy routine which reports that object can be destroyed when there is no
2601sharing module present. It ignores its single SV argument, and returns
2602'true'. Exists to avoid test for a NULL function pointer and because it
2603could potentially warn under some level of strict-ness.
2604
2605 bool sv_destroyable(SV *sv)
2606
2607=for hackers
2608Found in file util.c
2609
f333445c 2610=item sv_nosharing
d8c40edc 2611X<sv_nosharing>
f333445c
JP
2612
2613Dummy routine which "shares" an SV when there is no sharing module present.
9244d4ad
RGS
2614Or "locks" it. Or "unlocks" it. In other words, ignores its single SV argument.
2615Exists to avoid test for a NULL function pointer and because it could
2616potentially warn under some level of strict-ness.
f333445c 2617
c48640ec 2618 void sv_nosharing(SV *sv)
f333445c
JP
2619
2620=for hackers
2621Found in file util.c
2622
f333445c 2623=item upg_version
d8c40edc 2624X<upg_version>
f333445c
JP
2625
2626In-place upgrade of the supplied SV to a version object.
2627
ac0e6a2f 2628 SV *sv = upg_version(SV *sv, bool qv);
f333445c 2629
ac0e6a2f
RGS
2630Returns a pointer to the upgraded SV. Set the boolean qv if you want
2631to force this SV to be interpreted as an "extended" version.
f333445c 2632
ac0e6a2f 2633 SV* upg_version(SV *ver, bool qv)
f333445c
JP
2634
2635=for hackers
2636Found in file util.c
2637
2638=item vcmp
d8c40edc 2639X<vcmp>
f333445c
JP
2640
2641Version object aware cmp. Both operands must already have been
2642converted into version objects.
2643
2644 int vcmp(SV *lvs, SV *rvs)
2645
2646=for hackers
2647Found in file util.c
2648
b9381830 2649=item vnormal
d8c40edc 2650X<vnormal>
b9381830
JP
2651
2652Accepts a version object and returns the normalized string
2653representation. Call like:
2654
2655 sv = vnormal(rv);
2656
2657NOTE: you can pass either the object directly or the SV
2658contained within the RV.
2659
2660 SV* vnormal(SV *vs)
2661
2662=for hackers
2663Found in file util.c
2664
f333445c 2665=item vnumify
d8c40edc 2666X<vnumify>
f333445c
JP
2667
2668Accepts a version object and returns the normalized floating
2669point representation. Call like:
2670
2671 sv = vnumify(rv);
2672
2673NOTE: you can pass either the object directly or the SV
2674contained within the RV.
2675
2676 SV* vnumify(SV *vs)
2677
2678=for hackers
2679Found in file util.c
2680
2681=item vstringify
d8c40edc 2682X<vstringify>
f333445c 2683
b9381830
JP
2684In order to maintain maximum compatibility with earlier versions
2685of Perl, this function will return either the floating point
2686notation or the multiple dotted notation, depending on whether
2687the original version contained 1 or more dots, respectively
f333445c
JP
2688
2689 SV* vstringify(SV *vs)
2690
2691=for hackers
2692Found in file util.c
2693
e0218a61 2694=item vverify
d8c40edc 2695X<vverify>
e0218a61
JP
2696
2697Validates that the SV contains a valid version object.
2698
2699 bool vverify(SV *vobj);
2700
2701Note that it only confirms the bare minimum structure (so as not to get
2702confused by derived classes which may contain additional hash entries):
2703
2704 bool vverify(SV *vs)
2705
2706=for hackers
2707Found in file util.c
2708
f4758303 2709
94bdecf9 2710=back
7207e29d 2711
47c9dd14
BB
2712=head1 MRO Functions
2713
2714=over 8
2715
2716=item mro_get_linear_isa
2717X<mro_get_linear_isa>
2718
2719Returns either C<mro_get_linear_isa_c3> or
2720C<mro_get_linear_isa_dfs> for the given stash,
2721dependant upon which MRO is in effect
2722for that stash. The return value is a
2723read-only AV*.
2724
2725You are responsible for C<SvREFCNT_inc()> on the
2726return value if you plan to store it anywhere
2727semi-permanently (otherwise it might be deleted
2728out from under you the next time the cache is
2729invalidated).
2730
2731 AV* mro_get_linear_isa(HV* stash)
2732
2733=for hackers
2734Found in file mro.c
2735
47c9dd14
BB
2736=item mro_method_changed_in
2737X<mro_method_changed_in>
2738
2739Invalidates method caching on any child classes
2740of the given stash, so that they might notice
2741the changes in this one.
2742
2743Ideally, all instances of C<PL_sub_generation++> in
dd69841b
BB
2744perl source outside of C<mro.c> should be
2745replaced by calls to this.
2746
2747Perl automatically handles most of the common
2748ways a method might be redefined. However, there
2749are a few ways you could change a method in a stash
2750without the cache code noticing, in which case you
2751need to call this method afterwards:
2752
27531) Directly manipulating the stash HV entries from
2754XS code.
2755
27562) Assigning a reference to a readonly scalar
2757constant into a stash entry in order to create
2758a constant subroutine (like constant.pm
2759does).
2760
2761This same method is available from pure perl
2762via, C<mro::method_changed_in(classname)>.
47c9dd14
BB
2763
2764 void mro_method_changed_in(HV* stash)
2765
2766=for hackers
2767Found in file mro.c
2768
2769
2770=back
2771
cd299c6e
RGS
2772=head1 Multicall Functions
2773
2774=over 8
2775
2776=item dMULTICALL
2777X<dMULTICALL>
2778
2779Declare local variables for a multicall. See L<perlcall/Lightweight Callbacks>.
2780
2781 dMULTICALL;
2782
2783=for hackers
2784Found in file cop.h
2785
2786=item MULTICALL
2787X<MULTICALL>
2788
2789Make a lightweight callback. See L<perlcall/Lightweight Callbacks>.
2790
2791 MULTICALL;
2792
2793=for hackers
2794Found in file cop.h
2795
2796=item POP_MULTICALL
2797X<POP_MULTICALL>
2798
2799Closing bracket for a lightweight callback.
2800See L<perlcall/Lightweight Callbacks>.
2801
2802 POP_MULTICALL;
2803
2804=for hackers
2805Found in file cop.h
2806
2807=item PUSH_MULTICALL
2808X<PUSH_MULTICALL>
2809
2810Opening bracket for a lightweight callback.
2811See L<perlcall/Lightweight Callbacks>.
2812
2813 PUSH_MULTICALL;
2814
2815=for hackers
2816Found in file cop.h
2817
2818
2819=back
2820
94bdecf9 2821=head1 Numeric functions
7207e29d 2822
94bdecf9 2823=over 8
f4758303 2824
94bdecf9 2825=item grok_bin
d8c40edc 2826X<grok_bin>
f4758303 2827
94bdecf9
JH
2828converts a string representing a binary number to numeric form.
2829
2830On entry I<start> and I<*len> give the string to scan, I<*flags> gives
2831conversion flags, and I<result> should be NULL or a pointer to an NV.
2832The scan stops at the end of the string, or the first invalid character.
7b667b5f
MHM
2833Unless C<PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT> is set in I<*flags>, encountering an
2834invalid character will also trigger a warning.
2835On return I<*len> is set to the length of the scanned string,
2836and I<*flags> gives output flags.
94bdecf9 2837
7fc63493 2838If the value is <= C<UV_MAX> it is returned as a UV, the output flags are clear,
94bdecf9
JH
2839and nothing is written to I<*result>. If the value is > UV_MAX C<grok_bin>
2840returns UV_MAX, sets C<PERL_SCAN_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX> in the output flags,
2841and writes the value to I<*result> (or the value is discarded if I<result>
2842is NULL).
2843
7b667b5f 2844The binary number may optionally be prefixed with "0b" or "b" unless
94bdecf9
JH
2845C<PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX> is set in I<*flags> on entry. If
2846C<PERL_SCAN_ALLOW_UNDERSCORES> is set in I<*flags> then the binary
2847number may use '_' characters to separate digits.
2848
a3b680e6 2849 UV grok_bin(const char* start, STRLEN* len_p, I32* flags, NV *result)
f4758303
JP
2850
2851=for hackers
94bdecf9 2852Found in file numeric.c
f4758303 2853
94bdecf9 2854=item grok_hex
d8c40edc 2855X<grok_hex>
954c1994 2856
94bdecf9
JH
2857converts a string representing a hex number to numeric form.
2858
2859On entry I<start> and I<*len> give the string to scan, I<*flags> gives
2860conversion flags, and I<result> should be NULL or a pointer to an NV.
7b667b5f
MHM
2861The scan stops at the end of the string, or the first invalid character.
2862Unless C<PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT> is set in I<*flags>, encountering an
2863invalid character will also trigger a warning.
2864On return I<*len> is set to the length of the scanned string,
2865and I<*flags> gives output flags.
94bdecf9
JH
2866
2867If the value is <= UV_MAX it is returned as a UV, the output flags are clear,
2868and nothing is written to I<*result>. If the value is > UV_MAX C<grok_hex>
2869returns UV_MAX, sets C<PERL_SCAN_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX> in the output flags,
2870and writes the value to I<*result> (or the value is discarded if I<result>
2871is NULL).
2872
2873The hex number may optionally be prefixed with "0x" or "x" unless
2874C<PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX> is set in I<*flags> on entry. If
2875C<PERL_SCAN_ALLOW_UNDERSCORES> is set in I<*flags> then the hex
2876number may use '_' characters to separate digits.
2877
a3b680e6 2878 UV grok_hex(const char* start, STRLEN* len_p, I32* flags, NV *result)
954c1994 2879
497711e7 2880=for hackers
94bdecf9 2881Found in file numeric.c
497711e7 2882
94bdecf9 2883=item grok_number
d8c40edc 2884X<grok_number>
954c1994 2885
94bdecf9
JH
2886Recognise (or not) a number. The type of the number is returned
2887(0 if unrecognised), otherwise it is a bit-ORed combination of
2888IS_NUMBER_IN_UV, IS_NUMBER_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX, IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT,
2889IS_NUMBER_NEG, IS_NUMBER_INFINITY, IS_NUMBER_NAN (defined in perl.h).
2890
2891If the value of the number can fit an in UV, it is returned in the *valuep
2892IS_NUMBER_IN_UV will be set to indicate that *valuep is valid, IS_NUMBER_IN_UV
2893will never be set unless *valuep is valid, but *valuep may have been assigned
2894to during processing even though IS_NUMBER_IN_UV is not set on return.
2895If valuep is NULL, IS_NUMBER_IN_UV will be set for the same cases as when
2896valuep is non-NULL, but no actual assignment (or SEGV) will occur.
2897
2898IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT will be set with IS_NUMBER_IN_UV if trailing decimals were
2899seen (in which case *valuep gives the true value truncated to an integer), and
2900IS_NUMBER_NEG if the number is negative (in which case *valuep holds the
2901absolute value). IS_NUMBER_IN_UV is not set if e notation was used or the
2902number is larger than a UV.
2903
2904 int grok_number(const char *pv, STRLEN len, UV *valuep)
954c1994 2905
497711e7 2906=for hackers
94bdecf9 2907Found in file numeric.c
497711e7 2908
94bdecf9 2909=item grok_numeric_radix
d8c40edc 2910X<grok_numeric_radix>
954c1994 2911
94bdecf9
JH
2912Scan and skip for a numeric decimal separator (radix).
2913
2914 bool grok_numeric_radix(const char **sp, const char *send)
954c1994 2915
497711e7 2916=for hackers
94bdecf9 2917Found in file numeric.c
497711e7 2918
94bdecf9 2919=item grok_oct
d8c40edc 2920X<grok_oct>
954c1994 2921
7b667b5f
MHM
2922converts a string representing an octal number to numeric form.
2923
2924On entry I<start> and I<*len> give the string to scan, I<*flags> gives
2925conversion flags, and I<result> should be NULL or a pointer to an NV.
2926The scan stops at the end of the string, or the first invalid character.
2927Unless C<PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT> is set in I<*flags>, encountering an
2928invalid character will also trigger a warning.
2929On return I<*len> is set to the length of the scanned string,
2930and I<*flags> gives output flags.
2931
2932If the value is <= UV_MAX it is returned as a UV, the output flags are clear,
2933and nothing is written to I<*result>. If the value is > UV_MAX C<grok_oct>
2934returns UV_MAX, sets C<PERL_SCAN_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX> in the output flags,
2935and writes the value to I<*result> (or the value is discarded if I<result>
2936is NULL).
2937
2938If C<PERL_SCAN_ALLOW_UNDERSCORES> is set in I<*flags> then the octal
2939number may use '_' characters to separate digits.
94bdecf9 2940
a3b680e6 2941 UV grok_oct(const char* start, STRLEN* len_p, I32* flags, NV *result)
954c1994 2942
497711e7 2943=for hackers
94bdecf9 2944Found in file numeric.c
497711e7 2945
ed140128
AD
2946=item Perl_signbit
2947X<Perl_signbit>
2948
2949Return a non-zero integer if the sign bit on an NV is set, and 0 if
2950it is not.
2951
2952If Configure detects this system has a signbit() that will work with
2953our NVs, then we just use it via the #define in perl.h. Otherwise,
2954fall back on this implementation. As a first pass, this gets everything
2955right except -0.0. Alas, catching -0.0 is the main use for this function,
2956so this is not too helpful yet. Still, at least we have the scaffolding
2957in place to support other systems, should that prove useful.
2958
2959
2960Configure notes: This function is called 'Perl_signbit' instead of a
2961plain 'signbit' because it is easy to imagine a system having a signbit()
2962function or macro that doesn't happen to work with our particular choice
2963of NVs. We shouldn't just re-#define signbit as Perl_signbit and expect
2964the standard system headers to be happy. Also, this is a no-context
2965function (no pTHX_) because Perl_signbit() is usually re-#defined in
2966perl.h as a simple macro call to the system's signbit().
2967Users should just always call Perl_signbit().
2968
2969NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be
2970removed without notice.
2971
2972 int Perl_signbit(NV f)
2973
2974=for hackers
2975Found in file numeric.c
2976
94bdecf9 2977=item scan_bin
d8c40edc 2978X<scan_bin>
954c1994 2979
94bdecf9
JH
2980For backwards compatibility. Use C<grok_bin> instead.
2981
73d840c0 2982 NV scan_bin(const char* start, STRLEN len, STRLEN* retlen)
954c1994 2983
497711e7 2984=for hackers
94bdecf9 2985Found in file numeric.c
497711e7 2986
94bdecf9 2987=item scan_hex
d8c40edc 2988X<scan_hex>
954c1994 2989
94bdecf9
JH
2990For backwards compatibility. Use C<grok_hex> instead.
2991
73d840c0 2992 NV scan_hex(const char* start, STRLEN len, STRLEN* retlen)
954c1994 2993
497711e7 2994=for hackers
94bdecf9 2995Found in file numeric.c
497711e7 2996
94bdecf9 2997=item scan_oct
d8c40edc 2998X<scan_oct>
954c1994 2999
94bdecf9 3000For backwards compatibility. Use C<grok_oct> instead.
954c1994 3001
73d840c0 3002 NV scan_oct(const char* start, STRLEN len, STRLEN* retlen)
954c1994 3003
497711e7 3004=for hackers
94bdecf9 3005Found in file numeric.c
497711e7 3006
645c22ef 3007
94bdecf9 3008=back
645c22ef 3009
94bdecf9
JH
3010=head1 Optree Manipulation Functions
3011
3012=over 8
3013
3014=item cv_const_sv
d8c40edc 3015X<cv_const_sv>
94bdecf9
JH
3016
3017If C<cv> is a constant sub eligible for inlining. returns the constant
3018value returned by the sub. Otherwise, returns NULL.
3019
3020Constant subs can be created with C<newCONSTSUB> or as described in
3021L<perlsub/"Constant Functions">.
3022
3023 SV* cv_const_sv(CV* cv)
645c22ef
DM
3024
3025=for hackers
94bdecf9 3026Found in file op.c
645c22ef 3027
94bdecf9 3028=item newCONSTSUB
d8c40edc 3029X<newCONSTSUB>
954c1994 3030
94bdecf9
JH
3031Creates a constant sub equivalent to Perl C<sub FOO () { 123 }> which is
3032eligible for inlining at compile-time.
954c1994 3033
e1ec3a88 3034 CV* newCONSTSUB(HV* stash, const char* name, SV* sv)
954c1994 3035
497711e7 3036=for hackers
94bdecf9 3037Found in file op.c
497711e7 3038
94bdecf9 3039=item newXS
d8c40edc 3040X<newXS>
954c1994 3041
77004dee
NC
3042Used by C<xsubpp> to hook up XSUBs as Perl subs. I<filename> needs to be
3043static storage, as it is used directly as CvFILE(), without a copy being made.
954c1994 3044
94bdecf9
JH
3045=for hackers
3046Found in file op.c
3047
3048
3049=back
3050
dd2155a4
DM
3051=head1 Pad Data Structures
3052
3053=over 8
3054
3055=item pad_sv
d8c40edc 3056X<pad_sv>
dd2155a4
DM
3057
3058Get the value at offset po in the current pad.
3059Use macro PAD_SV instead of calling this function directly.
3060
3061 SV* pad_sv(PADOFFSET po)
3062
3063=for hackers
3064Found in file pad.c
3065
3066
3067=back
907b3e23
DM
3068
3069=head1 Per-Interpreter Variables
3070
3071=over 8
3072
3073=item PL_modglobal
3074X<PL_modglobal>
3075
3076C<PL_modglobal> is a general purpose, interpreter global HV for use by
3077extensions that need to keep information on a per-interpreter basis.
3078In a pinch, it can also be used as a symbol table for extensions
3079to share data among each other. It is a good idea to use keys
3080prefixed by the package name of the extension that owns the data.
3081
3082 HV* PL_modglobal
3083
3084=for hackers
3085Found in file intrpvar.h
3086
3087=item PL_na
3088X<PL_na>
3089
3090A convenience variable which is typically used with C<SvPV> when one
3091doesn't care about the length of the string. It is usually more efficient
3092to either declare a local variable and use that instead or to use the
3093C<SvPV_nolen> macro.
3094
3095 STRLEN PL_na
3096
3097=for hackers
3098Found in file intrpvar.h
3099
3100=item PL_sv_no
3101X<PL_sv_no>
3102
3103This is the C<false> SV. See C<PL_sv_yes>. Always refer to this as
3104C<&PL_sv_no>.
3105
3106 SV PL_sv_no
3107
3108=for hackers
3109Found in file intrpvar.h
3110
3111=item PL_sv_undef
3112X<PL_sv_undef>
3113
3114This is the C<undef> SV. Always refer to this as C<&PL_sv_undef>.
3115
3116 SV PL_sv_undef
3117
3118=for hackers
3119Found in file intrpvar.h
3120
3121=item PL_sv_yes
3122X<PL_sv_yes>
3123
3124This is the C<true> SV. See C<PL_sv_no>. Always refer to this as
3125C<&PL_sv_yes>.
3126
3127 SV PL_sv_yes
3128
3129=for hackers
3130Found in file intrpvar.h
3131
3132
3133=back
f7e71195
AB
3134
3135=head1 REGEXP Functions
3136
3137=over 8
3138
3139=item SvRX
3140X<SvRX>
3141
3142Convenience macro to get the REGEXP from a SV. This is approximately
3143equivalent to the following snippet:
3144
3145 if (SvMAGICAL(sv))
3146 mg_get(sv);
3147 if (SvROK(sv) &&
3148 (tmpsv = (SV*)SvRV(sv)) &&
3149 SvTYPE(tmpsv) == SVt_PVMG &&
3150 (tmpmg = mg_find(tmpsv, PERL_MAGIC_qr)))
3151 {
3152 return (REGEXP *)tmpmg->mg_obj;
3153 }
3154
3155NULL will be returned if a REGEXP* is not found.
3156
3157 REGEXP * SvRX(SV *sv)
3158
3159=for hackers
3160Found in file regexp.h
3161
3162=item SvRXOK
3163X<SvRXOK>
3164
3165Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains qr magic
3166(PERL_MAGIC_qr).
3167
3168If you want to do something with the REGEXP* later use SvRX instead
3169and check for NULL.
3170
3171 bool SvRXOK(SV* sv)
3172
3173=for hackers
3174Found in file regexp.h
3175
3176
3177=back
dd2155a4 3178
59887a99
MHM
3179=head1 Simple Exception Handling Macros
3180
3181=over 8
3182
3183=item dXCPT
d8c40edc 3184X<dXCPT>
59887a99 3185
2dfe1b17 3186Set up necessary local variables for exception handling.
59887a99
MHM
3187See L<perlguts/"Exception Handling">.
3188
3189 dXCPT;
3190
3191=for hackers
3192Found in file XSUB.h
3193
3194=item XCPT_CATCH
d8c40edc 3195X<XCPT_CATCH>
59887a99
MHM
3196
3197Introduces a catch block. See L<perlguts/"Exception Handling">.
3198
3199=for hackers
3200Found in file XSUB.h
3201
3202=item XCPT_RETHROW
d8c40edc 3203X<XCPT_RETHROW>
59887a99
MHM
3204
3205Rethrows a previously caught exception. See L<perlguts/"Exception Handling">.
3206
3207 XCPT_RETHROW;
3208
3209=for hackers
3210Found in file XSUB.h
3211
3212=item XCPT_TRY_END
d8c40edc 3213X<XCPT_TRY_END>
59887a99
MHM
3214
3215Ends a try block. See L<perlguts/"Exception Handling">.
3216
3217=for hackers
3218Found in file XSUB.h
3219
3220=item XCPT_TRY_START
d8c40edc 3221X<XCPT_TRY_START>
59887a99
MHM
3222
3223Starts a try block. See L<perlguts/"Exception Handling">.
3224
3225=for hackers
3226Found in file XSUB.h
3227
3228
3229=back
3230
94bdecf9
JH
3231=head1 Stack Manipulation Macros
3232
3233=over 8
3234
3235=item dMARK
d8c40edc 3236X<dMARK>
954c1994 3237
94bdecf9
JH
3238Declare a stack marker variable, C<mark>, for the XSUB. See C<MARK> and
3239C<dORIGMARK>.
954c1994 3240
94bdecf9 3241 dMARK;
954c1994 3242
497711e7 3243=for hackers
94bdecf9 3244Found in file pp.h
497711e7 3245
94bdecf9 3246=item dORIGMARK
d8c40edc 3247X<dORIGMARK>
954c1994 3248
94bdecf9 3249Saves the original stack mark for the XSUB. See C<ORIGMARK>.
954c1994 3250
94bdecf9 3251 dORIGMARK;
954c1994 3252
497711e7 3253=for hackers
94bdecf9 3254Found in file pp.h
497711e7 3255
94bdecf9 3256=item dSP
d8c40edc 3257X<dSP>
954c1994 3258
94bdecf9
JH
3259Declares a local copy of perl's stack pointer for the XSUB, available via
3260the C<SP> macro. See C<SP>.
954c1994 3261
94bdecf9 3262 dSP;
954c1994 3263
497711e7 3264=for hackers
94bdecf9 3265Found in file pp.h
497711e7 3266
94bdecf9 3267=item EXTEND
d8c40edc 3268X<EXTEND>
954c1994 3269
94bdecf9
JH
3270Used to extend the argument stack for an XSUB's return values. Once
3271used, guarantees that there is room for at least C<nitems> to be pushed
3272onto the stack.
954c1994 3273
94bdecf9 3274 void EXTEND(SP, int nitems)
954c1994 3275
497711e7 3276=for hackers
94bdecf9 3277Found in file pp.h
954c1994 3278
94bdecf9 3279=item MARK
d8c40edc 3280X<MARK>
954c1994 3281
94bdecf9 3282Stack marker variable for the XSUB. See C<dMARK>.
954c1994 3283
497711e7 3284=for hackers
94bdecf9 3285Found in file pp.h
954c1994 3286
d82b684c 3287=item mPUSHi
d8c40edc 3288X<mPUSHi>
d82b684c
SH
3289
3290Push an integer onto the stack. The stack must have room for this element.
de4f2208
RGS
3291Handles 'set' magic. Does not use C<TARG>. See also C<PUSHi>, C<mXPUSHi>
3292and C<XPUSHi>.
d82b684c
SH
3293
3294 void mPUSHi(IV iv)
3295
3296=for hackers
3297Found in file pp.h
3298
3299=item mPUSHn
d8c40edc 3300X<mPUSHn>
d82b684c
SH
3301
3302Push a double onto the stack. The stack must have room for this element.
de4f2208
RGS
3303Handles 'set' magic. Does not use C<TARG>. See also C<PUSHn>, C<mXPUSHn>
3304and C<XPUSHn>.
d82b684c
SH
3305
3306 void mPUSHn(NV nv)
3307
3308=for hackers
3309Found in file pp.h
3310
3311=item mPUSHp
d8c40edc 3312X<mPUSHp>
d82b684c
SH
3313
3314Push a string onto the stack. The stack must have room for this element.
de4f2208
RGS
3315The C<len> indicates the length of the string. Handles 'set' magic. Does
3316not use C<TARG>. See also C<PUSHp>, C<mXPUSHp> and C<XPUSHp>.
d82b684c
SH
3317
3318 void mPUSHp(char* str, STRLEN len)
3319
3320=for hackers
3321Found in file pp.h
3322
3323=item mPUSHu
d8c40edc 3324X<mPUSHu>
d82b684c
SH
3325
3326Push an unsigned integer onto the stack. The stack must have room for this
de4f2208
RGS
3327element. Handles 'set' magic. Does not use C<TARG>. See also C<PUSHu>,
3328C<mXPUSHu> and C<XPUSHu>.
d82b684c
SH
3329
3330 void mPUSHu(UV uv)
3331
3332=for hackers
3333Found in file pp.h
3334
3335=item mXPUSHi
d8c40edc 3336X<mXPUSHi>
d82b684c 3337
de4f2208
RGS
3338Push an integer onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary. Handles
3339'set' magic. Does not use C<TARG>. See also C<XPUSHi>, C<mPUSHi> and
3340C<PUSHi>.
d82b684c
SH
3341
3342 void mXPUSHi(IV iv)
3343
3344=for hackers
3345Found in file pp.h
3346
3347=item mXPUSHn
d8c40edc 3348X<mXPUSHn>
d82b684c 3349
de4f2208
RGS
3350Push a double onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary. Handles
3351'set' magic. Does not use C<TARG>. See also C<XPUSHn>, C<mPUSHn> and
3352C<PUSHn>.
d82b684c
SH
3353
3354 void mXPUSHn(NV nv)
3355
3356=for hackers
3357Found in file pp.h
3358
3359=item mXPUSHp
d8c40edc 3360X<mXPUSHp>
d82b684c
SH
3361
3362Push a string onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary. The C<len>
de4f2208
RGS
3363indicates the length of the string. Handles 'set' magic. Does not use
3364C<TARG>. See also C<XPUSHp>, C<mPUSHp> and C<PUSHp>.
d82b684c
SH
3365
3366 void mXPUSHp(char* str, STRLEN len)
3367
3368=for hackers
3369Found in file pp.h
3370
3371=item mXPUSHu
d8c40edc 3372X<mXPUSHu>
d82b684c
SH
3373
3374Push an unsigned integer onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary.
de4f2208
RGS
3375Handles 'set' magic. Does not use C<TARG>. See also C<XPUSHu>, C<mPUSHu>
3376and C<PUSHu>.
d82b684c
SH
3377
3378 void mXPUSHu(UV uv)
3379
3380=for hackers
3381Found in file pp.h
3382
94bdecf9 3383=item ORIGMARK
d8c40edc 3384X<ORIGMARK>
954c1994 3385
94bdecf9 3386The original stack mark for the XSUB. See C<dORIGMARK>.
954c1994 3387
497711e7 3388=for hackers
94bdecf9 3389Found in file pp.h
497711e7 3390
954c1994 3391=item POPi
d8c40edc 3392X<POPi>
954c1994
GS
3393
3394Pops an integer off the stack.
3395
3396 IV POPi
3397
497711e7
GS
3398=for hackers
3399Found in file pp.h
3400
954c1994 3401=item POPl
d8c40edc 3402X<POPl>
954c1994
GS
3403
3404Pops a long off the stack.
3405
3406 long POPl
3407
497711e7
GS
3408=for hackers
3409Found in file pp.h
3410
954c1994 3411=item POPn
d8c40edc 3412X<POPn>
954c1994
GS
3413
3414Pops a double off the stack.
3415
3416 NV POPn
3417
497711e7
GS
3418=for hackers
3419Found in file pp.h
3420
954c1994 3421=item POPp
d8c40edc 3422X<POPp>
954c1994 3423
184499a4 3424Pops a string off the stack. Deprecated. New code should use POPpx.
954c1994
GS
3425
3426 char* POPp
3427
497711e7
GS
3428=for hackers
3429Found in file pp.h
3430
fa519979 3431=item POPpbytex
d8c40edc 3432X<POPpbytex>
fa519979
JH
3433
3434Pops a string off the stack which must consist of bytes i.e. characters < 256.
fa519979
JH
3435
3436 char* POPpbytex
3437
3438=for hackers
3439Found in file pp.h
3440
3441=item POPpx
d8c40edc 3442X<POPpx>
fa519979
JH
3443
3444Pops a string off the stack.
fa519979
JH
3445
3446 char* POPpx
3447
3448=for hackers
3449Found in file pp.h
3450
954c1994 3451=item POPs
d8c40edc 3452X<POPs>
954c1994
GS
3453
3454Pops an SV off the stack.
3455
3456 SV* POPs
3457
497711e7
GS
3458=for hackers
3459Found in file pp.h
3460
954c1994 3461=item PUSHi
d8c40edc 3462X<PUSHi>
954c1994
GS
3463
3464Push an integer onto the stack. The stack must have room for this element.
d82b684c
SH
3465Handles 'set' magic. Uses C<TARG>, so C<dTARGET> or C<dXSTARG> should be
3466called to declare it. Do not call multiple C<TARG>-oriented macros to
3467return lists from XSUB's - see C<mPUSHi> instead. See also C<XPUSHi> and
3468C<mXPUSHi>.
954c1994
GS
3469
3470 void PUSHi(IV iv)
3471
497711e7
GS
3472=for hackers
3473Found in file pp.h
3474
954c1994 3475=item PUSHMARK
d8c40edc 3476X<PUSHMARK>
954c1994
GS
3477
3478Opening bracket for arguments on a callback. See C<PUTBACK> and
3479L<perlcall>.
3480
c578083c 3481 void PUSHMARK(SP)
954c1994 3482
497711e7
GS
3483=for hackers
3484Found in file pp.h
3485
d82b684c 3486=item PUSHmortal
d8c40edc 3487X<PUSHmortal>
d82b684c
SH
3488
3489Push a new mortal SV onto the stack. The stack must have room for this
3490element. Does not handle 'set' magic. Does not use C<TARG>. See also
3491C<PUSHs>, C<XPUSHmortal> and C<XPUSHs>.
3492
3493 void PUSHmortal()
3494
3495=for hackers
3496Found in file pp.h
3497
954c1994 3498=item PUSHn
d8c40edc 3499X<PUSHn>
954c1994
GS
3500
3501Push a double onto the stack. The stack must have room for this element.
d82b684c
SH
3502Handles 'set' magic. Uses C<TARG>, so C<dTARGET> or C<dXSTARG> should be
3503called to declare it. Do not call multiple C<TARG>-oriented macros to
3504return lists from XSUB's - see C<mPUSHn> instead. See also C<XPUSHn> and
3505C<mXPUSHn>.
954c1994
GS
3506
3507 void PUSHn(NV nv)
3508
497711e7
GS
3509=for hackers
3510Found in file pp.h
3511
954c1994 3512=item PUSHp
d8c40edc 3513X<PUSHp>
954c1994
GS
3514
3515