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9133bbab 1This document is written in pod format hence there are punctuation
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2characters in odd places. Do not worry, you've apparently got the
3ASCII->EBCDIC translation worked out correctly. You can read more
4about pod in pod/perlpod.pod or the short summary in the INSTALL file.
9d116dd7 5
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6=head1 NAME
7
37a78d01 8README.os390 - building and installing Perl for OS/390 and z/OS
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9
10=head1 SYNOPSIS
11
12This document will help you Configure, build, test and install Perl
37a78d01 13on OS/390 (aka z/OS) Unix System Services.
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14
15=head1 DESCRIPTION
16
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17This is a fully ported Perl for OS/390 Version 2 Release 3, 5, 6, 7,
188, and 9. It may work on other versions or releases, but those are
eae55d03 19the ones we've tested it on.
8fde188e 20
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21You may need to carry out some system configuration tasks before
22running the Configure script for Perl.
8fde188e 23
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24
25=head2 Tools
26
27The z/OS Unix Tools and Toys list may prove helpful and contains links
f110302f 28to ports of much of the software helpful for building Perl.
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29http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1toy.html
30
31
a83b6f46 32=head2 Unpacking Perl distribution on OS/390
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33
34Gunzip/gzip for OS/390 is discussed at:
35
37a78d01 36 http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/faq/bpxqp1.html
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37
38to extract an ASCII tar archive on OS/390, try this:
39
40 pax -o to=IBM-1047,from=ISO8859-1 -r < latest.tar
41
a83b6f46 42=head2 Setup and utilities for Perl on OS/390
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43
44Be sure that your yacc installation is in place including any necessary
45parser template files. If you have not already done so then be sure to:
46
47 cp /samples/yyparse.c /etc
48
9133bbab 49This may also be a good time to ensure that your /etc/protocol file
8fde188e 50and either your /etc/resolv.conf or /etc/hosts files are in place.
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51The IBM document that described such USS system setup issues was
52SC28-1890-07 "OS/390 UNIX System Services Planning", in particular
53Chapter 6 on customizing the OE shell.
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55GNU make for OS/390, which is recommended for the build of perl (as
56well as building CPAN modules and extensions), is available from the
57L</Tools>.
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59Some people have reported encountering "Out of memory!" errors while
60trying to build Perl using GNU make binaries. If you encounter such
61trouble then try to download the source code kit and build GNU make
62from source to eliminate any such trouble. You might also find GNU make
63(as well as Perl and Apache) in the red-piece/book "Open Source Software
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64for OS/390 UNIX", SG24-5944-00 from IBM.
65
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66If instead of the recommended GNU make you would like to use the system
67supplied make program then be sure to install the default rules file
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68properly via the shell command:
69
70 cp /samples/startup.mk /etc
71
72and be sure to also set the environment variable _C89_CCMODE=1 (exporting
73_C89_CCMODE=1 is also a good idea for users of GNU make).
74
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75You might also want to have GNU groff for OS/390 installed before
76running the `make install` step for Perl.
77
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78There is a syntax error in the /usr/include/sys/socket.h header file
79that IBM supplies with USS V2R7, V2R8, and possibly V2R9. The problem with
80the header file is that near the definition of the SO_REUSEPORT constant
81there is a spurious extra '/' character outside of a comment like so:
82
83 #define SO_REUSEPORT 0x0200 /* allow local address & port
84 reuse */ /
85
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86You could edit that header yourself to remove that last '/', or you might
87note that Language Environment (LE) APAR PQ39997 describes the problem
eae55d03 88and PTF's UQ46272 and UQ46271 are the (R8 at least) fixes and apply them.
9133bbab 89If left unattended that syntax error will turn up as an inability for Perl
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90to build its "Socket" extension.
91
9133bbab 92For successful testing you may need to turn on the sticky bit for your
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93world readable /tmp directory if you have not already done so (see man chmod).
94
a83b6f46 95=head2 Configure Perl on OS/390
8fde188e 96
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97Once you've unpacked the distribution, run "sh Configure" (see INSTALL
98for a full discussion of the Configure options). There is a "hints" file
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99for os390 that specifies the correct values for most things. Some things
100to watch out for include:
101
102=over 4
103
104=item *
105
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106A message of the form:
107
108 (I see you are using the Korn shell. Some ksh's blow up on Configure,
109 mainly on older exotic systems. If yours does, try the Bourne shell instead.)
110
111is nothing to worry about at all.
112
113=item *
114
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115Some of the parser default template files in /samples are needed in /etc.
116In particular be sure that you at least copy /samples/yyparse.c to /etc
eae55d03 117before running Perl's Configure. This step ensures successful extraction
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118of EBCDIC versions of parser files such as perly.c, perly.h, and x2p/a2p.c.
119This has to be done before running Configure the first time. If you failed
120to do so then the easiest way to re-Configure Perl is to delete your
121misconfigured build root and re-extract the source from the tar ball.
122Then you must ensure that /etc/yyparse.c is properly in place before
59c9e5d6 123attempting to re-run Configure.
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124
125=item *
126
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127This port will support dynamic loading, but it is not selected by
128default. If you would like to experiment with dynamic loading then
129be sure to specify -Dusedl in the arguments to the Configure script.
130See the comments in hints/os390.sh for more information on dynamic loading.
131If you build with dynamic loading then you will need to add the
132$archlibexp/CORE directory to your LIBPATH environment variable in order
133for perl to work. See the config.sh file for the value of $archlibexp.
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134If in trying to use Perl you see an error message similar to:
135
136 CEE3501S The module libperl.dll was not found.
137 From entry point __dllstaticinit at compile unit offset +00000194 at
138
9133bbab 139then your LIBPATH does not have the location of libperl.x and either
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140libperl.dll or libperl.so in it. Add that directory to your LIBPATH and
141proceed.
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142
143=item *
9d116dd7 144
eae55d03 145Do not turn on the compiler optimization flag "-O". There is
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146a bug in either the optimizer or perl that causes perl to
147not work correctly when the optimizer is on.
9d116dd7 148
8fde188e 149=item *
9d116dd7 150
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151Some of the configuration files in /etc used by the
152networking APIs are either missing or have the wrong
153names. In particular, make sure that there's either
eae55d03 154an /etc/resolv.conf or an /etc/hosts, so that
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155gethostbyname() works, and make sure that the file
156/etc/proto has been renamed to /etc/protocol (NOT
157/etc/protocols, as used by other Unix systems).
59c9e5d6 158You may have to look for things like HOSTNAME and DOMAINORIGIN
9133bbab 159in the "//'SYS1.TCPPARMS(TCPDATA)'" PDS member in order to
59c9e5d6 160properly set up your /etc networking files.
9d116dd7 161
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162=back
163
a83b6f46 164=head2 Build, Test, Install Perl on OS/390
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165
166Simply put:
167
168 sh Configure
169 make
170 make test
171
eae55d03 172if everything looks ok (see the next section for test/IVP diagnosis) then:
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173
174 make install
175
176this last step may or may not require UID=0 privileges depending
177on how you answered the questions that Configure asked and whether
178or not you have write access to the directories you specified.
179
a83b6f46 180=head2 Build Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
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181
182"Out of memory!" messages during the build of Perl are most often fixed
183by re building the GNU make utility for OS/390 from a source code kit.
184
185Another memory limiting item to check is your MAXASSIZE parameter in your
186'SYS1.PARMLIB(BPXPRMxx)' data set (note too that as of V2R8 address space
9133bbab 187limits can be set on a per user ID basis in the USS segment of a RACF
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188profile). People have reported successful builds of Perl with MAXASSIZE
189parameters as small as 503316480 (and it may be possible to build Perl
190with a MAXASSIZE smaller than that).
191
9133bbab 192Within USS your /etc/profile or $HOME/.profile may limit your ulimit
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193settings. Check that the following command returns reasonable values:
194
195 ulimit -a
196
197To conserve memory you should have your compiler modules loaded into the
198Link Pack Area (LPA/ELPA) rather than in a link list or step lib.
199
200If the c89 compiler complains of syntax errors during the build of the
201Socket extension then be sure to fix the syntax error in the system
202header /usr/include/sys/socket.h.
203
a83b6f46 204=head2 Testing Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
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205
206The `make test` step runs a Perl Verification Procedure, usually before
207installation. You might encounter STDERR messages even during a successful
208run of `make test`. Here is a guide to some of the more commonly seen
209anomalies:
210
211=over 4
212
213=item *
214
215A message of the form:
216
217 comp/cpp.............ERROR CBC3191 ./.301989890.c:1 The character $ is not a
218 valid C source character.
219 FSUM3065 The COMPILE step ended with return code 12.
220 FSUM3017 Could not compile .301989890.c. Correct the errors and try again.
221 ok
222
223indicates that the t/comp/cpp.t test of Perl's -P command line switch has
224passed but that the particular invocation of c89 -E in the cpp script does
225not suppress the C compiler check of source code validity.
226
227=item *
228
229A message of the form:
230
231 io/openpid...........CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
232 CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
233 CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
234 ok
235
236indicates that the t/io/openpid.t test of Perl has passed but done so
237with extraneous messages on stderr from CEE.
238
239=item *
240
241A message of the form:
242
243 lib/ftmp-security....File::Temp::_gettemp: Parent directory (/tmp/) is not safe
244 (sticky bit not set when world writable?) at lib/ftmp-security.t line 100
245 File::Temp::_gettemp: Parent directory (/tmp/) is not safe (sticky bit not
246 set when world writable?) at lib/ftmp-security.t line 100
247 ok
248
249indicates a problem with the permissions on your /tmp directory within the HFS.
250To correct that problem issue the command:
251
252 chmod a+t /tmp
253
254from an account with write access to the directory entry for /tmp.
255
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256=item *
257
258Out of Memory!
259
260Recent perl test suite is quite memory hunrgy. In addition to the comments
261above on memory limitations it is also worth checking for _CEE_RUNOPTS
262in your environment. Perl now has (in miniperlmain.c) a C #pragma
210b36aa 263to set CEE run options, but the environment variable wins.
9133bbab 264
210b36aa 265The C code asks for:
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266
267 #pragma runopts(HEAP(2M,500K,ANYWHERE,KEEP,8K,4K) STACK(,,ANY,) ALL31(ON))
268
269The important parts of that are the second argument (the increment) to HEAP,
270and allowing the stack to be "Above the (16M) line". If the heap
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271increment is too small then when perl (for example loading unicode/Name.pl) tries
272to create a "big" (400K+) string it cannot fit in a single segment
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273and you get "Out of Memory!" - even if there is still plenty of memory
274available.
275
276A related issue is use with perl's malloc. Perl's malloc uses C<sbrk()>
277to get memory, and C<sbrk()> is limited to the first allocation so in this
278case something like:
279
280 HEAP(8M,500K,ANYWHERE,KEEP,8K,4K)
281
282is needed to get through the test suite.
283
284
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285=back
286
a83b6f46 287=head2 Installation Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
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288
289The installman script will try to run on OS/390. There will be fewer errors
9133bbab 290if you have a roff utility installed. You can obtain GNU groff from the
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291Redbook SG24-5944-00 ftp site.
292
a83b6f46 293=head2 Usage Hints for Perl on OS/390
64d55c8a 294
9d116dd7 295When using perl on OS/390 please keep in mind that the EBCDIC and ASCII
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296character sets are different. See perlebcdic.pod for more on such character
297set issues. Perl builtin functions that may behave differently under
eae55d03 298EBCDIC are also mentioned in the perlport.pod document.
9d116dd7 299
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300Open Edition (UNIX System Services) from V2R8 onward does support
301#!/path/to/perl script invocation. There is a PTF available from
eae55d03 302IBM for V2R7 that will allow shell/kernel support for #!. USS
9133bbab 303releases prior to V2R7 did not support the #! means of script invocation.
eae55d03 304If you are running V2R6 or earlier then see:
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305
306 head `whence perldoc`
307
308for an example of how to use the "eval exec" trick to ask the shell to
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309have Perl run your scripts on those older releases of Unix System Services.
310
59c9e5d6 311If you are having trouble with square brackets then consider switching your
9133bbab 312rlogin or telnet client. Try to avoid older 3270 emulators and ISHELL for
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313working with Perl on USS.
314
a83b6f46 315=head2 Floating Point Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
35a77668 316
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317There appears to be a bug in the floating point implementation on S/390
318systems such that calling int() on the product of a number and a small
319magnitude number is not the same as calling int() on the quotient of
320that number and a large magnitude number. For example, in the following
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321Perl code:
322
323 my $x = 100000.0;
324 my $y = int($x * 1e-5) * 1e5; # '0'
325 my $z = int($x / 1e+5) * 1e5; # '100000'
326 print "\$y is $y and \$z is $z\n"; # $y is 0 and $z is 100000
327
9133bbab 328Although one would expect the quantities $y and $z to be the same and equal
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329to 100000 they will differ and instead will be 0 and 100000 respectively.
330
331The problem can be further examined in a roughly equivalent C program:
332
333 #include <stdio.h>
334 #include <math.h>
335 main()
336 {
337 double r1,r2;
338 double x = 100000.0;
339 double y = 0.0;
340 double z = 0.0;
341 x = 100000.0 * 1e-5;
342 r1 = modf (x,&y);
343 x = 100000.0 / 1e+5;
344 r2 = modf (x,&z);
345 printf("y is %e and z is %e\n",y*1e5,z*1e5);
346 /* y is 0.000000e+00 and z is 1.000000e+05 (with c89) */
347 }
348
a83b6f46 349=head2 Modules and Extensions for Perl on OS/390
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350
351Pure pure (that is non xs) modules may be installed via the usual:
352
353 perl Makefile.PL
354 make
355 make test
356 make install
357
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358If you built perl with dynamic loading capability then that would also
359be the way to build xs based extensions. However, if you built perl with
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360the default static linking you can still build xs based extensions for OS/390
361but you will need to follow the instructions in ExtUtils::MakeMaker for
362building statically linked perl binaries. In the simplest configurations
59c9e5d6 363building a static perl + xs extension boils down to:
9d116dd7 364
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365 perl Makefile.PL
366 make
367 make perl
368 make test
369 make install
370 make -f Makefile.aperl inst_perl MAP_TARGET=perl
8fde188e 371
9133bbab 372In most cases people have reported better results with GNU make rather
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373than the system's /bin/make program, whether for plain modules or for
374xs based extensions.
8fde188e 375
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376If the make process encounters trouble with either compilation or
377linking then try setting the _C89_CCMODE to 1. Assuming sh is your
378login shell then run:
379
380 export _C89_CCMODE=1
381
382If tcsh is your login shell then use the setenv command.
383
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384=head1 AUTHORS
385
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386David Fiander and Peter Prymmer with thanks to Dennis Longnecker
387and William Raffloer for valuable reports, LPAR and PTF feedback.
388Thanks to Mike MacIsaac and Egon Terwedow for SG24-5944-00.
35a77668 389Thanks to Ignasi Roca for pointing out the floating point problems.
f2766b05 390Thanks to John Goodyear for dynamic loading help.
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391
392=head1 SEE ALSO
393
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394L<INSTALL>, L<perlport>, L<perlebcdic>, L<ExtUtils::MakeMaker>.
395
37a78d01 396 http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1toy.html
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397
398 http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg245944.html
399
1e32511c 400 http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1ty1.html#opensrc
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401
402 http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/mailing-lists/perl-mvs/
8fde188e 403
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404 http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com:80/cgi-bin/bookmgr_OS390/BOOKS/ceea3030/
405
406 http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com:80/cgi-bin/bookmgr_OS390/BOOKS/CBCUG030/
407
a83b6f46 408=head2 Mailing list for Perl on OS/390
8fde188e 409
9133bbab 410The Perl Institute (http://www.perl.org/) maintains a perl-mvs
8fde188e 411mailing list of interest to all folks building and/or
9133bbab 412using perl on all EBCDIC platforms (not just OS/390).
eae55d03 413To subscribe, send a message of:
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414
415 subscribe perl-mvs
416
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417to majordomo@perl.org. See also:
418
419 http://lists.perl.org/showlist.cgi?name=perl-mvs
420
421There are web archives of the mailing list at:
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422
423 http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/mailing-lists/perl-mvs/
35a77668 424 http://archive.develooper.com/perl-mvs@perl.org/
9d116dd7 425
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426=head1 HISTORY
427
428This document was originally written by David Fiander for the 5.005
429release of Perl.
430
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431This document was podified for the 5.005_03 release of Perl 11 March 1999.
432
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433Updated 28 November 2001 for broken URLs.
434
eae55d03 435Updated 12 November 2000 for the 5.7.1 release of Perl.
8fde188e 436
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437Updated 15 January 2001 for the 5.7.1 release of Perl.
438
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439Updated 24 January 2001 to mention dynamic loading.
440
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441Updated 12 March 2001 to mention //'SYS1.TCPPARMS(TCPDATA)'.
442
8fde188e 443=cut
eae55d03 444