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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
12 (S) A severe warning (mandatory).
13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
748a9306 18Optional warnings are enabled by using the B<-w> switch. Warnings may
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19be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}> to a reference to a routine that
20will be called on each warning instead of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
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21Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
22L<perlfunc/eval>.
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23
24Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are denoted with a %s,
2ba9eb46 25just as in a printf format. Note that some messages start with a %s!
702d120d 26The symbols C<"%(-?@> sort before the letters, while C<[> and C<\> sort after.
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27
28=over 4
29
30=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
31
32(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make sense
33to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use local()
34if you want to localize a package variable.
35
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36=item "my" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same scope
37
fb73857a 38(W) A lexical variable has been redeclared in the same scope, effectively
2ba9eb46 39eliminating all access to the previous instance. This is almost always
8b1a09fc 40a typographical error. Note that the earlier variable will still exist
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41until the end of the scope or until all closure referents to it are
42destroyed.
43
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44=item "no" not allowed in expression
45
46(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
47no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
48
49=item "use" not allowed in expression
50
51(F) The "use" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
52no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
53
54=item % may only be used in unpack
55
5f05dabc 56(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
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57checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other
58way. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
59
60=item %s (...) interpreted as function
61
62(W) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator followed
8b1a09fc 63by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list operators arguments
5f05dabc 64found inside the parentheses. See L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
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65
66=item %s argument is not a HASH element
67
5f05dabc 68(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash element, such as
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69
70 $foo{$bar}
71 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
72
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73=item %s argument is not a HASH element or slice
74
75(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash element, such as
76
77 $foo{$bar}
78 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
79
80or a hash slice, such as
81
82 @foo{$bar, $baz, $xyzzy}
83 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
84
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85=item %s did not return a true value
86
87(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
88it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
89traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
90do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
91
92=item %s found where operator expected
93
94(S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator. If it
95sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an operator,
96it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an operator or
97delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
98
f86702cc 99=item %s had compilation errors
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100
101(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
102
f86702cc 103=item %s has too many errors
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104
105(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
106Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
107
108=item %s matches null string many times
109
110(W) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
111regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. See L<perlre>.
112
113=item %s never introduced
114
115(S) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of scope
116before it could possibly have been used.
117
118=item %s syntax OK
119
120(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> succeeds.
121
f86702cc 122=item %s: Command not found
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123
124(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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125of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
126Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 127
f86702cc 128=item %s: Expression syntax
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129
130(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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131of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
132Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 133
f86702cc 134=item %s: Undefined variable
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135
136(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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137of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
138Perl yourself.
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139
140=item %s: not found
141
8b1a09fc 142(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 143instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
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144into Perl yourself.
145
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146=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
147
148(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
149found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
150the previous line just because you saw this message.
151
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152=item B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script
153
154(F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name,
155which provides a race condition that breaks security.
156
157=item C<-T> and C<-B> not implemented on filehandles
158
159(F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it doesn't
160know about your kind of stdio. You'll have to use a filename instead.
161
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162=item C<-p> destination: %s
163
164(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
165command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
166redirected it with select().)
167
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168=item 500 Server error
169
170See Server error.
171
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172=item ?+* follows nothing in regexp
173
174(F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it
175if you meant it literally. See L<perlre>.
176
177=item @ outside of string
178
2ba9eb46 179(F) You had a pack template that specified an absolute position outside
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180the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
181
182=item accept() on closed fd
183
184(W) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
185the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/accept>.
186
187=item Allocation too large: %lx
188
54310121 189(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
55497cff 190
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191=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
192
2c268ad5 193(W) The pattern match (//), substitution (s///), and transliteration (tr///)
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194operators work on scalar values. If you apply one of them to an array
195or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to a scalar value -- the
196length of an array, or the population info of a hash -- and then work on
197that scalar value. This is probably not what you meant to do. See
198L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for alternatives.
199
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200=item Arg too short for msgsnd
201
202(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
203
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204=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
205
206(W)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
207you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
5f05dabc 208a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
748a9306 209
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210=item Args must match #! line
211
212(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
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213with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
214impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
215for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 216
f86702cc 217=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
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218
219(W) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator that
220expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
221will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
222
223=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
224
225(D) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some spots. This
226is now heavily deprecated.
227
228=item assertion botched: %s
229
230(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
231
232=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
233
234(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
235
236=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
237
238(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
239must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
240know which context to supply to the right side.
241
242=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
243
244(P) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas that will
245be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be outside any
246of those arenas.
247
54310121 248=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
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249
250(P) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of strings to
251optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other strings. This
252indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count of a string
253that can no longer be found in the table.
254
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255=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
256
257(W) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the free_tmps()
258routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the SV before
259the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the free_tmps()
260routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does try to free
261it.
262
263=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
264
265(P) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
266
267=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
268
269(W) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to see if it
270would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0 earlier,
271and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed. This
272could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or that
273SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was mortalized
274when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been corrupted.
275
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276=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
277
278(W) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
279function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
280means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
281invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
282literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
283avoid this warning.
284
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285=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
286
287(W) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr() used
8b1a09fc 288as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
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289dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
290
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291=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
292
293(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl() or
2ba9eb46 294shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 295S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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296S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
297
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298=item Bad filehandle: %s
299
300(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the symbol
301has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an open(), or
302did it in another package.
303
304=item Bad free() ignored
305
306(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had never been
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307malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
308setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
309
310This message can be quite often seen with DB_File on systems with
311"hard" dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of
312C<Berkeley DB> which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving>
313system malloc().
a0d0e21e 314
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315=item Bad hash
316
317(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
318
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319=item Bad index while coercing array into hash
320
321(F) A field name of a typed variable was looked up in the %FIELDS
322hash, but the index found was not legal, i.e. less than 1.
323
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324=item Bad index while coercing array into hash
325
326(F) The index looked up in the hash found as 0'th element of the array
327is not legal. Index values must be at 1 or greater.
328
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329=item Bad name after %s::
330
331(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then didn't
332finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside of quotes,
333so
334
335 $var = 'myvar';
336 $sym = mypack::$var;
337
338is not the same as
339
340 $var = 'myvar';
341 $sym = "mypack::$var";
342
343=item Bad symbol for array
344
345(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
346wasn't a symbol table entry.
347
348=item Bad symbol for filehandle
349
350(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something that
351wasn't a symbol table entry.
352
353=item Bad symbol for hash
354
355(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
356wasn't a symbol table entry.
357
8b1a09fc 358=item Badly placed ()'s
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359
360(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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361of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
362Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 363
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364=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
365
366(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
367subroutine identifier, in curly braces or to the left of the "=>" symbol.
54310121 368Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
3fe9a6f1 369
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370=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
371
372(W) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but
373the compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point.
374Perhaps you need to predeclare a package?
375
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376=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
377
378(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN subroutine.
379Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is exited.
380
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381=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
382
383(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
384implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had
385already occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}>
386could not be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code
387likely depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
388
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389=item bind() on closed fd
390
391(W) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
392the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
393
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394=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
395
396(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not copiable.
397
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398=item Callback called exit
399
400(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via perl_call_sv()
401exited by calling exit.
402
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403=item Can't "goto" outside a block
404
405(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look
406like a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually
407occurs if you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which
408is a no-no. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
409
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410=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
411
412(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a
413foreach loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
414
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415=item Can't "last" outside a block
416
417(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
418except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a
419current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a
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420"loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can usually double
421the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner curlies
422will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/last>.
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423
424=item Can't "next" outside a block
425
426(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
427there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
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428count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can
429usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner
54310121 430curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
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431
432=item Can't "redo" outside a block
433
434(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
435there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
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436count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can
437usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner
54310121 438curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
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439
440=item Can't bless non-reference value
441
442(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
443encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
444
445=item Can't break at that line
446
54310121 447(S) A warning intended to only be printed while running within the debugger, indicating
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448the line number specified wasn't the location of a statement that could
449be stopped at.
450
451=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
452
453(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
454functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
455in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
456
457=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
458
54310121 459(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
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460ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but
461you didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't
462an object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
463
464=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
465
466(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
467object reference or package name contains an expression that returns
468neither an object reference nor a package name. (Perhaps it's null?)
469Something like this will reproduce the error:
470
471 $BADREF = undef;
472 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
473 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
474
475=item Can't chdir to %s
476
477(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
478that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
479
480=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
481
482(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 483(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
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484say things like:
485
486 *foo += 1;
487
488You CAN say
489
490 $foo = *foo;
491 $foo += 1;
492
493but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
494
495=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
496
497(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 498(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
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499
500=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
501
502(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 503(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e 504
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505=item Can't coerce array into hash
506
507(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
508information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
509only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
510
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511=item Can't create pipe mailbox
512
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513(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted quotas
514or other plumbing problems.
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515
516=item Can't declare %s in my
517
5f05dabc 518(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as lexical variables.
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519They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
520
521=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
522
523(S) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated reason.
524
54310121 525=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 526
54310121 527(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try reading
3fe9a6f1 528from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say C<-i.bak>, or some
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529such.
530
8b1a09fc 531=item Can't do inplace edit: %s E<gt> 14 characters
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532
533(S) There isn't enough room in the filename to make a backup name for the file.
534
535=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
536
537(S) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as a file in
538/dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
539
540=item Can't do setegid!
541
542(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
543of suidperl.
544
545=item Can't do seteuid!
546
547(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
548
549=item Can't do setuid
550
551(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to
552do setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the
553form sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides
554under the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines.
555If the file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask
556your sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
557
558=item Can't do waitpid with flags
559
560(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only waitpid()
561without flags is emulated.
562
8b1a09fc 563=item Can't do {n,m} with n E<gt> m
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564
565(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want
566your regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. See L<perlre>.
567
568=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
569
570(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this point.
571For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #! line.
572
573=item Can't exec "%s": %s
574
5f05dabc 575(W) An system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the named
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576program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the permissions
577were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in C<$ENV{PATH}>, the
578executable in question was compiled for another architecture, or the
579#! line in a script points to an interpreter that can't be run for
580similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support #! at all.)
581
582=item Can't exec %s
583
584(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because that's
585what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may need to
586mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
587
588=item Can't execute %s
589
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590(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute found
591in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
592
593=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
594
595(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
596in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The script
597exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
598
599=item Can't find %s on PATH
600
a0d0e21e 601(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
2a92aaa0 602in the PATH.
a0d0e21e
LW
603
604=item Can't find label %s
605
606(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's possible
607for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
608
609=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
610
611(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means that
5f05dabc 612the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count nesting
a0d0e21e
LW
613levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
614
fb73857a
PP
615 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
616
617If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
618included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good
619programmer's editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e
LW
620
621=item Can't fork
622
623(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a pipeline.
624
748a9306
LW
625=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
626
627(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference between
628access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes. Under VMS,
629access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in the stat buffer, so
630that ACLs and other protections can be taken into account. Unfortunately, Perl
631assumes that the stat buffer contains all the necessary information, and passes
632it, instead of the filespec, to the access checking routine. It will try to
633retrieve the filespec using the device name and FID present in the stat buffer,
634but this works only if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat()
5f05dabc 635routine, because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
748a9306
LW
636appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up and
637returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking routine
638knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you shouldn't ever
639see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises only if some internal
640code takes stat buffers lightly.)
641
a0d0e21e
LW
642=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
643
748a9306
LW
644(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a pipe, Perl
645can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
646
647=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
648
748a9306
LW
649(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
650mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e
LW
651
652=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
653
654(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one subroutine
655call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole cloth. In general
5f05dabc 656you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD routine anyway. See
a0d0e21e
LW
657L<perlfunc/goto>.
658
b150fb22
RH
659=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string
660
661(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval "string".
662(You can use it to jump out of an eval {BLOCK}, but you probably don't want to.)
663
706a304b 664=item Can't localize through a reference
4633a7c4 665
706a304b
SM
666(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
667handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
668pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be
669sure that $ref will still be a reference.
4633a7c4 670
748a9306
LW
671=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
672
2ba9eb46 673(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
748a9306
LW
674lexical variable using "my". This is not allowed. If you want to
675localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
676package name.
677
4727527e
IZ
678=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
679
680(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows autoload,
681but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes are a misprint
682in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit> the file, say, by
683doing C<make install>.
684
38b8243a 685=item Can't locate %s in @INC
a0d0e21e 686
7a2e2cd6 687(F) You said to do (or require, or use) a file that couldn't be found
54310121
PP
688in any of the libraries mentioned in @INC. Perhaps you need to set the
689PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the extra library
690is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name to @INC. Or maybe
a0d0e21e
LW
691you just misspelled the name of the file. See L<perlfunc/require>.
692
693=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
694
695(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
696functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 697method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
698
699=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
700
701(W) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that doesn't seem
702to exist.
703
3e3baf6d
TB
704=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
705
706(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably VMS.
707
a0d0e21e
LW
708=item Can't modify %s in %s
709
710(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try to
5f05dabc 711change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 712
54310121 713=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
714
715(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
716a NULL.
717
5f05dabc 718=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 719
5f05dabc 720(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
721buffer.
722
723=item Can't open %s: %s
724
08e9d68e
DD
725(S) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<E<lt>E<gt>>
726filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
727switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
728is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named
729on the command line.
a0d0e21e
LW
730
731=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
732
733(W) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported. You can
734try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such as
7e1af8bc 735IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using "E<gt>",
a0d0e21e
LW
736and then read it in under a different file handle.
737
748a9306
LW
738=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
739
740(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
741couldn't open the file specified after '2E<gt>' or '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the
742command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
743
744=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
745
746(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc 747couldn't open the file specified after 'E<lt>' on the command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
748
749=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
750
751(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
752couldn't open the file specified after 'E<gt>' or 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command
753line for writing.
748a9306
LW
754
755=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
756
757(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
758couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined for stdout.
759
a0d0e21e
LW
760=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
761
762(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
763
7bac28a0
PP
764=item Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s
765
766(F) Perl optimizes the internal handling of sort subroutines and keeps
767pointers into them. You tried to redefine one such sort subroutine when it
768was currently active, which is not allowed. If you really want to do
769this, you should write C<sort { &func } @x> instead of C<sort func @x>.
770
a0d0e21e
LW
771=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
772
773(S) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason, probably because
774you don't have write permission to the directory.
775
748a9306
LW
776=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
777
778(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried to
779reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
780
a0d0e21e
LW
781=item Can't reswap uid and euid
782
783(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
784of suidperl.
785
786=item Can't return outside a subroutine
787
788(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
789there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
790
791=item Can't stat script "%s"
792
793(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have
794it open already. Bizarre.
795
796=item Can't swap uid and euid
797
798(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
799of suidperl.
800
801=item Can't take log of %g
802
fb73857a
PP
803(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
804negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
805standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for
806the negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
807
808=item Can't take sqrt of %g
809
810(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
811negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
812with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
813
814=item Can't undef active subroutine
815
816(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
817however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
818redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
819
820=item Can't unshift
821
822(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
823as the main Perl stack.
824
825=item Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
826
827(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making
828it into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are
829so specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This
830message indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
831
832=item Can't upgrade to undef
833
834(P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme
835of upgradability. Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the
836code calling sv_upgrade.
837
1d2dff63
GS
838=item Can't use %%! because Errno.pm is not available
839
840(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
841Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
842provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
843
c07a80fd
PP
844=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
845
846(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
8b1a09fc 847You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the E<lt>=E<gt> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
848and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
849Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
850lexical variable.
851
a0d0e21e
LW
852=item Can't use %s for loop variable
853
854(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a foreach.
855
856=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
857
858(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
859reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
860test the type of the reference, if need be.
861
748a9306
LW
862=item Can't use \1 to mean $1 in expression
863
864(W) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that creates
865a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a backreference
5f05dabc 866to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular expression pattern.
748a9306
LW
867Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a value that prints
868out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form instead.
869
44a8e56a
PP
870=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while \"strict refs\" in use
871
872(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
873are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
874
748a9306 875=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e
LW
876
877(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
878are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
879
880=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
881
882(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
54310121 883be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
a0d0e21e 884
a0d0e21e
LW
885=item Can't use global %s in "my"
886
887(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This is
5f05dabc 888not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location (namely
a0d0e21e
LW
889the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to have
890variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
891weren't.
892
748a9306
LW
893=item Can't use subscript on %s
894
895(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
896subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
897didn't look like an array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
898
5f05dabc 899=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e
LW
900
901(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value) with
902an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
903Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
904
b6c543e3
IZ
905=item Cannot find an opnumber for "%s"
906
907(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but
908there is no builtin with the name C<word>.
909
e7ea3e70
IZ
910=item Cannot resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
911
912(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
913opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
914package. If method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
915
4599a1de
JH
916=item Character class syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions
917
918(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
919with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future extensions.
920If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
921expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
922backslash: "\[." and ".\]".
923
924=item Character class syntax [: :] is reserved for future extensions
925
926(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
927with "[:" and ending with ":]" is reserved for future extensions.
928If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
929expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
930backslash: "\[:" and ":\]".
931
932=item Character class syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions
933
934(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
935beginning with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future extensions.
936If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
937expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
938backslash: "\[=" and "=\]".
939
a0d0e21e
LW
940=item chmod: mode argument is missing initial 0
941
942(W) A novice will sometimes say
943
944 chmod 777, $filename
945
946not realizing that 777 will be interpreted as a decimal number, equivalent
947to 01411. Octal constants are introduced with a leading 0 in Perl, as in C.
948
8b1a09fc 949=item Close on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
950
951(W) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
952
7a2e2cd6
PP
953=item Compilation failed in require
954
955(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
956Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it encountered
957were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
958
a0d0e21e
LW
959=item connect() on closed fd
960
961(W) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
962the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/connect>.
963
4cee8e80
CS
964=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
965
966(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
967inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
968workarounds.
969
9607fc9c
PP
970=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
971
972(S) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
973inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
974workarounds.
975
e7ea3e70
IZ
976=item Copy method did not return a reference
977
978(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
979
a0d0e21e
LW
980=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
981
982(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
983
984=item corrupted regexp pointers
985
986(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
987expression compiler gave it.
988
989=item corrupted regexp program
990
991(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without
992a valid magic number.
993
994=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
995
996(W) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly) 100
3e3baf6d 997times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an infinite
a0d0e21e
LW
998recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in which
999case it indicates something else.
1000
fc36a67e
PP
1001=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1002
1003(F) In a here document construct like C<E<lt>E<lt>FOO>, the label
1004C<FOO> is too long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously
1005twisted to write code that triggers this error.
1006
4633a7c4
LW
1007=item Did you mean &%s instead?
1008
1009(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some such.
1010
748a9306 1011=item Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?
a0d0e21e 1012
748a9306
LW
1013(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or @hash{@keys}.
1014On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got carried away.
1015
7e1af8bc 1016=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1017
1018(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1019you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1020
54310121 1021=item Do you need to predeclare %s?
748a9306
LW
1022
1023(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1024found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
1025name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1026because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
1027"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're
1028referencing something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have
1029to define the subroutine or package before the current location. You
1030can use an empty "sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward"
1031declaration.
a0d0e21e
LW
1032
1033=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1034
1035(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1036
1037=item do_study: out of memory
1038
1039(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1040
1041=item Duplicate free() ignored
1042
1043(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had already
1044been freed.
1045
4633a7c4
LW
1046=item elseif should be elsif
1047
1048(S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1049ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1050named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
1051unlikely to be what you want.
1052
a0d0e21e
LW
1053=item END failed--cleanup aborted
1054
1055(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing an END subroutine.
1056The interpreter is immediately exited.
1057
748a9306
LW
1058=item Error converting file specification %s
1059
5f05dabc 1060(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306
LW
1061specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
1062single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've
1063passed an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a
1064case the conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
1065
e4d48cc9
GS
1066=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1067
1068(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular expression
1069that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which is unsafe.
1070See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
1071
1072=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1073
1074(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion,
1075but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'> pragma is
1076in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
1077
1078=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time
1079
1080(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the C<(?{ ... })>
3c247ff3
GS
1081zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the pattern contains
1082interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it is not allowed.
e4d48cc9
GS
1083If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly building the pattern
1084from an interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval().
1085See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
1086
fc36a67e
PP
1087=item Excessively long <> operator
1088
1089(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1090Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1091filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1092variable and glob that.
1093
f86702cc 1094=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
1095
1096(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1097
1098=item Exiting eval via %s
1099
8b1a09fc 1100(W) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1101a goto, or a loop control statement.
1102
0a753a76
PP
1103=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1104
1105(W) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a sort block or
1106subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a loop control
1107statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
1108
a0d0e21e
LW
1109=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1110
8b1a09fc 1111(W) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1112a goto, or a loop control statement.
1113
1114=item Exiting substitution via %s
1115
8b1a09fc 1116(W) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1117a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
1118
7b8d334a
GS
1119=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1120
1121(W) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1122the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1123usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target
1124package, e.g. bless($ref, $p or 'MyPackage');
1125
748a9306 1126=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1127
748a9306
LW
1128(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS system
1129service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more details. The
1130filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell you which section of
1131the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1132
1133=item fcntl is not implemented
1134
1135(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1136PDP-11 or something?
1137
1138=item Filehandle %s never opened
1139
1140(W) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was never initialized.
1141You need to do an open() or a socket() call, or call a constructor from
1142the FileHandle package.
1143
5f05dabc 1144=item Filehandle %s opened for only input
a0d0e21e
LW
1145
1146(W) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
1147intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1148"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
5f05dabc 1149you intended only to write the file, use "E<gt>" or "E<gt>E<gt>". See
8b1a09fc 1150L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1151
5f05dabc 1152=item Filehandle opened for only input
a0d0e21e
LW
1153
1154(W) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
1155intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1156"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
5f05dabc 1157you intended only to write the file, use "E<gt>" or "E<gt>E<gt>". See
8b1a09fc 1158L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1159
1160=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1161
1162(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
1163a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1164that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1165the name.
1166
1167=item Final @ should be \@ or @name
1168
1169(F) You must now decide whether the final @ in a string was meant to be
1170a literal "at" sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1171that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1172the name.
1173
1174=item Format %s redefined
1175
1176(W) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
1177
1178 {
1179 local $^W = 0;
1180 eval "format NAME =...";
1181 }
1182
1183=item Format not terminated
1184
1185(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1186to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1187
1188=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1189
1190(W) You said
1191
1192 if ($foo = 123)
1193
1194when you meant
1195
1196 if ($foo == 123)
1197
1198(or something like that).
1199
1200=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1201
1202(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1203
1204=item gethostent not implemented
1205
1206(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1207because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1208on the Internet.
1209
1210=item get{sock,peer}name() on closed fd
1211
1212(W) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed socket.
1213Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
1214
748a9306
LW
1215=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1216
1217(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1218C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1219
1220
a0d0e21e
LW
1221=item Glob not terminated
1222
1223(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
1224a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
1225finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
1226the line, and you really meant a "less than".
1227
1228=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1229
68dc0745
PP
1230(F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables
1231must either be lexically scoped (using "my"), or explicitly qualified to
a0d0e21e
LW
1232say which package the global variable is in (using "::").
1233
1234=item goto must have label
1235
1236(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1237unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1238
1239=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1240
1241(S) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought to have
1242existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be created on
1243an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
1244
1245=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1246
1247(D) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some spots. This
1248is now heavily deprecated.
1249
8903cb82
PP
1250=item Identifier too long
1251
1252(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e
PP
1253about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
1254names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future
1255versions of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1256
8b1a09fc 1257=item Ill-formed logical name |%s| in prime_env_iter
a0d0e21e 1258
8b1a09fc
PP
1259(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. A logical name was encountered when preparing
1260to iterate over %ENV which violates the syntactic rules governing logical
5f05dabc
PP
1261names. Because it cannot be translated normally, it is skipped, and will not
1262appear in %ENV. This may be a benign occurrence, as some software packages
54310121 1263might directly modify logical name tables and introduce nonstandard names,
8b1a09fc 1264or it may indicate that a logical name table has been corrupted.
a0d0e21e 1265
4fdae800
PP
1266=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1267
1268(F) A carriage return character was found in the input. This is an
1269error, and not a warning, because carriage return characters can break
54310121
PP
1270multi-line strings, including here documents (e.g., C<print E<lt>E<lt>EOF;>).
1271
1272Under Unix, this error is usually caused by executing Perl code --
68dc0745 1273either the main program, a module, or an eval'd string -- that was
54310121 1274transferred over a network connection from a non-Unix system without
68dc0745
PP
1275properly converting the text file format.
1276
1277Under systems that use something other than '\n' to delimit lines of
1278text, this error can also be caused by reading Perl code from a file
1279handle that is in binary mode (as set by the C<binmode> operator).
1280
1281In either case, the Perl code in question will probably need to be
1282converted with something like C<s/\x0D\x0A?/\n/g> before it can be
1283executed.
4fdae800 1284
a0d0e21e
LW
1285=item Illegal division by zero
1286
1287(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in your
1288logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against meaningless input.
1289
1290=item Illegal modulus zero
1291
1292(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most numbers
1293don't take to this kindly.
1294
1295=item Illegal octal digit
1296
1297(F) You used an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1298
748a9306
LW
1299=item Illegal octal digit ignored
1300
1301(W) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in a octal number. Interpretation
1302of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
1303
6ff81951
GS
1304=item Illegal hex digit ignored
1305
1306(W) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or A - F in a
1307hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal number stopped
1308before the illegal character.
1309
54310121
PP
1310=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
1311
1312(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
1313following switches: B<-[DIMUdmw]>.
1314
9607fc9c
PP
1315=item In string, @%s now must be written as \@%s
1316
1317(F) It used to be that Perl would try to guess whether you wanted an
1318array interpolated or a literal @. It did this when the string was first
1319used at runtime. Now strings are parsed at compile time, and ambiguous
1320instances of @ must be disambiguated, either by prepending a backslash to
1321indicate a literal, or by declaring (or using) the array within the
1322program before the string (lexically). (Someday it will simply assume
1323that an unbackslashed @ interpolates an array.)
1324
a0d0e21e
LW
1325=item Insecure dependency in %s
1326
8b1a09fc 1327(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
a0d0e21e
LW
1328The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or setgid,
1329or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The tainting mechanism
1330labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly from the user,
1331who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any such data is
1332used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See L<perlsec>
1333for more information.
1334
1335=item Insecure directory in %s
1336
1337(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or setgid
8b1a09fc 1338script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by the world.
a0d0e21e
LW
1339See L<perlsec>.
1340
62f468fc 1341=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1342
1343(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc
G
1344setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
1345C<$ENV{ENV}> or C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> are derived from data supplied (or
a0d0e21e
LW
1346potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set the path to a
1347known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
1348
bbce6d69
PP
1349=item Integer overflow in hex number
1350
1351(S) The literal hex number you have specified is too big for your
1352architecture. On a 32-bit architecture the largest hex literal is
13530xFFFFFFFF.
1354
1355=item Integer overflow in octal number
1356
1357(S) The literal octal number you have specified is too big for your
1358architecture. On a 32-bit architecture the largest octal literal is
1359037777777777.
1360
748a9306
LW
1361=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
1362
1363(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number
5f05dabc 1364of times you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine
2ba9eb46 1365whether the current call to C<exec> should affect the current
748a9306
LW
1366script or a subprocess (see L<perlvms/exec>). Somehow, this count
1367has become scrambled, so Perl is making a guess and treating
1368this C<exec> as a request to terminate the Perl script
1369and execute the specified command.
1370
a0d0e21e
LW
1371=item internal disaster in regexp
1372
1373(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
1374
5cd24f17
PP
1375=item internal error: glob failed
1376
1377(P) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for C<glob>
1378and C<E<lt>*.cE<gt>>. This may mean that your csh (C shell) is
1379broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1380config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1381were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1382empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1383think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
1384C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
1385
a0d0e21e
LW
1386=item internal urp in regexp at /%s/
1387
1388(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser.
1389
1390=item invalid [] range in regexp
1391
1392(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
1393greater than the maximum character. See L<perlre>.
1394
c635e13b
PP
1395=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
1396
878e08df 1397(W) Perl does not understand the given format conversion.
c635e13b
PP
1398See L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
1399
96e4d5b1
PP
1400=item Invalid type in pack: '%s'
1401
8903cb82 1402(F) The given character is not a valid pack type. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
fb73857a
PP
1403(W) The given character is not a valid pack type but used to be silently
1404ignored.
96e4d5b1
PP
1405
1406=item Invalid type in unpack: '%s'
1407
8903cb82 1408(F) The given character is not a valid unpack type. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
fb73857a
PP
1409(W) The given character is not a valid unpack type but used to be silently
1410ignored.
96e4d5b1 1411
a0d0e21e
LW
1412=item ioctl is not implemented
1413
1414(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
1415strange for a machine that supports C.
1416
1417=item junk on end of regexp
1418
1419(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
1420
1421=item Label not found for "last %s"
1422
1423(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a
1424loop of that name, not even if you count where you were called from.
1425See L<perlfunc/last>.
1426
1427=item Label not found for "next %s"
1428
1429(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
1430that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1431L<perlfunc/last>.
1432
1433=item Label not found for "redo %s"
1434
1435(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
1436that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1437L<perlfunc/last>.
1438
1439=item listen() on closed fd
1440
1441(W) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
1442the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/listen>.
1443
a0d0e21e
LW
1444=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
1445
1446(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 1447doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1448
1449=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
1450
1451(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
1452by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
1453ended earlier on the current line.
1454
1455=item Misplaced _ in number
1456
1457(W) An underline in a decimal constant wasn't on a 3-digit boundary.
1458
1459=item Missing $ on loop variable
1460
8b1a09fc
PP
1461(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables are always
1462mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it can vary from
a0d0e21e
LW
1463one line to the next.
1464
1465=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
1466
1467(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
1468"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
1469
748a9306
LW
1470=item Missing operator before %s?
1471
1472(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1473found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
1474
a0d0e21e
LW
1475=item Missing right bracket
1476
1477(F) The lexer counted more opening curly brackets (braces) than closing ones.
1478As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you were last
1479editing.
1480
a0d0e21e
LW
1481=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
1482
1483(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 1484constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
1485catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
1486
1487 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
1488 mod(2);
1489
1490Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
1491
54310121 1492=item Modification of noncreatable array value attempted, subscript %d
a0d0e21e
LW
1493
1494(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
1495subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
1496backwards.
1497
54310121 1498=item Modification of noncreatable hash value attempted, subscript "%s"
a0d0e21e
LW
1499
1500(F) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it couldn't
1501be created for some peculiar reason.
1502
1503=item Module name must be constant
1504
1505(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
1506
1507=item msg%s not implemented
1508
1509(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
1510
1511=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
1512
8b1a09fc
PP
1513(W) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>. They're written
1514like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
1515
1516=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
1517
68dc0745
PP
1518(W) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
1519If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention
1520it again somehow to suppress the message. The C<use vars> pragma is
1521provided for just this purpose.
a0d0e21e
LW
1522
1523=item Negative length
1524
1525(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer length
1526that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
1527
1528=item nested *?+ in regexp
1529
5f05dabc 1530(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
a0d0e21e
LW
1531things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal.
1532
5f05dabc 1533Note, however, that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and C<??> appear
a0d0e21e
LW
1534to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
1535
1536=item No #! line
1537
1538(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1539even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
1540
1541=item No %s allowed while running setuid
1542
1543(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or setgid
1544script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there will be
1545another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least securable.
1546See L<perlsec>.
1547
1548=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
1549
1550(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
1551
1552=item No comma allowed after %s
1553
1554(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
1555allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
1556Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
1557
0a753a76
PP
1558One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
1559constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
1560importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
1561does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
1562explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
1563L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
1564would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
1565remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
1566constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
1567list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
1568this error was triggered?
1569
748a9306
LW
1570=item No command into which to pipe on command line
1571
1572(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
54310121 1573and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know where you
748a9306
LW
1574want to pipe the output from this command.
1575
a0d0e21e
LW
1576=item No DB::DB routine defined
1577
1578(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1579but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1580didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
1581statement. Which is odd, because the file should have been required
1582automatically, and should have blown up the require if it didn't parse
1583right.
1584
1585=item No dbm on this machine
1586
1587(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 1588supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1589
1590=item No DBsub routine
1591
1592(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1593but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1594didn't define a DB::sub routine to be called at the beginning of each
1595ordinary subroutine call.
1596
8b1a09fc 1597=item No error file after 2E<gt> or 2E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1598
1599(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1600and found a '2E<gt>' or a '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find
1601the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 1602
8b1a09fc 1603=item No input file after E<lt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1604
1605(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1606and found a 'E<lt>' on the command line, but can't find the name of the file
1607from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 1608
8b1a09fc 1609=item No output file after E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1610
1611(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc 1612and found a lone 'E<gt>' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know
54310121 1613where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 1614
8b1a09fc 1615=item No output file after E<gt> or E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1616
1617(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1618and found a 'E<gt>' or a 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find the
1619name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 1620
a0d0e21e
LW
1621=item No Perl script found in input
1622
1623(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
1624with #! and containing the word "perl".
1625
1626=item No setregid available
1627
1628(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
1629your system.
1630
1631=item No setreuid available
1632
1633(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
1634your system.
1635
1636=item No space allowed after B<-I>
1637
1638(F) The argument to B<-I> must follow the B<-I> immediately with no
1639intervening space.
1640
57079c46
GA
1641=item No such array field
1642
1643(F) You tried to access an array as a hash, but the field name used is
1644not defined. The hash at index 0 should map all valid field names to
1645array indices for that to work.
1646
f1192cee
GA
1647=item No such field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
1648
1649(F) You tried to access a field of a typed variable where the type
1650does not know about the field name. The field names are looked up in
1651the %FIELDS hash in the type package at compile time. The %FIELDS hash
1652is usually set up with the 'fields' pragma.
1653
748a9306
LW
1654=item No such pipe open
1655
1656(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
1657close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught earlier as
1658an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
1659
a0d0e21e
LW
1660=item No such signal: SIG%s
1661
1662(W) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was not recognized.
1663Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
1664
1665=item Not a CODE reference
1666
1667(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
1668subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
1669use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
1670See also L<perlref>.
1671
1672=item Not a format reference
1673
1674(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
1675format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
1676
1677=item Not a GLOB reference
1678
55497cff 1679(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is,
a0d0e21e
LW
1680a symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
1681something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out
1682what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1683
1684=item Not a HASH reference
1685
1686(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but
1687found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1688function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1689
1690=item Not a perl script
1691
1692(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1693even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
1694mention perl.
1695
1696=item Not a SCALAR reference
1697
1698(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but
1699found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1700function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1701
1702=item Not a subroutine reference
1703
1704(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
1705subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
1706use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
1707See also L<perlref>.
1708
e7ea3e70 1709=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
1710
1711(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 1712doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1713
1714=item Not an ARRAY reference
1715
1716(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but
1717found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1718function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1719
1720=item Not enough arguments for %s
1721
1722(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
1723
1724=item Not enough format arguments
1725
1726(W) A format specified more picture fields than the next line supplied.
1727See L<perlform>.
1728
1729=item Null filename used
1730
5f05dabc 1731(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many machines
a0d0e21e
LW
1732that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
1733
55497cff
PP
1734=item Null picture in formline
1735
1736(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
1737specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
1738supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
1739
a0d0e21e
LW
1740=item NULL OP IN RUN
1741
1742(P) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode pointer.
1743
1744=item Null realloc
1745
1746(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
1747
1748=item NULL regexp argument
1749
5f05dabc 1750(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
1751
1752=item NULL regexp parameter
1753
1754(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
1755
fc36a67e
PP
1756=item Number too long
1757
1758(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to about
1759about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future versions of
1760Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In the meantime,
1761try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of "1_000_000").
1762
1930e939 1763=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 1764
1930e939
TP
1765(S) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash, which
1766is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 1767
bbce6d69
PP
1768=item Offset outside string
1769
1770(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
1771pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to imagine.
1772The sole exception to this is that C<sysread()>ing past the buffer
1773will extend the buffer and zero pad the new area.
1774
a0d0e21e
LW
1775=item oops: oopsAV
1776
1777(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
1778
1779=item oops: oopsHV
1780
1781(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
1782
56f7f34b 1783=item Operation `%s': no method found, %s
44a8e56a 1784
e7ea3e70
IZ
1785(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which
1786no handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in
1787terms of other handlers, there is no default handler for any
1788operation, unless C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be
1789true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 1790
748a9306
LW
1791=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
1792
1793(S) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser was
1794expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant
1795to use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect.
1796For example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as
1797if you said "*foo * 'foo'".
1798
a0d0e21e
LW
1799=item Out of memory for yacc stack
1800
1801(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue parsing,
1802but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or otherwise.
1803
1b979e0a 1804=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 1805
55497cff 1806(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
54310121 1807remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request.
eff9c6e2
CS
1808
1809The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
1810depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
1811However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as
1812an emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the
55497cff
PP
1813error is trappable I<once>.
1814
1b979e0a 1815=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
55497cff
PP
1816
1817(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
1818remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
1819the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so
1820a possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
1821
1b979e0a
IZ
1822=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
1823
1824(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
1825is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g., C<$arr[time]>
1826instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1827
a0d0e21e
LW
1828=item page overflow
1829
1830(W) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a page.
1831See L<perlform>.
1832
1833=item panic: ck_grep
1834
1835(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
1836
1837=item panic: ck_split
1838
1839(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
1840
1841=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
1842
1843(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than there
1844are in the savestack.
1845
1846=item panic: die %s
1847
1848(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
1849it wasn't an eval context.
1850
1851=item panic: do_match
1852
1853(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational data.
1854
1855=item panic: do_split
1856
1857(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
1858
1859=item panic: do_subst
1860
1861(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational data.
1862
1863=item panic: do_trans
1864
1865(P) The internal do_trans() routine was called with invalid operational data.
1866
c635e13b
PP
1867=item panic: frexp
1868
1869(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
1870
a0d0e21e
LW
1871=item panic: goto
1872
1873(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
1874and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
1875
1876=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
1877
1878(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
1879
1880=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
1881
1882(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
1883
1884=item panic: last
1885
1886(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
1887it wasn't a block context.
1888
1889=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
1890
5f05dabc 1891(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
1892
1893=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
1894
1895(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
1896invalid enum on the top of it.
1897
1898=item panic: malloc
1899
1900(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
1901
1902=item panic: mapstart
1903
1904(P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.
1905
1906=item panic: null array
1907
1908(P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.
1909
1910=item panic: pad_alloc
1911
1912(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1913and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1914
1915=item panic: pad_free curpad
1916
1917(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1918and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1919
1920=item panic: pad_free po
1921
1922(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
1923
1924=item panic: pad_reset curpad
1925
1926(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1927and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1928
1929=item panic: pad_sv po
1930
1931(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
1932
1933=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
1934
1935(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1936and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1937
1938=item panic: pad_swipe po
1939
1940(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
1941
1942=item panic: pp_iter
1943
1944(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
1945
1946=item panic: realloc
1947
1948(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
1949
1950=item panic: restartop
1951
1952(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
1953didn't supply the destination.
1954
1955=item panic: return
1956
1957(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
1958then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
1959
1960=item panic: scan_num
1961
1962(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
1963
1964=item panic: sv_insert
1965
1966(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
1967was string.
1968
1969=item panic: top_env
1970
6224f72b 1971(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1972
1973=item panic: yylex
1974
1975(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
1976
7b8d334a 1977=item Parentheses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e
LW
1978
1979(W) You said something like
1980
1981 my $foo, $bar = @_;
1982
1983when you meant
1984
1985 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
1986
1987Remember that "my" and "local" bind closer than comma.
1988
1989=item Perl %3.3f required--this is only version %s, stopped
1990
1991(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more recent
1992than the currently running version. How long has it been since you upgraded,
1993anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
1994
1995=item Permission denied
1996
1997(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
1998
748a9306
LW
1999=item pid %d not a child
2000
2001(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a process which
2002isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is fine from VMS'
2003perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
2004
a0d0e21e
LW
2005=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
2006
2007(F) Your C compiler uses POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
2008the BSD version, which takes a pid.
2009
bbce6d69
PP
2010=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
2011
774d564b
PP
2012(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal
2013strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated
2014as literal data. (You may have used different delimiters than the
7b8d334a 2015parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently used.)
bbce6d69 2016
774d564b
PP
2017You probably wrote something like this:
2018
54310121 2019 @list = qw(
774d564b 2020 a # a comment
bbce6d69 2021 b # another comment
774d564b 2022 );
bbce6d69
PP
2023
2024when you should have written this:
2025
774d564b 2026 @list = qw(
54310121
PP
2027 a
2028 b
774d564b
PP
2029 );
2030
2031If you really want comments, build your list the
2032old-fashioned way, with quotes and commas:
2033
2034 @list = (
2035 'a', # a comment
2036 'b', # another comment
2037 );
bbce6d69
PP
2038
2039=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
2040
774d564b 2041(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore commas
68dc0745 2042aren't needed to separate the items. (You may have used different
774d564b
PP
2043delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently
2044used.)
bbce6d69 2045
54310121 2046You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69 2047
774d564b
PP
2048 qw! a, b, c !;
2049
2050which puts literal commas into some of the list items. Write it without
2051commas if you don't want them to appear in your data:
bbce6d69 2052
774d564b 2053 qw! a b c !;
bbce6d69 2054
a0d0e21e
LW
2055=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
2056
2057(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
2058Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
2059end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
2060Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
2061
2062=item Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
2063
2064(S) The old irregular construct
cb1a09d0 2065
a0d0e21e
LW
2066 open FOO || die;
2067
2068is now misinterpreted as
2069
2070 open(FOO || die);
2071
68dc0745
PP
2072because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary
2073and list operators. (The old open was a little of both.) You must
2074put parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator
2075instead of "||".
a0d0e21e
LW
2076
2077=item print on closed filehandle %s
2078
2079(W) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime before now.
2080Check your logic flow.
2081
2082=item printf on closed filehandle %s
2083
2084(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2085Check your logic flow.
2086
2087=item Probable precedence problem on %s
2088
54310121 2089(W) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a conditional,
a0d0e21e
LW
2090which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part of the
2091last argument of the previous construct, for example:
2092
2093 open FOO || die;
2094
3fe9a6f1 2095=item Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
4633a7c4 2096
3fe9a6f1
PP
2097(S) The subroutine being declared or defined had previously been declared
2098or defined with a different function prototype.
4633a7c4 2099
89ea2908
GA
2100=item Range iterator outside integer range
2101
2102(F) One (or both) of the numeric arguments to the range operator ".."
2103are outside the range which can be represented by integers internally.
2104One possible workaround is to force Perl to use magical string
2105increment by prepending "0" to your numbers.
2106
8b1a09fc 2107=item Read on closed filehandle E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2108
2109(W) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime before now.
2110Check your logic flow.
2111
2112=item Reallocation too large: %lx
2113
54310121 2114(F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e
LW
2115
2116=item Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch
2117
2118(F) You can't use the B<-D> option unless the code to produce the
2119desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead,
2120which is why it's currently left out of your copy.
2121
3e0ccd42 2122=item Recursive inheritance detected in package '%s'
a0d0e21e
LW
2123
2124(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used. Probably indicates
2125an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2126
3e0ccd42
JP
2127=item Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method '%s' in package '%s'
2128
2129(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were encountered while invoking a
2130method. Probably indicates an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2131
1930e939
TP
2132=item Reference found where even-sized list expected
2133
2134(W) You gave a single reference where Perl was expecting a list with
2135an even number of elements (for assignment to a hash). This
2136usually means that you used the anon hash constructor when you meant
2137to use parens. In any case, a hash requires key/value B<pairs>.
7b8d334a
GS
2138
2139 %hash = { one => 1, two => 2, }; # WRONG
2140 %hash = [ qw/ an anon array / ]; # WRONG
2141 %hash = ( one => 1, two => 2, ); # right
2142 %hash = qw( one 1 two 2 ); # also fine
2143
a0d0e21e
LW
2144=item Reference miscount in sv_replace()
2145
2146(W) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with a
2147reference count of other than 1.
2148
fb73857a
PP
2149=item regexp *+ operand could be empty
2150
2151(F) The part of the regexp subject to either the * or + quantifier
2152could match an empty string.
2153
a0d0e21e
LW
2154=item regexp memory corruption
2155
2156(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
2157expression compiler gave it.
2158
2159=item regexp out of space
2160
2161(P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it earlier.
2162
2163=item regexp too big
2164
2ba9eb46 2165(F) The current implementation of regular expressions uses shorts as
a0d0e21e
LW
2166address offsets within a string. Unfortunately this means that if
2167the regular expression compiles to longer than 32767, it'll blow up.
2168Usually when you want a regular expression this big, there is a better
2169way to do it with multiple statements. See L<perlre>.
2170
2171=item Reversed %s= operator
2172
2173(W) You wrote your assignment operator backwards. The = must always
2174comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.
2175
2176=item Runaway format
2177
2178(F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it
2179produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the
2180199th line. Apparently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
2181themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar variables), or by
2182shifting or popping (for array variables). See L<perlform>.
2183
2184=item Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
2185
a6006777 2186(W) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
a0d0e21e 2187an array. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
8b1a09fc
PP
2188The difference is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2189assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo[&bar]> behaves
a0d0e21e 2190like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
5f05dabc 2191subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
a0d0e21e 2192
748a9306 2193On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
5f05dabc 2194element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
748a9306
LW
2195Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2196L<perlref>.
2197
a6006777
PP
2198=item Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
2199
2200(W) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
2201a hash. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
2202The difference is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2203assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> behaves
2204like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
2205subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
2206
2207On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash
2208element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
2209Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2210L<perlref>.
2211
a0d0e21e
LW
2212=item Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
2213
54310121
PP
2214(F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script without a setuid
2215or setgid bit set. This doesn't make much sense.
a0d0e21e
LW
2216
2217=item Search pattern not terminated
2218
2219(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{}
2220construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2221Missing the leading C<$> from a variable C<$m> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2222
96e4d5b1 2223=item %sseek() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2224
96e4d5b1
PP
2225(W) You tried to use the seek() or sysseek() function on a filehandle that
2226was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2227
2228=item select not implemented
2229
2230(F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.
2231
2232=item sem%s not implemented
2233
2234(F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.
2235
2236=item semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
2237
2238(S) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a scalar
2239that had previously been marked as free.
2240
2241=item Semicolon seems to be missing
2242
2243(W) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing semicolon,
2244or possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.
2245
2246=item Send on closed socket
2247
2248(W) The filehandle you're sending to got itself closed sometime before now.
2249Check your logic flow.
2250
1b1626e4 2251=item Sequence (? incomplete
7b8d334a 2252
1b1626e4
G
2253(F) A regular expression ended with an incomplete extension (?.
2254See L<perlre>.
2255
a0d0e21e
LW
2256=item Sequence (?#... not terminated
2257
2258(F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing
5f05dabc 2259parenthesis. Embedded parentheses aren't allowed. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2260
2261=item Sequence (?%s...) not implemented
2262
2263(F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved
2264but has not yet been written. See L<perlre>.
2265
2266=item Sequence (?%s...) not recognized
2267
2268(F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense.
2269See L<perlre>.
2270
a5f75d66
AD
2271=item Server error
2272
9607fc9c
PP
2273Also known as "500 Server error".
2274
2275B<This is a CGI error, not a Perl error>.
2276
2277You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible by the user
2278CGI is running the script under (which is probably not the user account you
2279tested it under), does not rely on any environment variables (like PATH)
2280from the user it isn't running under, and isn't in a location where the CGI
2281server can't find it, basically, more or less. Please see the following
2282for more information:
2283
2284 http://www.perl.com/perl/faq/idiots-guide.html
2285 http://www.perl.com/perl/faq/perl-cgi-faq.html
2286 ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/www/cgi-faq
2287 http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/cgi/interface.html
2288 http://www-genome.wi.mit.edu/WWW/faqs/www-security-faq.html
a5f75d66 2289
a0d0e21e
LW
2290=item setegid() not implemented
2291
8b1a09fc 2292(F) You tried to assign to C<$)>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2293the setegid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2294think so.
2295
2296=item seteuid() not implemented
2297
8b1a09fc 2298(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<gt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2299the seteuid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2300think so.
2301
2302=item setrgid() not implemented
2303
8b1a09fc 2304(F) You tried to assign to C<$(>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2305the setrgid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2306think so.
2307
2308=item setruid() not implemented
2309
1f8d2005 2310(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<lt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2311the setruid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2312think so.
2313
2314=item Setuid/gid script is writable by world
2315
2316(F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is writable by the world,
2317because the world might have written on it already.
2318
2319=item shm%s not implemented
2320
2321(F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your system.
2322
2323=item shutdown() on closed fd
2324
2325(W) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket. Seems a bit superfluous.
2326
f86702cc 2327=item SIG%s handler "%s" not defined
a0d0e21e
LW
2328
2329(W) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't, in fact, exist. Perhaps you
2330put it into the wrong package?
2331
2332=item sort is now a reserved word
2333
2334(F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into anymore.
2335But before sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a filehandle.
2336
2337=item Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value
2338
2339(F) A sort comparison routine must return a number. You probably blew
4633a7c4 2340it by not using C<E<lt>=E<gt>> or C<cmp>, or by not using them correctly.
a0d0e21e
LW
2341See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2342
2343=item Sort subroutine didn't return single value
2344
2345(F) A sort comparison subroutine may not return a list value with more
2346or less than one element. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2347
2348=item Split loop
2349
2350(P) The split was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a split shouldn't iterate
2351more times than there are characters of input, which is what happened.)
2352See L<perlfunc/split>.
2353
8b1a09fc 2354=item Stat on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2355
2356(W) You tried to use the stat() function (or an equivalent file test)
54310121 2357on a filehandle that was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2358
2359=item Statement unlikely to be reached
2360
2361(W) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than a die().
2362This is almost always an error, because exec() never returns unless
2363there was a failure. You probably wanted to use system() instead,
2364which does return. To suppress this warning, put the exec() in a block
2365by itself.
2366
e7ea3e70
IZ
2367=item Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
2368
2369(P) Overloading resolution over @ISA tree may be broken by importation stubs.
2370Stubs should never be implicitely created, but explicit calls to C<can>
2371may break this.
2372
a0d0e21e
LW
2373=item Subroutine %s redefined
2374
2375(W) You redefined a subroutine. To suppress this warning, say
2376
2377 {
2378 local $^W = 0;
2379 eval "sub name { ... }";
2380 }
2381
56f7f34b
CS
2382=item Subroutine %s hidden by keyword; use ampersand
2383
2384(W) You are trying to call a subroutine that has the same name as a
2385keyword. However, because the subroutine is not imported and
2386you're not using an ampersand, Perl won't call the subroutine.
2387
2388To force a subroutine call, either put an ampersand before the
2389subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package. Alternatively,
2390you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's imported with the
2391C<use subs> pragma).
2392
2393If the Perl operator is what you want, then eliminate this warning by
2394using the CORE:: prefix on the operator (e.g. CORE::log($x)) or by
2395declaring the subroutine to be an object method (see L<attrs>).
2396
a0d0e21e
LW
2397=item Substitution loop
2398
2399(P) The substitution was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a
2400substitution shouldn't iterate more times than there are characters of
68dc0745 2401input, which is what happened.) See the discussion of substitution in
5f05dabc 2402L<perlop/"Quote and Quote-like Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
2403
2404=item Substitution pattern not terminated
2405
2406(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2407construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2408Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2409
2410=item Substitution replacement not terminated
2411
2412(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2413construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2414Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2415
2416=item substr outside of string
2417
3e3baf6d
TB
2418(S),(W) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed outside of a
2419string. That is, the absolute value of the offset was larger than the
2420length of the string. See L<perlfunc/substr>. This warning is
2421mandatory if substr is used in an lvalue context (as the left hand side
2422of an assignment or as a subroutine argument for example).
a0d0e21e 2423
f86702cc 2424=item suidperl is no longer needed since %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2425
2426(F) Your Perl was compiled with B<-D>SETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW, but a
2427version of the setuid emulator somehow got run anyway.
2428
2429=item syntax error
2430
2431(F) Probably means you had a syntax error. Common reasons include:
2432
2433 A keyword is misspelled.
2434 A semicolon is missing.
2435 A comma is missing.
2436 An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
2437 An opening or closing brace is missing.
2438 A closing quote is missing.
2439
2440Often there will be another error message associated with the syntax
2441error giving more information. (Sometimes it helps to turn on B<-w>.)
2442The error message itself often tells you where it was in the line when
2443it decided to give up. Sometimes the actual error is several tokens
5f05dabc 2444before this, because Perl is good at understanding random input.
a0d0e21e
LW
2445Occasionally the line number may be misleading, and once in a blue moon
2446the only way to figure out what's triggering the error is to call
2447C<perl -c> repeatedly, chopping away half the program each time to see
2448if the error went away. Sort of the cybernetic version of S<20 questions>.
2449
cb1a09d0
AD
2450=item syntax error at line %d: `%s' unexpected
2451
8b1a09fc 2452(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 2453instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
2454into Perl yourself.
2455
a0d0e21e
LW
2456=item System V IPC is not implemented on this machine
2457
5f05dabc 2458(F) You tried to do something with a function beginning with "sem", "shm",
a0d0e21e
LW
2459or "msg". See L<perlfunc/semctl>, for example.
2460
2461=item Syswrite on closed filehandle
2462
2463(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2464Check your logic flow.
2465
fc36a67e
PP
2466=item Target of goto is too deeply nested
2467
2468(F) You tried to use C<goto> to reach a label that was too deeply
2469nested for Perl to reach. Perl is doing you a favor by refusing.
2470
8903cb82 2471=item tell() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2472
8903cb82
PP
2473(W) You tried to use the tell() function on a filehandle that was either
2474never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e 2475
8b1a09fc 2476=item Test on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2477
2478(W) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle that isn't
2479open. Check your logic. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
2480
2481=item That use of $[ is unsupported
2482
8b1a09fc 2483(F) Assignment to C<$[> is now strictly circumscribed, and interpreted as
5f05dabc 2484a compiler directive. You may say only one of
a0d0e21e
LW
2485
2486 $[ = 0;
2487 $[ = 1;
2488 ...
2489 local $[ = 0;
2490 local $[ = 1;
2491 ...
2492
2493This is to prevent the problem of one module changing the array base
2494out from under another module inadvertently. See L<perlvar/$[>.
2495
2496=item The %s function is unimplemented
2497
2498The function indicated isn't implemented on this architecture, according
2499to the probings of Configure.
2500
f86702cc 2501=item The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia
a0d0e21e
LW
2502
2503(F) Configure couldn't find the crypt() function on your machine,
2504probably because your vendor didn't supply it, probably because they
8b1a09fc 2505think the U.S. Government thinks it's a secret, or at least that they
a0d0e21e
LW
2506will continue to pretend that it is. And if you quote me on that, I
2507will deny it.
2508
2509=item The stat preceding C<-l _> wasn't an lstat
2510
2511(F) It makes no sense to test the current stat buffer for symbolic linkhood
2512if the last stat that wrote to the stat buffer already went past
2513the symlink to get to the real file. Use an actual filename instead.
2514
2515=item times not implemented
2516
2517(F) Your version of the C library apparently doesn't do times(). I suspect
2518you're not running on Unix.
2519
2520=item Too few args to syscall
2521
2522(F) There has to be at least one argument to syscall() to specify the
2523system call to call, silly dilly.
2524
9607fc9c
PP
2525=item Too late for "B<-T>" option
2526
2527(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
8cc95fdb
PP
2528B<-T> option, but Perl was not invoked with B<-T> in its command line.
2529This is an error because, by the time Perl discovers a B<-T> in a
2530script, it's too late to properly taint everything from the environment.
2531So Perl gives up.
f86702cc 2532
9607fc9c
PP
2533If the Perl script is being executed as a command using the #!
2534mechanism (or its local equivalent), this error can usually be fixed
2535by editing the #! line so that the B<-T> option is a part of Perl's
2536first argument: e.g. change C<perl -n -T> to C<perl -T -n>.
f86702cc 2537
9607fc9c
PP
2538If the Perl script is being executed as C<perl scriptname>, then the
2539B<-T> option must appear on the command line: C<perl -T scriptname>.
f86702cc 2540
8cc95fdb
PP
2541=item Too late for "-%s" option
2542
2543(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
2544B<-M> or B<-m> option. This is an error because B<-M> and B<-m> options
2545are not intended for use inside scripts. Use the C<use> pragma instead.
2546
cb1a09d0
AD
2547=item Too many ('s
2548
2549=item Too many )'s
2550
2551(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
2552of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
2553Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 2554
a0d0e21e
LW
2555=item Too many args to syscall
2556
5f05dabc 2557(F) Perl supports a maximum of only 14 args to syscall().
a0d0e21e
LW
2558
2559=item Too many arguments for %s
2560
2561(F) The function requires fewer arguments than you specified.
2562
2563=item trailing \ in regexp
2564
2565(F) The regular expression ends with an unbackslashed backslash. Backslash
2566it. See L<perlre>.
2567
2c268ad5 2568=item Transliteration pattern not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
2569
2570(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
fb73857a
PP
2571or y/// or y[][] construct. Missing the leading C<$> from variables
2572C<$tr> or C<$y> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2573
2c268ad5 2574=item Transliteration replacement not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
2575
2576(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
2577construct.
2578
2579=item truncate not implemented
2580
2581(F) Your machine doesn't implement a file truncation mechanism that
2582Configure knows about.
2583
2584=item Type of arg %d to %s must be %s (not %s)
2585
2586(F) This function requires the argument in that position to be of a
8b1a09fc
PP
2587certain type. Arrays must be @NAME or C<@{EXPR}>. Hashes must be
2588%NAME or C<%{EXPR}>. No implicit dereferencing is allowed--use the
a0d0e21e
LW
2589{EXPR} forms as an explicit dereference. See L<perlref>.
2590
2591=item umask: argument is missing initial 0
2592
5f05dabc 2593(W) A umask of 222 is incorrect. It should be 0222, because octal literals
a0d0e21e
LW
2594always start with 0 in Perl, as in C.
2595
4633a7c4
LW
2596=item Unable to create sub named "%s"
2597
2598(F) You attempted to create or access a subroutine with an illegal name.
2599
a0d0e21e
LW
2600=item Unbalanced context: %d more PUSHes than POPs
2601
2602(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many execution
2603contexts were entered and left.
2604
2605=item Unbalanced saves: %d more saves than restores
2606
2607(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many
2608values were temporarily localized.
2609
2610=item Unbalanced scopes: %d more ENTERs than LEAVEs
2611
2612(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many blocks
2613were entered and left.
2614
2615=item Unbalanced tmps: %d more allocs than frees
2616
2617(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many mortal
2618scalars were allocated and freed.
2619
2620=item Undefined format "%s" called
2621
2622(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
2623another package? See L<perlform>.
2624
2625=item Undefined sort subroutine "%s" called
2626
2627(F) The sort comparison routine specified doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps
2628it's in a different package? See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2629
2630=item Undefined subroutine &%s called
2631
2632(F) The subroutine indicated hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2633has since been undefined.
2634
2635=item Undefined subroutine called
2636
2637(F) The anonymous subroutine you're trying to call hasn't been defined,
2638or if it was, it has since been undefined.
2639
2640=item Undefined subroutine in sort
2641
2642(F) The sort comparison routine specified is declared but doesn't seem to
2643have been defined yet. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2644
4633a7c4
LW
2645=item Undefined top format "%s" called
2646
2647(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
2648another package? See L<perlform>.
2649
20408e3c
GS
2650=item Undefined value assigned to typeglob
2651
2652(W) An undefined value was assigned to a typeglob, a la C<*foo = undef>.
2653This does nothing. It's possible that you really mean C<undef *foo>.
2654
a0d0e21e
LW
2655=item unexec of %s into %s failed!
2656
2657(F) The unexec() routine failed for some reason. See your local FSF
2658representative, who probably put it there in the first place.
2659
2660=item Unknown BYTEORDER
2661
5f05dabc 2662(F) There are no byte-swapping functions for a machine with this byte order.
a0d0e21e
LW
2663
2664=item unmatched () in regexp
2665
2666(F) Unbackslashed parentheses must always be balanced in regular
2667expressions. If you're a vi user, the % key is valuable for finding
5f05dabc 2668the matching parenthesis. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2669
2670=item Unmatched right bracket
2671
2672(F) The lexer counted more closing curly brackets (braces) than opening
2673ones, so you're probably missing an opening bracket. As a general
2674rule, you'll find the missing one (so to speak) near the place you were
2675last editing.
2676
2677=item unmatched [] in regexp
2678
2679(F) The brackets around a character class must match. If you wish to
2680include a closing bracket in a character class, backslash it or put it first.
2681See L<perlre>.
2682
2683=item Unquoted string "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2684
54310121 2685(W) You used a bareword that might someday be claimed as a reserved word.
a0d0e21e
LW
2686It's best to put such a word in quotes, or capitalize it somehow, or insert
2687an underbar into it. You might also declare it as a subroutine.
2688
54310121 2689=item Unrecognized character %s
a0d0e21e 2690
54310121
PP
2691(F) The Perl parser has no idea what to do with the specified character
2692in your Perl script (or eval). Perhaps you tried to run a compressed
2693script, a binary program, or a directory as a Perl program.
a0d0e21e
LW
2694
2695=item Unrecognized signal name "%s"
2696
2697(F) You specified a signal name to the kill() function that was not recognized.
2698Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
2699
90248788 2700=item Unrecognized switch: -%s (-h will show valid options)
a0d0e21e
LW
2701
2702(F) You specified an illegal option to Perl. Don't do that.
2703(If you think you didn't do that, check the #! line to see if it's
2704supplying the bad switch on your behalf.)
2705
2706=item Unsuccessful %s on filename containing newline
2707
2708(W) A file operation was attempted on a filename, and that operation
2709failed, PROBABLY because the filename contained a newline, PROBABLY
54310121 2710because you forgot to chop() or chomp() it off. See L<perlfunc/chomp>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2711
2712=item Unsupported directory function "%s" called
2713
2714(F) Your machine doesn't support opendir() and readdir().
2715
54310121
PP
2716=item Unsupported function fork
2717
2718(F) Your version of executable does not support forking.
2719
2720Note that under some systems, like OS/2, there may be different flavors of
2721Perl executables, some of which may support fork, some not. Try changing
2722the name you call Perl by to C<perl_>, C<perl__>, and so on.
2723
a0d0e21e
LW
2724=item Unsupported function %s
2725
7b8d334a 2726(F) This machine doesn't implement the indicated function, apparently.
a0d0e21e
LW
2727At least, Configure doesn't think so.
2728
2729=item Unsupported socket function "%s" called
2730
2731(F) Your machine doesn't support the Berkeley socket mechanism, or at
2732least that's what Configure thought.
2733
8b1a09fc 2734=item Unterminated E<lt>E<gt> operator
a0d0e21e
LW
2735
2736(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
2737a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
2738finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
2739the line, and you really meant a "less than".
2740
5cd24f17
PP
2741=item Use of "$$<digit>" to mean "${$}<digit>" is deprecated
2742
2743(D) Perl versions before 5.004 misinterpreted any type marker followed
2744by "$" and a digit. For example, "$$0" was incorrectly taken to mean
2745"${$}0" instead of "${$0}". This bug is (mostly) fixed in Perl 5.004.
2746
2747However, the developers of Perl 5.004 could not fix this bug completely,
2748because at least two widely-used modules depend on the old meaning of
2749"$$0" in a string. So Perl 5.004 still interprets "$$<digit>" in the
2750old (broken) way inside strings; but it generates this message as a
2751warning. And in Perl 5.005, this special treatment will cease.
2752
a0d0e21e
LW
2753=item Use of $# is deprecated
2754
8b1a09fc 2755(D) This was an ill-advised attempt to emulate a poorly defined B<awk> feature.
a0d0e21e
LW
2756Use an explicit printf() or sprintf() instead.
2757
2758=item Use of $* is deprecated
2759
4a6725af 2760(D) This variable magically turned on multi-line pattern matching, both for
a0d0e21e
LW
2761you and for any luckless subroutine that you happen to call. You should
2762use the new C<//m> and C<//s> modifiers now to do that without the dangerous
2763action-at-a-distance effects of C<$*>.
2764
748a9306
LW
2765=item Use of %s in printf format not supported
2766
5f05dabc
PP
2767(F) You attempted to use a feature of printf that is accessible from
2768only C. This usually means there's a better way to do it in Perl.
748a9306 2769
8b1a09fc 2770=item Use of bare E<lt>E<lt> to mean E<lt>E<lt>"" is deprecated
4633a7c4
LW
2771
2772(D) You are now encouraged to use the explicitly quoted form if you
3fe9a6f1 2773wish to use an empty line as the terminator of the here-document.
4633a7c4 2774
a0d0e21e
LW
2775=item Use of implicit split to @_ is deprecated
2776
2777(D) It makes a lot of work for the compiler when you clobber a
2778subroutine's argument list, so it's better if you assign the results of
2779a split() explicitly to an array (or list).
2780
dc848c6f
PP
2781=item Use of inherited AUTOLOAD for non-method %s() is deprecated
2782
5cd24f17
PP
2783(D) As an (ahem) accidental feature, C<AUTOLOAD> subroutines are looked
2784up as methods (using the C<@ISA> hierarchy) even when the subroutines to
2785be autoloaded were called as plain functions (e.g. C<Foo::bar()>), not
7b8d334a 2786as methods (e.g. C<Foo-E<gt>bar()> or C<$obj-E<gt>bar()>).
dc848c6f
PP
2787
2788This bug will be rectified in Perl 5.005, which will use method lookup
2789only for methods' C<AUTOLOAD>s. However, there is a significant base
2790of existing code that may be using the old behavior. So, as an
2791interim step, Perl 5.004 issues an optional warning when non-methods
2792use inherited C<AUTOLOAD>s.
2793
2794The simple rule is: Inheritance will not work when autoloading
2795non-methods. The simple fix for old code is: In any module that used to
2796depend on inheriting C<AUTOLOAD> for non-methods from a base class named
2797C<BaseClass>, execute C<*AUTOLOAD = \&BaseClass::AUTOLOAD> during startup.
2798
fb73857a
PP
2799In code that currently says C<use AutoLoader; @ISA = qw(AutoLoader);> you
2800should remove AutoLoader from @ISA and change C<use AutoLoader;> to
7b8d334a 2801C<use AutoLoader 'AUTOLOAD';>.
fb73857a 2802
85b81015
LW
2803=item Use of reserved word "%s" is deprecated
2804
2805(D) The indicated bareword is a reserved word. Future versions of perl
2806may use it as a keyword, so you're better off either explicitly quoting
2807the word in a manner appropriate for its context of use, or using a
2808different name altogether. The warning can be suppressed for subroutine
2809names by either adding a C<&> prefix, or using a package qualifier,
2810e.g. C<&our()>, or C<Foo::our()>.
2811
dc848c6f
PP
2812=item Use of %s is deprecated
2813
2814(D) The construct indicated is no longer recommended for use, generally
2815because there's a better way to do it, and also because the old way has
2816bad side effects.
2817
a0d0e21e
LW
2818=item Use of uninitialized value
2819
2820(W) An undefined value was used as if it were already defined. It was
2821interpreted as a "" or a 0, but maybe it was a mistake. To suppress this
2822warning assign an initial value to your variables.
2823
2824=item Useless use of %s in void context
2825
2826(W) You did something without a side effect in a context that does nothing
2827with the return value, such as a statement that doesn't return a value
2828from a block, or the left side of a scalar comma operator. Very often
2829this points not to stupidity on your part, but a failure of Perl to parse
2830your program the way you thought it would. For example, you'd get this
2831if you mixed up your C precedence with Python precedence and said
2832
2833 $one, $two = 1, 2;
2834
2835when you meant to say
2836
2837 ($one, $two) = (1, 2);
2838
748a9306
LW
2839Another common error is to use ordinary parentheses to construct a list
2840reference when you should be using square or curly brackets, for
2841example, if you say
2842
2843 $array = (1,2);
2844
2845when you should have said
2846
2847 $array = [1,2];
2848
2849The square brackets explicitly turn a list value into a scalar value,
2850while parentheses do not. So when a parenthesized list is evaluated in
2851a scalar context, the comma is treated like C's comma operator, which
2852throws away the left argument, which is not what you want. See
2853L<perlref> for more on this.
2854
55497cff
PP
2855=item untie attempted while %d inner references still exist
2856
2857(W) A copy of the object returned from C<tie> (or C<tied>) was still
2858valid when C<untie> was called.
2859
68dc0745 2860=item Value of %s can be "0"; test with defined()
a6006777 2861
68dc0745
PP
2862(W) In a conditional expression, you used <HANDLE>, <*> (glob), C<each()>,
2863or C<readdir()> as a boolean value. Each of these constructs can return a
2864value of "0"; that would make the conditional expression false, which is
2865probably not what you intended. When using these constructs in conditional
2866expressions, test their values with the C<defined> operator.
a6006777 2867
9607fc9c 2868=item Variable "%s" is not imported%s
4633a7c4
LW
2869
2870(F) While "use strict" in effect, you referred to a global variable
2871that you apparently thought was imported from another module, because
2872something else of the same name (usually a subroutine) is exported
2873by that module. It usually means you put the wrong funny character
2874on the front of your variable.
2875
44a8e56a
PP
2876=item Variable "%s" may be unavailable
2877
2878(W) An inner (nested) I<anonymous> subroutine is inside a I<named>
2879subroutine, and outside that is another subroutine; and the anonymous
2880(innermost) subroutine is referencing a lexical variable defined in
2881the outermost subroutine. For example:
2882
2883 sub outermost { my $a; sub middle { sub { $a } } }
2884
2885If the anonymous subroutine is called or referenced (directly or
2886indirectly) from the outermost subroutine, it will share the variable
2887as you would expect. But if the anonymous subroutine is called or
2888referenced when the outermost subroutine is not active, it will see
2889the value of the shared variable as it was before and during the
2890*first* call to the outermost subroutine, which is probably not what
2891you want.
2892
2893In these circumstances, it is usually best to make the middle
2894subroutine anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. Perl has specific
2895support for shared variables in nested anonymous subroutines; a named
2896subroutine in between interferes with this feature.
2897
2898=item Variable "%s" will not stay shared
2899
2900(W) An inner (nested) I<named> subroutine is referencing a lexical
2901variable defined in an outer subroutine.
2902
2903When the inner subroutine is called, it will probably see the value of
2904the outer subroutine's variable as it was before and during the
2905*first* call to the outer subroutine; in this case, after the first
2906call to the outer subroutine is complete, the inner and outer
2907subroutines will no longer share a common value for the variable. In
2908other words, the variable will no longer be shared.
2909
2910Furthermore, if the outer subroutine is anonymous and references a
2911lexical variable outside itself, then the outer and inner subroutines
2912will I<never> share the given variable.
2913
2914This problem can usually be solved by making the inner subroutine
2915anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. When inner anonymous subs that
2916reference variables in outer subroutines are called or referenced,
54310121 2917they are automatically rebound to the current values of such
44a8e56a
PP
2918variables.
2919
f86702cc 2920=item Variable syntax
cb1a09d0
AD
2921
2922(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
2923of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
2924Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 2925
3e6e419a
JH
2926=item perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
2927
2928(S) The whole warning message will look something like:
2929
2930 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
2931 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
2932 LC_ALL = "En_US",
2933 LANG = (unset)
2934 are supported and installed on your system.
2935 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
2936
2937Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies. In the above the
2938settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.
2939This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your system
2940administrator have set up the so-called variable system but Perl could
2941not use those settings. This was not dead serious, fortunately: there
2942is a "default locale" called "C" that Perl can and will use, the
2943script will be run. Before you really fix the problem, however, you
2944will get the same error message each time you run Perl. How to really
2945fix the problem can be found in L<perllocale> section B<LOCALE PROBLEMS>.
2946
7e1af8bc 2947=item Warning: something's wrong
5f05dabc
PP
2948
2949(W) You passed warn() an empty string (the equivalent of C<warn "">) or
2950you called it with no args and C<$_> was empty.
2951
f86702cc 2952=item Warning: unable to close filehandle %s properly
a0d0e21e 2953
8b1a09fc 2954(S) The implicit close() done by an open() got an error indication on the
5f05dabc 2955close(). This usually indicates your file system ran out of disk space.
a0d0e21e 2956
5f05dabc 2957=item Warning: Use of "%s" without parentheses is ambiguous
a0d0e21e
LW
2958
2959(S) You wrote a unary operator followed by something that looks like a
2960binary operator that could also have been interpreted as a term or
2961unary operator. For instance, if you know that the rand function
2962has a default argument of 1.0, and you write
2963
2964 rand + 5;
2965
2966you may THINK you wrote the same thing as
2967
2968 rand() + 5;
2969
2970but in actual fact, you got
2971
2972 rand(+5);
2973
5f05dabc 2974So put in parentheses to say what you really mean.
a0d0e21e
LW
2975
2976=item Write on closed filehandle
2977
2978(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2979Check your logic flow.
2980
2981=item X outside of string
2982
2983(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position before
2984the beginning of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2985
2986=item x outside of string
2987
2988(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position after
2989the end of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2990
2991=item Xsub "%s" called in sort
2992
2993(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
2994
2995=item Xsub called in sort
2996
2997(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
2998
2999=item You can't use C<-l> on a filehandle
3000
3001(F) A filehandle represents an opened file, and when you opened the file it
3002already went past any symlink you are presumably trying to look for.
3003Use a filename instead.
3004
3005=item YOU HAVEN'T DISABLED SET-ID SCRIPTS IN THE KERNEL YET!
3006
5f05dabc 3007(F) And you probably never will, because you probably don't have the
a0d0e21e
LW
3008sources to your kernel, and your vendor probably doesn't give a rip
3009about what you want. Your best bet is to use the wrapsuid script in
3010the eg directory to put a setuid C wrapper around your script.
3011
3012=item You need to quote "%s"
3013
3014(W) You assigned a bareword as a signal handler name. Unfortunately, you
3015already have a subroutine of that name declared, which means that Perl 5
3016will try to call the subroutine when the assignment is executed, which is
3017probably not what you want. (If it IS what you want, put an & in front.)
3018
3019=item [gs]etsockopt() on closed fd
3020
3021(W) You tried to get or set a socket option on a closed socket.
3022Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
3023See L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
3024
3025=item \1 better written as $1
3026
3027(W) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables. The use
5f05dabc 3028of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
a0d0e21e
LW
3029substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
3030because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better
3031if there are more than 9 backreferences.
3032
8b1a09fc 3033=item '|' and 'E<lt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
3034
3035(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
3036found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to redirect STDIN using
8b1a09fc 3037'E<lt>'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
748a9306 3038
8b1a09fc 3039=item '|' and 'E<gt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
3040
3041(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
3042thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and into a pipe to another
3043command. You need to choose one or the other, though nothing's stopping you
3044from piping into a program or Perl script which 'splits' output into two
3045streams, such as
3046
3047 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
3048 while (<STDIN>) {
3049 print;
3050 print OUT;
3051 }
3052 close OUT;
3053
774d564b 3054=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
33c8a3fe 3055
774d564b
PP
3056(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
3057version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3058
3059=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
3060
dc848c6f 3061(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
33c8a3fe
IZ
3062
3063 prefix1;prefix2
3064
3065or
3066
3067 prefix1 prefix2
3068
dc848c6f
PP
3069with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix
3070of a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error
3071may appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
3072"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3073
3074=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
3075
54310121 3076(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
dc848c6f 3077C<sh>-shell in. See "PERL_SH_DIR" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3078
3079=item Process terminated by SIG%s
3080
3081(W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while *nix
dc848c6f
PP
3082applications die in silence. It is considered a feature of the OS/2
3083port. One can easily disable this by appropriate sighandlers, see
3084L<perlipc/"Signals">. See also "Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT"
3085in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe 3086
a0d0e21e
LW
3087=back
3088