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perldiag: Document ‘Bad symbol for scalar’
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
466416ed 23below. E.g. C<(W closed)> means a warning in the C<closed> category.
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24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
fa816bf3 26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
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27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
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53=item Aliasing via reference is experimental
54
55(S experimental::refaliasing) This warning is emitted if you use
56a reference constructor on the left-hand side of an assignment to
57alias one variable to another. Simply suppress the warning if you
58want to use the feature, but know that in doing so you are taking
59the risk of using an experimental feature which may change or be
60removed in a future Perl version:
61
62 no warnings "experimental::refaliasing";
63 use feature "refaliasing";
64 \$x = \$y;
65
de42a5a9 66=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 67
6df41af2 68(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 69
04f74579 70=item '%c' allowed only after types %s in %s
ef54e1a4 71
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72(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
73after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 74
6df41af2 75=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 76
75b44862 77(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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78keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
79one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
80subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 81
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82To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
83before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
84Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
85imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 86
6df41af2 87To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 88on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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89to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
90L<attributes>).
43192e07 91
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92=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
93
94(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
95all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
96first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
97C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
98
6df41af2 99=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 100
7c7af292 101(S ambiguous) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
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102you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
103a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 104
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105=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
106
107(S ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
108string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
109the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
110write C<-foo()>.
111
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112=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
113
7c7af292 114(S ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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115bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
116(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
117like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
118assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
119clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
120really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 121
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122=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
123
124(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
125asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
126named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
1cecf2c0 127the variable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
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128function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
129and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
130
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131=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s[...]} resolved to %c%s[...]
132
133=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s{...}} resolved to %c%s{...}
4da60377 134
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135(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo represents
136the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for element number
1372 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write C<$foo[2]>, or you
138might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to the function named
139foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it returns. If you meant
140that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
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141
142In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
143to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
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144C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length> followed
145by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what you
146want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/> to the
147unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to something
148that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by simply turning
149off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 150
6df41af2 151=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 152
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153(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
154redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
155redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 156
6df41af2 157=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 158
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159(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
160redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
161into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
162though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
163which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 164
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165 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
166 while (<STDIN>) {
167 print;
168 print OUT;
169 }
170 close OUT;
c9f97d15 171
6df41af2 172=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 173
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174(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
175transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 176one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 177a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
178hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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179you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
180alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 181
6df41af2 182=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 183
6df41af2 184(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 185
f86702cc 186=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 187
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188(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
189that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
190will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 191
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192=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
193
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194(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O
195system you forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers
196take care of transforming data between external and internal
197representations.) Perl stopped parsing the layer list at this
198point and did not attempt to push this layer. If your program
199didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be the
200result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
b4581f09 201
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202=item Argument "%s" treated as 0 in increment (++)
203
204(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to the C<++>
205operator which expects either a number or a string matching
206C</^[a-zA-Z]*[0-9]*\z/>. See L<perlop/Auto-increment and
207Auto-decrement> for details.
208
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209=item assertion botched: %s
210
21b5e840 211(X) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
a0d0e21e 212
0eacef8e 213=item Assertion %s failed: file "%s", line %d
a0d0e21e 214
21b5e840 215(X) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
a0d0e21e 216
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217=item Assigned value is not a reference
218
219(F) You tried to assign something that was not a reference to an lvalue
220reference (e.g., C<\$x = $y>). If you meant to make $x an alias to $y, use
221C<\$x = \$y>.
222
223=item Assigned value is not %s reference
224
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225(F) You tried to assign a reference to a reference constructor, but the
226two references were not of the same type. You cannot alias a scalar to
227an array, or an array to a hash; the two types must match.
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228
229 \$x = \@y; # error
230 \@x = \%y; # error
231 $y = [];
232 \$x = $y; # error; did you mean \$y?
233
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234=item Assigning non-zero to $[ is no longer possible
235
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236(F) When the "array_base" feature is disabled (e.g., under C<use v5.16;>)
237the special variable C<$[>, which is deprecated, is now a fixed zero value.
82122228 238
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239=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
240
241(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
242must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
243know which context to supply to the right side.
244
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245=item <> at require-statement should be quotes
246
247(F) You wrote C<< require <file> >> when you should have written
248C<require 'file'>.
249
2393f1b9 250=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 251
49293501 252(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 253the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 254
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255=item Attempt to bless into a freed package
256
257(F) You wrote C<bless $foo> with one argument after somehow causing
258the current package to be freed. Perl cannot figure out what to
259do, so it throws up in hands in despair.
260
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261=item Attempt to bless into a reference
262
263(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
57dedab9 264the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
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265supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
266
267 bless $self, $proto;
268
269when you intended
270
271 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
272
273If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
274of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
275example by:
276
277 bless $self, "$proto";
278
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279=item Attempt to clear deleted array
280
281(S debugging) An array was assigned to when it was being freed.
282Freed values are not supposed to be visible to Perl code. This
283can also happen if XS code calls C<av_clear> from a custom magic
284callback on the array.
285
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286=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
287
288(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
289which is not in its key set.
290
291=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
292
293(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
294declared readonly from a restricted hash.
295
de42a5a9 296=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 297
f84fe999 298(S internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
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299that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
300outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 301
12578ffb 302=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string '%s'%s
bbce6d69 303
f84fe999 304(S internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
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305strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
306strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
307of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 308
7d5b40b4 309=item Attempt to free temp prematurely: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 310
f84fe999 311(S debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
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312free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
313SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
314free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
315try to free it.
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316
317=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
318
f84fe999 319(S internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
a0d0e21e 320
7d5b40b4 321=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 322
8f7e4d2c 323(S internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
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324see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
325earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
326This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
327that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
328mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
329corrupted.
a0d0e21e 330
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331=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
332
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333(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
334function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
335means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
336invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
337literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
338avoid this warning.
84902520 339
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340=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
341
342(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
343compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
344unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
345L<perlvar/%INC>.
346
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347=item Attempt to set length of freed array
348
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349(W misc) You tried to set the length of an array which has
350been freed. You can do this by storing a reference to the
351scalar representing the last index of an array and later
352assigning through that reference. For example
1b20cd17
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353
354 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
355 $$r = 503
356
b7a902f4 357=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
358
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359(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
360used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
361dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 362
c32124fe
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363=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
364
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365(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the
366"locked" attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is
367obsolete, has had no effect since 5005 threads were removed, and
368will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
c32124fe 369
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370=item Attribute prototype(%s) discards earlier prototype attribute in same sub
371
372(W misc) A sub was declared as sub foo : prototype(A) : prototype(B) {}, for
373example. Since each sub can only have one prototype, the earlier
374declaration(s) are discarded while the last one is applied.
375
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376=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
377
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378(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify
379the "unique" attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference.
380The :unique attribute has had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and
381will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
f1a3ce43 382
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383=item av_reify called on tied array
384
385(S debugging) This indicates that something went wrong and Perl got I<very>
386confused about C<@_> or C<@DB::args> being tied.
387
de42a5a9 388=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 389
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390(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
391or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 392S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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393S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
394
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395=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
396
496a33f5 397(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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398substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
399most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
400
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401=item Bad filehandle: %s
402
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403(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
404symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
405open(), or did it in another package.
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406
407=item Bad free() ignored
408
be771a83 409(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
fa816bf3 410been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 411setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 412
9ea8bc6d 413This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
6903afa2 414dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
be771a83 415which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 416
aa689395 417=item Bad hash
418
419(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
420
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421=item Badly placed ()'s
422
423(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
424of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
425Perl yourself.
426
a7cb8dae 427=item Bad name after %s
a0d0e21e 428
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429(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
430didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
431of quotes, so
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432
433 $var = 'myvar';
434 $sym = mypack::$var;
435
436is not the same as
437
438 $var = 'myvar';
439 $sym = "mypack::$var";
440
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441=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
442
443(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
444plugin API.
445
4ad56ec9
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446=item Bad realloc() ignored
447
6903afa2
FC
448(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that
449had never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can
450be disabled by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 451
a0d0e21e
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452=item Bad symbol for array
453
454(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
455wasn't a symbol table entry.
456
4df3f177
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457=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
458
459(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
460that wasn't a symbol table entry.
461
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462=item Bad symbol for filehandle
463
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464(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
465that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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466
467=item Bad symbol for hash
468
469(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
470wasn't a symbol table entry.
471
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FC
472=item Bad symbol for scalar
473
474(P) An internal request asked to add a scalar entry to something that
475wasn't a symbol table entry.
476
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477=item Bareword found in conditional
478
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479(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
480conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
481of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
GS
482
483 open FOO || die;
484
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485It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
486a bareword:
34d09196
GS
487
488 use constant TYPO => 1;
489 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
490
491The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
492
6df41af2
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493=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
494
495(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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496subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
497symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
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498
499=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
500
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501(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
502compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
503you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 504
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505=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
506
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507(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
508subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
509exited.
a0d0e21e 510
68dc0745 511=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
512
513(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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514implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
515occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
516be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
517depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 518
c782d7ee 519=item \%d better written as $%d
6df41af2 520
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521(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
522The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
523substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
524because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
525there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 526
252aa082
JH
527=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
528
e476b1b5 529(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
530(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
531L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 532
69282e91 533=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 534
be771a83
GS
535(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
536check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 537
c289d2f7
JH
538=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
539
540(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 541Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 542
c5a0f51a
JH
543=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
544
e476b1b5 545(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 546
043c750c 547=item Bizarre copy of %s
4633a7c4 548
be771a83 549(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
ab830aa0 550copiable.
4633a7c4 551
5a25739d
FC
552=item Bizarre SvTYPE [%d]
553
434f489b 554(P) When starting a new thread or returning values from a thread, Perl
5a25739d
FC
555encountered an invalid data type.
556
f675dbe5
CB
557=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
558
be771a83
GS
559(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
560iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
561which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 562
a0d0e21e
LW
563=item Callback called exit
564
4929bf7b 565(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
566exited by calling exit.
567
6df41af2 568=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 569
be771a83
GS
570(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
571parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
572that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
573early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
574subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
575checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
576function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
577the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 578
56feebad
FC
579=item Calling POSIX::%s() is deprecated
580
581(D deprecated) You called a function whose use is deprecated. See
582the function's name in L<POSIX> for details.
583
0c7df902
JH
584=item Cannot chr %f
585
586(F) You passed an invalid number (like an infinity or not-a-number) to C<chr>.
587
5dee29d4 588=item Cannot compress %f in pack
0c7df902 589
5dee29d4
JH
590(F) You tried compressing an infinity or not-a-number as an unsigned
591integer with BER, which makes no sense.
0c7df902 592
49704364 593=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b 594
717feafc
JH
595(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress.
596The BER compressed integer format can only be used with positive
597integers, and you attempted to compress a very large number (> 1e308).
598See L<perlfunc/pack>.
0258719b 599
49704364 600=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
601
602(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
603format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
604
5c1f4d79
NC
605=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
606
6903afa2
FC
607(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference
608in it, then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax.
609The access triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is
610no legal conversion from that type of reference to a typeglob.
5c1f4d79 611
4040665a 612=item Cannot copy to %s
ba2fdce6
NC
613
614(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 615be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 616
b5d97229
RGS
617=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
618
619(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
620either with open() or binmode().
621
0c7df902
JH
622=item Cannot pack %f with '%c'
623
5dee29d4 624(F) You tried converting an infinity or not-a-number to an integer,
0c7df902
JH
625which makes no sense.
626
627=item Cannot printf %f with '%c'
628
629(F) You tried printing an infinity or not-a-number as a character (%c),
630which makes no sense. Maybe you meant '%s', or just stringifying it?
631
7355df7e
FC
632=item Cannot set tied @DB::args
633
634(F) C<caller> tried to set C<@DB::args>, but found it tied. Tying C<@DB::args>
635is not supported. (Before this error was added, it used to crash.)
636
ce65bc73
FC
637=item Cannot tie unreifiable array
638
639(P) You somehow managed to call C<tie> on an array that does not
640keep a reference count on its arguments and cannot be made to
641do so. Such arrays are not even supposed to be accessible to
642Perl code, but are only used internally.
643
96ebfdd7
RK
644=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
645
646(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
647integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
648to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
649
a0d0e21e
LW
650=item Can't bless non-reference value
651
652(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
653encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
654
dc57907a
RGS
655=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
656
0d863452 657(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
6903afa2 658a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
0d863452
RH
659
660=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 661
0d863452
RH
662(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
663
6df41af2
GS
664=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
665
666(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
667object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
668like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
669
670 $BADREF = undef;
671 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
672 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
673
a0d0e21e
LW
674=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
675
54310121 676(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
677ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
678didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
679object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
680
681=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
682
683(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
684object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
685defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
686Something like this will reproduce the error:
687
688 $BADREF = 42;
689 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
690 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
691
dfe378f1
FC
692=item Can't call mro_isa_changed_in() on anonymous symbol table
693
694(P) Perl got confused as to whether a hash was a plain hash or a
695symbol table hash when trying to update @ISA caches.
696
2bf7e7b2
FC
697=item Can't call mro_method_changed_in() on anonymous symbol table
698
699(F) An XS module tried to call C<mro_method_changed_in> on a hash that was
700not attached to the symbol table.
701
a0d0e21e
LW
702=item Can't chdir to %s
703
f703fc96 704(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but F</foo/bar> is not a directory
a0d0e21e
LW
705that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
706
0545a864 707=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 708
be771a83
GS
709(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
710nosuid.
104d25b7 711
22e74366 712=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
713
714(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 715(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
716say things like:
717
718 *foo += 1;
719
720You CAN say
721
722 $foo = *foo;
723 $foo += 1;
724
725but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
726
0d863452 727=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 728
0d863452
RH
729(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
730or C<default> block.
731
a0d0e21e
LW
732=item Can't create pipe mailbox
733
be771a83
GS
734(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
735quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 736
eb64745e
GS
737=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
738
30c282f6
NC
739(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
740"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 741
fc7debfb
FC
742=item Can't "default" outside a topicalizer
743
744(F) You have used a C<default> block that is neither inside a
745C<foreach> loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is
746issued on exit from the C<default> block, so you won't get the
747error if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
748
a2162cd9
FC
749=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
750
751(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
752a file in /dev, a FIFO or an uneditable directory. The file was ignored.
753
754=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
755
756(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
757reason.
758
759=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
760
761(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
762reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
763C<-i.bak>, or some such.
764
765=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
766
767(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
768characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
769inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
770
ab0b796c
KW
771=item Can't do %s("%s") on non-UTF-8 locale; resolved to "%s".
772
773(W locale) You are 1) running under "C<use locale>"; 2) the current
774locale is not a UTF-8 one; 3) you tried to do the designated case-change
775operation on the specified Unicode character; and 4) the result of this
776operation would mix Unicode and locale rules, which likely conflict.
777Mixing of different rule types is forbidden, so the operation was not
778done; instead the result is the indicated value, which is the best
779available that uses entirely Unicode rules. That turns out to almost
780always be the original character, unchanged.
781
782It is generally a bad idea to mix non-UTF-8 locales and Unicode, and
783this issue is one of the reasons why. This warning is raised when
784Unicode rules would normally cause the result of this operation to
785contain a character that is in the range specified by the locale,
7860..255, and hence is subject to the locale's rules, not Unicode's.
787
788If you are using locale purely for its characteristics related to things
789like its numeric and time formatting (and not C<LC_CTYPE>), consider
790using a restricted form of the locale pragma (see L<perllocale/The "use
791locale" pragma>) like "S<C<use locale ':not_characters'>>".
792
793Note that failed case-changing operations done as a result of
794case-insensitive C</i> regular expression matching will show up in this
795warning as having the C<fc> operation (as that is what the regular
796expression engine calls behind the scenes.)
797
a0d0e21e
LW
798=item Can't do waitpid with flags
799
be771a83
GS
800(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
801waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 802
a0d0e21e
LW
803=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
804
be771a83
GS
805(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
806point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
807line.
a0d0e21e 808
1109a392
MHM
809=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
810
811(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
812or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
813little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
814See L<perlfunc/pack>.
815
a0d0e21e
LW
816=item Can't exec "%s": %s
817
d1be9408 818(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
819named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
820permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
821C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
822architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
823can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
824#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
825
826=item Can't exec %s
827
be771a83
GS
828(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
829that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
830need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
831
832=item Can't execute %s
833
be771a83
GS
834(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
835found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 836
6df41af2 837=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 838
be771a83
GS
839(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
840is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 841
56ca2fc0
JH
842=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
843
844(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
6903afa2 845could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
e1b711da 846See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
9b73678d 847for a complete list of available official properties.
56ca2fc0 848
6df41af2
GS
849=item Can't find label %s
850
be771a83
GS
851(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
852possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
853
854=item Can't find %s on PATH
855
be771a83
GS
856(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
857found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 858
6df41af2 859=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 860
be771a83
GS
861(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
862found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
863script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
864
865=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
866
be771a83
GS
867(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
868that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
869nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 870
fb73857a 871 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
872
97b3d10f 873If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
b6b8cb97
FC
874included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag or there
875may not be a linebreak after it. A good programmer's editor will have
876a way to help you find these characters (or lack of characters). See
877L<perlop> for the full details on here-documents.
a0d0e21e 878
660a4616
TS
879=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
880
5f8ad6b6
FC
881(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode
882property (for example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase
fa816bf3 883letters). If you did mean to use a Unicode property, see
e1b711da 884L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
6903afa2 885for a complete list of available properties. If you didn't
fa816bf3
FC
886mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either by
887C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, or
5f8ad6b6 888until C<\E>).
660a4616 889
b3647a36 890=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 891
be771a83
GS
892(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
893pipeline.
a0d0e21e 894
b3647a36
SR
895=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
896
c973c02e 897(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
898after five seconds.
899
748a9306
LW
900=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
901
be771a83
GS
902(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
903between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
904Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
905the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
906account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
907the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
2fe2bdfd 908the access-checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
be771a83
GS
909the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
910if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
911because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
2fe2bdfd
FC
912appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-checking routine gave up
913and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access-checking
be771a83
GS
914routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
915shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
916only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 917
a0d0e21e
LW
918=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
919
be771a83
GS
920(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
921pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
922
923=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
924
748a9306
LW
925(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
926mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 927
6df41af2 928=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 929
be771a83
GS
930(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
931loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
932
933=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
934
be771a83
GS
935(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
936a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
937you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
938See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 939
5a25739d
FC
940=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
941
942(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
943"string" or block.
944
9850bf21 945=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 946
9850bf21
RH
947(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
948comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
949as the reduce() function in List::Util).
950
6df41af2
GS
951=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
952
be771a83
GS
953(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
954subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
955cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
956routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 957
0b5b802d
GS
958=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
959
be771a83
GS
960(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
961signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
962signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
963processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
964situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
965may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 966
e2c0f81f
DG
967=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
968
969(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
970attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
971process identifier.
972
6df41af2 973=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 974
6df41af2 975(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
976except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
977block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
978block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
979usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
980inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
981L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 982
2c7d6b9c
RGS
983=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
984
985(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
986package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
987
b8170e59
JB
988=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
989
6903afa2
FC
990(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension.
991This may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one
992that is incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known
993to happen between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your
994dynamic extension was built against an older version of the library
995that is installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old
996dynamic extensions.
b8170e59 997
748a9306
LW
998=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
999
2ba9eb46 1000(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
b7e4ecc1
FC
1001lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you
1002want to localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with
1003the package name.
748a9306 1004
6df41af2 1005=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 1006
6df41af2
GS
1007(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
1008handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 1009pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 1010that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 1011
ea071790 1012=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a 1013
fa816bf3
FC
1014(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be found.
1015Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC, unless
1016the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
1017to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the
1018extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
be771a83
GS
1019to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
1020L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 1021
6df41af2
GS
1022=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
1023
be771a83
GS
1024(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
1025autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
1026are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
1027the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 1028
b8170e59
JB
1029=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
1030
1031(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
d70d8e57 1032for example, F<foo.so> or F<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
b8170e59
JB
1033unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
1034
a0d0e21e
LW
1035=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
1036
1037(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
1038functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 1039method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e 1040
8af56b9d
FC
1041=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s" (perhaps you forgot
1042to load "%s"?)
1043
1044(F) You called a method on a class that did not exist, and the method
1045could not be found in UNIVERSAL. This often means that a method
1046requires a package that has not been loaded.
1047
a0d0e21e
LW
1048=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
1049
be771a83
GS
1050(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
1051doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 1052
2f7da168
RK
1053=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
1054
1055(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
1056e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
1057
f4ad53f4 1058=item Can't make list assignment to %ENV on this system
3e3baf6d 1059
be771a83
GS
1060(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
1061VMS.
3e3baf6d 1062
cd40cd58
NC
1063=item Can't make loaded symbols global on this platform while loading %s
1064
ff9c1ae8 1065(S) A module passed the flag 0x01 to DynaLoader::dl_load_file() to request
cd40cd58
NC
1066that symbols from the stated file are made available globally within the
1067process, but that functionality is not available on this platform. Whilst
1068the module likely will still work, this may prevent the perl interpreter
1069from loading other XS-based extensions which need to link directly to
1070functions defined in the C or XS code in the stated file.
1071
a0d0e21e
LW
1072=item Can't modify %s in %s
1073
be771a83
GS
1074(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
1075to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 1076
54310121 1077=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
1078
1079(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
1080a NULL.
1081
6df41af2
GS
1082=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
1083
1084(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
2fe2bdfd 1085such. See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
6df41af2 1086
cf6e1fa1
FC
1087=item Can't modify reference to %s in %s assignment
1088
1089(F) Only a limited number of constructs can be used as the argument to a
1090reference constructor on the left-hand side of an assignment, and what
1091you used was not one of them. See L<perlref/Assigning to References>.
1092
1093=item Can't modify reference to localized parenthesized array in list
1094assignment
1095
1096(F) Assigning to C<\local(@array)> or C<\(local @array)> is not supported, as
1097it is not clear exactly what it should do. If you meant to make @array
1098refer to some other array, use C<\@array = \@other_array>. If you want to
1099make the elements of @array aliases of the scalars referenced on the
1100right-hand side, use C<\(@array) = @scalar_refs>.
1101
1102=item Can't modify reference to parenthesized hash in list assignment
1103
1104(F) Assigning to C<\(%hash)> is not supported. If you meant to make %hash
1105refer to some other hash, use C<\%hash = \%other_hash>. If you want to
1106make the elements of %hash into aliases of the scalars referenced on the
1107right-hand side, use a hash slice: C<\@hash{@keys} = @those_scalar_refs>.
1108
5f05dabc 1109=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 1110
5f05dabc 1111(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
1112buffer.
1113
6df41af2
GS
1114=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
1115
1116(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
1117there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
1118count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
1119grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1120though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
1121once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 1122
a0d0e21e
LW
1123=item Can't open %s: %s
1124
c47ff5f1 1125(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e 1126filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
46fa9b26
FC
1127switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually
1128this is because you don't have read permission for a file which
1129you named on the command line.
1130
1131(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-e> switch, but F</dev/null> (or
1132your operating system's equivalent) could not be opened.
a0d0e21e 1133
9a869a14
RGS
1134=item Can't open a reference
1135
1136(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
2fe2bdfd 1137using the 3-arg open() syntax:
9a869a14
RGS
1138
1139 open FH, '>', $ref;
1140
1141but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1142open is not supported.
1143
a0d0e21e
LW
1144=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1145
be771a83
GS
1146(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1147You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1148as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1149">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1150
748a9306
LW
1151=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1152
be771a83
GS
1153(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1154redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1155the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1156
1157=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1158
be771a83
GS
1159(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1160redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1161command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1162
1163=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1164
be771a83
GS
1165(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1166redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1167the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1168
1169=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1170
be771a83
GS
1171(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1172redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1173for stdout.
748a9306 1174
3b1cf97d 1175=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1176
1177(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1178
fa3aa65a
JC
1179If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1180shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1181you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1182
6df41af2
GS
1183=item Can't read CRTL environ
1184
1185(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1186from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1187missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1188or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1189searched.
6df41af2 1190
6df41af2
GS
1191=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1192
1193(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1194there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1195count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1196or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1197though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1198loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1199
64977eb6 1200=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1201
be771a83
GS
1202(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1203file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1204the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1205
a0d0e21e
LW
1206=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1207
e476b1b5 1208(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1209probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1210
748a9306
LW
1211=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1212
be771a83
GS
1213(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1214to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1215
9415f659
KW
1216=item Can't represent character for Ox%X on this platform
1217
1218(F) There is a hard limit to how big a character code point can be due
1219to the fundamental properties of UTF-8, especially on EBCDIC
1220platforms. The given code point exceeds that. The only work-around is
1221to not use such a large code point.
1222
4f12ec0e
FC
1223=item Can't reset %ENV on this system
1224
1225(F) You called C<reset('E')> or similar, which tried to reset
1226all variables in the current package beginning with "E". In
1227the main package, that includes %ENV. Resetting %ENV is not
1228supported on some systems, notably VMS.
1229
fe13d51d 1230=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1231
1fa582fa
FC
1232(F)(P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1233opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1234package. If the method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1235
cd06dffe
GS
1236=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1237
be771a83
GS
1238(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1239temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1240is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1241
96ebfdd7
RK
1242=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1243
1244(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1245there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1246
78f9721b
SM
1247=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1248
6903afa2
FC
1249(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue
1250subroutine, but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl
1251think you meant to return only one value. You probably meant to
1252write parentheses around the call to the subroutine, which tell
1253Perl that the call should be in list context.
78f9721b 1254
a0d0e21e
LW
1255=item Can't stat script "%s"
1256
be771a83
GS
1257(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1258open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1259
a0d0e21e
LW
1260=item Can't take log of %g
1261
fb73857a 1262(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
6903afa2 1263negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1264standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1265negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1266
1267=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1268
1269(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a 1270negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1271with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1272
1273=item Can't undef active subroutine
1274
1275(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1276however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1277redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1278
c81225bc 1279=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1280
be771a83
GS
1281(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1282into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1283specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1284indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1285
6651ba0b
FC
1286=item Can't use '%c' after -mname
1287
1288(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-m> switch, but you put something
1289other than "=" after the module name.
1290
1f1ec7b5
KW
1291=item Can't use a hash as a reference
1292
1293(F) You tried to use a hash as a reference, as in
66a1f5ec
FC
1294C<< %foo->{"bar"} >> or C<< %$ref->{"hello"} >>. Versions of perl
1295<= 5.22.0 used to allow this syntax, but shouldn't
1296have. This was deprecated in perl 5.6.1.
1f1ec7b5
KW
1297
1298=item Can't use an array as a reference
1299
1300(F) You tried to use an array as a reference, as in
66a1f5ec
FC
1301C<< @foo->[23] >> or C<< @$ref->[99] >>. Versions of perl <= 5.22.0
1302used to allow this syntax, but shouldn't have. This
1303was deprecated in perl 5.6.1.
1f1ec7b5 1304
1db89ea5
BS
1305=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1306
e27ad1f2 1307(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1308table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1309for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1310
96ebfdd7
RK
1311=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1312
1313(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1314be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1315
6df41af2
GS
1316=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1317
be771a83
GS
1318(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1319references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1320
90b75b61 1321=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63 1322
20561843 1323(F) The first time the C<%!> hash is used, perl automatically loads the
6903afa2 1324Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1d2dff63
GS
1325provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1326
1109a392
MHM
1327=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1328
1329(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1330byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1331allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1332
e35475de
KW
1333=item Can't use 'defined(@array)' (Maybe you should just omit the defined()?)
1334
1335(F) defined() is not useful on arrays because it
1336checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
1337array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
1338
1339=item Can't use 'defined(%hash)' (Maybe you should just omit the defined()?)
1340
1341(F) C<defined()> is not usually right on hashes.
1342
1343Although C<defined %hash> is false on a plain not-yet-used hash, it
1344becomes true in several non-obvious circumstances, including iterators,
1345weak references, stash names, even remaining true after C<undef %hash>.
1346These things make C<defined %hash> fairly useless in practice, so it now
1347generates a fatal error.
1348
1349If a check for non-empty is what you wanted then just put it in boolean
1350context (see L<perldata/Scalar values>):
1351
1352 if (%hash) {
1353 # not empty
1354 }
1355
1356If you had C<defined %Foo::Bar::QUUX> to check whether such a package
1357variable exists then that's never really been reliable, and isn't
1358a good way to enquire about the features of a package, or whether
1359it's loaded, etc.
1360
6df41af2
GS
1361=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1362
c1f06047 1363(P) The parser got confused when trying to parse a C<foreach> loop.
6df41af2 1364
aab6a793 1365=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1366
be771a83
GS
1367(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1368is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1369(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1370have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1371weren't.
1372
6d3b25aa
RGS
1373=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1374
1375(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1376that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1377For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1378is inside a big-endian group.
1379
c07a80fd 1380=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1381
1382(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1383You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd 1384and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1385Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1386lexical variable.
1387
a0d0e21e
LW
1388=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1389
1390(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1391reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1392test the type of the reference, if need be.
1393
748a9306 1394=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1395
5e634d20
FC
1396=item Can't use string ("%s"...) as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1397
b41bf23f
FC
1398(F) You've told Perl to dereference a string, something which
1399C<use strict> blocks to prevent it happening accidentally. See
1400L<perlref/"Symbolic references">. This can be triggered by an C<@> or C<$>
1401in a double-quoted string immediately before interpolating a variable,
1402for example in C<"user @$twitter_id">, which says to treat the contents
1403of C<$twitter_id> as an array reference; use a C<\> to have a literal C<@>
1404symbol followed by the contents of C<$twitter_id>: C<"user \@$twitter_id">.
a0d0e21e 1405
748a9306
LW
1406=item Can't use subscript on %s
1407
1408(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1409subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1410didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1411
6df41af2
GS
1412=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1413
75b44862
GS
1414(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1415creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1416backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1417expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1418value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1419instead.
6df41af2 1420
810b8aa5
GS
1421=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1422
1423(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1424references can be weakened.
1425
fc7debfb
FC
1426=item Can't "when" outside a topicalizer
1427
1428(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1429loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1430from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1431or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1432
5f05dabc 1433=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1434
be771a83
GS
1435(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1436with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1437Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1438
a04e6aad 1439=item Character following "\c" must be printable ASCII
f9d13529 1440
7357bd17 1441(F) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be a printable (non-control) ASCII character.
17a3df4c 1442
727b6379 1443Note that ASCII characters that don't map to control characters are
7357bd17 1444discouraged, and will generate the warning (when enabled)
727b6379 1445L</""\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"">.
f9d13529 1446
f337b084 1447=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1448
1449(W pack) You said
1450
1451 pack("C", $x)
1452
1453where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1454only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1455and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1456
1457 pack("C", $x & 255)
1458
1459If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1460instead.
1461
f337b084 1462=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1463
1464(W pack) You said
1465
1466 pack("c", $x)
1467
1468where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1469is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1470and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1471
1472 pack("c", $x & 255);
1473
1474If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1475instead.
1476
f337b084
TH
1477=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1478
1479(W unpack) You tried something like
1480
1481 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1482
1a147d38 1483where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
6903afa2
FC
1484below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the
1485value modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
f337b084
TH
1486
1487 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1488
5a25739d
FC
1489=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1490
1491(W pack) You said
1492
1493 pack("U0W", $x)
1494
1495where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode
1496expects all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved
1497as if you meant:
1498
1499 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1500
f337b084
TH
1501=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1502
1503(W pack) You tried something like
1504
1505 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1506
1a147d38 1507where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1508value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1509uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1510
1511 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1512
1513=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1514
1515(W unpack) You tried something like
1516
1517 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1518
1a147d38 1519where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1520value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1521uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1522
1523 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1524
f51551f7
FC
1525=item charnames alias definitions may not contain a sequence of multiple spaces
1526
1527(F) You defined a character name which had multiple space characters
1528in a row. Change them to single spaces. Usually these names are
1529defined in the C<:alias> import argument to C<use charnames>, but they
1530could be defined by a translator installed into C<$^H{charnames}>. See
1531L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
1532
1533=item charnames alias definitions may not contain trailing white-space
1534
1535(F) You defined a character name which ended in a space
1536character. Remove the trailing space(s). Usually these names are
1537defined in the C<:alias> import argument to C<use charnames>, but they
1538could be defined by a translator installed into C<$^H{charnames}>.
1539See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
1540
1541=item \C is deprecated in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1542
1543(D deprecated, regexp) The \C character class is deprecated, and will
1544become a compile-time error in a future release of perl (tentatively
3617dbb6
FC
1545v5.24). This construct allows you to match a single byte of what makes
1546up a multi-byte single UTF8 character, and breaks encapsulation. It is
1547currently also very buggy. If you really need to process the individual
f51551f7
FC
1548bytes, you probably want to convert your string to one where each
1549underlying byte is stored as a character, with utf8::encode().
1550
f866a7cd
FC
1551=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
1552
1553(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
7ed0dd93
FC
1554non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which
1555is better written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash
1556for non-word characters. Doing it the way you did is not portable
1557between ASCII and EBCDIC platforms.
f866a7cd 1558
6651ba0b
FC
1559=item Cloning substitution context is unimplemented
1560
1561(F) Creating a new thread inside the C<s///> operator is not supported.
1562
abc7ecad
SP
1563=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1564
1565(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1566a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1567
5a25739d
FC
1568=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1569
1570(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1571
541ed3a9
FC
1572=item Closure prototype called
1573
1574(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1575handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1576This subroutine cannot be called.
1577
49704364
WL
1578=item Code missing after '/'
1579
6903afa2
FC
1580(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be
1581another template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 1582
5a25739d
FC
1583=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1584
2d88a86a 1585(S non_unicode) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum
1b64326b
FC
1586of U+10FFFF.
1587
1588Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code points, up
1589to the limit of what is storable in an unsigned integer on your system,
1590but these may not be accepted by other languages/systems. At one time,
1591it was legal in some standards to have code points up to 0x7FFF_FFFF,
1592but not higher. Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require larger than a
159332 bit word.
0876b9a0 1594
6df41af2
GS
1595=item %s: Command not found
1596
a892b81a 1597(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> or another shell
66a1f5ec
FC
1598instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
1599Perl yourself. The #! line at the top of your file could look like
8f721816
MM
1600
1601 #!/usr/bin/perl -w
6df41af2 1602
7a2e2cd6 1603=item Compilation failed in require
1604
1605(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1606Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1607encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1608
c3464db5
DD
1609=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1610
be771a83
GS
1611(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1612situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1613to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1614arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1615recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1616under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1617in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1618that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1619on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1620
69282e91 1621=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1622
be771a83
GS
1623(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1624to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1625L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1626
e21e7c6a
FC
1627=item Constant(%s): Call to &{$^H{%s}} did not return a defined value
1628
1629(F) The subroutine registered to handle constant overloading
1630(see L<overload>) or a custom charnames handler (see
1631L<charnames/CUSTOM TRANSLATORS>) returned an undefined value.
1632
1633=item Constant(%s): $^H{%s} is not defined
1634
1635(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to define an
1636overloaded constant. Perhaps you forgot to load the corresponding
f738a371 1637L<overload> pragma?
e21e7c6a 1638
779c5bc9
GS
1639=item Constant is not %s reference
1640
1641(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83 1642is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
6903afa2 1643The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
be771a83 1644usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1645See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1646
0ac016fc
FC
1647=item Constants from lexical variables potentially modified elsewhere are
1648deprecated
1649
1650(D deprecated) You wrote something like
1651
1652 my $var;
1653 $sub = sub () { $var };
1654
1655but $var is referenced elsewhere and could be modified after the C<sub>
1656expression is evaluated. Either it is explicitly modified elsewhere
1657(C<$var = 3>) or it is passed to a subroutine or to an operator like
1658C<printf> or C<map>, which may or may not modify the variable.
1659
1660Traditionally, Perl has captured the value of the variable at that
1661point and turned the subroutine into a constant eligible for inlining.
1662In those cases where the variable can be modified elsewhere, this
1663breaks the behavior of closures, in which the subroutine captures
1664the variable itself, rather than its value, so future changes to the
1665variable are reflected in the subroutine's return value.
1666
1667This usage is deprecated, because the behavior is likely to change
1668in a future version of Perl.
1669
1670If you intended for the subroutine to be eligible for inlining, then
1671make sure the variable is not referenced elsewhere, possibly by
1672copying it:
1673
1674 my $var2 = $var;
1675 $sub = sub () { $var2 };
1676
1677If you do want this subroutine to be a closure that reflects future
1678changes to the variable that it closes over, add an explicit C<return>:
1679
1680 my $var;
1681 $sub = sub () { return $var };
1682
4cee8e80
CS
1683=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1684
aeb94125
FC
1685(W redefine)(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously
1686been eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions">
1687for commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1688
9607fc9c 1689=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1690
be771a83
GS
1691(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1692for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1693workarounds.
9607fc9c 1694
5a25739d
FC
1695=item Constant(%s) unknown
1696
1697(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting
1698to define an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the
1699character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1700forgot to load the corresponding L<overload> pragma?.
1701
e7ea3e70
IZ
1702=item Copy method did not return a reference
1703
6903afa2 1704(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1705L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1706
4aaa4757
FC
1707=item &CORE::%s cannot be called directly
1708
1709(F) You tried to call a subroutine in the C<CORE::> namespace
8d605c0d 1710with C<&foo> syntax or through a reference. Some subroutines
4aaa4757
FC
1711in this package cannot yet be called that way, but must be
1712called as barewords. Something like this will work:
1713
1714 BEGIN { *shove = \&CORE::push; }
1715 shove @array, 1,2,3; # pushes on to @array
1716
6798c92b
GS
1717=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1718
1719(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1720
675fa9ff
FC
1721=item Corrupted regexp opcode %d > %d
1722
1723(P) This is either an error in Perl, or, if you're using
1724one, your L<custom regular expression engine|perlreapi>. If not the
1725latter, report the problem through the L<perlbug> utility.
1726
a0d0e21e
LW
1727=item corrupted regexp pointers
1728
1729(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1730expression compiler gave it.
1731
1732=item corrupted regexp program
1733
be771a83
GS
1734(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1735valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1736
de42a5a9 1737=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1738
1739(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1740
49704364
WL
1741=item Count after length/code in unpack
1742
1743(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1744you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1745L<perlfunc/pack>.
1746
f2cccb4c
KW
1747=for comment
1748The following are used in lib/diagnostics.t for testing two =items that
1749share the same description. Changes here need to be propagated to there
1750
6651ba0b
FC
1751=item Deep recursion on anonymous subroutine
1752
a0d0e21e
LW
1753=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1754
be771a83
GS
1755(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1756100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1757infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1758which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1759
aad1d01f
NC
1760This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1761setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1762
e0e4a6e3
FC
1763=item (?(DEFINE)....) does not allow branches in regex; marked by
1764S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
bcb95744 1765
6903afa2 1766(F) You used something like C<(?(DEFINE)...|..)> which is illegal. The
bcb95744
FC
1767most likely cause of this error is that you left out a parenthesis inside
1768of the C<....> part.
1769
9e3ec65c 1770The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
bcb95744
FC
1771discovered.
1772
62658f4d
PM
1773=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1774
1775(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1776there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1777
36447869
FC
1778=item delete argument is index/value array slice, use array slice
1779
1780(F) You used index/value array slice syntax (C<%array[...]>) as
1781the argument to C<delete>. You probably meant C<@array[...]> with
1782an @ symbol instead.
1783
1784=item delete argument is key/value hash slice, use hash slice
1785
1786(F) You used key/value hash slice syntax (C<%hash{...}>) as the argument to
1787C<delete>. You probably meant C<@hash{...}> with an @ symbol instead.
1788
0ffcbc25
FC
1789=item delete argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
1790
4a0af295 1791(F) The argument to C<delete> must be either a hash or array element,
0ffcbc25
FC
1792such as:
1793
1794 $foo{$bar}
1795 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
1796
1797or a hash or array slice, such as:
1798
1799 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
1800 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
1801
fc36a67e 1802=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1803
be771a83
GS
1804(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1805long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1806that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1807
6d3b25aa
RGS
1808=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1809
fa816bf3
FC
1810(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>. There
1811has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
6d3b25aa 1812not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
6903afa2 1813conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
fa816bf3 1814static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
6903afa2 1815relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
6d3b25aa 1816declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1817
6d3b25aa
RGS
1818 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1819
1820becomes
1821
1822 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1823
ea9d9ebc 1824Beginning with perl 5.10.0, you can also use C<state> variables to have
fa816bf3 1825lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
36fb85f3
RGS
1826
1827 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1828
500ab966
RGS
1829=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1830
1831(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
6903afa2
FC
1832just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather
1833than to create a dangling reference.
500ab966 1834
3cdd684c
TP
1835=item Did not produce a valid header
1836
1837See Server error.
1838
6df41af2
GS
1839=item %s did not return a true value
1840
1841(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1842it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1843traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1844do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1845
cc507455 1846=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1847
413ff9f6
FC
1848(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1849some such.
4633a7c4 1850
cc507455 1851=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1852
be771a83
GS
1853(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1854variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1855seems superfluous.
33633739 1856
cc507455 1857=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1858
be771a83
GS
1859(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1860@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1861carried away.
748a9306 1862
7e1af8bc 1863=item Died
5f05dabc 1864
1865(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
075b00aa 1866you called it with no args and C<$@> was empty.
5f05dabc 1867
3cdd684c
TP
1868=item Document contains no data
1869
1870See Server error.
1871
62658f4d
PM
1872=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1873
1874(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
943fc58e 1875define a C<$VERSION>.
62658f4d 1876
49704364
WL
1877=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1878
1879(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1880See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1881
95cb0d72
FC
1882=item Don't know how to get file name
1883
1884(P) C<PerlIO_getname>, a perl internal I/O function specific to VMS, was
1885somehow called on another platform. This should not happen.
1886
4021c788 1887=item Don't know how to handle magic of type \%o
a0d0e21e
LW
1888
1889(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1890
1891=item do_study: out of memory
1892
1893(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1894
6df41af2
GS
1895=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1896
56da5a46
RGS
1897(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1898"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1899name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1900because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1901"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1902something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1903subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1904"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1905
ac206dc8
RGS
1906=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1907
1908(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1909qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1910
84d78eb7
YO
1911=item dump is not supported
1912
1913(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1914
a0d0e21e
LW
1915=item Duplicate free() ignored
1916
be771a83
GS
1917(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1918already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1919
1109a392
MHM
1920=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1921
35f0cd76
FC
1922(W unpack) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a
1923type in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1109a392 1924
0953b66b
FC
1925=item each on reference is experimental
1926
0773cb3e
FC
1927(S experimental::autoderef) C<each> with a scalar argument is experimental
1928and may change or be removed in a future Perl version. If you want to
1929take the risk of using this feature, simply disable this warning:
0953b66b 1930
d401967c 1931 no warnings "experimental::autoderef";
0953b66b 1932
4633a7c4
LW
1933=item elseif should be elsif
1934
fa816bf3
FC
1935(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks
1936it's ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1937named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1938unlikely to be what you want.
1939
e0e4a6e3 1940=item Empty \%c{} in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
ab13f0c7 1941
af6f566e 1942(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
6903afa2 1943described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
af6f566e 1944a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1945
85ab1d1d 1946=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1947
85ab1d1d 1948(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1949effective uids or gids failed.
1950
c038024b
RGS
1951=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1952
1953(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1954aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
6903afa2 1955program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
c038024b 1956
748a9306
LW
1957=item Error converting file specification %s
1958
5f05dabc 1959(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1960specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1961single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1962an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1963conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1964
ad19ef22 1965=item Eval-group in insecure regular expression
e4d48cc9 1966
be771a83
GS
1967(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1968expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1969is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1970
ad19ef22 1971=item Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
e4d48cc9 1972
be771a83
GS
1973(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1974C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
f11307f5
FC
1975pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk,
1976it is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by using the
1977C<re 'eval'> pragma or by explicitly building the pattern from an
1978interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval(). See
1979L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1980
ad19ef22 1981=item Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
6df41af2 1982
be771a83
GS
1983(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1984assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1985pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1986
e0e4a6e3
FC
1987=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by
1988S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
1a147d38
YO
1989
1990(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
6903afa2 1991any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1a147d38 1992
9e3ec65c 1993The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
1a147d38
YO
1994discovered.
1995
fc36a67e 1996=item Excessively long <> operator
1997
1998(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1999Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
2000filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
2001variable and glob that.
2002
ed9aa3b7
SG
2003=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
2004
af8bb25a 2005(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented on some systems, e.g., Symbian
6903afa2 2006OS. See L<perlport>.
ed9aa3b7 2007
fe13d51d 2008=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
2009
2010(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
2011
0ffcbc25
FC
2012=item exists argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
2013
4a0af295 2014(F) The argument to C<exists> must be a hash or array element or a
0ffcbc25
FC
2015subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
2016
2017 $foo{$bar}
2018 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
2019 &do_something
2020
2021=item exists argument is not a subroutine name
2022
ccfc2567
FC
2023(F) The argument to C<exists> for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine name,
2024and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this error.
0ffcbc25 2025
a0d0e21e
LW
2026=item Exiting eval via %s
2027
be771a83
GS
2028(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
2029goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
2030
2031=item Exiting format via %s
2032
9a2ff54b 2033(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 2034goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 2035
0a753a76 2036=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
2037
be771a83
GS
2038(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
2039sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
2040loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 2041
a0d0e21e
LW
2042=item Exiting subroutine via %s
2043
be771a83
GS
2044(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
2045as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2046
2047=item Exiting substitution via %s
2048
be771a83
GS
2049(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
2050as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 2051
e0e4a6e3 2052=item Expecting close bracket in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
c608e803 2053
675fa9ff 2054(F) You wrote something like
c608e803
KW
2055
2056 (?13
2057
2058to denote a capturing group of the form
2059L<C<(?I<PARNO>)>|perlre/(?PARNO) (?-PARNO) (?+PARNO) (?R) (?0)>,
2060but omitted the C<")">.
2061
e0e4a6e3 2062=item Expecting '(?flags:(?[...' in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
27350048 2063
8b6fbf55
FC
2064(F) The C<(?[...])> extended character class regular expression construct
2065only allows character classes (including character class escapes like
2066C<\d>), operators, and parentheses. The one exception is C<(?flags:...)>
2067containing at least one flag and exactly one C<(?[...])> construct.
27350048
FC
2068This allows a regular expression containing just C<(?[...])> to be
2069interpolated. If you see this error message, then you probably
2070have some other C<(?...)> construct inside your character class. See
2071L<perlrecharclass/Extended Bracketed Character Classes>.
2072
baabe3fb 2073=item Experimental aliasing via reference not enabled
1f8155a2 2074
baabe3fb 2075(F) To do aliasing via references, you must first enable the feature:
1f8155a2 2076
baabe3fb
FC
2077 no warnings "experimental::refaliasing";
2078 use feature "refaliasing";
1f8155a2
FC
2079 \$x = \$y;
2080
30d9c59b
Z
2081=item Experimental subroutine signatures not enabled
2082
2083(F) To use subroutine signatures, you must first enable them:
2084
caa35032 2085 no warnings "experimental::signatures";
30d9c59b
Z
2086 use feature "signatures";
2087 sub foo ($left, $right) { ... }
2088
6da34ecb
FC
2089=item Experimental "%s" subs not enabled
2090
2091(F) To use lexical subs, you must first enable them:
2092
2093 no warnings 'experimental::lexical_subs';
2094 use feature 'lexical_subs';
2095 my sub foo { ... }
2096
7b8d334a
GS
2097=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
2098
be771a83
GS
2099(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
2100the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
2101usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
2102e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 2103
6df41af2
GS
2104=item %s: Expression syntax
2105
be771a83
GS
2106(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
2107Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
2108
2109=item %s failed--call queue aborted
2110
3c10abe3
AG
2111(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
2112CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
2113queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 2114
e0e4a6e3 2115=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
73b437c8 2116
98d31c73 2117(W regexp)(F) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3 2118character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
3c6ca74a
FC
2119in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". In a C<(?[...])>
2120construct, this is an error, rather than a warning. Consider quoting
e0e4a6e3 2121the "-", "\-". The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression
3c6ca74a 2122the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 2123
1b1ee2ef 2124=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 2125
be771a83
GS
2126(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
2127system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
2128details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
2129you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2130
2131=item fcntl is not implemented
2132
2133(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
2134PDP-11 or something?
2135
22846ab4
AB
2136=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
2137
2138(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
2139is not possible.
2140
f337b084
TH
2141=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
2142
d8b5cc61 2143(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string starts with a length indicator
6903afa2
FC
2144which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
2145a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
5c96f6f7 2146C<u63> as the format.
f337b084 2147
af8c498a 2148=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 2149
6c8d78fb
HS
2150(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
2151it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
2152"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
2153write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 2154
af8c498a 2155=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 2156
6c8d78fb
HS
2157(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
2158you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
89a1bda8
FC
2159with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with ">". If you intended only to
2160read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>. Another possibility
2161is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for
2162output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
2163
2164=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
2165
2166(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
6903afa2 2167as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
2168previously.
2169
2170=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
2171
2172(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
fa816bf3 2173as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
2174
2175=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
2176
2177(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
2178a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
2179happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
2180name.
a0d0e21e 2181
56e90b21
GS
2182=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
2183
be771a83 2184(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 2185some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
2186filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
2187same name?
56e90b21 2188
6df41af2
GS
2189=item Format not terminated
2190
2191(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
2192to the end of your file without finding such a line.
2193
a0d0e21e
LW
2194=item Format %s redefined
2195
e476b1b5 2196(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
2197
2198 {
271595cc 2199 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
2200 eval "format NAME =...";
2201 }
2202
a0d0e21e
LW
2203=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
2204
e476b1b5 2205(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
2206
2207 if ($foo = 123)
2208
2209when you meant
2210
2211 if ($foo == 123)
2212
2213(or something like that).
2214
6df41af2
GS
2215=item %s found where operator expected
2216
56da5a46
RGS
2217(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
2218If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
2219operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
2220operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 2221
a0d0e21e
LW
2222=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
2223
2224(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
2225
2226=item gethostent not implemented
2227
2228(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
2229because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
2230on the Internet.
2231
69282e91 2232=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2233
be771a83
GS
2234(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
2235socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 2236
748a9306
LW
2237=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
2238
2239(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
2240C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
2241
6df41af2
GS
2242=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
2243
be771a83
GS
2244(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
2245forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
2246L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
2247
0f539b13
BF
2248=item given is experimental
2249
675fa9ff
FC
2250(S experimental::smartmatch) C<given> depends on smartmatch, which
2251is experimental, so its behavior may change or even be removed
2252in any future release of perl. See the explanation under
2253L<perlsyn/Experimental Details on given and when>.
0f539b13 2254
68567d27
FC
2255=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name (did you forget to
2256declare "my %s"?)
6df41af2 2257
a4edf47d 2258(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 2259that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
2260declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
2261which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 2262
e476b1b5
GS
2263=item glob failed (%s)
2264
5ead438e 2265(S glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used
73c4e9dc
FC
2266for C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
2267pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
be771a83 2268nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
73c4e9dc
FC
2269resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell)
2270is broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables
2271in config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as
2272if it were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them
2273all empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
be771a83 2274think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 2275C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 2276
a0d0e21e
LW
2277=item Glob not terminated
2278
2279(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
2280a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
2281not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
2282earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 2283
b35b96b6
JH
2284=item gmtime(%f) failed
2285
2286(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that it could not handle:
2287too large, too small, or NaN. The returned value is C<undef>.
2288
bcd05b94 2289=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2290
e9200be3 2291(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was larger than
fc003d4b 2292it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
6903afa2 2293date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2294not-a-number value).
2295
bcd05b94 2296=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2297
e9200be3 2298(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was smaller than
e7a1a147 2299it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2300
6df41af2 2301=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 2302
6df41af2
GS
2303(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
2304version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
2305
2306=item goto must have label
2307
2308(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
2309unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2310
6651ba0b
FC
2311=item Goto undefined subroutine%s
2312
2313(F) You tried to call a subroutine with C<goto &sub> syntax, but
2314the indicated subroutine hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2315has since been undefined.
2316
6fbc9859 2317=item Group name must start with a non-digit word character in regex; marked by
e0e4a6e3 2318S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
1f4f6bf1
YO
2319
2320(F) Group names must follow the rules for perl identifiers, meaning
f26c79ba
FC
2321they must start with a non-digit word character. A common cause of
2322this error is using (?&0) instead of (?0). See L<perlre>.
1f4f6bf1 2323
5a25739d
FC
2324=item ()-group starts with a count
2325
2326(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is supposed to follow
2327something: a template character or a ()-group. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2328
fe13d51d 2329=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
2330
2331(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
2332
a0d0e21e
LW
2333=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
2334
be771a83
GS
2335(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
2336to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
2337created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e 2338
6df41af2
GS
2339=item %s has too many errors
2340
2341(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
2342Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
2343
cc4d09e1
KW
2344=item Having more than one /%c regexp modifier is deprecated
2345
2346(D deprecated, regexp) You used the indicated regular expression pattern
2347modifier at least twice in a string of modifiers. It is deprecated to
2348do this with this particular modifier, to allow future extensions to the
2349Perl language.
2350
61e61fbc
JH
2351=item Hexadecimal float: exponent overflow
2352
d8f2b442 2353(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point has a larger exponent
61e61fbc
JH
2354than the floating point supports.
2355
2356=item Hexadecimal float: exponent underflow
2357
d8f2b442 2358(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point has a smaller exponent
61e61fbc
JH
2359than the floating point supports.
2360
cf4f6003
JH
2361=item Hexadecimal float: internal error
2362
2363(F) Something went horribly bad in hexadecimal float handling.
2364
61e61fbc
JH
2365=item Hexadecimal float: mantissa overflow
2366
2367(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point literal had more bits in
2368the mantissa (the part between the 0x and the exponent, also known as
2369the fraction or the significand) than the floating point supports.
2370
40bca5ae
JH
2371=item Hexadecimal float: precision loss
2372
2373(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point had internally more
2374digits than could be output. This can be caused by unsupported
2375long double formats, or by 64-bit integers not being available
2376(needed to retrieve the digits under some configurations).
2377
2378=item Hexadecimal float: unsupported long double format
2379
2380(F) You have configured Perl to use long doubles but
d8f2b442 2381the internals of the long double format are unknown;
40bca5ae
JH
2382therefore the hexadecimal float output is impossible.
2383
252aa082
JH
2384=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2385
e476b1b5 2386(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2387(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2388L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2389
8903cb82 2390=item Identifier too long
2391
2392(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2393about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2394names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2395of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2396
e0e4a6e3
FC
2397=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class in regex; marked by
2398S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
fc8cd66c 2399
f3ba6905 2400(W regexp) Named Unicode character escapes (C<\N{...}>) may return a
0f44b2a5
FC
2401zero-length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character
2402class its behavior is not well defined. Check that the correct
2403escape has been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
fc8cd66c 2404
6df41af2 2405=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2406
6df41af2 2407(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2408
6df41af2 2409=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2410
be771a83
GS
2411(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2412binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2413offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2414
6597eb22
FC
2415=item Illegal character after '_' in prototype for %s : %s
2416
e4d150f1
FC
2417(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype
2418declaration. The '_' in a prototype must be followed by a ';',
2419indicating the rest of the parameters are optional, or one of '@'
2420or '%', since those two will accept 0 or more final parameters.
6597eb22 2421
78d0fecf 2422=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2423
d5898338 2424(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2425would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2426when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2427version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2428to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2429
d37a9538
ST
2430=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2431
197afce1 2432(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2e9cc7ef 2433Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
30d9c59b
Z
2434Perhaps you were trying to write a subroutine signature but didn't enable
2435that feature first (C<use feature 'signatures'>), so your signature was
2436instead interpreted as a bad prototype.
d37a9538 2437
904d85c5
RGS
2438=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2439
2440(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
6903afa2 2441you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
904d85c5 2442
8e742a20
MHM
2443=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2444
6903afa2 2445(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
8e742a20 2446
a0d0e21e
LW
2447=item Illegal division by zero
2448
be771a83
GS
2449(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2450your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2451meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2452
6df41af2
GS
2453=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2454
be771a83
GS
2455(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2456A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2457number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2458
a0d0e21e
LW
2459=item Illegal modulus zero
2460
be771a83
GS
2461(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2462numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2463
6df41af2 2464=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2465
6df41af2
GS
2466(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2467two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2468
2469=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2470
d1be9408 2471(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2472
399388f4 2473=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2474
d1be9408 2475(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2476Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2477
e0e4a6e3 2478=item Illegal pattern in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
c608e803 2479
675fa9ff 2480(F) You wrote something like
c608e803
KW
2481
2482 (?+foo)
2483
2484The C<"+"> is valid only when followed by digits, indicating a
2485capturing group. See
2486L<C<(?I<PARNO>)>|perlre/(?PARNO) (?-PARNO) (?+PARNO) (?R) (?0)>.
2487
375ed12a
JH
2488=item Illegal suidscript
2489
2490(F) The script run under suidperl was somehow illegal.
2491
fe13d51d 2492=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2493
6df41af2 2494(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2495following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2496
6df41af2 2497=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2498
75b44862 2499(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2500internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2501delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2502
6df41af2 2503=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2504
be771a83
GS
2505(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2506name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2507didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2508ignored.
54310121 2509
6df41af2 2510=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2511
be771a83
GS
2512(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2513the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2514system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2515times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2516would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2517
be771a83
GS
2518Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2519also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2520
e0e4a6e3
FC
2521=item Incomplete expression within '(?[ ])' in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE>
2522in m/%s/
0d0b4b3b 2523
675fa9ff 2524(F) There was a syntax error within the C<(?[ ])>. This can happen if the
0d0b4b3b
KW
2525expression inside the construct was completely empty, or if there are
2526too many or few operands for the number of operators. Perl is not smart
2527enough to give you a more precise indication as to what is wrong.
2528
6fbc9859
MH
2529=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on
2530parent '%s'
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2531
2532(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2533C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2534documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2535
979699d9
JH
2536=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2537
2538(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2539Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2540encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2541
6a2ed79a 2542=item Infinite recursion in regex
1a147d38
YO
2543
2544(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
6903afa2 2545text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
1a147d38
YO
2546either consume text or fail.
2547
6dbe9451
NC
2548=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2549
6903afa2
FC
2550(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the
2551initialization of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write
2552C<state ($a) = 42> as C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar
2553context. Constructions such as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be
2554supported in a future perl release.
6dbe9451 2555
2186f873
FC
2556=item %%s[%s] in scalar context better written as $%s[%s]
2557
2558(W syntax) In scalar context, you've used an array index/value slice
2559(indicated by %) to select a single element of an array. Generally
2560it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $). The difference
2561is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both in the value it
2562returns and when evaluating its argument, while C<%foo[&bar]> provides
2563a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things if you're
2564expecting only one subscript. When called in list context, it also
2565returns the index (what C<&bar> returns) in addition to the value.
2566
2567=item %%s{%s} in scalar context better written as $%s{%s}
2568
2569(W syntax) In scalar context, you've used a hash key/value slice
2570(indicated by %) to select a single element of a hash. Generally it's
2571better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $). The difference
2572is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both in the value
2573it returns and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> and
2574provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things
2575if you're expecting only one subscript. When called in list context,
2576it also returns the key in addition to the value.
2577
a0d0e21e
LW
2578=item Insecure dependency in %s
2579
8b1a09fc 2580(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2581The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2582setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2583tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2584from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2585such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2586L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2587
2588=item Insecure directory in %s
2589
be771a83
GS
2590(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2591setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2592the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2593See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2594
62f468fc 2595=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2596
2597(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2598setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2599C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2600supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2601the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2602
0e9be77f
DM
2603=item Insecure user-defined property %s
2604
2605(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2606expression that contains a call to a user-defined character property
2607function, i.e. C<\p{IsFoo}> or C<\p{InFoo}>.
2608See L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties> and L<perlsec>.
2609
b9ef414d
FC
2610=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2611
2612(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2613or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2614integers for your architecture.
2615
a7ae9550
GS
2616=item Integer overflow in %s number
2617
35928bc5 2618(S overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2619either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2620your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2621On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2622representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
26230b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2624transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2625internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2626operations.
bbce6d69 2627
fc89ca81
FC
2628=item Integer overflow in srand
2629
2630(S overflow) The number you have passed to srand is too big to fit
2631in your architecture's integer representation. The number has been
2632replaced with the largest integer supported (0xFFFFFFFF on 32-bit
2633architectures). This means you may be getting less randomness than
2634you expect, because different random seeds above the maximum will
2635return the same sequence of random numbers.
2636
46314c13
JP
2637=item Integer overflow in version
2638
18da5252
FC
2639=item Integer overflow in version %d
2640
784d71ed
FC
2641(W overflow) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for
2642the size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
f084e84f 2643because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use an
784d71ed
FC
2644element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by trying
2645to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like 100/9.
46314c13 2646
e0e4a6e3 2647=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2648
2649(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
e0e4a6e3 2650The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2651discovered.
2652
748a9306
LW
2653=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2654
be771a83
GS
2655(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2656you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2657to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2658L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2659Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2660terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2661
870978ae
FC
2662=item internal %<num>p might conflict with future printf extensions
2663
2664(S internal) Perl's internal routine that handles C<printf> and C<sprintf>
2665formatting follows a slightly different set of rules when called from
2666C or XS code. Specifically, formats consisting of digits followed
2667by "p" (e.g., "%7p") are reserved for future use. If you see this
2668message, then an XS module tried to call that routine with one such
2669reserved format.
2670
e0e4a6e3 2671=item Internal urp in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
b45f050a 2672
fa816bf3 2673(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
e0e4a6e3 2674S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
7253e4e3 2675discovered.
a0d0e21e 2676
6df41af2
GS
2677=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2678
75b44862 2679(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2680followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2681operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2682L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2683
f51551f7
FC
2684=item In '(?...)', the '(' and '?' must be adjacent in regex;
2685marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
2686
2687(F) The two-character sequence C<"(?"> in this context in a regular
2688expression pattern should be an indivisible token, with nothing
2689intervening between the C<"("> and the C<"?">, but you separated them
2690with whitespace.
2691
09bef843
SB
2692=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2693
a4a4c9e2 2694(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2695by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2696
2697=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2698
a4a4c9e2 2699(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2700recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2701
e0e4a6e3
FC
2702=item Invalid character in charnames alias definition; marked by
2703S<<-- HERE> in '%s
225fb84f
KW
2704
2705(F) You tried to create a custom alias for a character name, with
2706the C<:alias> option to C<use charnames> and the specified character in
2707the indicated name isn't valid. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2708
c8028aa6
TC
2709=item Invalid \0 character in %s for %s: %s\0%s
2710
fa3234e3
FC
2711(W syscalls) Embedded \0 characters in pathnames or other system call
2712arguments produce a warning as of 5.20. The parts after the \0 were
2713formerly ignored by system calls.
c8028aa6 2714
e0e4a6e3 2715=item Invalid character in \N{...}; marked by S<<-- HERE> in \N{%s}
a690c7c4
FC
2716
2717(F) Only certain characters are valid for character names. The
2718indicated one isn't. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2719
c635e13b 2720=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2721
be771a83
GS
2722(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2723L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2724
e0e4a6e3
FC
2725=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by
2726S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
9e08bc66 2727
98d31c73 2728(W regexp)(F) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
9e08bc66
TS
2729didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2730from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
98d31c73
FC
2731The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD)
2732instead, except within S<C<(?[ ])>>, where it is a fatal error.
e0e4a6e3 2733The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
9e08bc66
TS
2734escape was discovered.
2735
8149aa9f
FC
2736=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
2737
e0e4a6e3
FC
2738=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...} in regex; marked by
2739S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
aec0ef10 2740
8149aa9f 2741(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
74f8e9e3
FC
2742number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than
27430 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
8149aa9f 2744
6651ba0b
FC
2745=item Invalid module name %s with -%c option: contains single ':'
2746
2747(F) The module argument to perl's B<-m> and B<-M> command-line options
2748cannot contain single colons in the module name, but only in the
2749arguments after "=". In other words, B<-MFoo::Bar=:baz> is ok, but
2750B<-MFoo:Bar=baz> is not.
2751
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2752=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2753
162a3e34
FC
2754(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")> or C<use mro 'foo'>,
2755where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO). Currently,
2756the only valid ones supported are C<dfs> and C<c3>, unless you have loaded
2757a module that is a MRO plugin. See L<mro> and L<perlmroapi>.
2c7d6b9c 2758
40e4140b
FC
2759=item Invalid negative number (%s) in chr
2760
2761(W utf8) You passed a negative number to C<chr>. Negative numbers are
abc0aa9d 2762not valid character numbers, so it returns the Unicode replacement
40e4140b
FC
2763character (U+FFFD).
2764
6651ba0b
FC
2765=item invalid option -D%c, use -D'' to see choices
2766
8ff21bfe
FC
2767(S debugging) Perl was called with invalid debugger flags. Call perl
2768with the B<-D> option with no flags to see the list of acceptable values.
982c4ecb 2769See also L<perlrun/-Dletters>.
6651ba0b 2770
e0e4a6e3 2771=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2772
2773(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2774greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2775C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
e0e4a6e3 2776up to C<ff>. The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
7253e4e3 2777problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2778
d1573ac7 2779=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2780
2781(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2782character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2783
09bef843
SB
2784=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2785
0120eecf 2786(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2787elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2788parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2789See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2790
b4581f09
JH
2791=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2792
2bfc5f71
FC
2793(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other
2794than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
b4581f09
JH
2795If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2796list was terminated too soon.
2797
2c86d456
DG
2798=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2799
fa816bf3 2800(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2801A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2802decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2803v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2804The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2805See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2806
49704364 2807=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2808
49704364
WL
2809(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2810See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6728c851 2811
49704364 2812(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2813silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2814
2c86d456
DG
2815=item Invalid version format (%s)
2816
fa816bf3 2817(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2818A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2819decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
fa816bf3
FC
2820v-string. If the v-string has fewer than three components, it
2821must have a leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is
2822optional. Both decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a
2823trailing "alpha" component separated by an underscore character
2824after a fractional or dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized
2825text indicates which criteria were not met. See the L<version> module
2826for more details on allowed version formats.
46314c13 2827
798ae1b7
DG
2828=item Invalid version object
2829
fa816bf3
FC
2830(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid.
2831Perhaps the internals were modified directly in some way or
2832an arbitrary reference was blessed into the "version" class.
798ae1b7 2833
cd209d9d 2834=item In '(*VERB...)', the '(' and '*' must be adjacent in regex;
e0e4a6e3 2835marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
675fa9ff 2836
cd209d9d 2837(F) The two-character sequence C<"(*"> in
675fa9ff
FC
2838this context in a regular expression pattern should be an
2839indivisible token, with nothing intervening between the C<"(">
cd209d9d 2840and the C<"*">, but you separated them.
675fa9ff 2841
a0d0e21e
LW
2842=item ioctl is not implemented
2843
2844(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2845strange for a machine that supports C.
2846
c289d2f7
JH
2847=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2848
2849(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
34b6fd5e 2850Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 2851
fe13d51d 2852=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2853
2854(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
34b6fd5e 2855you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO, Perl must be configured
363c40c4
SB
2856with 'useperlio'.
2857
80cbd5ad
JH
2858=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2859
2860(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
34b6fd5e 2861neither as a system call nor an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
80cbd5ad 2862
4f650b80 2863=item $* is no longer supported
b4581f09 2864
4f650b80 2865(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older
ea9d9ebc 2866perls, has been removed as of 5.10.0 and is no longer supported. In
4f650b80
NC
2867previous versions of perl the use of C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line
2868matching within a string.
4fd19576
B
2869
2870Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
6903afa2
FC
2871modifiers. You can enable C</m> for a lexical scope (even a whole file)
2872with C<use re '/m'>. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value
570dedd4 2873then all regular expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2874
8ae1fe26
RGS
2875=item $# is no longer supported
2876
a58ac25e 2877(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older
ea9d9ebc 2878perls, has been removed as of 5.10.0 and is no longer supported. You
a58ac25e 2879should use the printf/sprintf functions instead.
8ae1fe26 2880
ccf3535a 2881=item '%s' is not a code reference
6ad11d81 2882
6903afa2
FC
2883(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of
2884overload::constant needs to be a code reference. Either
2885an anonymous subroutine, or a reference to a subroutine.
6ad11d81 2886
ccf3535a 2887=item '%s' is not an overloadable type
6ad11d81 2888
04a80ee0
RGS
2889(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2890unaware of.
6ad11d81 2891
5a25739d
FC
2892=item -i used with no filenames on the command line, reading from STDIN
2893
2894(S inplace) The C<-i> option was passed on the command line, indicating
2895that the script is intended to edit files in place, but no files were
2896given. This is usually a mistake, since editing STDIN in place doesn't
2897make sense, and can be confusing because it can make perl look like
2898it is hanging when it is really just trying to read from STDIN. You
2899should either pass a filename to edit, or remove C<-i> from the command
2900line. See L<perlrun> for more details.
2901
aec0ef10 2902=item Junk on end of regexp in regex m/%s/
a0d0e21e
LW
2903
2904(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2905
0953b66b
FC
2906=item keys on reference is experimental
2907
0773cb3e
FC
2908(S experimental::autoderef) C<keys> with a scalar argument is experimental
2909and may change or be removed in a future Perl version. If you want to
2910take the risk of using this feature, simply disable this warning:
0953b66b 2911
d401967c 2912 no warnings "experimental::autoderef";
0953b66b 2913
a0d0e21e
LW
2914=item Label not found for "last %s"
2915
be771a83
GS
2916(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2917of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2918L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2919
2920=item Label not found for "next %s"
2921
2922(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2923that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2924L<perlfunc/last>.
2925
2926=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2927
2928(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2929that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2930L<perlfunc/last>.
2931
85ab1d1d 2932=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2933
85ab1d1d 2934(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2935effective uids or gids failed.
2936
49704364
WL
2937=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2938
d7f8936a 2939(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
6903afa2
FC
2940length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2941an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 2942
25e26107 2943=item length() used on %s (did you mean "scalar(%s)"?)
e508c8a4 2944
0d46a4e7
FC
2945(W syntax) You used length() on either an array or a hash when you
2946probably wanted a count of the items.
e508c8a4
MH
2947
2948Array size can be obtained by doing:
2949
2950 scalar(@array);
2951
2952The number of items in a hash can be obtained by doing:
2953
2954 scalar(keys %hash);
2955
f0e67a1d
Z
2956=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2957
d4fe7078
RS
2958(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
2959(using L<lex_stuff_pvn|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn> or similar), but tried to insert a character that
2960couldn't be part of the current input. This is an inherent pitfall
2961of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the reasons to avoid it. Where
6903afa2 2962it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only plain ASCII is recommended.
f0e67a1d
Z
2963
2964=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2965
2966(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2967detectable way.
2968
69282e91 2969=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2970
be771a83
GS
2971(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2972to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2973L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2974
6651ba0b
FC
2975=item List form of piped open not implemented
2976
2977(F) On some platforms, notably Windows, the three-or-more-arguments
2978form of C<open> does not support pipes, such as C<open($pipe, '|-', @args)>.
2979Use the two-argument C<open($pipe, '|prog arg1 arg2...')> form instead.
2980
dc6bb7ba
FC
2981=item %s: loadable library and perl binaries are mismatched (got handshake key %p, needed %p)
2982
2983(P) A dynamic loading library C<.so> or C<.dll> was being loaded into the
2984process that was built against a different build of perl than the
2985said library was compiled against. Reinstalling the XS module will
2986likely fix this error.
2987
8c6180a9
KW
2988=item Locale '%s' may not work well.%s
2989
780fcc9f
KW
2990(W locale) You are using the named locale, which is a non-UTF-8 one, and
2991which Perl has determined is not fully compatible with Perl. The second
2992C<%s> gives a reason.
8c6180a9
KW
2993
2994By far the most common reason is that the locale has characters in it
2995that are represented by more than one byte. The only such locales that
2996Perl can handle are the UTF-8 locales. Most likely the specified locale
2997is a non-UTF-8 one for an East Asian language such as Chinese or
2998Japanese. If the locale is a superset of ASCII, the ASCII portion of it
780fcc9f 2999may work in Perl.
8c6180a9
KW
3000
3001Some essentially obsolete locales that aren't supersets of ASCII, mainly
3002those in ISO 646 or other 7-bit locales, such as ASMO 449, can also have
3003problems, depending on what portions of the ASCII character set get
3004changed by the locale and are also used by the program.
3005The warning message lists the determinable conflicting characters.
3006
780fcc9f
KW
3007Note that not all incompatibilities are found.
3008
3009If this happens to you, there's not much you can do except switch to use a
3010different locale or use L<Encode> to translate from the locale into
3011UTF-8; if that's impracticable, you have been warned that some things
3012may break.
3013
3014This message is output once each time a bad locale is switched into
3015within the scope of C<S<use locale>>, or on the first possibly-affected
3016operation if the C<S<use locale>> inherits a bad one. It is not raised
3017for any operations from the L<POSIX> module.
3018
a2162cd9
FC
3019=item localtime(%f) failed
3020
3021(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that it could not handle:
3022too large, too small, or NaN. The returned value is C<undef>.
3023
3024=item localtime(%f) too large
3025
3026(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was larger
3027than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
3028wrong date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
3029not-a-number value).
3030
3031=item localtime(%f) too small
3032
3033(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was smaller
3034than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
3035wrong date.
3036
58e23c8d 3037=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
3038
3039(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
6903afa2 3040handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 3041
b88df990
NC
3042=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
3043
e63e8a91
FC
3044(W imprecision) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one
3045is too large for the underlying floating point representation to store
3046accurately, hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this
3047warning because it has already switched from integers to floating point
3048when values are too large for integers, and now even floating point is
3049insufficient. You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
b88df990 3050
93fad930 3051=item lstat() on filehandle%s
2f7da168
RK
3052
3053(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
3054by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
3055instead on the filehandle.)
3056
345d70e3 3057=item lvalue attribute %s already-defined subroutine
bb3abb05 3058
345d70e3
FC
3059(W misc) Although L<attributes.pm|attributes> allows this, turning the lvalue
3060attribute on or off on a Perl subroutine that is already defined
3061does not always work properly. It may or may not do what you
3062want, depending on what code is inside the subroutine, with exact
3063details subject to change between Perl versions. Only do this
3064if you really know what you are doing.
bb3abb05 3065
885ef6f5
GG
3066=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
3067
345d70e3
FC
3068(W misc) Using the C<:lvalue> declarative syntax to make a Perl
3069subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined is
3070not permitted. To make the subroutine an lvalue subroutine,
3071add the lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the C<sub
3072foo :lvalue;> declaration before the definition.
3073
3074See also L<attributes.pm|attributes>.
885ef6f5 3075
6f1b3ab0
FC
3076=item Magical list constants are not supported
3077
3078(F) You assigned a magical array to a stash element, and then tried
3079to use the subroutine from the same slot. You are asking Perl to do
3080something it cannot do, details subject to change between Perl versions.
3081
2db62bbc 3082=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
49704364 3083
2db62bbc 3084(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
WL
3085are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3086
3087=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
3088
2db62bbc 3089(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
WL
3090are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3091
6df41af2
GS
3092=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
3093
3094(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
3095
3096 prefix1;prefix2
3097
3098or
6df41af2
GS
3099 prefix1 prefix2
3100
be771a83
GS
3101with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
3102a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
3103appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 3104"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 3105
2f758a16
ST
3106=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
3107
d37a9538
ST
3108(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
3109syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
3110obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
3111when the function is called.
30d9c59b
Z
3112Perhaps the function's author was trying to write a subroutine signature
3113but didn't enable that feature first (C<use feature 'signatures'>),
3114so the signature was instead interpreted as a bad prototype.
2f758a16 3115
ba210ebe
JH
3116=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
3117
4d6f11e5 3118(S utf8)(F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2575c402 3119encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 3120
2575c402
JW
3121One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
3122you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
6903afa2 31238-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2575c402
JW
3124
3125If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
3126sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
3127set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
3128message.
3129
3130See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 3131
107160e2
KW
3132=item Malformed UTF-8 character immediately after '%s'
3133
3134(F) You said C<use utf8>, but the program file doesn't comply with UTF-8
3135encoding rules. The message prints out the properly encoded characters
3136just before the first bad one. If C<utf8> warnings are enabled, a
3137warning is generated that gives more details about the type of
3138malformation.
3139
bde9e88d 3140=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N{%s} immediately after '%s'
ff3f963a
KW
3141
3142(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
3143
4a5d3a93
FC
3144=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
3145
3146(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
3147rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
3148
f337b084
TH
3149=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
3150
3151(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
3152rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
3153
3154=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
3155
3156(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
3157rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
3158
4a5d3a93 3159=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
f337b084 3160
4a5d3a93
FC
3161(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
3162doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
3163
30d9c59b
Z
3164=item Mandatory parameter follows optional parameter
3165
3166(F) In a subroutine signature, you wrote something like "$a = undef,
3167$b", making an earlier parameter optional and a later one mandatory.
3168Parameters are filled from left to right, so it's impossible for the
3169caller to omit an earlier one and pass a later one. If you want to act
3170as if the parameters are filled from right to left, declare the rightmost
3171optional and then shuffle the parameters around in the subroutine's body.
3172
2d88a86a
KW
3173=item Matched non-Unicode code point 0x%X against Unicode property; may
3174not be portable
3175
3176(S non_unicode) Perl allows strings to contain a superset of
3177Unicode code points; each code point may be as large as what is storable
3178in an unsigned integer on your system, but these may not be accepted by
3179other languages/systems. This message occurs when you matched a string
3180containing such a code point against a regular expression pattern, and
3181the code point was matched against a Unicode property, C<\p{...}> or
3182C<\P{...}>. Unicode properties are only defined on Unicode code points,
3183so the result of this match is undefined by Unicode, but Perl (starting
3184in v5.20) treats non-Unicode code points as if they were typical
3185unassigned Unicode ones, and matched this one accordingly. Whether a
3186given property matches these code points or not is specified in
3187L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>.
3188
3189This message is suppressed (unless it has been made fatal) if it is
3190immaterial to the results of the match if the code point is Unicode or
3191not. For example, the property C<\p{ASCII_Hex_Digit}> only can match
3192the 22 characters C<[0-9A-Fa-f]>, so obviously all other code points,
3193Unicode or not, won't match it. (And C<\P{ASCII_Hex_Digit}> will match
3194every code point except these 22.)
3195
3196Getting this message indicates that the outcome of the match arguably
3197should have been the opposite of what actually happened. If you think
3198that is the case, you may wish to make the C<non_unicode> warnings
3199category fatal; if you agree with Perl's decision, you may wish to turn
3200off this category.
3201
3202See L<perlunicode/Beyond Unicode code points> for more information.
3203
e0e4a6e3
FC
3204=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in
3205m/%s/
4a5d3a93
FC
3206
3207(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
e0e4a6e3 3208regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The S<<-- HERE>
9e3ec65c 3209shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
4a5d3a93 3210See L<perlre>.
f337b084 3211
de42a5a9 3212=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 3213
6903afa2 3214(F) Perl aborted due to too high a number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
3215usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
3216too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
3217resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
6903afa2 3218safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2563cec5 3219
25f58aea
PN
3220=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
3221
3222(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
3223interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
3224"use" or "my".
3225
0d2487cd 3226=item '%' may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
3227
3228(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
3229checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
3230See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 3231
a0d0e21e
LW
3232=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
3233
3234(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 3235doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 3236
3cdd684c
TP
3237=item Method %s not permitted
3238
3239See Server error.
3240
a0d0e21e
LW
3241=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
3242
3243(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
3244by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
3245ended earlier on the current line.
3246
3247=item Misplaced _ in number
3248
d4ced10d
JH
3249(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
3250separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 3251
7baa4690
HS
3252=item Missing argument in %s
3253
3664866e
AB
3254(W missing) You called a function with fewer arguments than other
3255arguments you supplied indicated would be needed.
3256
3257Currently only emitted when a printf-type format required more
3258arguments than were supplied, but might be used in the future for
3259other cases where we can statically determine that arguments to
3260functions are missing, e.g. for the L<perlfunc/pack> function.
7baa4690 3261
9e81e6a1
RGS
3262=item Missing argument to -%c
3263
3264(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
3265immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
3266
ff3f963a 3267=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 3268
e0e4a6e3 3269=item Missing braces on \N{} in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
aec0ef10 3270
4a2d328f 3271(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
532cb70d
FC
3272double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space
3273(or comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
3274This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately
3275follow the C<\N>.
423cee85 3276
f0a2b745
KW
3277=item Missing braces on \o{}
3278
3279(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
3280
a0d0e21e
LW
3281=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
3282
3283(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
3284"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
3285
06eaf0bc
GS
3286=item Missing command in piped open
3287
be771a83
GS
3288(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
3289C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
3290blank.
06eaf0bc 3291
961ce445
RGS
3292=item Missing control char name in \c
3293
3294(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
3295character name.
3296
591f5ca2
FC
3297=item Missing ']' in prototype for %s : %s
3298
bfe11873 3299(W illegalproto) A grouping was started with C<[> but never closed with C<]>.
591f5ca2 3300
8767b1ab 3301=item Missing name in "%s sub"
6df41af2 3302
87444db5 3303(F) The syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
be771a83 3304they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
3305
3306=item Missing $ on loop variable
3307
be771a83
GS
3308(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
3309are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
3310can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 3311
cc507455 3312=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 3313
56da5a46
RGS
3314(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
3315"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 3316
f51551f7
FC
3317=item Missing or undefined argument to require
3318
3319(F) You tried to call require with no argument or with an undefined
3320value as an argument. Require expects either a package name or a
3321file-specification as an argument. See L<perlfunc/require>.
3322
e0e4a6e3 3323=item Missing right brace on \%c{} in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
ab13f0c7 3324
ff3f963a
KW
3325(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
3326
605eee60 3327=item Missing right brace on \N{}
faad849d 3328
4a68bf9d 3329=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 3330
d32207c9
FC
3331(F) C<\N> has two meanings.
3332
3333The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed in braces,
3334meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that
fa816bf3 3335name. Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
d32207c9
FC
3336double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns,
3337it doesn't have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
3338
3339Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only)
3340in patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short
3341for C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
3342
3343This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately
3344by a left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if the braces
3345form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes that this
3346means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
33473; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a
3348C<\N{> and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
3349
3350However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was
3351mistakenly omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and raises this error.
3352If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant the latter,
3353escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 3354
d98d5fff 3355=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 3356
be771a83
GS
3357(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
3358ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing ne