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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
e476b1b5 12 (S) A severe warning (default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
30Default warnings are always enabled unless they are explicitly disabled
31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
6df41af2 53=item Allocation too large: %lx
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
f61d411c 57=item '!' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The '!' is allowed in pack() and unpack() only after certain types.
60See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
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74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or by declaring the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
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88(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
6df41af2 92=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 93
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94(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
95redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
96redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 97
6df41af2 98=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 99
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100(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
101redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
102into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
103though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
104which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 105
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106 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
107 while (<STDIN>) {
108 print;
109 print OUT;
110 }
111 close OUT;
c9f97d15 112
6df41af2 113=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 114
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115(W misc) The pattern match (//), substitution (s///), and
116transliteration (tr///) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
117one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
118a scalar value -- the length of an array, or the population info of a
119hash -- and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
120you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
121alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 122
6df41af2 123=item Args must match #! line
a0d0e21e 124
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125(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
126with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
127impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
128for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 129
6df41af2 130=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 131
6df41af2 132(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 133
8ea97a1e 134=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element
a0d0e21e 135
8ea97a1e 136(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element, such as:
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137
138 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 139 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
a0d0e21e 140
8ea97a1e 141=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 142
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143(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
144such as:
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145
146 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 147 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 148
8ea97a1e 149or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 150
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151 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
152 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 153
6df41af2 154=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 155
6df41af2 156(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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157name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
158error.
a0d0e21e 159
f86702cc 160=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 161
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162(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
163that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
164will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
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165
166=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
167
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168(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
169spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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170
171=item assertion botched: %s
172
173(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
174
175=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
176
177(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
178
179=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
180
181(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
182must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
183know which context to supply to the right side.
184
5243b939 185=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
fe58ced6 186
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187(F) When vec is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
188greater than or equal to zero.
fe58ced6 189
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190=item Attempt to bless into a reference
191
192(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
193the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
194supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
195
196 bless $self, $proto;
197
198when you intended
199
200 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
201
202If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
203of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
204example by:
205
206 bless $self, "$proto";
207
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208=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
209
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210(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
211that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
212outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 213
54310121 214=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 215
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216(P internal) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of
217strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
218strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
219of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 220
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221=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
222
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223(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
224free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
225SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
226free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
227try to free it.
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228
229=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
230
e476b1b5 231(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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232
233=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
234
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235(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
236see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
237earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
238This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
239that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
240mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
241corrupted.
a0d0e21e 242
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243=item Attempt to join self
244
245(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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246impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
247to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 248
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249=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
250
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251(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
252function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
253means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
254invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
255literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
256avoid this warning.
84902520 257
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258=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
259
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260(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
261used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
262dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 263
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264=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
265
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266(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
267or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 268S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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269S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
270
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271=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
272
273(F) You've used the /e switch to evaluate the replacement for a
274substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
275most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
276
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277=item Bad filehandle: %s
278
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279(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
280symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
281open(), or did it in another package.
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282
283=item Bad free() ignored
284
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285(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
286been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 287setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 288
9ea8bc6d 289This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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290dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
291which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 292
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293=item Bad hash
294
295(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
296
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297=item Bad index while coercing array into hash
298
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299(F) The index looked up in the hash found as the 0'th element of a
300pseudo-hash is not legal. Index values must be at 1 or greater.
301See L<perlref>.
57079c46 302
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303=item Badly placed ()'s
304
305(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
306of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
307Perl yourself.
308
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309=item Bad name after %s::
310
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311(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
312didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
313of quotes, so
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314
315 $var = 'myvar';
316 $sym = mypack::$var;
317
318is not the same as
319
320 $var = 'myvar';
321 $sym = "mypack::$var";
322
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323=item Bad realloc() ignored
324
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325(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
326never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
327by setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 328
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329=item Bad symbol for array
330
331(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
332wasn't a symbol table entry.
333
334=item Bad symbol for filehandle
335
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336(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
337that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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338
339=item Bad symbol for hash
340
341(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
342wasn't a symbol table entry.
343
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344=item Bareword found in conditional
345
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346(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
347conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
348of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
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349
350 open FOO || die;
351
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352It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
353a bareword:
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354
355 use constant TYPO => 1;
356 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
357
358The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
359
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360=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
361
362(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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363subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
364symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
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365
366=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
367
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368(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
369compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
370you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 371
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372=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
373
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374(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
375subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
376exited.
a0d0e21e 377
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378=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
379
380(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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381implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
382occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
383be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
384depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 385
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386=item \1 better written as $1
387
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388(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
389The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
390substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
391because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
392there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 393
252aa082
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394=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
395
e476b1b5 396(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
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397(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
398L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 399
69282e91 400=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 401
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402(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
403check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 404
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405=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
406
407(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
408Check you control flow and number of arguments.
409
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410=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
411
e476b1b5 412(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 413
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414=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
415
be771a83 416(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
b45f050a 417copyable.
4633a7c4 418
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419=item B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script
420
421(F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name,
422which provides a race condition that breaks security.
423
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424=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
425
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426(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
427iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
428which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 429
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430=item Callback called exit
431
4929bf7b 432(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
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433exited by calling exit.
434
6df41af2 435=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 436
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437(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
438parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
439that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
440early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
441subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
442checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
443function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
444the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 445
6df41af2 446=item / cannot take a count
a0d0e21e 447
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448(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
449you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
450L<perlfunc/pack>.
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451
452=item Can't bless non-reference value
453
454(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
455encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
456
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457=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
458
459(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
460functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
461in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
462
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463=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
464
465(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
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466object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
467like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
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468
469 $BADREF = undef;
470 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
471 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
472
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473=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
474
54310121 475(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
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476ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
477didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
478object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
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479
480=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
481
482(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
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483object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
484defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
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485Something like this will reproduce the error:
486
487 $BADREF = 42;
488 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
489 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
490
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491=item Can't chdir to %s
492
493(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
494that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
495
0545a864 496=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 497
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498(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
499nosuid.
104d25b7 500
6df41af2
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501=item Can't coerce array into hash
502
503(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
504information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
505only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
506
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507=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
508
509(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 510(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
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511say things like:
512
513 *foo += 1;
514
515You CAN say
516
517 $foo = *foo;
518 $foo += 1;
519
520but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
521
522=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
523
524(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 525(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
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526
527=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
528
529(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 530(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
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531
532=item Can't create pipe mailbox
533
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534(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
535quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 536
eb64745e 537=item Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
a0d0e21e 538
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539(S) Currently, only scalar variables can declared with a specific class
540qualifier in a "my" or "our" declaration. The semantics may be extended
541for other types of variables in future.
542
543=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
544
545(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my" or
546"our" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 547
6df41af2
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548=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
549
be771a83
GS
550(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
551a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 552
a0d0e21e
LW
553=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
554
be771a83
GS
555(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
556reason.
a0d0e21e 557
54310121 558=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 559
be771a83
GS
560(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
561reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
562C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 563
10f9c03d 564=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 565
e476b1b5 566(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
567characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
568inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 569
7253e4e3 570=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 571
b45f050a 572(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
7253e4e3 573regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the
b45f050a 574regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
575
576=item Can't do setegid!
577
be771a83
GS
578(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of
579suidperl.
a0d0e21e
LW
580
581=item Can't do seteuid!
582
583(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
584
585=item Can't do setuid
586
be771a83
GS
587(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to do
588setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the form
589sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides under
590the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines. If the
591file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask your
592sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
a0d0e21e
LW
593
594=item Can't do waitpid with flags
595
be771a83
GS
596(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
597waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 598
a0d0e21e
LW
599=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
600
be771a83
GS
601(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
602point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
603line.
a0d0e21e
LW
604
605=item Can't exec "%s": %s
606
be771a83
GS
607(W exec) An system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
608named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
609permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
610C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
611architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
612can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
613#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
614
615=item Can't exec %s
616
be771a83
GS
617(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
618that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
619need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
620
621=item Can't execute %s
622
be771a83
GS
623(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
624found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 625
6df41af2 626=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 627
be771a83
GS
628(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
629is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 630
56ca2fc0
JH
631=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
632
633(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
634could not be find. Maybe you mispelled the name of the property
635(remember that the names of character properties consist only of
636alphanumeric characters), or maybe you forgot the C<Is> or C<In> prefix?
637
6df41af2
GS
638=item Can't find label %s
639
be771a83
GS
640(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
641possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
642
643=item Can't find %s on PATH
644
be771a83
GS
645(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
646found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 647
6df41af2 648=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 649
be771a83
GS
650(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
651found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
652script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
653
654=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
655
be771a83
GS
656(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
657that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
658nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 659
fb73857a
PP
660 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
661
be771a83
GS
662If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included
663unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good programmer's
664editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e 665
64977eb6 666=item Can't find %s property definition %s
0103b764 667
f91328b7
JH
668(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode property for
669example \p{Lu} is all uppercase letters. Escape the C<\p>, either
670C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, until
671possible C<\E>).
0103b764 672
a0d0e21e
LW
673=item Can't fork
674
be771a83
GS
675(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
676pipeline.
a0d0e21e 677
748a9306
LW
678=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
679
be771a83
GS
680(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
681between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
682Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
683the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
684account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
685the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
686the access checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
687the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
688if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
689because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
690appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up
691and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking
692routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
693shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
694only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 695
a0d0e21e
LW
696=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
697
be771a83
GS
698(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
699pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
700
701=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
702
748a9306
LW
703(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
704mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 705
6df41af2 706=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 707
be771a83
GS
708(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
709loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
710
711=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
712
be771a83
GS
713(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
714a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
715you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
716See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 717
b150fb22
RH
718=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string
719
be771a83
GS
720(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
721"string". (You can use it to jump out of an eval {BLOCK}, but you
722probably don't want to.)
b150fb22 723
6df41af2
GS
724=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
725
be771a83
GS
726(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
727subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
728cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
729routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 730
0b5b802d
GS
731=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
732
be771a83
GS
733(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
734signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
735signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
736processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
737situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
738may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 739
6df41af2 740=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 741
6df41af2 742(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
743except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
744block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
745block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
746usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
747inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
748L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 749
748a9306
LW
750=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
751
2ba9eb46 752(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
748a9306
LW
753lexical variable using "my". This is not allowed. If you want to
754localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
755package name.
756
0ebe0038
SM
757=item Can't localize pseudo-hash element
758
be771a83
GS
759(F) You said something like C<< local $ar->{'key'} >>, where $ar is a
760reference to a pseudo-hash. That hasn't been implemented yet, but you
761can get a similar effect by localizing the corresponding array element
762directly -- C<< local $ar->[$ar->[0]{'key'}] >>.
0ebe0038 763
6df41af2 764=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 765
6df41af2
GS
766(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
767handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 768pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 769that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 770
ec889f3a
GS
771=item Can't locate %s
772
773(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
774found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
775unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
776need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
777the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
778to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
779L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 780
6df41af2
GS
781=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
782
be771a83
GS
783(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
784autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
785are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
786the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 787
a0d0e21e
LW
788=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
789
790(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
791functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 792method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e 793
c1899e02
GS
794=item (perhaps you forgot to load "%s"?)
795
796(F) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
797"Can't locate object method \"%s\" via package \"%s\"". It often means
798that a method requires a package that has not been loaded.
799
a0d0e21e
LW
800=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
801
be771a83
GS
802(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
803doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 804
3e3baf6d
TB
805=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
806
be771a83
GS
807(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
808VMS.
3e3baf6d 809
a0d0e21e
LW
810=item Can't modify %s in %s
811
be771a83
GS
812(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
813to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 814
54310121 815=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
816
817(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
818a NULL.
819
6df41af2
GS
820=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
821
822(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
823such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
824
5f05dabc 825=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 826
5f05dabc 827(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
828buffer.
829
6df41af2
GS
830=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
831
832(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
833there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
834count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
835grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
836though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
837once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 838
a0d0e21e
LW
839=item Can't open %s: %s
840
c47ff5f1 841(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
842filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
843switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
844is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
845the command line.
a0d0e21e
LW
846
847=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
848
be771a83
GS
849(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
850You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
851as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
852">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 853
748a9306
LW
854=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
855
be771a83
GS
856(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
857redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
858the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
859
860=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
861
be771a83
GS
862(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
863redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
864command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
865
866=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
867
be771a83
GS
868(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
869redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
870the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
871
872=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
873
be771a83
GS
874(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
875redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
876for stdout.
748a9306 877
584d69ec 878=item Can't open perl script%s: %s
a0d0e21e
LW
879
880(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
881
6df41af2
GS
882=item Can't read CRTL environ
883
884(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
885from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
886missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
887or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
888searched.
6df41af2 889
7bac28a0
PP
890=item Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s
891
892(F) Perl optimizes the internal handling of sort subroutines and keeps
be771a83
GS
893pointers into them. You tried to redefine one such sort subroutine when
894it was currently active, which is not allowed. If you really want to do
7bac28a0
PP
895this, you should write C<sort { &func } @x> instead of C<sort func @x>.
896
6df41af2
GS
897=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
898
899(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
900there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
901count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
902or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
903though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
904loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
905
64977eb6 906=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 907
be771a83
GS
908(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
909file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
910the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 911
a0d0e21e
LW
912=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
913
e476b1b5 914(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 915probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 916
748a9306
LW
917=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
918
be771a83
GS
919(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
920to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 921
6df41af2
GS
922=item Can't resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
923
be771a83
GS
924(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
925to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
926method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 927
a0d0e21e
LW
928=item Can't reswap uid and euid
929
be771a83
GS
930(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of
931suidperl.
a0d0e21e 932
cd06dffe
GS
933=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
934
be771a83
GS
935(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
936temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
937is not allowed.
cd06dffe 938
78f9721b
SM
939=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
940
941(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
942but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
943to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
944the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
945list context.
946
6df41af2
GS
947=item Can't return outside a subroutine
948
949(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
950there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
951
a0d0e21e
LW
952=item Can't stat script "%s"
953
be771a83
GS
954(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
955open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e
LW
956
957=item Can't swap uid and euid
958
be771a83
GS
959(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of
960suidperl.
a0d0e21e
LW
961
962=item Can't take log of %g
963
fb73857a
PP
964(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
965negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
966standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
967negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
968
969=item Can't take sqrt of %g
970
971(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
972negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
973with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
974
975=item Can't undef active subroutine
976
977(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
978however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
979redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
980
981=item Can't unshift
982
983(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
984as the main Perl stack.
985
986=item Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
987
be771a83
GS
988(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
989into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
990specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
991indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e
LW
992
993=item Can't upgrade to undef
994
be771a83
GS
995(P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme of
996upgradability. Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the code
997calling sv_upgrade.
a0d0e21e 998
6df41af2
GS
999=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1000
1001(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1002be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1003
1db89ea5
BS
1004=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1005
1006(P) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1007table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1008for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1009
6df41af2
GS
1010=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1011
be771a83
GS
1012(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1013references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1014
90b75b61 1015=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1016
1017(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1018Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1019provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1020
6df41af2
GS
1021=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1022
be771a83
GS
1023(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1024foreach.
6df41af2
GS
1025
1026=item Can't use global %s in "my"
1027
be771a83
GS
1028(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1029is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1030(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1031have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1032weren't.
1033
c07a80fd
PP
1034=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1035
1036(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1037You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1038and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1039Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1040lexical variable.
1041
a0d0e21e
LW
1042=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1043
1044(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1045reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1046test the type of the reference, if need be.
1047
748a9306 1048=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1049
be771a83
GS
1050(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1051references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1052
748a9306
LW
1053=item Can't use subscript on %s
1054
1055(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1056subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
1057didn't look like an array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
1058
6df41af2
GS
1059=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1060
75b44862
GS
1061(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1062creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1063backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1064expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1065value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1066instead.
6df41af2 1067
810b8aa5
GS
1068=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1069
1070(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1071references can be weakened.
1072
5f05dabc 1073=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1074
be771a83
GS
1075(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1076with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1077Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1078
5a211162 1079=item chmod() mode argument is missing initial 0
a0d0e21e 1080
e476b1b5 1081(W chmod) A novice will sometimes say
a0d0e21e
LW
1082
1083 chmod 777, $filename
1084
be771a83
GS
1085not realizing that 777 will be interpreted as a decimal number,
1086equivalent to 01411. Octal constants are introduced with a leading 0 in
1087Perl, as in C.
a0d0e21e 1088
9ddeeac9 1089=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 1090
e476b1b5 1091(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
a0d0e21e 1092
6df41af2
GS
1093=item %s: Command not found
1094
be771a83
GS
1095(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1096Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1097
7a2e2cd6
PP
1098=item Compilation failed in require
1099
1100(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1101Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1102encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1103
c3464db5
DD
1104=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1105
be771a83
GS
1106(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1107situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1108to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1109arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1110recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1111under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1112in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1113that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1114on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1115
69282e91 1116=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1117
be771a83
GS
1118(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1119to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1120L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1121
41ab332f 1122=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1123
be771a83
GS
1124(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1125an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1126specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1127corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1128L<overload>.
6df41af2 1129
779c5bc9
GS
1130=item Constant is not %s reference
1131
1132(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1133is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1134The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1135usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1136See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1137
4cee8e80
CS
1138=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1139
be771a83
GS
1140(S|W redefine) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
1141eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1142commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1143
9607fc9c
PP
1144=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1145
be771a83
GS
1146(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1147for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1148workarounds.
9607fc9c 1149
e7ea3e70
IZ
1150=item Copy method did not return a reference
1151
64977eb6 1152(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1153L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1154
6798c92b
GS
1155=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1156
1157(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1158
a0d0e21e
LW
1159=item corrupted regexp pointers
1160
1161(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1162expression compiler gave it.
1163
1164=item corrupted regexp program
1165
be771a83
GS
1166(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1167valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1168
6df41af2
GS
1169=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1170
1171(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1172
1173=item C<-p> destination: %s
1174
1175(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
1176command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
1177redirected it with select().)
1178
1179=item C<-T> and C<-B> not implemented on filehandles
1180
1181(F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it doesn't
1182know about your kind of stdio. You'll have to use a filename instead.
1183
a0d0e21e
LW
1184=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1185
be771a83
GS
1186(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1187100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1188infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1189which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1190
f10b0346 1191=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1192
be771a83
GS
1193(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1194checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1195array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1196
f10b0346 1197=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1198
be771a83
GS
1199(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it
1200checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash
64977eb6 1201is empty, just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1202
fc36a67e
PP
1203=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1204
be771a83
GS
1205(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1206long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1207that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1208
3cdd684c
TP
1209=item Did not produce a valid header
1210
1211See Server error.
1212
6df41af2
GS
1213=item %s did not return a true value
1214
1215(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1216it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1217traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1218do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1219
cc507455 1220=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1221
be771a83
GS
1222(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some
1223such.
4633a7c4 1224
cc507455 1225=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1226
be771a83
GS
1227(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1228variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1229seems superfluous.
33633739 1230
cc507455 1231=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1232
be771a83
GS
1233(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1234@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1235carried away.
748a9306 1236
7e1af8bc 1237=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1238
1239(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1240you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1241
3cdd684c
TP
1242=item Document contains no data
1243
1244See Server error.
1245
a0d0e21e
LW
1246=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1247
1248(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1249
1250=item do_study: out of memory
1251
1252(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1253
6df41af2
GS
1254=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1255
1256(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1257found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
1258name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1259because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1260"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1261something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1262subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1263"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1264
a0d0e21e
LW
1265=item Duplicate free() ignored
1266
be771a83
GS
1267(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1268already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1269
4633a7c4
LW
1270=item elseif should be elsif
1271
be771a83
GS
1272(S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's ugly.
1273Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
1274"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1275unlikely to be what you want.
1276
85ab1d1d 1277=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1278
85ab1d1d 1279(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1280effective uids or gids failed.
1281
748a9306
LW
1282=item Error converting file specification %s
1283
5f05dabc 1284(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1285specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1286single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1287an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1288conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1289
e4d48cc9
GS
1290=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1291
be771a83
GS
1292(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1293expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1294is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1295
e4d48cc9
GS
1296=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time
1297
be771a83
GS
1298(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1299C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
1300pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it
1301is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly
1302building the pattern from an interpolated string at run time and using
1303that in an eval(). See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1304
6df41af2
GS
1305=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1306
be771a83
GS
1307(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1308assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1309pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1310
fc36a67e
PP
1311=item Excessively long <> operator
1312
1313(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1314Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1315filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1316variable and glob that.
1317
f86702cc 1318=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
1319
1320(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1321
1322=item Exiting eval via %s
1323
be771a83
GS
1324(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1325goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1326
1327=item Exiting format via %s
1328
be771a83
GS
1329(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1330goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1331
0a753a76
PP
1332=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1333
be771a83
GS
1334(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1335sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1336loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1337
a0d0e21e
LW
1338=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1339
be771a83
GS
1340(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1341as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1342
1343=item Exiting substitution via %s
1344
be771a83
GS
1345(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1346as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1347
7b8d334a
GS
1348=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1349
be771a83
GS
1350(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1351the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1352usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1353e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1354
6df41af2
GS
1355=item %s: Expression syntax
1356
be771a83
GS
1357(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1358Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1359
1360=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1361
1362(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a CHECK, INIT, or
1363END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the queue of such
1364routines has been prematurely ended.
1365
7253e4e3 1366=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1367
be771a83 1368(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1369character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1370in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1371"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1372problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1373
748a9306 1374=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1375
be771a83
GS
1376(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1377system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1378details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1379you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1380
1381=item fcntl is not implemented
1382
1383(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1384PDP-11 or something?
1385
af8c498a 1386=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1387
be771a83
GS
1388(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended it
1389to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or "+>"
1390or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to write
1391the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1392
af8c498a 1393=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1394
be771a83
GS
1395(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing. If
1396you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
1397with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you
1398intended only to read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1399
1400=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1401
1402(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1403a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1404happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1405name.
a0d0e21e
LW
1406
1407=item Final @ should be \@ or @name
1408
1409(F) You must now decide whether the final @ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1410a literal "at" sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1411happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1412name.
a0d0e21e 1413
56e90b21
GS
1414=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1415
be771a83 1416(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1417some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1418filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1419same name?
56e90b21 1420
7253e4e3 1421=item Quantifier follows nothing in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2 1422
b45f050a 1423(F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it if you
7253e4e3
RK
1424meant it literally. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about
1425where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2
GS
1426
1427=item Format not terminated
1428
1429(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1430to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1431
a0d0e21e
LW
1432=item Format %s redefined
1433
e476b1b5 1434(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1435
1436 {
4438c4b7 1437 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
1438 eval "format NAME =...";
1439 }
1440
a0d0e21e
LW
1441=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1442
e476b1b5 1443(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1444
1445 if ($foo = 123)
1446
1447when you meant
1448
1449 if ($foo == 123)
1450
1451(or something like that).
1452
6df41af2
GS
1453=item %s found where operator expected
1454
1455(S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator. If it
be771a83
GS
1456sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
1457operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1458operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1459
a0d0e21e
LW
1460=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1461
1462(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1463
1464=item gethostent not implemented
1465
1466(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1467because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1468on the Internet.
1469
69282e91 1470=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1471
be771a83
GS
1472(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1473socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1474
748a9306
LW
1475=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1476
1477(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1478C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1479
6df41af2
GS
1480=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1481
be771a83
GS
1482(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1483forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1484L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1485
1486=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1487
1488(F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables
1489must either be lexically scoped (using "my"), declared beforehand using
1490"our", or explicitly qualified to say which package the global variable
1491is in (using "::").
1492
e476b1b5
GS
1493=item glob failed (%s)
1494
be771a83
GS
1495(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1496C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1497C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1498nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1499resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1500broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1501config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1502were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1503empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1504think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1505C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1506
a0d0e21e
LW
1507=item Glob not terminated
1508
1509(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1510a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1511not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1512earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1513
6df41af2 1514=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1515
6df41af2
GS
1516(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1517version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1518
1519=item goto must have label
1520
1521(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1522unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1523
6df41af2
GS
1524=item %s had compilation errors
1525
1526(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
1527
a0d0e21e
LW
1528=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1529
be771a83
GS
1530(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
1531to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
1532created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
1533
1534=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1535
be771a83
GS
1536(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
1537spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 1538
6df41af2
GS
1539=item %s has too many errors
1540
1541(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
1542Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
1543
252aa082
JH
1544=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
1545
e476b1b5 1546(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
1547(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
1548L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 1549
8903cb82
PP
1550=item Identifier too long
1551
1552(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 1553about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
1554names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
1555of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1556
6df41af2 1557=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 1558
6df41af2 1559(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 1560
6df41af2 1561=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 1562
be771a83
GS
1563(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
1564binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
1565offending digit.
a0d0e21e 1566
4fdae800
PP
1567=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1568
d5898338 1569(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
1570would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
1571when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
1572version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
1573to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 1574
a0d0e21e
LW
1575=item Illegal division by zero
1576
be771a83
GS
1577(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
1578your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
1579meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 1580
6df41af2
GS
1581=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
1582
be771a83
GS
1583(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
1584A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
1585number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 1586
a0d0e21e
LW
1587=item Illegal modulus zero
1588
be771a83
GS
1589(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
1590numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 1591
6df41af2 1592=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 1593
6df41af2
GS
1594(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
1595two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
1596
1597=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1598
1599(F) You used an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1600
399388f4 1601=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 1602
75b44862
GS
1603(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1604Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 1605
6df41af2 1606=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
6ff81951 1607
6df41af2
GS
1608(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
1609following switches: B<-[DIMUdmw]>.
6ff81951 1610
6df41af2 1611=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 1612
75b44862 1613(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
1614internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
1615delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 1616
6df41af2 1617=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 1618
be771a83
GS
1619(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
1620name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
1621didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
1622ignored.
54310121 1623
6df41af2 1624=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 1625
be771a83
GS
1626(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
1627the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
1628system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
1629times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
1630would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 1631
be771a83
GS
1632Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
1633also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 1634
a0d0e21e
LW
1635=item Insecure dependency in %s
1636
8b1a09fc 1637(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
1638The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
1639setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
1640tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
1641from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
1642such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
1643L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
1644
1645=item Insecure directory in %s
1646
be771a83
GS
1647(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
1648setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
1649the world. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 1650
62f468fc 1651=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1652
1653(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc
G
1654setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
1655C<$ENV{ENV}> or C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> are derived from data supplied (or
a0d0e21e
LW
1656potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set the path to a
1657known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
1658
a7ae9550
GS
1659=item Integer overflow in %s number
1660
75b44862 1661(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
1662either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
1663your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
1664On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
1665representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
16660b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
1667transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
1668internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
1669operations.
bbce6d69 1670
7253e4e3 1671=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
1672
1673(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 1674The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
1675discovered.
1676
6df41af2 1677
748a9306
LW
1678=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
1679
be771a83
GS
1680(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
1681you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
1682to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
1683L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
1684Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
1685terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 1686
7253e4e3 1687=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 1688
7253e4e3
RK
1689(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
1690<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1691discovered.
a0d0e21e 1692
a0d0e21e 1693
6df41af2
GS
1694=item %s (...) interpreted as function
1695
75b44862 1696(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 1697followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 1698operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 1699L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 1700
09bef843
SB
1701=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
1702
1703The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
1704by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
1705
1706=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
1707
be771a83
GS
1708The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
1709recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 1710
c635e13b
PP
1711=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
1712
be771a83
GS
1713(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
1714L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 1715
7253e4e3 1716=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
1717
1718(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
1719greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
1720C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
1721up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1722problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 1723
7253e4e3 1724=item Invalid [] range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
1725
1726(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
1727character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
1728
09bef843
SB
1729=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
1730
0120eecf 1731(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
1732elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
1733parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
1734See L<attributes>.
09bef843 1735
96e4d5b1
PP
1736=item Invalid type in pack: '%s'
1737
8903cb82 1738(F) The given character is not a valid pack type. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
be771a83
GS
1739(W pack) The given character is not a valid pack type but used to be
1740silently ignored.
96e4d5b1
PP
1741
1742=item Invalid type in unpack: '%s'
1743
be771a83
GS
1744(F) The given character is not a valid unpack type. See
1745L<perlfunc/unpack>.
75b44862
GS
1746(W unpack) The given character is not a valid unpack type but used to be
1747silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 1748
a0d0e21e
LW
1749=item ioctl is not implemented
1750
1751(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
1752strange for a machine that supports C.
1753
c289d2f7
JH
1754=item ioctl() on unopened %s
1755
1756(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
1757Check you control flow and number of arguments.
1758
80cbd5ad
JH
1759=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
1760
1761(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
1762neither as a system call or an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
1763
6ad11d81
JH
1764=item `%s' is not a code reference
1765
1766(W) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant needs
1767to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
1768to a subroutine.
1769
1770=item `%s' is not an overloadable type
1771
1772(W) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is unaware of.
1773
a0d0e21e
LW
1774=item junk on end of regexp
1775
1776(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
1777
1778=item Label not found for "last %s"
1779
be771a83
GS
1780(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
1781of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1782L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1783
1784=item Label not found for "next %s"
1785
1786(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
1787that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1788L<perlfunc/last>.
1789
1790=item Label not found for "redo %s"
1791
1792(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
1793that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1794L<perlfunc/last>.
1795
85ab1d1d 1796=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1797
85ab1d1d 1798(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1799effective uids or gids failed.
1800
69282e91 1801=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1802
be771a83
GS
1803(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
1804to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1805L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 1806
9d837945
TM
1807=item lstat() on filehandle %s
1808
1809(W io) You tried to do a lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
1810by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
1811instead on the filehandle.)
1812
cd06dffe
GS
1813=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
1814
1815(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
be771a83
GS
1816values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context. See
1817L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
cd06dffe 1818
7253e4e3 1819=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
1820
1821(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
7253e4e3
RK
1822handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release. The <-- HERE
1823shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2e50fd82 1824
6df41af2
GS
1825=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
1826
1827(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
1828
1829 prefix1;prefix2
1830
1831or
1832
1833 prefix1 prefix2
1834
be771a83
GS
1835with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
1836a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
1837appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 1838"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 1839
ba210ebe
JH
1840=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
1841
1842Perl detected something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding rules.
1843
dea0fc0b
JH
1844=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
1845
1846Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
1847doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
1848
7253e4e3 1849=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
1850
1851(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
7253e4e3
RK
1852regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
1853shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
1854See L<perlre>.
6df41af2
GS
1855
1856=item % may only be used in unpack
1857
1858(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
1859checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
1860See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 1861
a0d0e21e
LW
1862=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
1863
1864(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 1865doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 1866
3cdd684c
TP
1867=item Method %s not permitted
1868
1869See Server error.
1870
a0d0e21e
LW
1871=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
1872
1873(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
1874by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
1875ended earlier on the current line.
1876
1877=item Misplaced _ in number
1878
d4ced10d
JH
1879(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
1880separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 1881
4a2d328f 1882=item Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}
423cee85 1883
4a2d328f 1884(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
423cee85
JH
1885double-quotish context.
1886
a0d0e21e
LW
1887=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
1888
1889(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
1890"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
1891
06eaf0bc
GS
1892=item Missing command in piped open
1893
be771a83
GS
1894(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
1895C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
1896blank.
06eaf0bc 1897
6df41af2
GS
1898=item Missing name in "my sub"
1899
be771a83
GS
1900(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
1901they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
1902
1903=item Missing $ on loop variable
1904
be771a83
GS
1905(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
1906are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
1907can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 1908
cc507455 1909=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306
LW
1910
1911(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1912found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
1913
d98d5fff 1914=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 1915
be771a83
GS
1916(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
1917ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
1918were last editing.
a0d0e21e 1919
6df41af2
GS
1920=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
1921
1922(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1923found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
1924the previous line just because you saw this message.
1925
a0d0e21e
LW
1926=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
1927
1928(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 1929constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
1930catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
1931
1932 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
1933 mod(2);
1934
1935Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
1936
c5674021
PDF
1937Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
1938is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
1939
1940 $x = 1;
1941 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
1942 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 1943 }
c5674021 1944
7a4340ed 1945=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1946
1947(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
1948subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
1949backwards.
1950
7a4340ed 1951=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 1952
be771a83
GS
1953(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
1954couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
1955
1956=item Module name must be constant
1957
1958(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
1959
be98fb35 1960=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 1961
be98fb35
GS
1962(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
1963you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
1964about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 1965
a0d0e21e
LW
1966=item msg%s not implemented
1967
1968(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
1969
1970=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
1971
75b44862
GS
1972(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
1973They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 1974
6df41af2 1975=item / must be followed by a*, A* or Z*
09bef843 1976
6df41af2 1977(F) You had a pack template indicating a counted-length string,
be771a83
GS
1978Currently the only things that can have their length counted are a*, A*
1979or Z*. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
1980
1981=item / must be followed by a, A or Z
1982
be771a83
GS
1983(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, which
1984must be followed by one of the letters a, A or Z to indicate what sort
1985of string is to be unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
1986
1987=item / must follow a numeric type
1988
be771a83
GS
1989(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '#', but this did not
1990follow some numeric unpack specification. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
1991
1992=item "my sub" not yet implemented
1993
be771a83
GS
1994(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
1995that yet.
6df41af2
GS
1996
1997=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
1998
be771a83
GS
1999(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2000sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2001local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2002
8b1a09fc
PP
2003=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2004
e476b1b5 2005(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
be771a83
GS
2006If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2007again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
77ca0c92 2008provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e
LW
2009
2010=item Negative length
2011
be771a83
GS
2012(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2013length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2014
7253e4e3 2015=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2016
b45f050a 2017(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
7253e4e3 2018things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2019expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2020
7253e4e3 2021Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2022C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2023
6df41af2 2024=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2025
be771a83
GS
2026(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2027scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e
LW
2028
2029=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2030
be771a83
GS
2031(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2032setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2033will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2034securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2035
2036=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
2037
2038(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
2039
2040=item No comma allowed after %s
2041
2042(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2043allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2044Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2045
0a753a76
PP
2046One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2047constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2048importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2049does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
2050explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
2051L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2052would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2053remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2054constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2055list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2056this error was triggered?
2057
748a9306
LW
2058=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2059
be771a83
GS
2060(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2061redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2062doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2063
a0d0e21e
LW
2064=item No DB::DB routine defined
2065
be771a83
GS
2066(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2067for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof) didn't
2068define a routine to be called at the beginning of each statement. Which
2069is odd, because the file should have been required automatically, and
2070should have blown up the require if it didn't parse right.
a0d0e21e
LW
2071
2072=item No dbm on this machine
2073
2074(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2075supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2076
2077=item No DBsub routine
2078
2079(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
2080but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
2081didn't define a DB::sub routine to be called at the beginning of each
2082ordinary subroutine call.
2083
c47ff5f1 2084=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2085
be771a83
GS
2086(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2087redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2088find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2089
c47ff5f1 2090=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2091
be771a83
GS
2092(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2093redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2094name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2095
6df41af2
GS
2096=item No #! line
2097
2098(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2099even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
2100
2101=item "no" not allowed in expression
2102
be771a83
GS
2103(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2104returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2105
c47ff5f1 2106=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2107
be771a83
GS
2108(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2109redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2110doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2111
c47ff5f1 2112=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2113
be771a83
GS
2114(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2115redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2116find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2117
1ec3e8de
GS
2118=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2119
be771a83
GS
2120(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2121declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2122semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2123
a0d0e21e
LW
2124=item No Perl script found in input
2125
2126(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2127with #! and containing the word "perl".
2128
2129=item No setregid available
2130
2131(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2132your system.
2133
2134=item No setreuid available
2135
2136(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2137your system.
2138
a67e862a 2139=item No space allowed after -%c
a0d0e21e 2140
be771a83
GS
2141(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2142immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
a0d0e21e 2143
6df41af2
GS
2144=item No %s specified for -%c
2145
2146(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
2147you haven't specified one.
2148
2149=item No such pipe open
2150
2151(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
2152close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
2153earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 2154
88e9b055 2155=item No such pseudo-hash field "%s"
57079c46 2156
88e9b055 2157(F) You tried to access an array as a hash, but the field name used is
57079c46
GA
2158not defined. The hash at index 0 should map all valid field names to
2159array indices for that to work.
2160
88e9b055 2161=item No such pseudo-hash field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
f1192cee 2162
be771a83
GS
2163(F) You tried to access a field of a typed variable where the type does
2164not know about the field name. The field names are looked up in the
2165%FIELDS hash in the type package at compile time. The %FIELDS hash is
2166%usually set up with the 'fields' pragma.
f1192cee 2167
a0d0e21e
LW
2168=item No such signal: SIG%s
2169
be771a83
GS
2170(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
2171not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
2172names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
2173
2174=item Not a CODE reference
2175
2176(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2177subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2178use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2179also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2180
2181=item Not a format reference
2182
2183(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
2184format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
2185
2186=item Not a GLOB reference
2187
be771a83
GS
2188(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
2189symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
2190something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
2191kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2192
2193=item Not a HASH reference
2194
be771a83
GS
2195(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
2196reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
2197find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2198
6df41af2
GS
2199=item Not an ARRAY reference
2200
be771a83
GS
2201(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
2202a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2203to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 2204
a0d0e21e
LW
2205=item Not a perl script
2206
2207(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2208even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
2209mention perl.
2210
2211=item Not a SCALAR reference
2212
be771a83
GS
2213(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
2214a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2215to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2216
2217=item Not a subroutine reference
2218
2219(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2220subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2221use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2222also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2223
e7ea3e70 2224=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
2225
2226(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 2227doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2228
a0d0e21e
LW
2229=item Not enough arguments for %s
2230
2231(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
2232
6df41af2
GS
2233=item Not enough format arguments
2234
be771a83
GS
2235(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
2236supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
2237
2238=item %s: not found
2239
be771a83
GS
2240(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
2241of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
2242yourself.
6df41af2
GS
2243
2244=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 2245
6df41af2
GS
2246(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
2247timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
2248to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
2249F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
2250need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2251
2252=item Null filename used
2253
be771a83
GS
2254(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
2255machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 2256
6df41af2
GS
2257=item NULL OP IN RUN
2258
be771a83
GS
2259(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
2260pointer.
6df41af2 2261
55497cff
PP
2262=item Null picture in formline
2263
2264(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
2265specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
2266supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
2267
a0d0e21e
LW
2268=item Null realloc
2269
2270(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
2271
2272=item NULL regexp argument
2273
5f05dabc 2274(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2275
2276=item NULL regexp parameter
2277
2278(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
2279
fc36a67e
PP
2280=item Number too long
2281
be771a83
GS
2282(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
2283about about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
2284versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
2285the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
2286"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 2287
6df41af2
GS
2288=item Octal number in vector unsupported
2289
be771a83
GS
2290(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
2291The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
2292future version.
6df41af2 2293
252aa082
JH
2294=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
2295
75b44862 2296(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
2297(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2298L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
2299
2300See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
2301
6ad11d81
JH
2302=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
2303
2304(W) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of arguments.
2305The arguments should come in pairs.
2306
1930e939 2307=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 2308
be771a83
GS
2309(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
2310which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 2311
bbce6d69
PP
2312=item Offset outside string
2313
2314(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
be771a83
GS
2315pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to imagine. The sole
2316exception to this is that C<sysread()>ing past the buffer will extend
2317the buffer and zero pad the new area.
bbce6d69 2318
9ddeeac9
JH
2319=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
2320
2321(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
c289d2f7 2322that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
9ddeeac9 2323
c289d2f7 2324=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
2325
2326(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
2327never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
2328call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
2329
a0d0e21e
LW
2330=item oops: oopsAV
2331
e476b1b5 2332(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
2333
2334=item oops: oopsHV
2335
e476b1b5 2336(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 2337
56f7f34b 2338=item Operation `%s': no method found, %s
44a8e56a 2339
be771a83
GS
2340(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
2341handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
2342of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
2343C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 2344
748a9306
LW
2345=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
2346
be771a83
GS
2347(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
2348was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
2349use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
2350example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
2351"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 2352
6df41af2
GS
2353=item "our" variable %s redeclared
2354
be771a83
GS
2355(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
2356in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 2357
a80b8354
GS
2358=item Out of memory!
2359
2360(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
2361remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
2362no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 2363
6df41af2 2364=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 2365
6df41af2
GS
2366(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
2367remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
2368the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
2369possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 2370
1b979e0a 2371=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 2372
be771a83
GS
2373(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
2374insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
2375request.
eff9c6e2
CS
2376
2377The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
2378depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
2379However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
2380emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
b022d2d2
IZ
2381is trappable I<once>, and the error message will include the line and file
2382where the failed request happened.
55497cff 2383
1b979e0a
IZ
2384=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
2385
2386(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
2387is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
2388C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 2389
6df41af2
GS
2390=item Out of memory for yacc stack
2391
be771a83
GS
2392(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
2393parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
2394otherwise.
6df41af2
GS
2395
2396=item @ outside of string
2397
2398(F) You had a pack template that specified an absolute position outside
2399the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2400
2401=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
2402
be771a83
GS
2403(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a
2404package-specific handler. That name might have a meaning to Perl itself
2405some day, even though it doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a
2406mixed-case attribute name, instead. See L<attributes>.
6df41af2 2407
a0d0e21e
LW
2408=item page overflow
2409
be771a83
GS
2410(W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a
2411page. See L<perlform>.
a0d0e21e 2412
6df41af2
GS
2413=item panic: %s
2414
2415(P) An internal error.
2416
a0d0e21e
LW
2417=item panic: ck_grep
2418
2419(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
2420
2421=item panic: ck_split
2422
2423(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
2424
2425=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
2426
be771a83
GS
2427(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than
2428there are in the savestack.
a0d0e21e 2429
810b8aa5
GS
2430=item panic: del_backref
2431
2432(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
2433reference.
2434
a0d0e21e
LW
2435=item panic: die %s
2436
2437(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
2438it wasn't an eval context.
2439
2269b42e 2440=item panic: pp_match
a0d0e21e 2441
be771a83
GS
2442(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational
2443data.
a0d0e21e 2444
a0d0e21e
LW
2445=item panic: do_subst
2446
be771a83
GS
2447(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational
2448data.
a0d0e21e 2449
2269b42e 2450=item panic: do_trans_%s
a0d0e21e 2451
2269b42e 2452(P) The internal do_trans routines were called with invalid operational
be771a83 2453data.
a0d0e21e 2454
c635e13b
PP
2455=item panic: frexp
2456
2457(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
2458
a0d0e21e
LW
2459=item panic: goto
2460
2461(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
2462and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
2463
2464=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
2465
2466(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
2467
2468=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
2469
2470(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
2471
e446cec8
IZ
2472=item panic: kid popen errno read
2473
2474(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
2475
a0d0e21e
LW
2476=item panic: last
2477
2478(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
2479it wasn't a block context.
2480
2481=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
2482
be771a83
GS
2483(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the
2484scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
2485
2486=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
2487
2488(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
2489invalid enum on the top of it.
2490
810b8aa5
GS
2491=item panic: magic_killbackrefs
2492
2493(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak
2494references to an object.
2495
6df41af2
GS
2496=item panic: malloc
2497
2498(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
2499
a0d0e21e
LW
2500=item panic: mapstart
2501
2502(P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.
2503
2504=item panic: null array
2505
2506(P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.
2507
2508=item panic: pad_alloc
2509
2510(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2511and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2512
2513=item panic: pad_free curpad
2514
2515(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2516and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2517
2518=item panic: pad_free po
2519
2520(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2521
2522=item panic: pad_reset curpad
2523
2524(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2525and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2526
2527=item panic: pad_sv po
2528
2529(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2530
2531=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
2532
2533(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2534and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2535
2536=item panic: pad_swipe po
2537
2538(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2539
2540=item panic: pp_iter
2541
2542(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
2543
2269b42e
JH
2544=item panic: pp_split
2545
2546(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
2547
a0d0e21e
LW
2548=item panic: realloc
2549
2550(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
2551
2552=item panic: restartop
2553
2554(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
2555didn't supply the destination.
2556
2557=item panic: return
2558
2559(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
2560then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
2561
2562=item panic: scan_num
2563
2564(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
2565
2566=item panic: sv_insert
2567
2568(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
2569was string.
2570
2571=item panic: top_env
2572
6224f72b 2573(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
a0d0e21e
LW
2574
2575=item panic: yylex
2576
2577(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
2578
dea0fc0b
JH
2579=item panic: utf16_to_utf8: odd bytelen
2580
2581(P) Something tried to call utf16_to_utf8 with an odd (as opposed
64977eb6 2582to even) byte length.
dea0fc0b 2583
7b8d334a 2584=item Parentheses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e 2585
e476b1b5 2586(W parenthesis) You said something like
a0d0e21e
LW
2587
2588 my $foo, $bar = @_;
2589
2590when you meant
2591
2592 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
2593
54884818 2594Remember that "my", "our", and "local" bind tighter than comma.
a0d0e21e 2595
75b44862 2596=item Perl %s required--this is only version %s, stopped
a0d0e21e 2597
be771a83
GS
2598(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more
2599recent than the currently running version. How long has it been since
2600you upgraded, anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 2601
6df41af2
GS
2602=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
2603
2604(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
fecfaeb8 2605C<sh>-shell in. See "PERL_SH_DIR" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2
GS
2606
2607=item perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
2608
2609(S) The whole warning message will look something like:
2610
2611 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
2612 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
2613 LC_ALL = "En_US",
2614 LANG = (unset)
2615 are supported and installed on your system.
2616 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
2617
2618Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies. In the above the
2619settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.
0ea6b70f
JH
2620This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your operating
2621system supplier and/or system administrator have set up the so-called
2622locale system but Perl could not use those settings. This was not
2623dead serious, fortunately: there is a "default locale" called "C" that
2624Perl can and will use, the script will be run. Before you really fix
2625the problem, however, you will get the same error message each time
2626you run Perl. How to really fix the problem can be found in
2627L<perllocale> section B<LOCALE PROBLEMS>.
6df41af2 2628
bccbfa77
NC
2629=item perlio: argument list not closed for layer "%s"
2630
64977eb6 2631(S) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you forgot
bccbfa77 2632the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
64977eb6
NC
2633data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
2634the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
2635If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
2636the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
2637
2638=item perlio: invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2639
2640(S) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other than a
2641colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of an layer list.
2642If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2643list was terminated too soon.
bccbfa77 2644
ef0f9817
DD
2645=item perlio: unknown layer "%s"
2646
2647(S) An attempt was made to push an unknown layer onto the Perl I/O
2648system. (Layers take care of transforming data between external and
2649internal representations.) Note that some layers, such as C<mmap>,
2650are not supported in all environments. If your program didn't
2651explicitly request the failing operation, it may be the result of the
2652value of the environment variable PERLIO.
2653
a0d0e21e
LW
2654=item Permission denied
2655
2656(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
2657
bd3fa61c 2658=item pid %x not a child
748a9306 2659
be771a83
GS
2660(W exec) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a
2661process which isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is
2662fine from VMS' perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
748a9306 2663
7253e4e3 2664=item POSIX syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2665
2666(W unsafe) The character class constructs [: :], [= =], and [. .] go
7253e4e3
RK
2667I<inside> character classes, the [] are part of the construct, for example:
2668/[012[:alpha:]345]/. Note that [= =] and [. .] are not currently
2669implemented; they are simply placeholders for future extensions and will
2670cause fatal errors. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about
2671where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 2672
7253e4e3 2673=item POSIX syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2674
2675(F regexp) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
7253e4e3
RK
2676beginning with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future extensions.
2677If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
2678expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
2679backslash: "\[." and ".\]". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression
2680about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 2681
7253e4e3 2682=item POSIX syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2683
7253e4e3
RK
2684(F) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
2685with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future extensions. If you
2686need to represent those character sequences inside a regular expression
2687character class, just quote the square brackets with the backslash: "\[="
2688and "=\]". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2689problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 2690
7253e4e3 2691=item POSIX class [:%s:] unknown in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2692
7253e4e3
RK
2693(F) The class in the character class [: :] syntax is unknown. The <-- HERE
2694shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2695See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 2696
a0d0e21e
LW
2697=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
2698
81777298 2699(F) Your system has POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
a0d0e21e
LW
2700the BSD version, which takes a pid.
2701
bbce6d69
PP
2702=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
2703
e476b1b5 2704(W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal
75b44862 2705strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated as
be771a83
GS
2706literal data. (You may have used different delimiters than the
2707parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently used.)
bbce6d69 2708
774d564b
PP
2709You probably wrote something like this:
2710
54310121 2711 @list = qw(
774d564b 2712 a # a comment
bbce6d69 2713 b # another comment
774d564b 2714 );
bbce6d69
PP
2715
2716when you should have written this:
2717
774d564b 2718 @list = qw(
54310121
PP
2719 a
2720 b
774d564b
PP
2721 );
2722
2723If you really want comments, build your list the
2724old-fashioned way, with quotes and commas:
2725
2726 @list = (
2727 'a', # a comment
2728 'b', # another comment
2729 );
bbce6d69
PP
2730
2731=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
2732
be771a83
GS
2733(W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore
2734commas aren't needed to separate the items. (You may have used
2735different delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also
2736frequently used.)
bbce6d69 2737
54310121 2738You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69 2739
774d564b
PP
2740 qw! a, b, c !;
2741
2742which puts literal commas into some of the list items. Write it without
2743commas if you don't want them to appear in your data:
bbce6d69 2744
774d564b 2745 qw! a b c !;
bbce6d69 2746
a0d0e21e
LW
2747=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
2748
2749(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
2750Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
2751end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
2752Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
2753
6df41af2
GS
2754=item Possible Y2K bug: %s
2755
2756(W y2k) You are concatenating the number 19 with another number, which
2757could be a potential Year 2000 problem.
2758
8cd79558
GS
2759=item pragma "attrs" is deprecated, use "sub NAME : ATTRS" instead
2760
a1063b2d 2761(D deprecated) You have written something like this:
8cd79558
GS
2762
2763 sub doit
2764 {
2765 use attrs qw(locked);
2766 }
2767
2768You should use the new declaration syntax instead.
2769
2770 sub doit : locked
2771 {
2772 ...
2773
2774The C<use attrs> pragma is now obsolete, and is only provided for
2775backward-compatibility. See L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes">.
2776
a0d0e21e
LW
2777=item Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
2778
e476b1b5 2779(S precedence) The old irregular construct
cb1a09d0 2780
a0d0e21e
LW
2781 open FOO || die;
2782
2783is now misinterpreted as
2784
2785 open(FOO || die);
2786
be771a83
GS
2787because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary and
2788list operators. (The old open was a little of both.) You must put
2789parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator instead
2790of "||".
a0d0e21e 2791
3cdd684c
TP
2792=item Premature end of script headers
2793
2794See Server error.
2795
6df41af2
GS
2796=item printf() on closed filehandle %s
2797
be771a83 2798(W closed) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime
c289d2f7 2799before now. Check your control flow.
6df41af2 2800
9a7dcd9c 2801=item print() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 2802
be771a83 2803(W closed) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime
c289d2f7 2804before now. Check your control flow.
a0d0e21e 2805
6df41af2 2806=item Process terminated by SIG%s
a0d0e21e 2807
6df41af2
GS
2808(W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while *nix
2809applications die in silence. It is considered a feature of the OS/2
2810port. One can easily disable this by appropriate sighandlers, see
2811L<perlipc/"Signals">. See also "Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT"
fecfaeb8 2812in L<perlos2>.
a0d0e21e 2813
3fe9a6f1 2814=item Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
4633a7c4 2815
be771a83
GS
2816(S unsafe) The subroutine being declared or defined had previously been
2817declared or defined with a different function prototype.
4633a7c4 2818
7253e4e3 2819=item Quantifier in {,} bigger than %d in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
9baa0206 2820
b45f050a 2821(F) There is currently a limit to the size of the min and max values of the
7253e4e3 2822{min,max} construct. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where
b45f050a 2823the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
9baa0206 2824
7253e4e3 2825=item Quantifier unexpected on zero-length expression; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
9baa0206 2826
b45f050a
JF
2827(W regexp) You applied a regular expression quantifier in a place where
2828it makes no sense, such as on a zero-width assertion. Try putting the
2829quantifier inside the assertion instead. For example, the way to match
2830"abc" provided that it is followed by three repetitions of "xyz" is
2831C</abc(?=(?:xyz){3})/>, not C</abc(?=xyz){3}/>.
9baa0206 2832
7253e4e3
RK
2833The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2834discovered.
2835
89ea2908
GA
2836=item Range iterator outside integer range
2837
2838(F) One (or both) of the numeric arguments to the range operator ".."
2839are outside the range which can be represented by integers internally.
be771a83
GS
2840One possible workaround is to force Perl to use magical string increment
2841by prepending "0" to your numbers.
89ea2908 2842
9a7dcd9c 2843=item readline() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 2844
75b44862 2845(W closed) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime
c289d2f7 2846before now. Check your control flow.
a0d0e21e 2847
6df41af2
GS
2848=item Reallocation too large: %lx
2849
2850(F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
2851
4ad56ec9
IZ
2852=item realloc() of freed memory ignored
2853
be771a83
GS
2854(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
2855already been freed.
4ad56ec9 2856
a0d0e21e
LW
2857=item Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch
2858
be771a83
GS
2859(F debugging) You can't use the B<-D> option unless the code to produce
2860the desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead,
a0d0e21e
LW
2861which is why it's currently left out of your copy.
2862
3e0ccd42 2863=item Recursive inheritance detected in package '%s'
a0d0e21e
LW
2864
2865(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used. Probably indicates
2866an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2867
7a4340ed 2868=item Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method %s
3e0ccd42 2869
be771a83
GS
2870(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were encountered while invoking
2871a method. Probably indicates an unintended loop in your inheritance
2872hierarchy.
3e0ccd42 2873
1930e939
TP
2874=item Reference found where even-sized list expected
2875
be771a83
GS
2876(W misc) You gave a single reference where Perl was expecting a list
2877with an even number of elements (for assignment to a hash). This usually
2878means that you used the anon hash constructor when you meant to use
2879parens. In any case, a hash requires key/value B<pairs>.
7b8d334a
GS
2880
2881 %hash = { one => 1, two => 2, }; # WRONG
2882 %hash = [ qw/ an anon array / ]; # WRONG
2883 %hash = ( one => 1, two => 2, ); # right
2884 %hash = qw( one 1 two 2 ); # also fine
2885
810b8aa5
GS
2886=item Reference is already weak
2887
e476b1b5 2888(W misc) You have attempted to weaken a reference that is already weak.
810b8aa5
GS
2889Doing so has no effect.
2890
a0d0e21e
LW
2891=item Reference miscount in sv_replace()
2892
be771a83
GS
2893(W internal) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with
2894a reference count of other than 1.
a0d0e21e 2895
7253e4e3 2896=item Reference to nonexistent group in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2897
2898(F) You used something like C<\7> in your regular expression, but there are
2899not at least seven sets of capturing parentheses in the expression. If you
2900wanted to have the character with value 7 inserted into the regular expression,
2901prepend a zero to make the number at least two digits: C<\07>
9baa0206 2902
7253e4e3 2903The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a 2904discovered.
9baa0206 2905
a0d0e21e
LW
2906=item regexp memory corruption
2907
2908(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
2909expression compiler gave it.
2910
b45f050a 2911=item Regexp out of space
a0d0e21e 2912
be771a83
GS
2913(P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it
2914earlier.
a0d0e21e 2915
7a95317d
GS
2916=item Repeat count in pack overflows
2917
be771a83
GS
2918(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
2919signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
7a95317d
GS
2920
2921=item Repeat count in unpack overflows
2922
be771a83
GS
2923(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
2924signed integers. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
7a95317d 2925
a0d0e21e
LW
2926=item Reversed %s= operator
2927
be771a83
GS
2928(W syntax) You wrote your assignment operator backwards. The = must
2929always comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.
a0d0e21e
LW
2930
2931=item Runaway format
2932
2933(F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it
2934produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the
2935199th line. Apparently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
2936themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar variables), or by
2937shifting or popping (for array variables). See L<perlform>.
2938
2939=item Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
2940
be771a83
GS
2941(W syntax) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a
2942single element of an array. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar
2943value (indicated by $). The difference is that C<$foo[&bar]> always
2944behaves like a scalar, both when assigning to it and when evaluating its
2945argument, while C<@foo[&bar]> behaves like a list when you assign to it,
2946and provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things
2947if you're expecting only one subscript.
a0d0e21e 2948
748a9306 2949On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
5f05dabc 2950element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
748a9306
LW
2951Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2952L<perlref>.
2953
a6006777
PP
2954=item Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
2955
75b44862 2956(W syntax) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single
be771a83
GS
2957element of a hash. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value
2958(indicated by $). The difference is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves
2959like a scalar, both when assigning to it and when evaluating its
2960argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> behaves like a list when you assign to it,
2961and provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things
2962if you're expecting only one subscript.
2963
2964On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash element
2965as a list, you need to look into how references work, because Perl will
2966not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
a6006777
PP
2967L<perlref>.
2968
3e2f796a
NIS
2969=item Scalars leaked: %d
2970
2971(P) Something went wrong in Perl's internal bookkeeping of scalars:
2972not all scalar variables were deallocated by the time Perl exited.
2973What this usually indicates is a memory leak, which is of course bad,
2974especially if the Perl program is intended to be long-running.
2975
a0d0e21e
LW
2976=item Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
2977
54310121
PP
2978(F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script without a setuid
2979or setgid bit set. This doesn't make much sense.
a0d0e21e
LW
2980
2981=item Search pattern not terminated
2982
2983(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{}
2984construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2985Missing the leading C<$> from a variable C<$m> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2986
9ddeeac9 2987=item %sseek() on unopened filehandle
a0d0e21e 2988
be771a83
GS
2989(W unopened) You tried to use the seek() or sysseek() function on a
2990filehandle that was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2991
2992=item select not implemented
2993
2994(F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.
2995
ae21d580 2996=item Self-ties of arrays and hashes are not supported
68a4a7e4 2997
ae21d580
JH
2998(F) Self-ties are of arrays and hashes are not supported in
2999the current implementation.
68a4a7e4 3000
6df41af2 3001=item Semicolon seems to be missing
a0d0e21e 3002
75b44862
GS
3003(W semicolon) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing
3004semicolon, or possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.
a0d0e21e
LW
3005
3006=item semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
3007
be771a83
GS
3008(S internal) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a
3009scalar that had previously been marked as free.
a0d0e21e 3010
6df41af2 3011=item sem%s not implemented
a0d0e21e 3012
6df41af2 3013(F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.
a0d0e21e 3014
69282e91 3015=item send() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 3016
be771a83 3017(W closed) The socket you're sending to got itself closed sometime
c289d2f7 3018before now. Check your control flow.
a0d0e21e 3019
7253e4e3 3020=item Sequence (? incomplete in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
7b8d334a 3021
7253e4e3 3022(F) A regular expression ended with an incomplete extension (?. The <-- HERE
b45f050a 3023shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See
be771a83 3024L<perlre>.
1b1626e4 3025
7253e4e3 3026=item Sequence (?{...}) not terminated or not {}-balanced in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
3027
3028(F) If the contents of a (?{...}) clause contains braces, they must balance
7253e4e3
RK
3029for Perl to properly detect the end of the clause. The <-- HERE shows in
3030the regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See
3031L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3032
7253e4e3 3033=item Sequence (?%s...) not implemented in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 3034
b45f050a 3035(F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved but
7253e4e3 3036has not yet been written. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about
b45f050a
JF
3037where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
3038
7253e4e3 3039=item Sequence (?%s...) not recognized in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 3040
7253e4e3
RK
3041(F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense. The
3042<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
3043discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3044
7253e4e3 3045=item Sequence (?#... not terminated in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
3046
3047(F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing
7253e4e3
RK
3048parenthesis. Embedded parentheses aren't allowed. The <-- HERE shows in
3049the regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See
3050L<perlre>.
6df41af2
GS
3051
3052=item 500 Server error
3053
3054See Server error.
3055
a5f75d66
AD
3056=item Server error
3057
3cdd684c 3058This is the error message generally seen in a browser window when trying
be771a83
GS
3059to run a CGI program (including SSI) over the web. The actual error text
3060varies widely from server to server. The most frequently-seen variants
3061are "500 Server error", "Method (something) not permitted", "Document
3062contains no data", "Premature end of script headers", and "Did not
3063produce a valid header".
9607fc9c
PP
3064
3065B<This is a CGI error, not a Perl error>.
3066
be771a83
GS
3067You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible by the
3068user CGI is running the script under (which is probably not the user
3069account you tested it under), does not rely on any environment variables
3070(like PATH) from the user it isn't running under, and isn't in a
3071location where the CGI server can't find it, basically, more or less.
3072Please see the following for more information:
9607fc9c 3073
be94a901
GS
3074 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/idiots-guide.html
3075 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/perl-cgi-faq.html
9607fc9c
PP
3076 ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/www/cgi-faq
3077 http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/cgi/interface.html
3078 http://www-genome.wi.mit.edu/WWW/faqs/www-security-faq.html
a5f75d66 3079
be94a901
GS
3080You should also look at L<perlfaq9>.
3081
a0d0e21e
LW
3082=item setegid() not implemented
3083
be771a83
GS
3084(F) You tried to assign to C<$)>, and your operating system doesn't
3085support the setegid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
3086didn't think so.
a0d0e21e
LW
3087
3088=item seteuid() not implemented
3089
be771a83
GS
3090(F) You tried to assign to C<< $> >>, and your operating system doesn't
3091support the seteuid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
3092didn't think so.
a0d0e21e 3093
81777298
GS
3094=item setpgrp can't take arguments
3095
be771a83
GS
3096(F) Your system has the setpgrp() from BSD 4.2, which takes no
3097arguments, unlike POSIX setpgid(), which takes a process ID and process
3098group ID.
81777298 3099
a0d0e21e
LW
3100=item setrgid() not implemented
3101
be771a83
GS
3102(F) You tried to assign to C<$(>, and your operating system doesn't
3103support the setrgid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
3104didn't think so.
a0d0e21e
LW
3105
3106=item setruid() not implemented
3107
be771a83
GS
3108(F) You tried to assign to C<$<>, and your operating system doesn't
3109support the setruid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
3110didn't think so.
a0d0e21e 3111
6df41af2
GS
3112=item setsockopt() on closed socket %s
3113
be771a83
GS
3114(W closed) You tried to set a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
3115forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
3116L<perlfunc/setsockopt>.
3117
a0d0e21e
LW
3118=item Setuid/gid script is writable by world
3119
be771a83
GS
3120(F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is writable by the
3121world, because the world might have written on it already.
a0d0e21e
LW
3122
3123=item shm%s not implemented
3124
3125(F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your system.
3126
6df41af2
GS
3127=item <> should be quotes
3128
3129(F) You wrote C<< require <file> >> when you should have written
3130C<require 'file'>.
3131
3132=item /%s/ should probably be written as "%s"
3133
3134(W syntax) You have used a pattern where Perl expected to find a string,
be771a83
GS
3135as in the first argument to C<join>. Perl will treat the true or false
3136result of matching the pattern against $_ as the string, which is
3137probably not what you had in mind.
6df41af2 3138
69282e91 3139=item shutdown() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 3140
75b44862
GS
3141(W closed) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket. Seems a bit
3142superfluous.
a0d0e21e 3143
f86702cc 3144=item SIG%s handler "%s" not defined
a0d0e21e 3145
be771a83
GS
3146(W signal) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't, in fact, exist.
3147Perhaps you put it into the wrong package?
a0d0e21e
LW
3148
3149=item sort is now a reserved word
3150
3151(F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into anymore.
3152But before sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a filehandle.
3153
3154=item Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value
3155
3156(F) A sort comparison routine must return a number. You probably blew
c47ff5f1 3157it by not using C<< <=> >> or C<cmp>, or by not using them correctly.
a0d0e21e
LW
3158See L<perlfunc/sort>.
3159
3160=item Sort subroutine didn't return single value
3161
3162(F) A sort comparison subroutine may not return a list value with more
3163or less than one element. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
3164
3165=item Split loop
3166
be771a83
GS
3167(P) The split was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a split shouldn't
3168iterate more times than there are characters of input, which is what
3169happened.) See L<perlfunc/split>.
a0d0e21e 3170
a0d0e21e
LW
3171=item Statement unlikely to be reached
3172
be771a83
GS
3173(W exec) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than a
3174die(). This is almost always an error, because exec() never returns
3175unless there was a failure. You probably wanted to use system()
3176instead, which does return. To suppress this warning, put the exec() in
3177a block by itself.
a0d0e21e 3178
9ddeeac9 3179=item stat() on unopened filehandle %s
6df41af2 3180
355b1299
JH
3181(W unopened) You tried to use the stat() function on a filehandle that
3182was either never opened or has since been closed.
6df41af2 3183
7a4340ed 3184=item Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading %s
e7ea3e70 3185
be771a83
GS
3186(P) Overloading resolution over @ISA tree may be broken by importation
3187stubs. Stubs should never be implicitly created, but explicit calls to
3188C<can> may break this.
e7ea3e70 3189
a0d0e21e
LW
3190=item Subroutine %s redefined
3191
e476b1b5 3192(W redefine) You redefined a subroutine. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
3193
3194 {
4438c4b7 3195 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
3196 eval "sub name { ... }";
3197 }
3198
3199=item Substitution loop
3200
be771a83
GS
3201(P) The substitution was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a substitution
3202shouldn't iterate more times than there are characters of input, which
3203is what happened.) See the discussion of substitution in
5f05dabc 3204L<perlop/"Quote and Quote-like Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
3205
3206=item Substitution pattern not terminated
3207
3208(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
3209construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 3210Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
3211
3212=item Substitution replacement not terminated
3213
3214(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
3215construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 3216Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
3217
3218=item substr outside of string
3219
be771a83
GS
3220(W substr),(F) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed outside of
3221a string. That is, the absolute value of the offset was larger than the
3222length of the string. See L<perlfunc/substr>. This warning is fatal if
3223substr is used in an lvalue context (as the left hand side of an
3224assignment or as a subroutine argument for example).
a0d0e21e 3225
f86702cc 3226=item suidperl is no longer needed since %s
a0d0e21e 3227
be771a83
GS
3228(F) Your Perl was compiled with B<-D>SETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW, but
3229a version of the setuid emulator somehow got run anyway.
a0d0e21e 3230
7253e4e3 3231=item Switch (?(condition)... contains too many branches in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
3232
3233(F) A (?(condition)if-clause|else-clause) construct can have at most two
3234branches (the if-clause and the else-clause). If you want one or both to
3235contain alternation, such as using C<this|that|other>, enclose it in
3236clustering parentheses:
3237
3238 (?(condition)(?:this|that|other)|else-clause)
3239
7253e4e3 3240The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
3241discovered. See L<perlre>.
3242
7253e4e3 3243=item Switch condition not recognized in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
3244
3245(F) If the argument to the (?(...)if-clause|else-clause) construct is a
7253e4e3 3246number, it can be only a number. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression
b45f050a
JF
3247about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
3248
85ab1d1d
JH
3249=item switching effective %s is not implemented
3250
be771a83
GS
3251(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, we cannot switch the real
3252and effective uids or gids.
85ab1d1d 3253
a0d0e21e
LW
3254=item syntax error
3255
3256(F) Probably means you had a syntax error. Common reasons include:
3257
3258 A keyword is misspelled.
3259 A semicolon is missing.
3260 A comma is missing.
3261 An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
3262 An opening or closing brace is missing.
3263 A closing quote is missing.
3264
3265Often there will be another error message associated with the syntax
3266error giving more information. (Sometimes it helps to turn on B<-w>.)
3267The error message itself often tells you where it was in the line when
3268it decided to give up. Sometimes the actual error is several tokens
5f05dabc 3269before this, because Perl is good at understanding random input.
a0d0e21e
LW
3270Occasionally the line number may be misleading, and once in a blue moon
3271the only way to figure out what's triggering the error is to call
3272C<perl -c> repeatedly, chopping away half the program each time to see
be771a83
GS
3273if the error went away. Sort of the cybernetic version of S<20
3274questions>.
a0d0e21e 3275
cb1a09d0
AD
3276=item syntax error at line %d: `%s' unexpected
3277
be771a83
GS
3278(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
3279of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
3280yourself.
cb1a09d0 3281
6df41af2
GS
3282=item %s syntax OK
3283
3284(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> succeeds.
3285
6087ac44 3286=item System V %s is not implemented on this machine
a0d0e21e 3287
6087ac44
JH
3288(F) You tried to do something with a function beginning with "sem",
3289"shm", or "msg" but that System V IPC is not implemented in your
3290machine. In some machines the functionality can exist but be
3291unconfigured. Consult your system support.
a0d0e21e 3292
69282e91 3293=item syswrite() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 3294
be771a83 3295(W closed) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime
c289d2f7 3296before now. Check your control flow.
a0d0e21e 3297
fc36a67e
PP
3298=item Target of goto is too deeply nested
3299
be771a83
GS
3300(F) You tried to use C<goto> to reach a label that was too deeply nested
3301for Perl to reach. Perl is doing you a favor by refusing.
fc36a67e 3302
9ddeeac9 3303=item tell() on unopened filehandle
a0d0e21e 3304
be771a83
GS
3305(W unopened) You tried to use the tell() function on a filehandle that
3306was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e 3307
a0d0e21e
LW
3308=item That use of $[ is unsupported
3309
be771a83
GS
3310(F) Assignment to C<$[> is now strictly circumscribed, and interpreted
3311as a compiler directive. You may say only one of
a0d0e21e
LW
3312
3313 $[ = 0;
3314 $[ = 1;
3315 ...
3316 local $[ = 0;
3317 local $[ = 1;
3318 ...
3319
be771a83
GS
3320This is to prevent the problem of one module changing the array base out
3321from under another module inadvertently. See L<perlvar/$[>.
a0d0e21e 3322
f86702cc 3323=item The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia
a0d0e21e
LW
3324
3325(F) Configure couldn't find the crypt() function on your machine,
3326probably because your vendor didn't supply it, probably because they
8b1a09fc 3327think the U.S. Government thinks it's a secret, or at least that they
a0d0e21e
LW
3328will continue to pretend that it is. And if you quote me on that, I
3329will deny it.
3330
6df41af2
GS
3331=item The %s function is unimplemented
3332
3333The function indicated isn't implemented on this architecture, according
3334to the probings of Configure.
3335
5e1c7ca2 3336=item The stat preceding %s wasn't an lstat
a0d0e21e 3337
be771a83
GS
3338(F) It makes no sense to test the current stat buffer for symbolic
3339linkhood if the last stat that wrote to the stat buffer already went
3340past the symlink to get to the real file. Use an actual filename
3341instead.
a0d0e21e 3342
437784d6 3343=item This Perl can't reset CRTL environ elements (%s)
f675dbe5
CB
3344
3345=item This Perl can't set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s)
3346
75b44862 3347(W internal) Warnings peculiar to VMS. You tried to change or delete an
be771a83
GS
3348element of the CRTL's internal environ array, but your copy of Perl