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improved docs on the warn_uninit diagnostic (from David Glasser
[perl5.git] / pod / perldiag.pod
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
e476b1b5 12 (S) A severe warning (default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
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18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
30Default warnings are always enabled unless they are explicitly disabled
31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
6df41af2 53=item Allocation too large: %lx
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
f61d411c 57=item '!' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The '!' is allowed in pack() and unpack() only after certain types.
60See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
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74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or by declaring the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
6df41af2 79=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 80
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81(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
82you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
83a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 84
6df41af2 85=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 86
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87(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
88redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
89redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 90
6df41af2 91=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 92
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93(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
94redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
95into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
96though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
97which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 98
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99 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
100 while (<STDIN>) {
101 print;
102 print OUT;
103 }
104 close OUT;
c9f97d15 105
6df41af2 106=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 107
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108(W misc) The pattern match (//), substitution (s///), and
109transliteration (tr///) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
110one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
111a scalar value -- the length of an array, or the population info of a
112hash -- and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
113you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
114alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 115
6df41af2 116=item Args must match #! line
a0d0e21e 117
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118(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
119with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
120impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
121for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 122
6df41af2 123=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 124
6df41af2 125(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 126
8ea97a1e 127=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element
a0d0e21e 128
8ea97a1e 129(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element, such as:
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130
131 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 132 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
a0d0e21e 133
8ea97a1e 134=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 135
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136(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
137such as:
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138
139 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 140 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 141
8ea97a1e 142or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 143
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144 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
145 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 146
6df41af2 147=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 148
6df41af2 149(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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150name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
151error.
a0d0e21e 152
f86702cc 153=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 154
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155(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
156that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
157will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
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158
159=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
160
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161(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
162spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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163
164=item assertion botched: %s
165
166(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
167
168=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
169
170(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
171
172=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
173
174(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
175must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
176know which context to supply to the right side.
177
178=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
179
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180(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
181that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
182outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 183
54310121 184=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 185
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186(P internal) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of
187strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
188strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
189of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 190
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191=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
192
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193(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
194free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
195SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
196free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
197try to free it.
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198
199=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
200
e476b1b5 201(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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202
203=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
204
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205(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
206see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
207earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
208This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
209that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
210mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
211corrupted.
a0d0e21e 212
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213=item Attempt to join self
214
215(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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216impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
217to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 218
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219=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
220
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221(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
222function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
223means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
224invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
225literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
226avoid this warning.
84902520 227
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228=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
229
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230(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
231used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
232dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 233
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234=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
235
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236(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
237or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 238S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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239S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
240
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241=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
242
243(F) You've used the /e switch to evaluate the replacement for a
244substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
245most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
246
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247=item Bad filehandle: %s
248
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249(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
250symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
251open(), or did it in another package.
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252
253=item Bad free() ignored
254
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255(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
256been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
257setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
33c8a3fe 258
75b44862 259This message can be quite often seen with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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260dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
261which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 262
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263=item Bad hash
264
265(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
266
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267=item Bad index while coercing array into hash
268
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269(F) The index looked up in the hash found as the 0'th element of a
270pseudo-hash is not legal. Index values must be at 1 or greater.
271See L<perlref>.
57079c46 272
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273=item Badly placed ()'s
274
275(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
276of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
277Perl yourself.
278
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279=item Bad name after %s::
280
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281(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
282didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
283of quotes, so
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284
285 $var = 'myvar';
286 $sym = mypack::$var;
287
288is not the same as
289
290 $var = 'myvar';
291 $sym = "mypack::$var";
292
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293=item Bad realloc() ignored
294
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295(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
296never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
297by setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 298
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299=item Bad symbol for array
300
301(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
302wasn't a symbol table entry.
303
304=item Bad symbol for filehandle
305
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306(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
307that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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308
309=item Bad symbol for hash
310
311(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
312wasn't a symbol table entry.
313
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314=item Bareword found in conditional
315
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316(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
317conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
318of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
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319
320 open FOO || die;
321
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322It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
323a bareword:
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324
325 use constant TYPO => 1;
326 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
327
328The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
329
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330=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
331
332(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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333subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
334symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
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335
336=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
337
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338(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
339compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
340you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 341
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342=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
343
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344(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
345subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
346exited.
a0d0e21e 347
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348=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
349
350(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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351implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
352occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
353be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
354depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 355
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356=item \1 better written as $1
357
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358(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
359The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
360substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
361because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
362there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 363
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364=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
365
e476b1b5 366(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
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367(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
368L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 369
69282e91 370=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 371
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372(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
373check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 374
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375=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
376
e476b1b5 377(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 378
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379=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
380
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381(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
382copiable.
4633a7c4 383
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384=item B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script
385
386(F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name,
387which provides a race condition that breaks security.
388
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389=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
390
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391(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
392iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
393which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 394
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395=item Callback called exit
396
4929bf7b 397(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
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398exited by calling exit.
399
6df41af2 400=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 401
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402(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
403parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
404that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
405early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
406subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
407checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
408function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
409the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 410
6df41af2 411=item / cannot take a count
a0d0e21e 412
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413(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
414you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
415L<perlfunc/pack>.
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416
417=item Can't bless non-reference value
418
419(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
420encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
421
422=item Can't break at that line
423
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424(S internal) A warning intended to only be printed while running within
425the debugger, indicating the line number specified wasn't the location
426of a statement that could be stopped at.
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427
428=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
429
430(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
431functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
432in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
433
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434=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
435
436(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
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437object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
438like this will reproduce the error:
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439
440 $BADREF = undef;
441 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
442 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
443
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444=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
445
54310121 446(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
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447ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
448didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
449object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
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450
451=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
452
453(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
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454object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
455defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
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456Something like this will reproduce the error:
457
458 $BADREF = 42;
459 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
460 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
461
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462=item Can't chdir to %s
463
464(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
465that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
466
0545a864 467=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 468
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469(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
470nosuid.
104d25b7 471
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472=item Can't coerce array into hash
473
474(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
475information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
476only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
477
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478=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
479
480(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 481(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
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482say things like:
483
484 *foo += 1;
485
486You CAN say
487
488 $foo = *foo;
489 $foo += 1;
490
491but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
492
493=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
494
495(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 496(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
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497
498=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
499
500(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 501(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
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502
503=item Can't create pipe mailbox
504
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505(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
506quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 507
eb64745e 508=item Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
a0d0e21e 509
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510(S) Currently, only scalar variables can declared with a specific class
511qualifier in a "my" or "our" declaration. The semantics may be extended
512for other types of variables in future.
513
514=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
515
516(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my" or
517"our" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 518
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519=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
520
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521(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
522a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 523
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524=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
525
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526(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
527reason.
a0d0e21e 528
54310121 529=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 530
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531(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
532reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
533C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 534
10f9c03d 535=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 536
e476b1b5 537(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
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538characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
539inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 540
6df41af2 541=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m
a0d0e21e 542
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GS
543(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want
544your regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
545
546=item Can't do setegid!
547
be771a83
GS
548(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of
549suidperl.
a0d0e21e
LW
550
551=item Can't do seteuid!
552
553(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
554
555=item Can't do setuid
556
be771a83
GS
557(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to do
558setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the form
559sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides under
560the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines. If the
561file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask your
562sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
a0d0e21e
LW
563
564=item Can't do waitpid with flags
565
be771a83
GS
566(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
567waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 568
a0d0e21e
LW
569=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
570
be771a83
GS
571(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
572point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
573line.
a0d0e21e
LW
574
575=item Can't exec "%s": %s
576
be771a83
GS
577(W exec) An system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
578named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
579permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
580C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
581architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
582can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
583#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
584
585=item Can't exec %s
586
be771a83
GS
587(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
588that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
589need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
590
591=item Can't execute %s
592
be771a83
GS
593(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
594found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 595
6df41af2 596=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 597
be771a83
GS
598(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
599is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2
GS
600
601=item Can't find label %s
602
be771a83
GS
603(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
604possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
605
606=item Can't find %s on PATH
607
be771a83
GS
608(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
609found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 610
6df41af2 611=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 612
be771a83
GS
613(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
614found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
615script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
616
617=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
618
be771a83
GS
619(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
620that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
621nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 622
fb73857a
PP
623 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
624
be771a83
GS
625If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included
626unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good programmer's
627editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e
LW
628
629=item Can't fork
630
be771a83
GS
631(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
632pipeline.
a0d0e21e 633
748a9306
LW
634=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
635
be771a83
GS
636(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
637between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
638Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
639the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
640account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
641the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
642the access checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
643the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
644if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
645because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
646appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up
647and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking
648routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
649shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
650only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 651
a0d0e21e
LW
652=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
653
be771a83
GS
654(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
655pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
656
657=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
658
748a9306
LW
659(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
660mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 661
6df41af2 662=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 663
be771a83
GS
664(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
665loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
666
667=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
668
be771a83
GS
669(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
670a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
671you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
672See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 673
b150fb22
RH
674=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string
675
be771a83
GS
676(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
677"string". (You can use it to jump out of an eval {BLOCK}, but you
678probably don't want to.)
b150fb22 679
6df41af2
GS
680=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
681
be771a83
GS
682(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
683subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
684cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
685routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 686
0b5b802d
GS
687=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
688
be771a83
GS
689(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
690signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
691signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
692processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
693situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
694may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 695
6df41af2 696=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 697
6df41af2 698(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
699except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
700block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
701block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
702usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
703inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
704L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 705
748a9306
LW
706=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
707
2ba9eb46 708(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
748a9306
LW
709lexical variable using "my". This is not allowed. If you want to
710localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
711package name.
712
0ebe0038
SM
713=item Can't localize pseudo-hash element
714
be771a83
GS
715(F) You said something like C<< local $ar->{'key'} >>, where $ar is a
716reference to a pseudo-hash. That hasn't been implemented yet, but you
717can get a similar effect by localizing the corresponding array element
718directly -- C<< local $ar->[$ar->[0]{'key'}] >>.
0ebe0038 719
6df41af2 720=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 721
6df41af2
GS
722(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
723handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83
GS
724pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
725that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 726
ec889f3a
GS
727=item Can't locate %s
728
729(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
730found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
731unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
732need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
733the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
734to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
735L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 736
6df41af2
GS
737=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
738
be771a83
GS
739(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
740autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
741are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
742the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 743
a0d0e21e
LW
744=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
745
746(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
747functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 748method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
749
750=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
751
be771a83
GS
752(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
753doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 754
3e3baf6d
TB
755=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
756
be771a83
GS
757(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
758VMS.
3e3baf6d 759
a0d0e21e
LW
760=item Can't modify %s in %s
761
be771a83
GS
762(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
763to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 764
54310121 765=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
766
767(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
768a NULL.
769
6df41af2
GS
770=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
771
772(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
773such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
774
5f05dabc 775=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 776
5f05dabc 777(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
778buffer.
779
6df41af2
GS
780=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
781
782(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
783there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
784count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
785grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
786though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
787once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 788
a0d0e21e
LW
789=item Can't open %s: %s
790
c47ff5f1 791(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
792filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
793switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
794is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
795the command line.
a0d0e21e
LW
796
797=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
798
be771a83
GS
799(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
800You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
801as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
802">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 803
748a9306
LW
804=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
805
be771a83
GS
806(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
807redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
808the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
809
810=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
811
be771a83
GS
812(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
813redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
814command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
815
816=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
817
be771a83
GS
818(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
819redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
820the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
821
822=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
823
be771a83
GS
824(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
825redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
826for stdout.
748a9306 827
a0d0e21e
LW
828=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
829
830(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
831
6df41af2
GS
832=item Can't read CRTL environ
833
834(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
835from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
836missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
837or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
838searched.
6df41af2 839
7bac28a0
PP
840=item Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s
841
842(F) Perl optimizes the internal handling of sort subroutines and keeps
be771a83
GS
843pointers into them. You tried to redefine one such sort subroutine when
844it was currently active, which is not allowed. If you really want to do
7bac28a0
PP
845this, you should write C<sort { &func } @x> instead of C<sort func @x>.
846
6df41af2
GS
847=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
848
849(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
850there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
851count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
852or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
853though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
854loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
855
10f9c03d
CK
856=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
857
be771a83
GS
858(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
859file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
860the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 861
a0d0e21e
LW
862=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
863
e476b1b5 864(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 865probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 866
748a9306
LW
867=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
868
be771a83
GS
869(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
870to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 871
6df41af2
GS
872=item Can't resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
873
be771a83
GS
874(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
875to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
876method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 877
a0d0e21e
LW
878=item Can't reswap uid and euid
879
be771a83
GS
880(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of
881suidperl.
a0d0e21e 882
cd06dffe
GS
883=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
884
be771a83
GS
885(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
886temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
887is not allowed.
cd06dffe 888
6df41af2
GS
889=item Can't return outside a subroutine
890
891(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
892there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
893
a0d0e21e
LW
894=item Can't stat script "%s"
895
be771a83
GS
896(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
897open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e
LW
898
899=item Can't swap uid and euid
900
be771a83
GS
901(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of
902suidperl.
a0d0e21e
LW
903
904=item Can't take log of %g
905
fb73857a
PP
906(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
907negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
908standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
909negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
910
911=item Can't take sqrt of %g
912
913(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
914negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
915with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
916
917=item Can't undef active subroutine
918
919(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
920however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
921redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
922
923=item Can't unshift
924
925(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
926as the main Perl stack.
927
928=item Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
929
be771a83
GS
930(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
931into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
932specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
933indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e
LW
934
935=item Can't upgrade to undef
936
be771a83
GS
937(P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme of
938upgradability. Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the code
939calling sv_upgrade.
a0d0e21e 940
6df41af2
GS
941=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
942
943(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
944be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
945
946=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
947
be771a83
GS
948(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
949references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 950
1d2dff63
GS
951=item Can't use %%! because Errno.pm is not available
952
953(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
954Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
955provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
956
6df41af2
GS
957=item Can't use %s for loop variable
958
be771a83
GS
959(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
960foreach.
6df41af2
GS
961
962=item Can't use global %s in "my"
963
be771a83
GS
964(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
965is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
966(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
967have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
968weren't.
969
c07a80fd
PP
970=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
971
972(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 973You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
974and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
975Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
976lexical variable.
977
a0d0e21e
LW
978=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
979
980(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
981reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
982test the type of the reference, if need be.
983
748a9306 984=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 985
be771a83
GS
986(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
987references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 988
748a9306
LW
989=item Can't use subscript on %s
990
991(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
992subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
993didn't look like an array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
994
6df41af2
GS
995=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
996
75b44862
GS
997(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
998creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
999backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1000expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1001value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1002instead.
6df41af2 1003
810b8aa5
GS
1004=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1005
1006(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1007references can be weakened.
1008
5f05dabc 1009=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1010
be771a83
GS
1011(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1012with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1013Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1014
b8c5462f
JH
1015=item Character class syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes
1016
e476b1b5 1017(W unsafe) The character class constructs [: :], [= =], and [. .] go
be771a83
GS
1018I<inside> character classes, the [] are part of the construct, for
1019example: /[012[:alpha:]345]/. Note that [= =] and [. .] are not
1020currently implemented; they are simply placeholders for future
1021extensions.
b8c5462f 1022
644a2880 1023=item Character class syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions
4599a1de 1024
75b44862 1025(W regexp) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
be771a83
GS
1026beginning with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future
1027extensions. If you need to represent those character sequences inside a
1028regular expression character class, just quote the square brackets with
1029the backslash: "\[." and ".\]".
4599a1de
JH
1030
1031=item Character class syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions
1032
e476b1b5 1033(W regexp) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
be771a83
GS
1034beginning with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future
1035extensions. If you need to represent those character sequences inside a
1036regular expression character class, just quote the square brackets with
1037the backslash: "\[=" and "=\]".
4599a1de 1038
6df41af2
GS
1039=item Character class [:%s:] unknown
1040
be771a83
GS
1041(F) The class in the character class [: :] syntax is unknown. See
1042L<perlre>.
6df41af2 1043
5a211162 1044=item chmod() mode argument is missing initial 0
a0d0e21e 1045
e476b1b5 1046(W chmod) A novice will sometimes say
a0d0e21e
LW
1047
1048 chmod 777, $filename
1049
be771a83
GS
1050not realizing that 777 will be interpreted as a decimal number,
1051equivalent to 01411. Octal constants are introduced with a leading 0 in
1052Perl, as in C.
a0d0e21e 1053
c47ff5f1 1054=item Close on unopened file <%s>
a0d0e21e 1055
e476b1b5 1056(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
a0d0e21e 1057
6df41af2
GS
1058=item %s: Command not found
1059
be771a83
GS
1060(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1061Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1062
7a2e2cd6
PP
1063=item Compilation failed in require
1064
1065(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1066Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1067encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1068
c3464db5
DD
1069=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1070
be771a83
GS
1071(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1072situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1073to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1074arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1075recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1076under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1077in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
1078that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlbook> for information
1079on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1080
69282e91 1081=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1082
be771a83
GS
1083(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1084to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1085L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1086
6df41af2
GS
1087=item constant(%s): %s
1088
be771a83
GS
1089(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1090an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1091specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1092corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1093L<overload>.
6df41af2 1094
779c5bc9
GS
1095=item Constant is not %s reference
1096
1097(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1098is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1099The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1100usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1101See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1102
4cee8e80
CS
1103=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1104
be771a83
GS
1105(S|W redefine) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
1106eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1107commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1108
9607fc9c
PP
1109=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1110
be771a83
GS
1111(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1112for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1113workarounds.
9607fc9c 1114
e7ea3e70
IZ
1115=item Copy method did not return a reference
1116
be771a83
GS
1117(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See L<overload/Copy
1118Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1119
6798c92b
GS
1120=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1121
1122(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1123
a0d0e21e
LW
1124=item corrupted regexp pointers
1125
1126(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1127expression compiler gave it.
1128
1129=item corrupted regexp program
1130
be771a83
GS
1131(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1132valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1133
6df41af2
GS
1134=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1135
1136(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1137
1138=item C<-p> destination: %s
1139
1140(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
1141command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
1142redirected it with select().)
1143
1144=item C<-T> and C<-B> not implemented on filehandles
1145
1146(F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it doesn't
1147know about your kind of stdio. You'll have to use a filename instead.
1148
a0d0e21e
LW
1149=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1150
be771a83
GS
1151(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1152100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1153infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1154which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1155
f10b0346 1156=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1157
be771a83
GS
1158(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1159checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
1160array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1161
f10b0346 1162=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1163
be771a83
GS
1164(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it
1165checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash
1166is empty, just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1167
fc36a67e
PP
1168=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1169
be771a83
GS
1170(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1171long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1172that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1173
3cdd684c
TP
1174=item Did not produce a valid header
1175
1176See Server error.
1177
6df41af2
GS
1178=item %s did not return a true value
1179
1180(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1181it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1182traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1183do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1184
cc507455 1185=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1186
be771a83
GS
1187(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some
1188such.
4633a7c4 1189
cc507455 1190=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1191
be771a83
GS
1192(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1193variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1194seems superfluous.
33633739 1195
cc507455 1196=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1197
be771a83
GS
1198(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1199@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1200carried away.
748a9306 1201
7e1af8bc 1202=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1203
1204(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1205you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1206
3cdd684c
TP
1207=item Document contains no data
1208
1209See Server error.
1210
a0d0e21e
LW
1211=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1212
1213(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1214
1215=item do_study: out of memory
1216
1217(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1218
6df41af2
GS
1219=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1220
1221(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1222found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
1223name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1224because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1225"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1226something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1227subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1228"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1229
a0d0e21e
LW
1230=item Duplicate free() ignored
1231
be771a83
GS
1232(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1233already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1234
4633a7c4
LW
1235=item elseif should be elsif
1236
be771a83
GS
1237(S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's ugly.
1238Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
1239"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1240unlikely to be what you want.
1241
85ab1d1d 1242=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1243
85ab1d1d 1244(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1245effective uids or gids failed.
1246
748a9306
LW
1247=item Error converting file specification %s
1248
5f05dabc 1249(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1250specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1251single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1252an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1253conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1254
e4d48cc9
GS
1255=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1256
be771a83
GS
1257(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1258expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1259is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1260
e4d48cc9
GS
1261=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time
1262
be771a83
GS
1263(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1264C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
1265pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it
1266is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly
1267building the pattern from an interpolated string at run time and using
1268that in an eval(). See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1269
6df41af2
GS
1270=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1271
be771a83
GS
1272(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1273assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1274pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1275
fc36a67e
PP
1276=item Excessively long <> operator
1277
1278(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1279Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1280filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1281variable and glob that.
1282
f86702cc 1283=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
1284
1285(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1286
1287=item Exiting eval via %s
1288
be771a83
GS
1289(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1290goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1291
1292=item Exiting format via %s
1293
be771a83
GS
1294(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1295goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1296
0a753a76
PP
1297=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1298
be771a83
GS
1299(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1300sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1301loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1302
a0d0e21e
LW
1303=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1304
be771a83
GS
1305(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1306as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1307
1308=item Exiting substitution via %s
1309
be771a83
GS
1310(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1311as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1312
7b8d334a
GS
1313=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1314
be771a83
GS
1315(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1316the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1317usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1318e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1319
6df41af2
GS
1320=item %s: Expression syntax
1321
be771a83
GS
1322(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1323Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1324
1325=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1326
1327(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a CHECK, INIT, or
1328END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the queue of such
1329routines has been prematurely ended.
1330
73b437c8
JH
1331=item false [] range "%s" in regexp
1332
be771a83
GS
1333(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
1334character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The
1335"-" in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider
1336quoting the "-", "\-". See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1337
748a9306 1338=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1339
be771a83
GS
1340(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1341system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1342details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1343you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1344
1345=item fcntl is not implemented
1346
1347(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1348PDP-11 or something?
1349
1350=item Filehandle %s never opened
1351
be771a83
GS
1352(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
1353never initialized. You need to do an open() or a socket() call, or call
1354a constructor from the FileHandle package.
a0d0e21e 1355
af8c498a 1356=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1357
be771a83
GS
1358(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended it
1359to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or "+>"
1360or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to write
1361the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1362
af8c498a 1363=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1364
be771a83
GS
1365(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing. If
1366you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
1367with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you
1368intended only to read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1369
1370=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1371
1372(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1373a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1374happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1375name.
a0d0e21e
LW
1376
1377=item Final @ should be \@ or @name
1378
1379(F) You must now decide whether the final @ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1380a literal "at" sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1381happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1382name.
a0d0e21e 1383
56e90b21
GS
1384=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1385
be771a83
GS
1386(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
1387some time before now. Check your logic flow. flock() operates on
1388filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1389same name?
56e90b21 1390
6df41af2
GS
1391=item ?+* follows nothing in regexp
1392
be771a83
GS
1393(F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it if
1394you meant it literally. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2
GS
1395
1396=item Format not terminated
1397
1398(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1399to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1400
a0d0e21e
LW
1401=item Format %s redefined
1402
e476b1b5 1403(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1404
1405 {
4438c4b7 1406 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
1407 eval "format NAME =...";
1408 }
1409
a0d0e21e
LW
1410=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1411
e476b1b5 1412(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1413
1414 if ($foo = 123)
1415
1416when you meant
1417
1418 if ($foo == 123)
1419
1420(or something like that).
1421
6df41af2
GS
1422=item %s found where operator expected
1423
1424(S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator. If it
be771a83
GS
1425sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
1426operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1427operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1428
a0d0e21e
LW
1429=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1430
1431(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1432
1433=item gethostent not implemented
1434
1435(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1436because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1437on the Internet.
1438
69282e91 1439=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1440
be771a83
GS
1441(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1442socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1443
748a9306
LW
1444=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1445
1446(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1447C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1448
6df41af2
GS
1449=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1450
be771a83
GS
1451(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1452forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1453L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1454
1455=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1456
1457(F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables
1458must either be lexically scoped (using "my"), declared beforehand using
1459"our", or explicitly qualified to say which package the global variable
1460is in (using "::").
1461
e476b1b5
GS
1462=item glob failed (%s)
1463
be771a83
GS
1464(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1465C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1466C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1467nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1468resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1469broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1470config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1471were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1472empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1473think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1474C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1475
a0d0e21e
LW
1476=item Glob not terminated
1477
1478(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1479a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1480not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1481earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1482
6df41af2 1483=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1484
6df41af2
GS
1485(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1486version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1487
1488=item goto must have label
1489
1490(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1491unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1492
6df41af2
GS
1493=item %s had compilation errors
1494
1495(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
1496
a0d0e21e
LW
1497=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1498
be771a83
GS
1499(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
1500to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
1501created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
1502
1503=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1504
be771a83
GS
1505(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
1506spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 1507
6df41af2
GS
1508=item %s has too many errors
1509
1510(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
1511Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
1512
252aa082
JH
1513=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
1514
e476b1b5 1515(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
1516(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
1517L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 1518
8903cb82
PP
1519=item Identifier too long
1520
1521(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 1522about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
1523names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
1524of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1525
6df41af2 1526=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 1527
6df41af2 1528(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 1529
6df41af2 1530=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 1531
be771a83
GS
1532(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
1533binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
1534offending digit.
a0d0e21e 1535
4fdae800
PP
1536=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1537
d5898338 1538(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
1539would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
1540when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
1541version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
1542to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 1543
a0d0e21e
LW
1544=item Illegal division by zero
1545
be771a83
GS
1546(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
1547your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
1548meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 1549
6df41af2
GS
1550=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
1551
be771a83
GS
1552(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
1553A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
1554number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 1555
a0d0e21e
LW
1556=item Illegal modulus zero
1557
be771a83
GS
1558(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
1559numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 1560
6df41af2 1561=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 1562
6df41af2
GS
1563(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
1564two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
1565
1566=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1567
1568(F) You used an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1569
399388f4 1570=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 1571
75b44862
GS
1572(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1573Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 1574
6df41af2 1575=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
6ff81951 1576
6df41af2
GS
1577(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
1578following switches: B<-[DIMUdmw]>.
6ff81951 1579
6df41af2 1580=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 1581
75b44862 1582(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
1583internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
1584delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 1585
6df41af2 1586=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 1587
be771a83
GS
1588(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
1589name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
1590didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
1591ignored.
54310121 1592
6df41af2 1593=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 1594
be771a83
GS
1595(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
1596the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
1597system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
1598times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
1599would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 1600
be771a83
GS
1601Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
1602also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 1603
a0d0e21e
LW
1604=item Insecure dependency in %s
1605
8b1a09fc 1606(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
1607The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
1608setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
1609tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
1610from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
1611such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
1612L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
1613
1614=item Insecure directory in %s
1615
be771a83
GS
1616(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
1617setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
1618the world. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 1619
62f468fc 1620=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1621
1622(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc
G
1623setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
1624C<$ENV{ENV}> or C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> are derived from data supplied (or
a0d0e21e
LW
1625potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set the path to a
1626known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
1627
6df41af2
GS
1628=item In string, @%s now must be written as \@%s
1629
1630(F) It used to be that Perl would try to guess whether you wanted an
be771a83
GS
1631array interpolated or a literal @. It did this when the string was
1632first used at runtime. Now strings are parsed at compile time, and
1633ambiguous instances of @ must be disambiguated, either by prepending a
1634backslash to indicate a literal, or by declaring (or using) the array
1635within the program before the string (lexically). (Someday it will
1636simply assume that an unbackslashed @ interpolates an array.)
6df41af2 1637
a7ae9550
GS
1638=item Integer overflow in %s number
1639
75b44862 1640(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
1641either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
1642your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
1643On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
1644representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
16450b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
1646transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
1647internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
1648operations.
bbce6d69 1649
6df41af2
GS
1650=item internal disaster in regexp
1651
1652(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
1653
748a9306
LW
1654=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
1655
be771a83
GS
1656(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
1657you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
1658to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
1659L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
1660Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
1661terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 1662
a0d0e21e
LW
1663=item internal urp in regexp at /%s/
1664
1665(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser.
1666
6df41af2
GS
1667=item %s (...) interpreted as function
1668
75b44862 1669(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83
GS
1670followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
1671operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See L<perlop/Terms
1672and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 1673
09bef843
SB
1674=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
1675
1676The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
1677by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
1678
1679=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
1680
be771a83
GS
1681The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
1682recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 1683
c635e13b
PP
1684=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
1685
be771a83
GS
1686(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
1687L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 1688
6df41af2
GS
1689=item invalid [] range "%s" in regexp
1690
1691(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
1692greater than the maximum character. See L<perlre>.
1693
09bef843
SB
1694=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
1695
0120eecf 1696(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
1697elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
1698parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
1699See L<attributes>.
09bef843 1700
96e4d5b1
PP
1701=item Invalid type in pack: '%s'
1702
8903cb82 1703(F) The given character is not a valid pack type. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
be771a83
GS
1704(W pack) The given character is not a valid pack type but used to be
1705silently ignored.
96e4d5b1
PP
1706
1707=item Invalid type in unpack: '%s'
1708
be771a83
GS
1709(F) The given character is not a valid unpack type. See
1710L<perlfunc/unpack>.
75b44862
GS
1711(W unpack) The given character is not a valid unpack type but used to be
1712silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 1713
a0d0e21e
LW
1714=item ioctl is not implemented
1715
1716(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
1717strange for a machine that supports C.
1718
1719=item junk on end of regexp
1720
1721(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
1722
1723=item Label not found for "last %s"
1724
be771a83
GS
1725(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
1726of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1727L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1728
1729=item Label not found for "next %s"
1730
1731(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
1732that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1733L<perlfunc/last>.
1734
1735=item Label not found for "redo %s"
1736
1737(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
1738that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1739L<perlfunc/last>.
1740
85ab1d1d 1741=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1742
85ab1d1d 1743(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1744effective uids or gids failed.
1745
69282e91 1746=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1747
be771a83
GS
1748(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
1749to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1750L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 1751
cd06dffe
GS
1752=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
1753
1754(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
be771a83
GS
1755values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context. See
1756L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
cd06dffe 1757
6df41af2
GS
1758=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
1759
1760(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
1761
1762 prefix1;prefix2
1763
1764or
1765
1766 prefix1 prefix2
1767
be771a83
GS
1768with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
1769a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
1770appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
6df41af2
GS
1771"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in F<README.os2>.
1772
1773=item %s matches null string many times
1774
1775(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
be771a83
GS
1776regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. See
1777L<perlre>.
6df41af2
GS
1778
1779=item % may only be used in unpack
1780
1781(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
1782checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
1783See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 1784
a0d0e21e
LW
1785=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
1786
1787(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 1788doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 1789
3cdd684c
TP
1790=item Method %s not permitted
1791
1792See Server error.
1793
a0d0e21e
LW
1794=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
1795
1796(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
1797by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
1798ended earlier on the current line.
1799
1800=item Misplaced _ in number
1801
e476b1b5 1802(W syntax) An underline in a decimal constant wasn't on a 3-digit boundary.
a0d0e21e 1803
4a2d328f 1804=item Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}
423cee85 1805
4a2d328f 1806(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
423cee85
JH
1807double-quotish context.
1808
a0d0e21e
LW
1809=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
1810
1811(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
1812"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
1813
06eaf0bc
GS
1814=item Missing command in piped open
1815
be771a83
GS
1816(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
1817C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
1818blank.
06eaf0bc 1819
6df41af2
GS
1820=item Missing name in "my sub"
1821
be771a83
GS
1822(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
1823they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
1824
1825=item Missing $ on loop variable
1826
be771a83
GS
1827(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
1828are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
1829can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 1830
cc507455 1831=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306
LW
1832
1833(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1834found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
1835
d98d5fff 1836=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 1837
be771a83
GS
1838(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
1839ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
1840were last editing.
a0d0e21e 1841
6df41af2
GS
1842=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
1843
1844(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1845found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
1846the previous line just because you saw this message.
1847
a0d0e21e
LW
1848=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
1849
1850(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 1851constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
1852catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
1853
1854 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
1855 mod(2);
1856
1857Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
1858
4fe4fdb3 1859=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, subscript %d
a0d0e21e
LW
1860
1861(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
1862subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
1863backwards.
1864
4fe4fdb3 1865=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, subscript "%s"
a0d0e21e 1866
be771a83
GS
1867(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
1868couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
1869
1870=item Module name must be constant
1871
1872(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
1873
6df41af2
GS
1874=item Module name required with -M option
1875
1876(F) The C<-M> option says that Perl should load some module, but you
1877omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
1878about C<-M>.
1879
a0d0e21e
LW
1880=item msg%s not implemented
1881
1882(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
1883
1884=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
1885
75b44862
GS
1886(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
1887They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 1888
6df41af2 1889=item / must be followed by a*, A* or Z*
09bef843 1890
6df41af2 1891(F) You had a pack template indicating a counted-length string,
be771a83
GS
1892Currently the only things that can have their length counted are a*, A*
1893or Z*. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
1894
1895=item / must be followed by a, A or Z
1896
be771a83
GS
1897(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, which
1898must be followed by one of the letters a, A or Z to indicate what sort
1899of string is to be unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
1900
1901=item / must follow a numeric type
1902
be771a83
GS
1903(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '#', but this did not
1904follow some numeric unpack specification. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
1905
1906=item "my sub" not yet implemented
1907
be771a83
GS
1908(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
1909that yet.
6df41af2
GS
1910
1911=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
1912
be771a83
GS
1913(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
1914sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
1915local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 1916
8b1a09fc
PP
1917=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
1918
e476b1b5 1919(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
be771a83
GS
1920If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
1921again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
77ca0c92 1922provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e
LW
1923
1924=item Negative length
1925
be771a83
GS
1926(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
1927length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e
LW
1928
1929=item nested *?+ in regexp
1930
5f05dabc 1931(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
a0d0e21e
LW
1932things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal.
1933
be771a83
GS
1934Note, however, that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
1935C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 1936
6df41af2 1937=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 1938
be771a83
GS
1939(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
1940scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e
LW
1941
1942=item No %s allowed while running setuid
1943
be771a83
GS
1944(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
1945setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
1946will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
1947securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1948
1949=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
1950
1951(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
1952
1953=item No comma allowed after %s
1954
1955(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
1956allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
1957Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
1958
0a753a76
PP
1959One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
1960constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
1961importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
1962does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
1963explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
1964L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
1965would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
1966remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
1967constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
1968list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
1969this error was triggered?
1970
748a9306
LW
1971=item No command into which to pipe on command line
1972
be771a83
GS
1973(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
1974redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
1975doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 1976
a0d0e21e
LW
1977=item No DB::DB routine defined
1978
be771a83
GS
1979(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
1980for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof) didn't
1981define a routine to be called at the beginning of each statement. Which
1982is odd, because the file should have been required automatically, and
1983should have blown up the require if it didn't parse right.
a0d0e21e
LW
1984
1985=item No dbm on this machine
1986
1987(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 1988supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1989
1990=item No DBsub routine
1991
1992(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1993but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1994didn't define a DB::sub routine to be called at the beginning of each
1995ordinary subroutine call.
1996
c47ff5f1 1997=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 1998
be771a83
GS
1999(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2000redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2001find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2002
c47ff5f1 2003=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2004
be771a83
GS
2005(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2006redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2007name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2008
6df41af2
GS
2009=item No #! line
2010
2011(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2012even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
2013
2014=item "no" not allowed in expression
2015
be771a83
GS
2016(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2017returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2018
c47ff5f1 2019=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2020
be771a83
GS
2021(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2022redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2023doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2024
c47ff5f1 2025=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2026
be771a83
GS
2027(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2028redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2029find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2030
1ec3e8de
GS
2031=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2032
be771a83
GS
2033(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2034declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2035semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2036
a0d0e21e
LW
2037=item No Perl script found in input
2038
2039(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2040with #! and containing the word "perl".
2041
2042=item No setregid available
2043
2044(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2045your system.
2046
2047=item No setreuid available
2048
2049(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2050your system.
2051
a67e862a 2052=item No space allowed after -%c
a0d0e21e 2053
be771a83
GS
2054(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2055immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
a0d0e21e 2056
6df41af2
GS
2057=item No %s specified for -%c
2058
2059(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
2060you haven't specified one.
2061
2062=item No such pipe open
2063
2064(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
2065close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
2066earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 2067
88e9b055 2068=item No such pseudo-hash field "%s"
57079c46 2069
88e9b055 2070(F) You tried to access an array as a hash, but the field name used is
57079c46
GA
2071not defined. The hash at index 0 should map all valid field names to
2072array indices for that to work.
2073
88e9b055 2074=item No such pseudo-hash field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
f1192cee 2075
be771a83
GS
2076(F) You tried to access a field of a typed variable where the type does
2077not know about the field name. The field names are looked up in the
2078%FIELDS hash in the type package at compile time. The %FIELDS hash is
2079%usually set up with the 'fields' pragma.
f1192cee 2080
a0d0e21e
LW
2081=item No such signal: SIG%s
2082
be771a83
GS
2083(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
2084not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
2085names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
2086
2087=item Not a CODE reference
2088
2089(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2090subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2091use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2092also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2093
2094=item Not a format reference
2095
2096(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
2097format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
2098
2099=item Not a GLOB reference
2100
be771a83
GS
2101(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
2102symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
2103something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
2104kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2105
2106=item Not a HASH reference
2107
be771a83
GS
2108(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
2109reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
2110find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2111
6df41af2
GS
2112=item Not an ARRAY reference
2113
be771a83
GS
2114(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
2115a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2116to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 2117
a0d0e21e
LW
2118=item Not a perl script
2119
2120(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2121even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
2122mention perl.
2123
2124=item Not a SCALAR reference
2125
be771a83
GS
2126(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
2127a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2128to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2129
2130=item Not a subroutine reference
2131
2132(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2133subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2134use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2135also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2136
e7ea3e70 2137=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
2138
2139(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 2140doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2141
a0d0e21e
LW
2142=item Not enough arguments for %s
2143
2144(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
2145
6df41af2
GS
2146=item Not enough format arguments
2147
be771a83
GS
2148(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
2149supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
2150
2151=item %s: not found
2152
be771a83
GS
2153(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
2154of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
2155yourself.
6df41af2
GS
2156
2157=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 2158
6df41af2
GS
2159(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
2160timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
2161to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
2162F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
2163need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2164
2165=item Null filename used
2166
be771a83
GS
2167(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
2168machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 2169
6df41af2
GS
2170=item NULL OP IN RUN
2171
be771a83
GS
2172(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
2173pointer.
6df41af2 2174
55497cff
PP
2175=item Null picture in formline
2176
2177(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
2178specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
2179supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
2180
a0d0e21e
LW
2181=item Null realloc
2182
2183(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
2184
2185=item NULL regexp argument
2186
5f05dabc 2187(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2188
2189=item NULL regexp parameter
2190
2191(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
2192
fc36a67e
PP
2193=item Number too long
2194
be771a83
GS
2195(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
2196about about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
2197versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
2198the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
2199"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 2200
6df41af2
GS
2201=item Octal number in vector unsupported
2202
be771a83
GS
2203(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
2204The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
2205future version.
6df41af2 2206
252aa082
JH
2207=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
2208
75b44862 2209(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
2210(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2211L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
2212
2213See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
2214
1930e939 2215=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 2216
be771a83
GS
2217(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
2218which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 2219
bbce6d69
PP
2220=item Offset outside string
2221
2222(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
be771a83
GS
2223pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to imagine. The sole
2224exception to this is that C<sysread()>ing past the buffer will extend
2225the buffer and zero pad the new area.
bbce6d69 2226
a0d0e21e
LW
2227=item oops: oopsAV
2228
e476b1b5 2229(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
2230
2231=item oops: oopsHV
2232
e476b1b5 2233(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 2234
56f7f34b 2235=item Operation `%s': no method found, %s
44a8e56a 2236
be771a83
GS
2237(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
2238handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
2239of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
2240C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 2241
748a9306
LW
2242=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
2243
be771a83
GS
2244(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
2245was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
2246use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
2247example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
2248"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 2249
6df41af2
GS
2250=item "our" variable %s redeclared
2251
be771a83
GS
2252(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
2253in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 2254
a80b8354
GS
2255=item Out of memory!
2256
2257(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
2258remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
2259no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 2260
6df41af2 2261=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 2262
6df41af2
GS
2263(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
2264remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
2265the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
2266possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 2267
1b979e0a 2268=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 2269
be771a83
GS
2270(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
2271insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
2272request.
eff9c6e2
CS
2273
2274The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
2275depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
2276However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
2277emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
2278is trappable I<once>.
55497cff 2279
1b979e0a
IZ
2280=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
2281
2282(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
2283is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
2284C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 2285
6df41af2
GS
2286=item Out of memory for yacc stack
2287
be771a83
GS
2288(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
2289parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
2290otherwise.
6df41af2
GS
2291
2292=item @ outside of string
2293
2294(F) You had a pack template that specified an absolute position outside
2295the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2296
2297=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
2298
be771a83
GS
2299(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a
2300package-specific handler. That name might have a meaning to Perl itself
2301some day, even though it doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a
2302mixed-case attribute name, instead. See L<attributes>.
6df41af2 2303
a0d0e21e
LW
2304=item page overflow
2305
be771a83
GS
2306(W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a
2307page. See L<perlform>.
a0d0e21e 2308
6df41af2
GS
2309=item panic: %s
2310
2311(P) An internal error.
2312
a0d0e21e
LW
2313=item panic: ck_grep
2314
2315(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
2316
2317=item panic: ck_split
2318
2319(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
2320
2321=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
2322
be771a83
GS
2323(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than
2324there are in the savestack.
a0d0e21e 2325
810b8aa5
GS
2326=item panic: del_backref
2327
2328(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
2329reference.
2330
a0d0e21e
LW
2331=item panic: die %s
2332
2333(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
2334it wasn't an eval context.
2335
2336=item panic: do_match
2337
be771a83
GS
2338(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational
2339data.
a0d0e21e
LW
2340
2341=item panic: do_split
2342
2343(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
2344
2345=item panic: do_subst
2346
be771a83
GS
2347(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational
2348data.
a0d0e21e
LW
2349
2350=item panic: do_trans
2351
be771a83
GS
2352(P) The internal do_trans() routine was called with invalid operational
2353data.
a0d0e21e 2354
c635e13b
PP
2355=item panic: frexp
2356
2357(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
2358
a0d0e21e
LW
2359=item panic: goto
2360
2361(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
2362and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
2363
2364=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
2365
2366(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
2367
2368=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
2369
2370(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
2371
e446cec8
IZ
2372=item panic: kid popen errno read
2373
2374(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
2375
a0d0e21e
LW
2376=item panic: last
2377
2378(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
2379it wasn't a block context.
2380
2381=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
2382
be771a83
GS
2383(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the
2384scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
2385
2386=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
2387
2388(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
2389invalid enum on the top of it.
2390
810b8aa5
GS
2391=item panic: magic_killbackrefs
2392
2393(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak
2394references to an object.
2395
6df41af2
GS
2396=item panic: malloc
2397
2398(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
2399
a0d0e21e
LW
2400=item panic: mapstart
2401
2402(P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.
2403
2404=item panic: null array
2405
2406(P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.
2407
2408=item panic: pad_alloc
2409
2410(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2411and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2412
2413=item panic: pad_free curpad
2414
2415(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2416and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2417
2418=item panic: pad_free po
2419
2420(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2421
2422=item panic: pad_reset curpad
2423
2424(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2425and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2426
2427=item panic: pad_sv po
2428
2429(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2430
2431=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
2432
2433(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2434and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2435
2436=item panic: pad_swipe po
2437
2438(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2439
2440=item panic: pp_iter
2441
2442(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
2443
2444=item panic: realloc
2445
2446(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
2447
2448=item panic: restartop
2449
2450(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
2451didn't supply the destination.
2452
2453=item panic: return
2454
2455(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
2456then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
2457
2458=item panic: scan_num
2459
2460(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
2461
2462=item panic: sv_insert
2463
2464(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
2465was string.
2466
2467=item panic: top_env
2468
6224f72b 2469(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
a0d0e21e
LW
2470
2471=item panic: yylex
2472
2473(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
2474
7b8d334a 2475=item Parentheses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e 2476
e476b1b5 2477(W parenthesis) You said something like
a0d0e21e
LW
2478
2479 my $foo, $bar = @_;
2480
2481when you meant
2482
2483 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
2484
54884818 2485Remember that "my", "our", and "local" bind tighter than comma.
a0d0e21e 2486
75b44862 2487=item Perl %s required--this is only version %s, stopped
a0d0e21e 2488
be771a83
GS
2489(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more
2490recent than the currently running version. How long has it been since
2491you upgraded, anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 2492
6df41af2
GS
2493=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
2494
2495(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
2496C<sh>-shell in. See "PERL_SH_DIR" in F<README.os2>.
2497
2498=item perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
2499
2500(S) The whole warning message will look something like:
2501
2502 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
2503 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
2504 LC_ALL = "En_US",
2505 LANG = (unset)
2506 are supported and installed on your system.
2507 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
2508
2509Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies. In the above the
2510settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.
2511This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your system
2512administrator have set up the so-called variable system but Perl could
2513not use those settings. This was not dead serious, fortunately: there
be771a83
GS
2514is a "default locale" called "C" that Perl can and will use, the script
2515will be run. Before you really fix the problem, however, you will get
2516the same error message each time you run Perl. How to really fix the
2517problem can be found in L<perllocale> section B<LOCALE PROBLEMS>.
6df41af2 2518
a0d0e21e
LW
2519=item Permission denied
2520
2521(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
2522
bd3fa61c 2523=item pid %x not a child
748a9306 2524
be771a83
GS
2525(W exec) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a
2526process which isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is
2527fine from VMS' perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
748a9306 2528
a0d0e21e
LW
2529=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
2530
81777298 2531(F) Your system has POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
a0d0e21e
LW
2532the BSD version, which takes a pid.
2533
bbce6d69
PP
2534=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
2535
e476b1b5 2536(W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal
75b44862 2537strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated as
be771a83
GS
2538literal data. (You may have used different delimiters than the
2539parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently used.)
bbce6d69 2540
774d564b
PP
2541You probably wrote something like this:
2542
54310121 2543 @list = qw(
774d564b 2544 a # a comment
bbce6d69 2545 b # another comment
774d564b 2546 );
bbce6d69
PP
2547
2548when you should have written this:
2549
774d564b 2550 @list = qw(
54310121
PP
2551 a
2552 b
774d564b
PP
2553 );
2554
2555If you really want comments, build your list the
2556old-fashioned way, with quotes and commas:
2557
2558 @list = (
2559 'a', # a comment
2560 'b', # another comment
2561 );
bbce6d69
PP
2562
2563=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
2564
be771a83
GS
2565(W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore
2566commas aren't needed to separate the items. (You may have used
2567different delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also
2568frequently used.)
bbce6d69 2569
54310121 2570You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69 2571
774d564b
PP
2572 qw! a, b, c !;
2573
2574which puts literal commas into some of the list items. Write it without
2575commas if you don't want them to appear in your data:
bbce6d69 2576
774d564b 2577 qw! a b c !;
bbce6d69 2578
a0d0e21e
LW
2579=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
2580
2581(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
2582Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
2583end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
2584Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
2585
6df41af2
GS
2586=item Possible Y2K bug: %s
2587
2588(W y2k) You are concatenating the number 19 with another number, which
2589could be a potential Year 2000 problem.
2590
8cd79558
GS
2591=item pragma "attrs" is deprecated, use "sub NAME : ATTRS" instead
2592
4375e838 2593(W deprecated) You have written something like this:
8cd79558
GS
2594
2595 sub doit
2596 {
2597 use attrs qw(locked);
2598 }
2599
2600You should use the new declaration syntax instead.
2601
2602 sub doit : locked
2603 {
2604 ...
2605
2606The C<use attrs> pragma is now obsolete, and is only provided for
2607backward-compatibility. See L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes">.
2608
a0d0e21e
LW
2609=item Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
2610
e476b1b5 2611(S precedence) The old irregular construct
cb1a09d0 2612
a0d0e21e
LW
2613 open FOO || die;
2614
2615is now misinterpreted as
2616
2617 open(FOO || die);
2618
be771a83
GS
2619because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary and
2620list operators. (The old open was a little of both.) You must put
2621parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator instead
2622of "||".
a0d0e21e 2623
3cdd684c
TP
2624=item Premature end of script headers
2625
2626See Server error.
2627
6df41af2
GS
2628=item printf() on closed filehandle %s
2629
be771a83
GS
2630(W closed) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime
2631before now. Check your logic flow.
6df41af2 2632
9a7dcd9c 2633=item print() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 2634
be771a83
GS
2635(W closed) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime
2636before now. Check your logic flow.
a0d0e21e 2637
6df41af2 2638=item Process terminated by SIG%s
a0d0e21e 2639
6df41af2
GS
2640(W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while *nix
2641applications die in silence. It is considered a feature of the OS/2
2642port. One can easily disable this by appropriate sighandlers, see
2643L<perlipc/"Signals">. See also "Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT"
2644in F<README.os2>.
a0d0e21e 2645
3fe9a6f1 2646=item Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
4633a7c4 2647
be771a83
GS
2648(S unsafe) The subroutine being declared or defined had previously been
2649declared or defined with a different function prototype.
4633a7c4 2650
89ea2908
GA
2651=item Range iterator outside integer range
2652
2653(F) One (or both) of the numeric arguments to the range operator ".."
2654are outside the range which can be represented by integers internally.
be771a83
GS
2655One possible workaround is to force Perl to use magical string increment
2656by prepending "0" to your numbers.
89ea2908 2657
9a7dcd9c 2658=item readline() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 2659
75b44862
GS
2660(W closed) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime
2661before now. Check your logic flow.
a0d0e21e 2662
6df41af2
GS
2663=item Reallocation too large: %lx
2664
2665(F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
2666
4ad56ec9
IZ
2667=item realloc() of freed memory ignored
2668
be771a83
GS
2669(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
2670already been freed.
4ad56ec9 2671
a0d0e21e
LW
2672=item Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch
2673
be771a83
GS
2674(F debugging) You can't use the B<-D> option unless the code to produce
2675the desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead,
a0d0e21e
LW
2676which is why it's currently left out of your copy.
2677
3e0ccd42 2678=item Recursive inheritance detected in package '%s'
a0d0e21e
LW
2679
2680(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used. Probably indicates
2681an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2682
3e0ccd42
JP
2683=item Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method '%s' in package '%s'
2684
be771a83
GS
2685(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were encountered while invoking
2686a method. Probably indicates an unintended loop in your inheritance
2687hierarchy.
3e0ccd42 2688
1930e939
TP
2689=item Reference found where even-sized list expected
2690
be771a83
GS
2691(W misc) You gave a single reference where Perl was expecting a list
2692with an even number of elements (for assignment to a hash). This usually
2693means that you used the anon hash constructor when you meant to use
2694parens. In any case, a hash requires key/value B<pairs>.
7b8d334a
GS
2695
2696 %hash = { one => 1, two => 2, }; # WRONG
2697 %hash = [ qw/ an anon array / ]; # WRONG
2698 %hash = ( one => 1, two => 2, ); # right
2699 %hash = qw( one 1 two 2 ); # also fine
2700
810b8aa5
GS
2701=item Reference is already weak
2702
e476b1b5 2703(W misc) You have attempted to weaken a reference that is already weak.
810b8aa5
GS
2704Doing so has no effect.
2705
a0d0e21e
LW
2706=item Reference miscount in sv_replace()
2707
be771a83
GS
2708(W internal) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with
2709a reference count of other than 1.
a0d0e21e
LW
2710
2711=item regexp memory corruption
2712
2713(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
2714expression compiler gave it.
2715
6df41af2
GS
2716=item regexp *+ operand could be empty
2717
be771a83
GS
2718(F) The part of the regexp subject to either the * or + quantifier could
2719match an empty string.
6df41af2 2720
a0d0e21e
LW
2721=item regexp out of space
2722
be771a83
GS
2723(P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it
2724earlier.
a0d0e21e 2725
7a95317d
GS
2726=item Repeat count in pack overflows
2727
be771a83
GS
2728(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
2729signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
7a95317d
GS
2730
2731=item Repeat count in unpack overflows
2732
be771a83
GS
2733(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
2734signed integers. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
7a95317d 2735
a0d0e21e
LW
2736=item Reversed %s= operator
2737
be771a83
GS
2738(W syntax) You wrote your assignment operator backwards. The = must
2739always comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.
a0d0e21e
LW
2740
2741=item Runaway format
2742
2743(F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it
2744produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the
2745199th line. Apparently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
2746themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar variables), or by
2747shifting or popping (for array variables). See L<perlform>.
2748
2749=item Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
2750
be771a83
GS
2751(W syntax) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a
2752single element of an array. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar
2753value (indicated by $). The difference is that C<$foo[&bar]> always
2754behaves like a scalar, both when assigning to it and when evaluating its
2755argument, while C<@foo[&bar]> behaves like a list when you assign to it,
2756and provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things
2757if you're expecting only one subscript.
a0d0e21e 2758
748a9306 2759On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
5f05dabc 2760element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
748a9306
LW
2761Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2762L<perlref>.
2763
a6006777
PP
2764=item Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
2765
75b44862 2766(W syntax) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single
be771a83
GS
2767element of a hash. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value
2768(indicated by $). The difference is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves
2769like a scalar, both when assigning to it and when evaluating its
2770argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> behaves like a list when you assign to it,
2771and provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things
2772if you're expecting only one subscript.
2773
2774On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash element
2775as a list, you need to look into how references work, because Perl will
2776not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
a6006777
PP
2777L<perlref>.
2778
a0d0e21e
LW
2779=item Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
2780
54310121
PP
2781(F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script without a setuid
2782or setgid bit set. This doesn't make much sense.
a0d0e21e
LW
2783
2784=item Search pattern not terminated
2785
2786(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{}
2787construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2788Missing the leading C<$> from a variable C<$m> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2789
96e4d5b1 2790=item %sseek() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2791
be771a83
GS
2792(W unopened) You tried to use the seek() or sysseek() function on a
2793filehandle that was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2794
2795=item select not implemented
2796
2797(F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.
2798
6df41af2 2799=item Semicolon seems to be missing
a0d0e21e 2800
75b44862
GS
2801(W semicolon) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing
2802semicolon, or possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.
a0d0e21e
LW
2803
2804=item semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
2805
be771a83
GS
2806(S internal) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a
2807scalar that had previously been marked as free.
a0d0e21e 2808
6df41af2 2809=item sem%s not implemented
a0d0e21e 2810
6df41af2 2811(F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.
a0d0e21e 2812
69282e91 2813=item send() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2814
be771a83
GS
2815(W closed) The socket you're sending to got itself closed sometime
2816before now. Check your logic flow.
a0d0e21e 2817
1b1626e4 2818=item Sequence (? incomplete
7b8d334a 2819
be771a83
GS
2820(F) A regular expression ended with an incomplete extension (?. See
2821L<perlre>.
1b1626e4 2822
a0d0e21e
LW
2823=item Sequence (?%s...) not implemented
2824
2825(F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved
2826but has not yet been written. See L<perlre>.
2827
2828=item Sequence (?%s...) not recognized
2829
2830(F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense.
2831See L<perlre>.
2832
6df41af2
GS
2833=item Sequence (?#... not terminated
2834
2835(F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing
2836parenthesis. Embedded parentheses aren't allowed. See L<perlre>.
2837
2838=item 500 Server error
2839
2840See Server error.
2841
a5f75d66
AD
2842=item Server error
2843
3cdd684c 2844This is the error message generally seen in a browser window when trying
be771a83
GS
2845to run a CGI program (including SSI) over the web. The actual error text
2846varies widely from server to server. The most frequently-seen variants
2847are "500 Server error", "Method (something) not permitted", "Document
2848contains no data", "Premature end of script headers", and "Did not
2849produce a valid header".
9607fc9c
PP
2850
2851B<This is a CGI error, not a Perl error>.
2852
be771a83
GS
2853You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible by the
2854user CGI is running the script under (which is probably not the user
2855account you tested it under), does not rely on any environment variables
2856(like PATH) from the user it isn't running under, and isn't in a
2857location where the CGI server can't find it, basically, more or less.
2858Please see the following for more information:
9607fc9c 2859
be94a901
GS
2860 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/idiots-guide.html
2861 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/perl-cgi-faq.html
9607fc9c
PP
2862 ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/www/cgi-faq
2863 http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/cgi/interface.html
2864 http://www-genome.wi.mit.edu/WWW/faqs/www-security-faq.html
a5f75d66 2865
be94a901
GS
2866You should also look at L<perlfaq9>.
2867
a0d0e21e
LW
2868=item setegid() not implemented
2869
be771a83
GS
2870(F) You tried to assign to C<$)>, and your operating system doesn't
2871support the setegid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
2872didn't think so.
a0d0e21e
LW
2873
2874=item seteuid() not implemented
2875
be771a83
GS
2876(F) You tried to assign to C<< $> >>, and your operating system doesn't
2877support the seteuid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
2878didn't think so.
a0d0e21e 2879
81777298
GS
2880=item setpgrp can't take arguments
2881
be771a83
GS
2882(F) Your system has the setpgrp() from BSD 4.2, which takes no
2883arguments, unlike POSIX setpgid(), which takes a process ID and process
2884group ID.
81777298 2885
a0d0e21e
LW
2886=item setrgid() not implemented
2887
be771a83
GS
2888(F) You tried to assign to C<$(>, and your operating system doesn't
2889support the setrgid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
2890didn't think so.
a0d0e21e
LW
2891
2892=item setruid() not implemented
2893
be771a83
GS
2894(F) You tried to assign to C<$<>, and your operating system doesn't
2895support the setruid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
2896didn't think so.
a0d0e21e 2897
6df41af2
GS
2898=item setsockopt() on closed socket %s
2899
be771a83
GS
2900(W closed) You tried to set a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
2901forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
2902L<perlfunc/setsockopt>.
2903
a0d0e21e
LW
2904=item Setuid/gid script is writable by world
2905
be771a83
GS
2906(F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is writable by the
2907world, because the world might have written on it already.
a0d0e21e
LW
2908
2909=item shm%s not implemented
2910
2911(F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your system.
2912
6df41af2
GS
2913=item <> should be quotes
2914
2915(F) You wrote C<< require <file> >> when you should have written
2916C<require 'file'>.
2917
2918=item /%s/ should probably be written as "%s"
2919
2920(W syntax) You have used a pattern where Perl expected to find a string,
be771a83
GS
2921as in the first argument to C<join>. Perl will treat the true or false
2922result of matching the pattern against $_ as the string, which is
2923probably not what you had in mind.
6df41af2 2924
69282e91 2925=item shutdown() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2926
75b44862
GS
2927(W closed) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket. Seems a bit
2928superfluous.
a0d0e21e 2929
f86702cc 2930=item SIG%s handler "%s" not defined
a0d0e21e 2931
be771a83
GS
2932(W signal) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't, in fact, exist.
2933Perhaps you put it into the wrong package?
a0d0e21e
LW
2934
2935=item sort is now a reserved word
2936
2937(F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into anymore.
2938But before sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a filehandle.
2939
2940=item Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value
2941
2942(F) A sort comparison routine must return a number. You probably blew
c47ff5f1 2943it by not using C<< <=> >> or C<cmp>, or by not using them correctly.
a0d0e21e
LW
2944See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2945
2946=item Sort subroutine didn't return single value
2947
2948(F) A sort comparison subroutine may not return a list value with more
2949or less than one element. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2950
2951=item Split loop
2952
be771a83
GS
2953(P) The split was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a split shouldn't
2954iterate more times than there are characters of input, which is what
2955happened.) See L<perlfunc/split>.
a0d0e21e 2956
a0d0e21e
LW
2957=item Statement unlikely to be reached
2958
be771a83
GS
2959(W exec) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than a
2960die(). This is almost always an error, because exec() never returns
2961unless there was a failure. You probably wanted to use system()
2962instead, which does return. To suppress this warning, put the exec() in
2963a block by itself.
a0d0e21e 2964
6df41af2
GS
2965=item Stat on unopened file <%s>
2966
be771a83
GS
2967(W unopened) You tried to use the stat() function (or an equivalent file
2968test) on a filehandle that was either never opened or has since been
2969closed.
6df41af2 2970
17feb5d5
DD
2971=item Strange *+?{} on zero-length expression
2972
be771a83
GS
2973(W regexp) You applied a regular expression quantifier in a place where
2974it makes no sense, such as on a zero-width assertion. Try putting the
2975quantifier inside the assertion instead. For example, the way to match
2976"abc" provided that it is followed by three repetitions of "xyz" is
2977C</abc(?=(?:xyz){3})/>, not C</abc(?=xyz){3}/>.
17feb5d5 2978
e7ea3e70
IZ
2979=item Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
2980
be771a83
GS
2981(P) Overloading resolution over @ISA tree may be broken by importation
2982stubs. Stubs should never be implicitly created, but explicit calls to
2983C<can> may break this.
e7ea3e70 2984
a0d0e21e
LW
2985=item Subroutine %s redefined
2986
e476b1b5 2987(W redefine) You redefined a subroutine. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
2988
2989 {
4438c4b7 2990 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
2991 eval "sub name { ... }";
2992 }
2993
2994=item Substitution loop
2995
be771a83
GS
2996(P) The substitution was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a substitution
2997shouldn't iterate more times than there are characters of input, which
2998is what happened.) See the discussion of substitution in
5f05dabc 2999L<perlop/"Quote and Quote-like Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
3000
3001=item Substitution pattern not terminated
3002
3003(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
3004construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 3005Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
3006
3007=item Substitution replacement not terminated
3008
3009(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
3010construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 3011Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
3012
3013=item substr outside of string
3014
be771a83
GS
3015(W substr),(F) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed outside of
3016a string. That is, the absolute value of the offset was larger than the
3017length of the string. See L<perlfunc/substr>. This warning is fatal if
3018substr is used in an lvalue context (as the left hand side of an
3019assignment or as a subroutine argument for example).
a0d0e21e 3020
f86702cc 3021=item suidperl is no longer needed since %s
a0d0e21e 3022
be771a83
GS
3023(F) Your Perl was compiled with B<-D>SETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW, but
3024a version of the setuid emulator somehow got run anyway.
a0d0e21e 3025
85ab1d1d
JH
3026=item switching effective %s is not implemented
3027
be771a83
GS
3028(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, we cannot switch the real
3029and effective uids or gids.
85ab1d1d 3030
a0d0e21e
LW
3031=item syntax error
3032
3033(F) Probably means you had a syntax error. Common reasons include:
3034
3035 A keyword is misspelled.
3036 A semicolon is missing.
3037 A comma is missing.
3038 An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
3039 An opening or closing brace is missing.
3040 A closing quote is missing.
3041
3042Often there will be another error message associated with the syntax
3043error giving more information. (Sometimes it helps to turn on B<-w>.)
3044The error message itself often tells you where it was in the line when
3045it decided to give up. Sometimes the actual error is several tokens
5f05dabc 3046before this, because Perl is good at understanding random input.
a0d0e21e
LW
3047Occasionally the line number may be misleading, and once in a blue moon
3048the only way to figure out what's triggering the error is to call
3049C<perl -c> repeatedly, chopping away half the program each time to see
be771a83
GS
3050if the error went away. Sort of the cybernetic version of S<20
3051questions>.
a0d0e21e 3052
cb1a09d0
AD
3053=item syntax error at line %d: `%s' unexpected
3054
be771a83
GS
3055(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
3056of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
3057yourself.
cb1a09d0 3058
6df41af2
GS
3059=item %s syntax OK
3060
3061(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> succeeds.
3062
6087ac44 3063=item System V %s is not implemented on this machine
a0d0e21e 3064
6087ac44
JH
3065(F) You tried to do something with a function beginning with "sem",
3066"shm", or "msg" but that System V IPC is not implemented in your
3067machine. In some machines the functionality can exist but be
3068unconfigured. Consult your system support.
a0d0e21e 3069
69282e91 3070=item syswrite() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 3071
be771a83
GS
3072(W closed) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime
3073before now. Check your logic flow.
a0d0e21e 3074
fc36a67e
PP
3075=item Target of goto is too deeply nested
3076
be771a83
GS
3077(F) You tried to use C<goto> to reach a label that was too deeply nested
3078for Perl to reach. Perl is doing you a favor by refusing.
fc36a67e 3079
8903cb82 3080=item tell() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 3081
be771a83
GS
3082(W unopened) You tried to use the tell() function on a filehandle that
3083was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e 3084
c47ff5f1 3085=item Test on unopened file <%s>
a0d0e21e 3086
be771a83
GS
3087(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
3088that isn't open. Check your logic. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3089
3090=item That use of $[ is unsupported
3091
be771a83
GS
3092(F) Assignment to C<$[> is now strictly circumscribed, and interpreted
3093as a compiler directive. You may say only one of
a0d0e21e
LW
3094
3095 $[ = 0;
3096 $[ = 1;
3097 ...
3098 local $[ = 0;
3099 local $[ = 1;
3100 ...
3101
be771a83
GS
3102This is to prevent the problem of one module changing the array base out
3103from under another module inadvertently. See L<perlvar/$[>.
a0d0e21e 3104
f86702cc 3105=item The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia
a0d0e21e
LW
3106
3107(F) Configure couldn't find the crypt() function on your machine,
3108probably because your vendor didn't supply it, probably because they
8b1a09fc 3109think the U.S. Government thinks it's a secret, or at least that they
a0d0e21e
LW
3110will continue to pretend that it is. And if you quote me on that, I
3111will deny it.
3112
6df41af2
GS
3113=item The %s function is unimplemented
3114
3115The function indicated isn't implemented on this architecture, according
3116to the probings of Configure.
3117
a0d0e21e
LW
3118=item The stat preceding C<-l _> wasn't an lstat
3119
be771a83
GS
3120(F) It makes no sense to test the current stat buffer for symbolic
3121linkhood if the last stat that wrote to the stat buffer already went
3122past the symlink to get to the real file. Use an actual filename
3123instead.
a0d0e21e 3124
437784d6 3125=item This Perl can't reset CRTL environ elements (%s)
f675dbe5
CB
3126
3127=item This Perl can't set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s)
3128
75b44862 3129(W internal) Warnings peculiar to VMS. You tried to change or delete an
be771a83
GS
3130element of the CRTL's internal environ array, but your copy of Perl
3131wasn't built with a CRTL that contained the setenv() function. You'll
3132need to rebuild Perl with a CRTL that does, or redefine
3133F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that the environ array isn't the
3134target of the change to
f675dbe5
CB
3135%ENV which produced the warning.
3136
a0d0e21e
LW
3137=item times not implemented
3138
be771a83
GS
3139(F) Your version of the C library apparently doesn't do times(). I
3140suspect you're not running on Unix.
a0d0e21e
LW
3141
3142=item Too few args to syscall
3143
3144(F) There has to be at least one argument to syscall() to specify the
3145system call to call, silly dilly.
3146
9607fc9c
PP
3147=item Too late for "B<-T>" option
3148
3149(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
8cc95fdb
PP
3150B<-T> option, but Perl was not invoked with B<-T> in its command line.
3151This is an error because, by the time Perl discovers a B<-T> in a
3152script, it's too late to properly taint everything from the environment.
3153So Perl gives up.
f86702cc 3154
9607fc9c 3155If the Perl script is being executed as a command using the #!
be771a83
GS
3156mechanism (or its local equivalent), this error can usually be fixed by
3157editing the #! line so that the B<-T> option is a part of Perl's first
3158argument: e.g. change C<perl -n -T> to C<perl -T -n>.
f86702cc 3159
9607fc9c
PP
3160If the Perl script is being executed as C<perl scriptname>, then the
3161B<-T> option must appear on the command line: C<perl -T scriptname>.
f86702cc 3162
8cc95fdb
PP
3163=item Too late for "-%s" option
3164
3165(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
3166B<-M> or B<-m> option. This is an error because B<-M> and B<-m> options
3167are not intended for use inside scripts. Use the C<use> pragma instead.
3168
ddda08b7
GS
3169=item Too late to run %s block
3170
3171(W void) A CHECK or INIT block is being defined during run time proper,
3172when the opportunity to run them has already passed. Perhaps you are
be771a83
GS
3173loading a file with C<require> or C<do> when you should be using C<use>
3174instead. Or perhaps you should put the C<require> or C<do> inside a
3175BEGIN block.
ddda08b7 3176
a0d0e21e
LW
3177=item Too many args to syscall
3178
5f05dabc 3179(F) Perl supports a maximum of only 14 args to syscall().
a0d0e21e
LW
3180
3181=item Too many arguments for %s
3182
3183(F) The function requires fewer arguments than you specified.
3184
6df41af2
GS
3185=item Too many )'s
3186
be771a83
GS
3187(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
3188Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
3189
3190=item Too many ('s
3191
a0d0e21e
LW
3192=item trailing \ in regexp
3193
be771a83
GS
3194(F) The regular expression ends with an unbackslashed backslash.
3195Backslash it. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3196
2c268ad5 3197=item Transliteration pattern not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
3198
3199(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
fb73857a
PP
3200or y/// or y[][] construct. Missing the leading C<$> from variables
3201C<$tr> or C<$y> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 3202
2c268ad5 3203=item Transliteration replacement not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
3204
3205(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
3206construct.
3207
3208=item truncate not implemented
3209
3210(F) Your machine doesn't implement a file truncation mechanism that
3211Configure knows about.
3212
3213=item Type of arg %d to %s must be %s (not %s)
3214
3215(F) This function requires the argument in that position to be of a
8b1a09fc
PP
3216certain type. Arrays must be @NAME or C<@{EXPR}>. Hashes must be
3217%NAME or C<%{EXPR}>. No implicit dereferencing is allowed--use the
a0d0e21e
LW
3218{EXPR} forms as an explicit dereference. See L<perlref>.
3219
3220=item umask: argument is missing initial 0
3221
e476b1b5 3222(W umask) A umask of 222 is incorrect. It should be 0222, because octal
eec2d3df
GS
3223literals always start with 0 in Perl, as in C.
3224
3225=item umask not implemented
3226
be771a83
GS
3227(F) Your machine doesn't implement the umask function and you tried to
3228use it to restrict permissions for yourself (EXPR & 0700).
a0d0e21e 3229
4633a7c4
LW
3230=item Unable to create sub named "%s"
3231
3232(F) You attempted to create or access a subroutine with an illegal name.
3233
a0d0e21e
LW
3234=item Unbalanced context: %d more PUSHes than POPs
3235
be771a83
GS
3236(W internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how
3237many execution contexts were entered and left.
a0d0e21e
LW
3238
3239=item Unbalanced saves: %d more saves than restores
3240
be771a83
GS
3241(W internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how
3242many values were temporarily localized.
a0d0e21e
LW
3243
3244=item Unbalanced scopes: %d more ENTERs than LEAVEs
3245
be771a83
GS
3246(W internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how
3247many blocks were entered and left.
a0d0e21e
LW
3248
3249=item Unbalanced tmps: %d more allocs than frees
3250
be771a83
GS
3251(W internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how
3252many mortal scalars were allocated and freed.
a0d0e21e
LW
3253
3254=item Undefined format "%s" called
3255
3256(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
3257another package? See L<perlform>.
3258
3259=item Undefined sort subroutine "%s" called
3260
be771a83
GS
3261(F) The sort comparison routine specified doesn't seem to exist.
3262Perhaps it's in a different package? See L<perlfunc/sort>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3263
3264=item Undefined subroutine &%s called
3265
be771a83
GS
3266(F) The subroutine indicated hasn't been defined, or if it was, it has
3267since been undefined.
a0d0e21e
LW
3268
3269=item Undefined subroutine called
3270
3271(F) The anonymous subroutine you're trying to call hasn't been defined,
3272or if it was, it has since been undefined.
3273
3274=item Undefined subroutine in sort
3275
be771a83
GS
3276(F) The sort comparison routine specified is declared but doesn't seem
3277to have been defined yet. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
a0d0e21e 3278
4633a7c4
LW
3279=item Undefined top format "%s" called
3280
3281(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
3282another package? See L<perlform>.
3283
20408e3c
GS
3284=item Undefined value assigned to typeglob
3285
be771a83
GS
3286(W misc) An undefined value was assigned to a typeglob, a la
3287C<*foo = undef>. This does nothing. It's possible that you really mean
3288C<undef *foo>.
20408e3c 3289
6df41af2
GS
3290=item %s: Undefined variable
3291
be771a83
GS
3292(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
3293Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 3294
a0d0e21e
LW
3295=item unexec of %s into %s failed!
3296
3297(F) The unexec() routine failed for some reason. See your local FSF
3298representative, who probably put it there in the first place.
3299
3300=item Unknown BYTEORDER
3301
be771a83
GS
3302(F) There are no byte-swapping functions for a machine with this byte
3303order.
a0d0e21e 3304
6170680b
IZ
3305=item Unknown open() mode '%s'
3306
437784d6 3307(F) The second argument of 3-argument open() is not among the list
c47ff5f1
GS
3308of valid modes: C<< < >>, C<< > >>, C<<< >> >>>, C<< +< >>,
3309C<< +> >>, C<<< +>> >>>, C<-|>, C<|->.
6170680b 3310
f675dbe5
CB
3311=item Unknown process %x sent message to prime_env_iter: %s
3312
3313(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl was reading values for %ENV before
3314iterating over it, and someone else stuck a message in the stream of
3315data Perl expected. Someone's very confused, or perhaps trying to
3316subvert Perl's population of %ENV for nefarious purposes.
3317
6df41af2
GS
3318=item unmatched [] in regexp
3319
3320(F) The brackets around a character class must match. If you wish to
be771a83
GS
3321include a closing bracket in a character class, backslash it or put it
3322first. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 3323
a0d0e21e
LW
3324=item unmatched () in regexp
3325
3326(F) Unbackslashed parentheses must always be balanced in regular
be771a83
GS
3327expressions. If you're a vi user, the % key is valuable for finding the
3328matching parenthesis. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3329
d98d5fff 3330=item Unmatched right %s bracket
a0d0e21e 3331
be771a83
GS
3332(F) The lexer counted more closing curly or square brackets than opening
3333ones, so you're probably missing a matching opening bracket. As a
3334general rule, you'll find the missing one (so to speak) near the place
3335you were last editing.
a0d0e21e 3336
a0d0e21e
LW
3337=item Unquoted string "%s" may clash with future reserved word
3338
be771a83
GS
3339(W reserved) You used a bareword that might someday be claimed as a
3340reserved word. It's best to put such a word in quotes, or capitalize it
3341somehow, or insert an underbar into it. You might also declare it as a
3342subroutine.
a0d0e21e 3343
54310121 3344=item Unrecognized character %s
a0d0e21e 3345
54310121
PP
3346(F) The Perl parser has no idea what to do with the specified character
3347in your Perl script (or eval). Perhaps you tried to run a compressed
3348script, a binary program, or a directory as a Perl program.
a0d0e21e 3349
6df41af2
GS
3350=item /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c in character class passed through
3351
be771a83
GS
3352(W regexp) You used a backslash-character combination which is not
3353recognized by Perl inside character classes. The character was
3354understood literally.
6df41af2
GS
3355
3356=item /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through
3357
be771a83
GS
3358(W regexp) You used a backslash-character combination which is not
3359recognized by Perl. This combination appears in an interpolated
3360variable or a C<'>-delimited regular expression. The character was
3361understood literally.
6df41af2 3362
c9f97d15
IZ
3363=item Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through
3364
be771a83
GS
3365(W misc) You used a backslash-character combination which is not
3366recognized by Perl.
c9f97d15 3367
a0d0e21e
LW
3368=item Unrecognized signal name "%s"
3369
be771a83
GS
3370(F) You specified a signal name to the kill() function that was not
3371recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names
3372on your system.
a0d0e21e 3373
90248788 3374=item Unrecognized switch: -%s (-h will show valid options)
a0d0e21e 3375
be771a83
GS
3376(F) You specified an illegal option to Perl. Don't do that. (If you
3377think you didn't do that, check the #! line to see if it's supplying the
3378bad switch on your behalf.)
a0d0e21e
LW
3379
3380=item Unsuccessful %s on filename containing newline
3381
be771a83
GS
3382(W newline) A file operation was attempted on a filename, and that
3383operation failed, PROBABLY because the filename contained a newline,
3384PROBABLY because you forgot to chop() or chomp() it off. See
3385L<perlfunc/chomp>.