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1# File/Copy.pm. Written in 1994 by Aaron Sherman <ajs@ajs.com>. This
2# source code has been placed in the public domain by the author.
3# Please be kind and preserve the documentation.
4#
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5# Additions copyright 1996 by Charles Bailey. Permission is granted
6# to distribute the revised code under the same terms as Perl itself.
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7
8package File::Copy;
9
3b825e41 10use 5.006;
71be2cbc 11use strict;
b395063c 12use warnings;
f716a1dd 13use Carp;
6c254d95 14use File::Spec;
96a91e01 15use Config;
17f410f9
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16our(@ISA, @EXPORT, @EXPORT_OK, $VERSION, $Too_Big, $Syscopy_is_copy);
17sub copy;
18sub syscopy;
19sub cp;
20sub mv;
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21
22# Note that this module implements only *part* of the API defined by
23# the File/Copy.pm module of the File-Tools-2.0 package. However, that
24# package has not yet been updated to work with Perl 5.004, and so it
25# would be a Bad Thing for the CPAN module to grab it and replace this
26# module. Therefore, we set this module's version higher than 2.0.
88d01e8d 27$VERSION = '2.05';
f716a1dd 28
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29require Exporter;
30@ISA = qw(Exporter);
31@EXPORT = qw(copy move);
32@EXPORT_OK = qw(cp mv);
f716a1dd 33
441496b2 34$Too_Big = 1024 * 1024 * 2;
f716a1dd 35
6c254d95 36sub _catname {
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37 my($from, $to) = @_;
38 if (not defined &basename) {
39 require File::Basename;
40 import File::Basename 'basename';
41 }
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42
43 if ($^O eq 'MacOS') {
44 # a partial dir name that's valid only in the cwd (e.g. 'tmp')
45 $to = ':' . $to if $to !~ /:/;
46 }
47
48 return File::Spec->catfile($to, basename($from));
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49}
50
51sub copy {
71be2cbc 52 croak("Usage: copy(FROM, TO [, BUFFERSIZE]) ")
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53 unless(@_ == 2 || @_ == 3);
54
55 my $from = shift;
56 my $to = shift;
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57
58 my $from_a_handle = (ref($from)
59 ? (ref($from) eq 'GLOB'
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60 || UNIVERSAL::isa($from, 'GLOB')
61 || UNIVERSAL::isa($from, 'IO::Handle'))
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62 : (ref(\$from) eq 'GLOB'));
63 my $to_a_handle = (ref($to)
64 ? (ref($to) eq 'GLOB'
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65 || UNIVERSAL::isa($to, 'GLOB')
66 || UNIVERSAL::isa($to, 'IO::Handle'))
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67 : (ref(\$to) eq 'GLOB'));
68
96a91e01 69 if ($from eq $to) { # works for references, too
70 croak("'$from' and '$to' are identical (not copied)");
71 }
72
73 if ($Config{d_symlink} && $Config{d_readlink} &&
74 !($^O eq 'Win32' || $^O eq 'os2' || $^O eq 'vms')) {
5d3e98de 75 no warnings 'io'; # don't warn if -l on filehandle
a93b80c9 76 if ((-e $from && -l $from) || (-e $to && -l $to)) {
96a91e01 77 my @fs = stat($from);
78 my @ts = stat($to);
a93b80c9 79 if (@fs && @ts && $fs[0] == $ts[0] && $fs[1] == $ts[1]) {
96a91e01 80 croak("'$from' and '$to' are identical (not copied)");
81 }
82 }
83 }
84
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85 if (!$from_a_handle && !$to_a_handle && -d $to && ! -d $from) {
86 $to = _catname($from, $to);
87 }
88
1a04d035 89 if (defined &syscopy && !$Syscopy_is_copy
e6434134 90 && !$to_a_handle
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91 && !($from_a_handle && $^O eq 'os2' ) # OS/2 cannot handle handles
92 && !($from_a_handle && $^O eq 'mpeix') # and neither can MPE/iX.
7509b657 93 && !($from_a_handle && $^O eq 'MSWin32')
fa648be5 94 && !($from_a_handle && $^O eq 'MacOS')
2986a63f 95 && !($from_a_handle && $^O eq 'NetWare')
1a04d035 96 )
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97 {
98 return syscopy($from, $to);
99 }
100
101 my $closefrom = 0;
102 my $closeto = 0;
f716a1dd 103 my ($size, $status, $r, $buf);
48a5c399 104 local($\) = '';
f716a1dd 105
23ba2776 106 my $from_h;
71be2cbc 107 if ($from_a_handle) {
23ba2776 108 $from_h = $from;
f716a1dd 109 } else {
fa648be5 110 $from = _protect($from) if $from =~ /^\s/s;
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111 $from_h = \do { local *FH };
112 open($from_h, "< $from\0") or goto fail_open1;
113 binmode $from_h or die "($!,$^E)";
f716a1dd 114 $closefrom = 1;
1a04d035
A
115 }
116
23ba2776 117 my $to_h;
71be2cbc 118 if ($to_a_handle) {
23ba2776 119 $to_h = $to;
1a04d035 120 } else {
fa648be5 121 $to = _protect($to) if $to =~ /^\s/s;
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122 $to_h = \do { local *FH };
123 open($to_h,"> $to\0") or goto fail_open2;
124 binmode $to_h or die "($!,$^E)";
71be2cbc 125 $closeto = 1;
1a04d035 126 }
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127
128 if (@_) {
129 $size = shift(@_) + 0;
130 croak("Bad buffer size for copy: $size\n") unless ($size > 0);
131 } else {
025a6ea3 132 $size = tied(*$from_h) ? 0 : -s $from_h || 0;
f716a1dd 133 $size = 1024 if ($size < 512);
441496b2 134 $size = $Too_Big if ($size > $Too_Big);
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135 }
136
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137 $! = 0;
138 for (;;) {
139 my ($r, $w, $t);
23ba2776 140 defined($r = sysread($from_h, $buf, $size))
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141 or goto fail_inner;
142 last unless $r;
143 for ($w = 0; $w < $r; $w += $t) {
23ba2776 144 $t = syswrite($to_h, $buf, $r - $w, $w)
71be2cbc 145 or goto fail_inner;
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146 }
147 }
71be2cbc 148
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149 close($to_h) || goto fail_open2 if $closeto;
150 close($from_h) || goto fail_open1 if $closefrom;
71be2cbc 151
48a5c399 152 # Use this idiom to avoid uninitialized value warning.
f716a1dd 153 return 1;
1a04d035 154
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155 # All of these contortions try to preserve error messages...
156 fail_inner:
157 if ($closeto) {
158 $status = $!;
159 $! = 0;
23ba2776 160 close $to_h;
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161 $! = $status unless $!;
162 }
163 fail_open2:
164 if ($closefrom) {
165 $status = $!;
166 $! = 0;
23ba2776 167 close $from_h;
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168 $! = $status unless $!;
169 }
170 fail_open1:
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171 return 0;
172}
9b957b78 173
441496b2 174sub move {
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175 my($from,$to) = @_;
176 my($copied,$fromsz,$tosz1,$tomt1,$tosz2,$tomt2,$sts,$ossts);
441496b2 177
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178 if (-d $to && ! -d $from) {
179 $to = _catname($from, $to);
180 }
181
182 ($tosz1,$tomt1) = (stat($to))[7,9];
183 $fromsz = -s $from;
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184 if ($^O eq 'os2' and defined $tosz1 and defined $fromsz) {
185 # will not rename with overwrite
186 unlink $to;
187 }
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188 return 1 if rename $from, $to;
189
190 ($sts,$ossts) = ($! + 0, $^E + 0);
191 # Did rename return an error even though it succeeded, because $to
192 # is on a remote NFS file system, and NFS lost the server's ack?
193 return 1 if defined($fromsz) && !-e $from && # $from disappeared
194 (($tosz2,$tomt2) = (stat($to))[7,9]) && # $to's there
195 ($tosz1 != $tosz2 or $tomt1 != $tomt2) && # and changed
196 $tosz2 == $fromsz; # it's all there
1a04d035 197
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198 ($tosz1,$tomt1) = (stat($to))[7,9]; # just in case rename did something
199 return 1 if ($copied = copy($from,$to)) && unlink($from);
1a04d035 200
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201 ($tosz2,$tomt2) = ((stat($to))[7,9],0,0) if defined $tomt1;
202 unlink($to) if !defined($tomt1) or $tomt1 != $tomt2 or $tosz1 != $tosz2;
203 ($!,$^E) = ($sts,$ossts);
204 return 0;
441496b2 205}
9b957b78 206
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207*cp = \&copy;
208*mv = \&move;
209
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210
211if ($^O eq 'MacOS') {
212 *_protect = sub { MacPerl::MakeFSSpec($_[0]) };
213} else {
214 *_protect = sub { "./$_[0]" };
215}
216
9b957b78 217# &syscopy is an XSUB under OS/2
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218unless (defined &syscopy) {
219 if ($^O eq 'VMS') {
220 *syscopy = \&rmscopy;
221 } elsif ($^O eq 'mpeix') {
222 *syscopy = sub {
3f5ee302 223 return 0 unless @_ == 2;
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224 # Use the MPE cp program in order to
225 # preserve MPE file attributes.
226 return system('/bin/cp', '-f', $_[0], $_[1]) == 0;
227 };
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228 } elsif ($^O eq 'MSWin32') {
229 *syscopy = sub {
230 return 0 unless @_ == 2;
231 return Win32::CopyFile(@_, 1);
232 };
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233 } elsif ($^O eq 'MacOS') {
234 require Mac::MoreFiles;
235 *syscopy = sub {
236 my($from, $to) = @_;
237 my($dir, $toname);
238
239 return 0 unless -e $from;
240
241 if ($to =~ /(.*:)([^:]+):?$/) {
242 ($dir, $toname) = ($1, $2);
243 } else {
244 ($dir, $toname) = (":", $to);
245 }
246
247 unlink($to);
248 Mac::MoreFiles::FSpFileCopy($from, $dir, $toname, 1);
249 };
1d84e8df 250 } else {
1a04d035 251 $Syscopy_is_copy = 1;
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252 *syscopy = \&copy;
253 }
254}
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255
2561;
257
258__END__
a5f75d66 259
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260=head1 NAME
261
262File::Copy - Copy files or filehandles
263
a5f75d66 264=head1 SYNOPSIS
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265
266 use File::Copy;
267
268 copy("file1","file2");
269 copy("Copy.pm",\*STDOUT);'
441496b2 270 move("/dev1/fileA","/dev2/fileB");
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271
272 use POSIX;
273 use File::Copy cp;
274
23f3aea0 275 $n = FileHandle->new("/a/file","r");
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276 cp($n,"x");'
277
278=head1 DESCRIPTION
279
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280The File::Copy module provides two basic functions, C<copy> and
281C<move>, which are useful for getting the contents of a file from
282one place to another.
283
284=over 4
285
286=item *
287
288The C<copy> function takes two
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289parameters: a file to copy from and a file to copy to. Either
290argument may be a string, a FileHandle reference or a FileHandle
291glob. Obviously, if the first argument is a filehandle of some
292sort, it will be read from, and if it is a file I<name> it will
293be opened for reading. Likewise, the second argument will be
96a91e01 294written to (and created if need be). Trying to copy a file on top
295of itself is a fatal error.
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296
297B<Note that passing in
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298files as handles instead of names may lead to loss of information
299on some operating systems; it is recommended that you use file
e6434134 300names whenever possible.> Files are opened in binary mode where
8dcee03e 301applicable. To get a consistent behaviour when copying from a
e6434134 302filehandle to a file, use C<binmode> on the filehandle.
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303
304An optional third parameter can be used to specify the buffer
305size used for copying. This is the number of bytes from the
306first file, that wil be held in memory at any given time, before
307being written to the second file. The default buffer size depends
308upon the file, but will generally be the whole file (up to 2Mb), or
3091k for filehandles that do not reference files (eg. sockets).
310
311You may use the syntax C<use File::Copy "cp"> to get at the
312"cp" alias for this function. The syntax is I<exactly> the same.
313
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314=item *
315
316The C<move> function also takes two parameters: the current name
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317and the intended name of the file to be moved. If the destination
318already exists and is a directory, and the source is not a
319directory, then the source file will be renamed into the directory
320specified by the destination.
321
322If possible, move() will simply rename the file. Otherwise, it copies
323the file to the new location and deletes the original. If an error occurs
324during this copy-and-delete process, you may be left with a (possibly partial)
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325copy of the file under the destination name.
326
327You may use the "mv" alias for this function in the same way that
328you may use the "cp" alias for C<copy>.
329
330=back
331
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332File::Copy also provides the C<syscopy> routine, which copies the
333file specified in the first parameter to the file specified in the
334second parameter, preserving OS-specific attributes and file
335structure. For Unix systems, this is equivalent to the simple
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336C<copy> routine, which doesn't preserve OS-specific attributes. For
337VMS systems, this calls the C<rmscopy> routine (see below). For OS/2
338systems, this calls the C<syscopy> XSUB directly. For Win32 systems,
339this calls C<Win32::CopyFile>.
9b957b78 340
7509b657 341=head2 Special behaviour if C<syscopy> is defined (OS/2, VMS and Win32)
9b957b78 342
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343If both arguments to C<copy> are not file handles,
344then C<copy> will perform a "system copy" of
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345the input file to a new output file, in order to preserve file
346attributes, indexed file structure, I<etc.> The buffer size
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347parameter is ignored. If either argument to C<copy> is a
348handle to an opened file, then data is copied using Perl
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349operators, and no effort is made to preserve file attributes
350or record structure.
351
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352The system copy routine may also be called directly under VMS and OS/2
353as C<File::Copy::syscopy> (or under VMS as C<File::Copy::rmscopy>, which
71be2cbc 354is the routine that does the actual work for syscopy).
9b957b78 355
441496b2 356=over 4
55497cff 357
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358=item rmscopy($from,$to[,$date_flag])
359
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360The first and second arguments may be strings, typeglobs, typeglob
361references, or objects inheriting from IO::Handle;
362they are used in all cases to obtain the
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363I<filespec> of the input and output files, respectively. The
364name and type of the input file are used as defaults for the
365output file, if necessary.
366
367A new version of the output file is always created, which
368inherits the structure and RMS attributes of the input file,
369except for owner and protections (and possibly timestamps;
370see below). All data from the input file is copied to the
371output file; if either of the first two parameters to C<rmscopy>
372is a file handle, its position is unchanged. (Note that this
373means a file handle pointing to the output file will be
374associated with an old version of that file after C<rmscopy>
375returns, not the newly created version.)
376
377The third parameter is an integer flag, which tells C<rmscopy>
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JM
378how to handle timestamps. If it is E<lt> 0, none of the input file's
379timestamps are propagated to the output file. If it is E<gt> 0, then
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380it is interpreted as a bitmask: if bit 0 (the LSB) is set, then
381timestamps other than the revision date are propagated; if bit 1
382is set, the revision date is propagated. If the third parameter
383to C<rmscopy> is 0, then it behaves much like the DCL COPY command:
384if the name or type of the output file was explicitly specified,
385then no timestamps are propagated, but if they were taken implicitly
386from the input filespec, then all timestamps other than the
387revision date are propagated. If this parameter is not supplied,
388it defaults to 0.
389
390Like C<copy>, C<rmscopy> returns 1 on success. If an error occurs,
391it sets C<$!>, deletes the output file, and returns 0.
392
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393=back
394
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395=head1 RETURN
396
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397All functions return 1 on success, 0 on failure.
398$! will be set if an error was encountered.
f716a1dd 399
6c254d95
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400=head1 NOTES
401
402=over 4
403
404=item *
405
406On Mac OS (Classic), the path separator is ':', not '/', and the
407current directory is denoted as ':', not '.'. You should be careful
408about specifying relative pathnames. While a full path always begins
409with a volume name, a relative pathname should always begin with a
410':'. If specifying a volume name only, a trailing ':' is required.
411
412E.g.
413
414 copy("file1", "tmp"); # creates the file 'tmp' in the current directory
415 copy("file1", ":tmp:"); # creates :tmp:file1
416 copy("file1", ":tmp"); # same as above
417 copy("file1", "tmp"); # same as above, if 'tmp' is a directory (but don't do
418 # that, since it may cause confusion, see example #1)
419 copy("file1", "tmp:file1"); # error, since 'tmp:' is not a volume
420 copy("file1", ":tmp:file1"); # ok, partial path
421 copy("file1", "DataHD:"); # creates DataHD:file1
422
423 move("MacintoshHD:fileA", "DataHD:fileB"); # moves (don't copies) files from one
424 # volume to another
425
426=back
427
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428=head1 AUTHOR
429
441496b2 430File::Copy was written by Aaron Sherman I<E<lt>ajs@ajs.comE<gt>> in 1995,
bd3fa61c 431and updated by Charles Bailey I<E<lt>bailey@newman.upenn.eduE<gt>> in 1996.
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432
433=cut
441496b2 434