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[perl5.git] / pod / perldiag.pod
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
12 (S) A severe warning (mandatory).
13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
748a9306 18Optional warnings are enabled by using the B<-w> switch. Warnings may
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19be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}> to a reference to a routine that
20will be called on each warning instead of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
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21Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
22L<perlfunc/eval>.
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23
24Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are denoted with a %s,
2ba9eb46 25just as in a printf format. Note that some messages start with a %s!
702d120d 26The symbols C<"%(-?@> sort before the letters, while C<[> and C<\> sort after.
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27
28=over 4
29
30=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
31
32(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make sense
33to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use local()
34if you want to localize a package variable.
35
9fbbe825 36=item "my" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same %s
2ba9eb46 37
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38(W) A lexical variable has been redeclared in the current scope or statement,
39effectively eliminating all access to the previous instance. This is almost
40always a typographical error. Note that the earlier variable will still exist
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41until the end of the scope or until all closure referents to it are
42destroyed.
43
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44=item "no" not allowed in expression
45
46(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
47no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
48
49=item "use" not allowed in expression
50
51(F) The "use" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
52no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
53
f61d411c 54=item '!' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 55
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56(F) The '!' is allowed in pack() and unpack() only after certain types.
57See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 58
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59=item % may only be used in unpack
60
5f05dabc 61(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
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62checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other
63way. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
64
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65=item /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through
66
67(W) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
68by Perl. This combination appears in an interpolated variable or a
69C<'>-delimited regular expression.
70
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71=item %s (...) interpreted as function
72
73(W) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator followed
8b1a09fc 74by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list operators arguments
5f05dabc 75found inside the parentheses. See L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
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76
77=item %s argument is not a HASH element
78
5f05dabc 79(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash element, such as
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80
81 $foo{$bar}
82 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
83
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84=item %s argument is not a HASH element or slice
85
86(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash element, such as
87
88 $foo{$bar}
89 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
90
91or a hash slice, such as
92
93 @foo{$bar, $baz, $xyzzy}
94 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
95
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96=item %s did not return a true value
97
98(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
99it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
100traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
101do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
102
103=item %s found where operator expected
104
105(S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator. If it
106sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an operator,
107it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an operator or
108delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
109
f86702cc 110=item %s had compilation errors
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111
112(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
113
f86702cc 114=item %s has too many errors
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115
116(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
117Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
118
119=item %s matches null string many times
120
121(W) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
122regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. See L<perlre>.
123
124=item %s never introduced
125
126(S) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of scope
127before it could possibly have been used.
128
129=item %s syntax OK
130
131(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> succeeds.
132
f86702cc 133=item %s: Command not found
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134
135(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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136of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
137Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 138
f86702cc 139=item %s: Expression syntax
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140
141(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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142of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
143Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 144
f86702cc 145=item %s: Undefined variable
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146
147(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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148of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
149Perl yourself.
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150
151=item %s: not found
152
8b1a09fc 153(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 154instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
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155into Perl yourself.
156
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157=item (in cleanup) %s
158
159(W) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
160the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by
161the system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast
162number of times, the warning is issued only once for any number
163of failures that would otherwise result in the same message being
164repeated.
165
166Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag
167could also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
168
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169=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
170
171(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
172found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
173the previous line just because you saw this message.
174
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175=item B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script
176
177(F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name,
178which provides a race condition that breaks security.
179
180=item C<-T> and C<-B> not implemented on filehandles
181
182(F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it doesn't
183know about your kind of stdio. You'll have to use a filename instead.
184
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185=item C<-p> destination: %s
186
187(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
188command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
189redirected it with select().)
190
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191=item 500 Server error
192
193See Server error.
194
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195=item ?+* follows nothing in regexp
196
197(F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it
198if you meant it literally. See L<perlre>.
199
200=item @ outside of string
201
2ba9eb46 202(F) You had a pack template that specified an absolute position outside
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203the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
204
205=item accept() on closed fd
206
207(W) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
208the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/accept>.
209
210=item Allocation too large: %lx
211
54310121 212(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
55497cff 213
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214=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
215
2c268ad5 216(W) The pattern match (//), substitution (s///), and transliteration (tr///)
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217operators work on scalar values. If you apply one of them to an array
218or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to a scalar value -- the
219length of an array, or the population info of a hash -- and then work on
220that scalar value. This is probably not what you meant to do. See
221L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for alternatives.
222
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223=item Arg too short for msgsnd
224
225(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
226
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227=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
228
229(W)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
230you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
5f05dabc 231a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
748a9306 232
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233=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
234
235(W) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl keyword,
236and you have used the name without qualification for calling one or the
237other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the subroutine is
238not imported.
239
240To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
241before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
242Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
243imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
244
245To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
246on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or by declaring the subroutine
247to be an object method (see L<attrs>).
248
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249=item Args must match #! line
250
251(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
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252with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
253impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
254for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 255
f86702cc 256=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
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257
258(W) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator that
259expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
260will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
261
262=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
263
264(D) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some spots. This
265is now heavily deprecated.
266
267=item assertion botched: %s
268
269(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
270
271=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
272
273(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
274
275=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
276
277(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
278must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
279know which context to supply to the right side.
280
281=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
282
283(P) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas that will
284be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be outside any
285of those arenas.
286
54310121 287=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
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288
289(P) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of strings to
290optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other strings. This
291indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count of a string
292that can no longer be found in the table.
293
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294=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
295
296(W) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the free_tmps()
297routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the SV before
298the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the free_tmps()
299routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does try to free
300it.
301
302=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
303
304(P) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
305
306=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
307
308(W) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to see if it
309would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0 earlier,
310and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed. This
311could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or that
312SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was mortalized
313when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been corrupted.
314
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315=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
316
317(W) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
318function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
319means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
320invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
321literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
322avoid this warning.
323
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324=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
325
326(W) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr() used
8b1a09fc 327as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
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328dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
329
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330=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
331
332(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl() or
2ba9eb46 333shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 334S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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335S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
336
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337=item Bad filehandle: %s
338
339(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the symbol
340has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an open(), or
341did it in another package.
342
343=item Bad free() ignored
344
345(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had never been
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346malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
347setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
348
349This message can be quite often seen with DB_File on systems with
350"hard" dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of
351C<Berkeley DB> which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving>
352system malloc().
a0d0e21e 353
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354=item Bad hash
355
356(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
357
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358=item Bad index while coercing array into hash
359
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360(F) The index looked up in the hash found as the 0'th element of a
361pseudo-hash is not legal. Index values must be at 1 or greater.
362See L<perlref>.
57079c46 363
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364=item Bad name after %s::
365
366(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then didn't
367finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside of quotes,
368so
369
370 $var = 'myvar';
371 $sym = mypack::$var;
372
373is not the same as
374
375 $var = 'myvar';
376 $sym = "mypack::$var";
377
378=item Bad symbol for array
379
380(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
381wasn't a symbol table entry.
382
383=item Bad symbol for filehandle
384
385(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something that
386wasn't a symbol table entry.
387
388=item Bad symbol for hash
389
390(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
391wasn't a symbol table entry.
392
8b1a09fc 393=item Badly placed ()'s
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394
395(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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396of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
397Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 398
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399=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
400
401(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
d98d5fff 402subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>" symbol.
54310121 403Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
3fe9a6f1 404
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405=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
406
407(W) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but
408the compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point.
409Perhaps you need to predeclare a package?
410
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411=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
412
413(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN subroutine.
414Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is exited.
415
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416=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
417
418(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
419implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had
420already occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}>
421could not be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code
422likely depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
423
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424=item bind() on closed fd
425
426(W) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
427the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
428
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429=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
430
431(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not copiable.
432
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433=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
434
435(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to iterate over
436%ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition which was too long,
437so it was truncated to the string shown.
438
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439=item Callback called exit
440
441(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via perl_call_sv()
442exited by calling exit.
443
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444=item Can't "goto" outside a block
445
446(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look
447like a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually
448occurs if you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which
449is a no-no. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
450
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451=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
452
453(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a
454foreach loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
455
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456=item Can't "last" outside a block
457
458(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
459except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a
460current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a
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461"loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can usually double
462the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner curlies
463will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/last>.
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464
465=item Can't "next" outside a block
466
467(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
468there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
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469count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can
470usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner
54310121 471curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
a0d0e21e 472
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473=item Can't read CRTL environ
474
475(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
476from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
477missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
478or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not searched.
479
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480=item Can't "redo" outside a block
481
482(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
483there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
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484count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can
485usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner
54310121 486curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
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487
488=item Can't bless non-reference value
489
490(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
491encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
492
493=item Can't break at that line
494
54310121 495(S) A warning intended to only be printed while running within the debugger, indicating
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496the line number specified wasn't the location of a statement that could
497be stopped at.
498
499=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
500
501(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
502functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
503in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
504
505=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
506
54310121 507(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
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508ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but
509you didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't
510an object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
511
512=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
513
514(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
515object reference or package name contains an expression that returns
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516a defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
517Something like this will reproduce the error:
518
519 $BADREF = 42;
520 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
521 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
522
523=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
524
525(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
526object reference or package name contains an undefined value.
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527Something like this will reproduce the error:
528
529 $BADREF = undef;
530 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
531 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
532
533=item Can't chdir to %s
534
535(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
536that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
537
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538=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s"
539
540(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for nosuid.
541
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542=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
543
544(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 545(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
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546say things like:
547
548 *foo += 1;
549
550You CAN say
551
552 $foo = *foo;
553 $foo += 1;
554
555but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
556
557=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
558
559(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 560(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
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561
562=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
563
564(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 565(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e 566
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567=item Can't coerce array into hash
568
569(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
570information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
571only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
572
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573=item Can't create pipe mailbox
574
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575(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted quotas
576or other plumbing problems.
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577
578=item Can't declare %s in my
579
5f05dabc 580(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as lexical variables.
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581They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
582
583=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
584
585(S) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated reason.
586
54310121 587=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 588
54310121 589(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try reading
3fe9a6f1 590from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say C<-i.bak>, or some
a0d0e21e
LW
591such.
592
8b1a09fc 593=item Can't do inplace edit: %s E<gt> 14 characters
a0d0e21e
LW
594
595(S) There isn't enough room in the filename to make a backup name for the file.
596
597=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
598
599(S) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as a file in
600/dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
601
602=item Can't do setegid!
603
604(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
605of suidperl.
606
607=item Can't do seteuid!
608
609(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
610
611=item Can't do setuid
612
613(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to
614do setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the
615form sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides
616under the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines.
617If the file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask
618your sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
619
620=item Can't do waitpid with flags
621
622(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only waitpid()
623without flags is emulated.
624
8b1a09fc 625=item Can't do {n,m} with n E<gt> m
a0d0e21e
LW
626
627(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want
628your regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. See L<perlre>.
629
630=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
631
632(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this point.
633For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #! line.
634
635=item Can't exec "%s": %s
636
5f05dabc 637(W) An system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the named
a0d0e21e
LW
638program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the permissions
639were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in C<$ENV{PATH}>, the
640executable in question was compiled for another architecture, or the
641#! line in a script points to an interpreter that can't be run for
642similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support #! at all.)
643
644=item Can't exec %s
645
646(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because that's
647what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may need to
648mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
649
650=item Can't execute %s
651
2a92aaa0
GS
652(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute found
653in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
654
655=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
656
657(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
658in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The script
659exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
660
661=item Can't find %s on PATH
662
a0d0e21e 663(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
2a92aaa0 664in the PATH.
a0d0e21e
LW
665
666=item Can't find label %s
667
668(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's possible
669for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
670
671=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
672
673(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means that
5f05dabc 674the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count nesting
a0d0e21e
LW
675levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
676
fb73857a
PP
677 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
678
679If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
680included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good
681programmer's editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e
LW
682
683=item Can't fork
684
685(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a pipeline.
686
748a9306
LW
687=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
688
689(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference between
690access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes. Under VMS,
691access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in the stat buffer, so
692that ACLs and other protections can be taken into account. Unfortunately, Perl
693assumes that the stat buffer contains all the necessary information, and passes
694it, instead of the filespec, to the access checking routine. It will try to
695retrieve the filespec using the device name and FID present in the stat buffer,
696but this works only if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat()
5f05dabc 697routine, because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
748a9306
LW
698appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up and
699returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking routine
700knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you shouldn't ever
701see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises only if some internal
702code takes stat buffers lightly.)
703
a0d0e21e
LW
704=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
705
748a9306
LW
706(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a pipe, Perl
707can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
708
709=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
710
748a9306
LW
711(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
712mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e
LW
713
714=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
715
716(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one subroutine
717call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole cloth. In general
5f05dabc 718you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD routine anyway. See
a0d0e21e
LW
719L<perlfunc/goto>.
720
b150fb22
RH
721=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string
722
723(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval "string".
724(You can use it to jump out of an eval {BLOCK}, but you probably don't want to.)
725
706a304b 726=item Can't localize through a reference
4633a7c4 727
706a304b
SM
728(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
729handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
730pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be
731sure that $ref will still be a reference.
4633a7c4 732
748a9306
LW
733=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
734
2ba9eb46 735(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
748a9306
LW
736lexical variable using "my". This is not allowed. If you want to
737localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
738package name.
739
0ebe0038
SM
740=item Can't localize pseudo-hash element
741
742(F) You said something like C<local $ar-E<gt>{'key'}>, where $ar is
743a reference to a pseudo-hash. That hasn't been implemented yet, but
744you can get a similar effect by localizing the corresponding array
745element directly -- C<local $ar-E<gt>[$ar-E<gt>[0]{'key'}]>.
746
4727527e
IZ
747=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
748
749(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows autoload,
750but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes are a misprint
751in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit> the file, say, by
752doing C<make install>.
753
38b8243a 754=item Can't locate %s in @INC
a0d0e21e 755
7a2e2cd6 756(F) You said to do (or require, or use) a file that couldn't be found
54310121
PP
757in any of the libraries mentioned in @INC. Perhaps you need to set the
758PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the extra library
759is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name to @INC. Or maybe
a0d0e21e
LW
760you just misspelled the name of the file. See L<perlfunc/require>.
761
762=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
763
764(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
765functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 766method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
767
768=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
769
770(W) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that doesn't seem
771to exist.
772
3e3baf6d
TB
773=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
774
775(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably VMS.
776
a0d0e21e
LW
777=item Can't modify %s in %s
778
779(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try to
5f05dabc 780change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 781
54310121 782=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
783
784(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
785a NULL.
786
5f05dabc 787=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 788
5f05dabc 789(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
790buffer.
791
792=item Can't open %s: %s
793
08e9d68e
DD
794(S) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<E<lt>E<gt>>
795filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
796switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
797is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named
798on the command line.
a0d0e21e
LW
799
800=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
801
802(W) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported. You can
803try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such as
7e1af8bc 804IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using "E<gt>",
a0d0e21e
LW
805and then read it in under a different file handle.
806
748a9306
LW
807=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
808
809(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
810couldn't open the file specified after '2E<gt>' or '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the
811command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
812
813=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
814
815(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc 816couldn't open the file specified after 'E<lt>' on the command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
817
818=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
819
820(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
821couldn't open the file specified after 'E<gt>' or 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command
822line for writing.
748a9306
LW
823
824=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
825
826(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
827couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined for stdout.
828
a0d0e21e
LW
829=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
830
831(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
832
7bac28a0
PP
833=item Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s
834
835(F) Perl optimizes the internal handling of sort subroutines and keeps
836pointers into them. You tried to redefine one such sort subroutine when it
837was currently active, which is not allowed. If you really want to do
838this, you should write C<sort { &func } @x> instead of C<sort func @x>.
839
a0d0e21e
LW
840=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
841
842(S) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason, probably because
843you don't have write permission to the directory.
844
748a9306
LW
845=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
846
847(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried to
848reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
849
a0d0e21e
LW
850=item Can't reswap uid and euid
851
852(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
853of suidperl.
854
855=item Can't return outside a subroutine
856
857(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
858there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
859
860=item Can't stat script "%s"
861
862(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have
863it open already. Bizarre.
864
865=item Can't swap uid and euid
866
867(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
868of suidperl.
869
870=item Can't take log of %g
871
fb73857a
PP
872(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
873negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
874standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for
875the negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
876
877=item Can't take sqrt of %g
878
879(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
880negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
881with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
882
883=item Can't undef active subroutine
884
885(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
886however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
887redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
888
889=item Can't unshift
890
891(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
892as the main Perl stack.
893
894=item Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
895
896(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making
897it into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are
898so specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This
899message indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
900
901=item Can't upgrade to undef
902
903(P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme
904of upgradability. Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the
905code calling sv_upgrade.
906
1d2dff63
GS
907=item Can't use %%! because Errno.pm is not available
908
909(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
910Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
911provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
912
c07a80fd
PP
913=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
914
915(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
8b1a09fc 916You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the E<lt>=E<gt> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
917and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
918Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
919lexical variable.
920
e9fa98b2
HS
921=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
922
923(F) You've used the /e switch to evaluate the replacement for a
924substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
925most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
926
a0d0e21e
LW
927=item Can't use %s for loop variable
928
929(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a foreach.
930
931=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
932
933(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
934reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
935test the type of the reference, if need be.
936
748a9306
LW
937=item Can't use \1 to mean $1 in expression
938
939(W) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that creates
940a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a backreference
5f05dabc 941to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular expression pattern.
748a9306
LW
942Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a value that prints
943out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form instead.
944
44a8e56a
PP
945=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while \"strict refs\" in use
946
947(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
948are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
949
748a9306 950=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e
LW
951
952(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
953are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
954
955=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
956
957(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
54310121 958be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
a0d0e21e 959
a0d0e21e
LW
960=item Can't use global %s in "my"
961
962(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This is
5f05dabc 963not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location (namely
a0d0e21e
LW
964the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to have
965variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
966weren't.
967
748a9306
LW
968=item Can't use subscript on %s
969
970(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
971subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
972didn't look like an array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
973
5f05dabc 974=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e
LW
975
976(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value) with
977an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
978Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
979
b6c543e3
IZ
980=item Cannot find an opnumber for "%s"
981
982(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but
983there is no builtin with the name C<word>.
984
e7ea3e70
IZ
985=item Cannot resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
986
987(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
988opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
989package. If method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
990
4599a1de
JH
991=item Character class syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions
992
993(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
994with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future extensions.
995If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
996expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
997backslash: "\[." and ".\]".
998
999=item Character class syntax [: :] is reserved for future extensions
1000
1001(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
1002with "[:" and ending with ":]" is reserved for future extensions.
1003If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
1004expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
1005backslash: "\[:" and ":\]".
1006
1007=item Character class syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions
1008
1009(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
1010beginning with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future extensions.
1011If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
1012expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
1013backslash: "\[=" and "=\]".
1014
a0d0e21e
LW
1015=item chmod: mode argument is missing initial 0
1016
1017(W) A novice will sometimes say
1018
1019 chmod 777, $filename
1020
1021not realizing that 777 will be interpreted as a decimal number, equivalent
1022to 01411. Octal constants are introduced with a leading 0 in Perl, as in C.
1023
8b1a09fc 1024=item Close on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
1025
1026(W) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1027
7a2e2cd6
PP
1028=item Compilation failed in require
1029
1030(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
1031Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it encountered
1032were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
1033
c3464db5
DD
1034=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1035
1036(W) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex situations
1037where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited to 32766,
1038or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1039arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1040recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1041under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather
1042than in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular
1043expression so that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlbook>
1044for information on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
1045
a0d0e21e
LW
1046=item connect() on closed fd
1047
1048(W) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
1049the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/connect>.
1050
779c5bc9
GS
1051=item Constant is not %s reference
1052
1053(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
1054is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference. The
1055message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This usually
1056indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
1057See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1058
4cee8e80
CS
1059=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1060
1061(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
1062inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1063workarounds.
1064
9607fc9c
PP
1065=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1066
1067(S) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
1068inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1069workarounds.
1070
e7ea3e70
IZ
1071=item Copy method did not return a reference
1072
1073(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
1074
a0d0e21e
LW
1075=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1076
1077(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1078
1079=item corrupted regexp pointers
1080
1081(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1082expression compiler gave it.
1083
1084=item corrupted regexp program
1085
1086(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without
1087a valid magic number.
1088
1089=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1090
1091(W) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly) 100
3e3baf6d 1092times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an infinite
a0d0e21e
LW
1093recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in which
1094case it indicates something else.
1095
fc36a67e
PP
1096=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1097
1098(F) In a here document construct like C<E<lt>E<lt>FOO>, the label
1099C<FOO> is too long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously
1100twisted to write code that triggers this error.
1101
4633a7c4
LW
1102=item Did you mean &%s instead?
1103
1104(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some such.
1105
748a9306 1106=item Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?
a0d0e21e 1107
748a9306
LW
1108(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or @hash{@keys}.
1109On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got carried away.
1110
7e1af8bc 1111=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1112
1113(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1114you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1115
54310121 1116=item Do you need to predeclare %s?
748a9306
LW
1117
1118(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1119found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
1120name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1121because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
1122"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're
1123referencing something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have
1124to define the subroutine or package before the current location. You
1125can use an empty "sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward"
1126declaration.
a0d0e21e
LW
1127
1128=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1129
1130(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1131
1132=item do_study: out of memory
1133
1134(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1135
1136=item Duplicate free() ignored
1137
1138(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had already
1139been freed.
1140
4633a7c4
LW
1141=item elseif should be elsif
1142
1143(S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1144ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1145named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
1146unlikely to be what you want.
1147
a0d0e21e
LW
1148=item END failed--cleanup aborted
1149
1150(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing an END subroutine.
1151The interpreter is immediately exited.
1152
85ab1d1d 1153=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1154
85ab1d1d 1155(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1156effective uids or gids failed.
1157
748a9306
LW
1158=item Error converting file specification %s
1159
5f05dabc 1160(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306
LW
1161specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
1162single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've
1163passed an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a
1164case the conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
1165
e4d48cc9
GS
1166=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1167
1168(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular expression
1169that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which is unsafe.
1170See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
1171
1172=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1173
1174(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion,
1175but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'> pragma is
1176in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
1177
1178=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time
1179
1180(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the C<(?{ ... })>
3c247ff3
GS
1181zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the pattern contains
1182interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it is not allowed.
e4d48cc9
GS
1183If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly building the pattern
1184from an interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval().
1185See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
1186
fc36a67e
PP
1187=item Excessively long <> operator
1188
1189(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1190Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1191filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1192variable and glob that.
1193
f86702cc 1194=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
1195
1196(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1197
1198=item Exiting eval via %s
1199
8b1a09fc 1200(W) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1201a goto, or a loop control statement.
1202
0a753a76
PP
1203=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1204
1205(W) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a sort block or
1206subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a loop control
1207statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
1208
a0d0e21e
LW
1209=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1210
8b1a09fc 1211(W) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1212a goto, or a loop control statement.
1213
1214=item Exiting substitution via %s
1215
8b1a09fc 1216(W) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1217a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
1218
7b8d334a
GS
1219=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1220
1221(W) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1222the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1223usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target
ae6c4aac 1224package, e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1225
748a9306 1226=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1227
748a9306
LW
1228(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS system
1229service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more details. The
1230filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell you which section of
1231the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1232
1233=item fcntl is not implemented
1234
1235(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1236PDP-11 or something?
1237
1238=item Filehandle %s never opened
1239
1240(W) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was never initialized.
1241You need to do an open() or a socket() call, or call a constructor from
1242the FileHandle package.
1243
5f05dabc 1244=item Filehandle %s opened for only input
a0d0e21e
LW
1245
1246(W) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
1247intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1248"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
5f05dabc 1249you intended only to write the file, use "E<gt>" or "E<gt>E<gt>". See
8b1a09fc 1250L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1251
5f05dabc 1252=item Filehandle opened for only input
a0d0e21e
LW
1253
1254(W) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
1255intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1256"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
5f05dabc 1257you intended only to write the file, use "E<gt>" or "E<gt>E<gt>". See
8b1a09fc 1258L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1259
1260=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1261
1262(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
1263a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1264that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1265the name.
1266
1267=item Final @ should be \@ or @name
1268
1269(F) You must now decide whether the final @ in a string was meant to be
1270a literal "at" sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1271that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1272the name.
1273
1274=item Format %s redefined
1275
1276(W) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
1277
1278 {
1279 local $^W = 0;
1280 eval "format NAME =...";
1281 }
1282
1283=item Format not terminated
1284
1285(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1286to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1287
1288=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1289
1290(W) You said
1291
1292 if ($foo = 123)
1293
1294when you meant
1295
1296 if ($foo == 123)
1297
1298(or something like that).
1299
1300=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1301
1302(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1303
1304=item gethostent not implemented
1305
1306(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1307because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1308on the Internet.
1309
1310=item get{sock,peer}name() on closed fd
1311
1312(W) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed socket.
1313Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
1314
748a9306
LW
1315=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1316
1317(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1318C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1319
a0d0e21e
LW
1320=item Glob not terminated
1321
1322(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
1323a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
1324finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
1325the line, and you really meant a "less than".
1326
1327=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1328
68dc0745
PP
1329(F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables
1330must either be lexically scoped (using "my"), or explicitly qualified to
a0d0e21e
LW
1331say which package the global variable is in (using "::").
1332
1333=item goto must have label
1334
1335(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1336unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1337
1338=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1339
1340(S) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought to have
1341existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be created on
1342an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
1343
1344=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1345
1346(D) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some spots. This
1347is now heavily deprecated.
1348
8903cb82
PP
1349=item Identifier too long
1350
1351(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e
PP
1352about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
1353names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future
1354versions of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1355
f675dbe5
CB
1356=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
1357
1358(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's internal
1359environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=> delimiter
1360used to spearate keys from values. The element is ignored.
1361
1362=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
a0d0e21e 1363
f675dbe5
CB
1364(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical name
1365or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
1366didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the
1367line was ignored.
a0d0e21e 1368
4fdae800
PP
1369=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1370
1371(F) A carriage return character was found in the input. This is an
1372error, and not a warning, because carriage return characters can break
54310121
PP
1373multi-line strings, including here documents (e.g., C<print E<lt>E<lt>EOF;>).
1374
1375Under Unix, this error is usually caused by executing Perl code --
68dc0745 1376either the main program, a module, or an eval'd string -- that was
54310121 1377transferred over a network connection from a non-Unix system without
68dc0745
PP
1378properly converting the text file format.
1379
1380Under systems that use something other than '\n' to delimit lines of
1381text, this error can also be caused by reading Perl code from a file
1382handle that is in binary mode (as set by the C<binmode> operator).
1383
1384In either case, the Perl code in question will probably need to be
1385converted with something like C<s/\x0D\x0A?/\n/g> before it can be
1386executed.
4fdae800 1387
a0d0e21e
LW
1388=item Illegal division by zero
1389
1390(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in your
1391logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against meaningless input.
1392
1393=item Illegal modulus zero
1394
1395(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most numbers
1396don't take to this kindly.
1397
399388f4
GS
1398=item Illegal binary digit %s
1399
1400(F) You used a digit other than 0 and 1 in a binary number.
1401
1402=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1403
1404(F) You used an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1405
399388f4
GS
1406=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
1407
1408(W) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
1409Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the offending digit.
1410
1411=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306
LW
1412
1413(W) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in a octal number. Interpretation
1414of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
1415
399388f4 1416=item Illegal hex digit %s ignored
6ff81951
GS
1417
1418(W) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or A - F in a
1419hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal number stopped
1420before the illegal character.
1421
54310121
PP
1422=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
1423
1424(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
1425following switches: B<-[DIMUdmw]>.
1426
9607fc9c
PP
1427=item In string, @%s now must be written as \@%s
1428
1429(F) It used to be that Perl would try to guess whether you wanted an
1430array interpolated or a literal @. It did this when the string was first
1431used at runtime. Now strings are parsed at compile time, and ambiguous
1432instances of @ must be disambiguated, either by prepending a backslash to
1433indicate a literal, or by declaring (or using) the array within the
1434program before the string (lexically). (Someday it will simply assume
1435that an unbackslashed @ interpolates an array.)
1436
a0d0e21e
LW
1437=item Insecure dependency in %s
1438
8b1a09fc 1439(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
a0d0e21e
LW
1440The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or setgid,
1441or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The tainting mechanism
1442labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly from the user,
1443who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any such data is
1444used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See L<perlsec>
1445for more information.
1446
1447=item Insecure directory in %s
1448
1449(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or setgid
8b1a09fc 1450script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by the world.
a0d0e21e
LW
1451See L<perlsec>.
1452
62f468fc 1453=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1454
1455(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc
G
1456setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
1457C<$ENV{ENV}> or C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> are derived from data supplied (or
a0d0e21e
LW
1458potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set the path to a
1459known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
1460
a7ae9550
GS
1461=item Integer overflow in %s number
1462
1463(S) The literal hex, octal or binary number you have specified is
1464too big for your architecture. On a 32-bit architecture the largest
1465literal hex, octal or binary number representable without overflow
1466is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or 0b11111111111111111111111111111111
1467respectively. Note that Perl transparently promotes decimal literals
1468to a floating point representation internally--subject to loss of
1469precision errors in subsequent operations--so this limit usually
1470doesn't apply to decimal literals.
bbce6d69 1471
748a9306
LW
1472=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
1473
1474(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number
5f05dabc 1475of times you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine
2ba9eb46 1476whether the current call to C<exec> should affect the current
b687b08b 1477script or a subprocess (see L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count
748a9306
LW
1478has become scrambled, so Perl is making a guess and treating
1479this C<exec> as a request to terminate the Perl script
1480and execute the specified command.
1481
a0d0e21e
LW
1482=item internal disaster in regexp
1483
1484(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
1485
4eb79ab5
GS
1486=item glob failed (%s)
1487
1488(W) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for C<glob>
1489and C<E<lt>*.cE<gt>>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
1490pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a nonzero
1491status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit resulted in a
1492coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is broken. If so,
1493you should change all of the csh-related variables in config.sh: If you
1494have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it were csh (e.g.
1495C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all empty (except that
1496C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will think csh is missing.
1497In either case, after editing config.sh, run C<./Configure -S> and
1498rebuild Perl.
5cd24f17 1499
a0d0e21e
LW
1500=item internal urp in regexp at /%s/
1501
1502(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser.
1503
1504=item invalid [] range in regexp
1505
1506(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
1507greater than the maximum character. See L<perlre>.
1508
c635e13b
PP
1509=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
1510
878e08df 1511(W) Perl does not understand the given format conversion.
c635e13b
PP
1512See L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
1513
96e4d5b1
PP
1514=item Invalid type in pack: '%s'
1515
8903cb82 1516(F) The given character is not a valid pack type. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
fb73857a
PP
1517(W) The given character is not a valid pack type but used to be silently
1518ignored.
96e4d5b1
PP
1519
1520=item Invalid type in unpack: '%s'
1521
8903cb82 1522(F) The given character is not a valid unpack type. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
fb73857a
PP
1523(W) The given character is not a valid unpack type but used to be silently
1524ignored.
96e4d5b1 1525
a0d0e21e
LW
1526=item ioctl is not implemented
1527
1528(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
1529strange for a machine that supports C.
1530
1531=item junk on end of regexp
1532
1533(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
1534
1535=item Label not found for "last %s"
1536
1537(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a
1538loop of that name, not even if you count where you were called from.
1539See L<perlfunc/last>.
1540
1541=item Label not found for "next %s"
1542
1543(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
1544that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1545L<perlfunc/last>.
1546
1547=item Label not found for "redo %s"
1548
1549(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
1550that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1551L<perlfunc/last>.
1552
85ab1d1d 1553=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1554
85ab1d1d 1555(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1556effective uids or gids failed.
1557
a0d0e21e
LW
1558=item listen() on closed fd
1559
1560(W) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
1561the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/listen>.
1562
a0d0e21e
LW
1563=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
1564
1565(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 1566doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1567
1568=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
1569
1570(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
1571by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
1572ended earlier on the current line.
1573
1574=item Misplaced _ in number
1575
1576(W) An underline in a decimal constant wasn't on a 3-digit boundary.
1577
1578=item Missing $ on loop variable
1579
8b1a09fc
PP
1580(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables are always
1581mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it can vary from
a0d0e21e
LW
1582one line to the next.
1583
1584=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
1585
1586(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
1587"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
1588
06eaf0bc
GS
1589=item Missing command in piped open
1590
1591(W) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or C<open(FH, "command |")>
1592construction, but the command was missing or blank.
1593
748a9306
LW
1594=item Missing operator before %s?
1595
1596(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1597found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
1598
d98d5fff 1599=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 1600
d98d5fff
GS
1601(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than
1602closing ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place
1603you were last editing.
a0d0e21e 1604
a0d0e21e
LW
1605=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
1606
1607(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 1608constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
1609catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
1610
1611 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
1612 mod(2);
1613
1614Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
1615
4fe4fdb3 1616=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, subscript %d
a0d0e21e
LW
1617
1618(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
1619subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
1620backwards.
1621
4fe4fdb3 1622=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, subscript "%s"
a0d0e21e 1623
19a09eb8 1624(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it couldn't
a0d0e21e
LW
1625be created for some peculiar reason.
1626
1627=item Module name must be constant
1628
1629(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
1630
1631=item msg%s not implemented
1632
1633(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
1634
1635=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
1636
8b1a09fc
PP
1637(W) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>. They're written
1638like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
1639
1640=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
1641
68dc0745
PP
1642(W) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
1643If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention
1644it again somehow to suppress the message. The C<use vars> pragma is
1645provided for just this purpose.
a0d0e21e
LW
1646
1647=item Negative length
1648
1649(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer length
1650that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
1651
1652=item nested *?+ in regexp
1653
5f05dabc 1654(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
a0d0e21e
LW
1655things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal.
1656
5f05dabc 1657Note, however, that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and C<??> appear
a0d0e21e
LW
1658to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
1659
1660=item No #! line
1661
1662(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1663even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
1664
1665=item No %s allowed while running setuid
1666
1667(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or setgid
1668script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there will be
1669another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least securable.
1670See L<perlsec>.
1671
1672=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
1673
1674(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
1675
1676=item No comma allowed after %s
1677
1678(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
1679allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
1680Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
1681
0a753a76
PP
1682One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
1683constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
1684importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
1685does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
1686explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
1687L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
1688would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
1689remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
1690constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
1691list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
1692this error was triggered?
1693
748a9306
LW
1694=item No command into which to pipe on command line
1695
1696(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
54310121 1697and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know where you
748a9306
LW
1698want to pipe the output from this command.
1699
a0d0e21e
LW
1700=item No DB::DB routine defined
1701
1702(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1703but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1704didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
1705statement. Which is odd, because the file should have been required
1706automatically, and should have blown up the require if it didn't parse
1707right.
1708
1709=item No dbm on this machine
1710
1711(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 1712supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1713
1714=item No DBsub routine
1715
1716(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1717but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1718didn't define a DB::sub routine to be called at the beginning of each
1719ordinary subroutine call.
1720
8b1a09fc 1721=item No error file after 2E<gt> or 2E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1722
1723(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1724and found a '2E<gt>' or a '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find
1725the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 1726
8b1a09fc 1727=item No input file after E<lt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1728
1729(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1730and found a 'E<lt>' on the command line, but can't find the name of the file
1731from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 1732
8b1a09fc 1733=item No output file after E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1734
1735(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc 1736and found a lone 'E<gt>' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know
54310121 1737where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 1738
8b1a09fc 1739=item No output file after E<gt> or E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1740
1741(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1742and found a 'E<gt>' or a 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find the
1743name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 1744
a0d0e21e
LW
1745=item No Perl script found in input
1746
1747(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
1748with #! and containing the word "perl".
1749
1750=item No setregid available
1751
1752(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
1753your system.
1754
1755=item No setreuid available
1756
1757(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
1758your system.
1759
1760=item No space allowed after B<-I>
1761
1762(F) The argument to B<-I> must follow the B<-I> immediately with no
1763intervening space.
1764
57079c46
GA
1765=item No such array field
1766
1767(F) You tried to access an array as a hash, but the field name used is
1768not defined. The hash at index 0 should map all valid field names to
1769array indices for that to work.
1770
f1192cee
GA
1771=item No such field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
1772
1773(F) You tried to access a field of a typed variable where the type
1774does not know about the field name. The field names are looked up in
1775the %FIELDS hash in the type package at compile time. The %FIELDS hash
1776is usually set up with the 'fields' pragma.
1777
748a9306
LW
1778=item No such pipe open
1779
1780(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
1781close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught earlier as
1782an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
1783
a0d0e21e
LW
1784=item No such signal: SIG%s
1785
1786(W) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was not recognized.
1787Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
1788
bd3fa61c
CB
1789=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
1790
1791(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Per was unable to find the local
1792timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
1793to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL>
1794to translate to the number of seconds which need to be added to UTC to
1795get local time.
1796
f675dbe5
CB
1797=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
1798
1799(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Per was unable to find the local
1800timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
1801to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL>
1802to translate to the number of seconds which need to be added to UTC to
1803get local time.
1804
a0d0e21e
LW
1805=item Not a CODE reference
1806
1807(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
1808subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
1809use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
1810See also L<perlref>.
1811
1812=item Not a format reference
1813
1814(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
1815format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
1816
1817=item Not a GLOB reference
1818
55497cff 1819(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is,
a0d0e21e
LW
1820a symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
1821something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out
1822what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1823
1824=item Not a HASH reference
1825
1826(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but
1827found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1828function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1829
1830=item Not a perl script
1831
1832(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1833even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
1834mention perl.
1835
1836=item Not a SCALAR reference
1837
1838(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but
1839found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1840function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1841
1842=item Not a subroutine reference
1843
1844(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
1845subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
1846use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
1847See also L<perlref>.
1848
e7ea3e70 1849=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
1850
1851(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 1852doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1853
1854=item Not an ARRAY reference
1855
1856(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but
1857found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1858function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1859
1860=item Not enough arguments for %s
1861
1862(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
1863
1864=item Not enough format arguments
1865
1866(W) A format specified more picture fields than the next line supplied.
1867See L<perlform>.
1868
1869=item Null filename used
1870
5f05dabc 1871(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many machines
a0d0e21e
LW
1872that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
1873
55497cff
PP
1874=item Null picture in formline
1875
1876(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
1877specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
1878supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
1879
a0d0e21e
LW
1880=item NULL OP IN RUN
1881
1882(P) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode pointer.
1883
1884=item Null realloc
1885
1886(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
1887
1888=item NULL regexp argument
1889
5f05dabc 1890(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
1891
1892=item NULL regexp parameter
1893
1894(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
1895
fc36a67e
PP
1896=item Number too long
1897
1898(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to about
1899about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future versions of
1900Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In the meantime,
1901try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of "1_000_000").
1902
1930e939 1903=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 1904
1930e939
TP
1905(S) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash, which
1906is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 1907
bbce6d69
PP
1908=item Offset outside string
1909
1910(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
1911pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to imagine.
1912The sole exception to this is that C<sysread()>ing past the buffer
1913will extend the buffer and zero pad the new area.
1914
a0d0e21e
LW
1915=item oops: oopsAV
1916
1917(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
1918
1919=item oops: oopsHV
1920
1921(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
1922
56f7f34b 1923=item Operation `%s': no method found, %s
44a8e56a 1924
e7ea3e70
IZ
1925(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which
1926no handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in
1927terms of other handlers, there is no default handler for any
1928operation, unless C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be
1929true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 1930
748a9306
LW
1931=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
1932
1933(S) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser was
1934expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant
1935to use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect.
1936For example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as
1937if you said "*foo * 'foo'".
1938
a0d0e21e
LW
1939=item Out of memory for yacc stack
1940
1941(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue parsing,
1942but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or otherwise.
1943
1b979e0a 1944=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 1945
55497cff 1946(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
54310121 1947remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request.
eff9c6e2
CS
1948
1949The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
1950depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
1951However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as
1952an emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the
55497cff
PP
1953error is trappable I<once>.
1954
1b979e0a 1955=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
55497cff
PP
1956
1957(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
1958remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
1959the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so
1960a possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
1961
1b979e0a
IZ
1962=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
1963
1964(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
1965is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g., C<$arr[time]>
1966instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1967
a0d0e21e
LW
1968=item page overflow
1969
1970(W) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a page.
1971See L<perlform>.
1972
1973=item panic: ck_grep
1974
1975(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
1976
1977=item panic: ck_split
1978
1979(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
1980
1981=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
1982
1983(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than there
1984are in the savestack.
1985
1986=item panic: die %s
1987
1988(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
1989it wasn't an eval context.
1990
1991=item panic: do_match
1992
1993(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational data.
1994
1995=item panic: do_split
1996
1997(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
1998
1999=item panic: do_subst
2000
2001(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2002
2003=item panic: do_trans
2004
2005(P) The internal do_trans() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2006
c635e13b
PP
2007=item panic: frexp
2008
2009(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
2010
a0d0e21e
LW
2011=item panic: goto
2012
2013(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
2014and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
2015
2016=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
2017
2018(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
2019
2020=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
2021
2022(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
2023
e446cec8
IZ
2024=item panic: kid popen errno read
2025
2026(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
2027
a0d0e21e
LW
2028=item panic: last
2029
2030(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
2031it wasn't a block context.
2032
2033=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
2034
5f05dabc 2035(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
2036
2037=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
2038
2039(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
2040invalid enum on the top of it.
2041
2042=item panic: malloc
2043
2044(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
2045
2046=item panic: mapstart
2047
2048(P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.
2049
2050=item panic: null array
2051
2052(P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.
2053
2054=item panic: pad_alloc
2055
2056(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2057and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2058
2059=item panic: pad_free curpad
2060
2061(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2062and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2063
2064=item panic: pad_free po
2065
2066(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2067
2068=item panic: pad_reset curpad
2069
2070(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2071and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2072
2073=item panic: pad_sv po
2074
2075(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2076
2077=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
2078
2079(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2080and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2081
2082=item panic: pad_swipe po
2083
2084(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2085
2086=item panic: pp_iter
2087
2088(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
2089
2090=item panic: realloc
2091
2092(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
2093
2094=item panic: restartop
2095
2096(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
2097didn't supply the destination.
2098
2099=item panic: return
2100
2101(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
2102then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
2103
2104=item panic: scan_num
2105
2106(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
2107
2108=item panic: sv_insert
2109
2110(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
2111was string.
2112
2113=item panic: top_env
2114
6224f72b 2115(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
a0d0e21e
LW
2116
2117=item panic: yylex
2118
2119(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
2120
7b8d334a 2121=item Parentheses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e
LW
2122
2123(W) You said something like
2124
2125 my $foo, $bar = @_;
2126
2127when you meant
2128
2129 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
2130
2131Remember that "my" and "local" bind closer than comma.
2132
2133=item Perl %3.3f required--this is only version %s, stopped
2134
2135(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more recent
2136than the currently running version. How long has it been since you upgraded,
2137anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
2138
2139=item Permission denied
2140
2141(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
2142
bd3fa61c 2143=item pid %x not a child
748a9306
LW
2144
2145(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a process which
2146isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is fine from VMS'
2147perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
2148
a0d0e21e
LW
2149=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
2150
2151(F) Your C compiler uses POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
2152the BSD version, which takes a pid.
2153
bbce6d69
PP
2154=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
2155
774d564b
PP
2156(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal
2157strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated
2158as literal data. (You may have used different delimiters than the
7b8d334a 2159parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently used.)
bbce6d69 2160
774d564b
PP
2161You probably wrote something like this:
2162
54310121 2163 @list = qw(
774d564b 2164 a # a comment
bbce6d69 2165 b # another comment
774d564b 2166 );
bbce6d69
PP
2167
2168when you should have written this:
2169
774d564b 2170 @list = qw(
54310121
PP
2171 a
2172 b
774d564b
PP
2173 );
2174
2175If you really want comments, build your list the
2176old-fashioned way, with quotes and commas:
2177
2178 @list = (
2179 'a', # a comment
2180 'b', # another comment
2181 );
bbce6d69
PP
2182
2183=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
2184
774d564b 2185(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore commas
68dc0745 2186aren't needed to separate the items. (You may have used different
774d564b
PP
2187delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently
2188used.)
bbce6d69 2189
54310121 2190You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69 2191
774d564b
PP
2192 qw! a, b, c !;
2193
2194which puts literal commas into some of the list items. Write it without
2195commas if you don't want them to appear in your data:
bbce6d69 2196
774d564b 2197 qw! a b c !;
bbce6d69 2198
a0d0e21e
LW
2199=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
2200
2201(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
2202Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
2203end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
2204Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
2205
2206=item Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
2207
2208(S) The old irregular construct
cb1a09d0 2209
a0d0e21e
LW
2210 open FOO || die;
2211
2212is now misinterpreted as
2213
2214 open(FOO || die);
2215
68dc0745
PP
2216because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary
2217and list operators. (The old open was a little of both.) You must
2218put parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator
2219instead of "||".
a0d0e21e
LW
2220
2221=item print on closed filehandle %s
2222
2223(W) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime before now.
2224Check your logic flow.
2225
2226=item printf on closed filehandle %s
2227
2228(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2229Check your logic flow.
2230
2231=item Probable precedence problem on %s
2232
54310121 2233(W) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a conditional,
a0d0e21e
LW
2234which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part of the
2235last argument of the previous construct, for example:
2236
2237 open FOO || die;
2238
3fe9a6f1 2239=item Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
4633a7c4 2240
3fe9a6f1
PP
2241(S) The subroutine being declared or defined had previously been declared
2242or defined with a different function prototype.
4633a7c4 2243
89ea2908
GA
2244=item Range iterator outside integer range
2245
2246(F) One (or both) of the numeric arguments to the range operator ".."
2247are outside the range which can be represented by integers internally.
2248One possible workaround is to force Perl to use magical string
2249increment by prepending "0" to your numbers.
2250
8b1a09fc 2251=item Read on closed filehandle E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2252
2253(W) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime before now.
2254Check your logic flow.
2255
2256=item Reallocation too large: %lx
2257
54310121 2258(F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e
LW
2259
2260=item Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch
2261
2262(F) You can't use the B<-D> option unless the code to produce the
2263desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead,
2264which is why it's currently left out of your copy.
2265
3e0ccd42 2266=item Recursive inheritance detected in package '%s'
a0d0e21e
LW
2267
2268(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used. Probably indicates
2269an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2270
3e0ccd42
JP
2271=item Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method '%s' in package '%s'
2272
2273(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were encountered while invoking a
2274method. Probably indicates an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2275
1930e939
TP
2276=item Reference found where even-sized list expected
2277
2278(W) You gave a single reference where Perl was expecting a list with
2279an even number of elements (for assignment to a hash). This
2280usually means that you used the anon hash constructor when you meant
2281to use parens. In any case, a hash requires key/value B<pairs>.
7b8d334a
GS
2282
2283 %hash = { one => 1, two => 2, }; # WRONG
2284 %hash = [ qw/ an anon array / ]; # WRONG
2285 %hash = ( one => 1, two => 2, ); # right
2286 %hash = qw( one 1 two 2 ); # also fine
2287
a0d0e21e
LW
2288=item Reference miscount in sv_replace()
2289
2290(W) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with a
2291reference count of other than 1.
2292
fb73857a
PP
2293=item regexp *+ operand could be empty
2294
2295(F) The part of the regexp subject to either the * or + quantifier
2296could match an empty string.
2297
a0d0e21e
LW
2298=item regexp memory corruption
2299
2300(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
2301expression compiler gave it.
2302
2303=item regexp out of space
2304
2305(P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it earlier.
2306
a0d0e21e
LW
2307=item Reversed %s= operator
2308
2309(W) You wrote your assignment operator backwards. The = must always
2310comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.
2311
2312=item Runaway format
2313
2314(F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it
2315produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the
2316199th line. Apparently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
2317themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar variables), or by
2318shifting or popping (for array variables). See L<perlform>.
2319
2320=item Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
2321
a6006777 2322(W) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
a0d0e21e 2323an array. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
8b1a09fc
PP
2324The difference is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2325assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo[&bar]> behaves
a0d0e21e 2326like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
5f05dabc 2327subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
a0d0e21e 2328
748a9306 2329On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
5f05dabc 2330element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
748a9306
LW
2331Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2332L<perlref>.
2333
a6006777
PP
2334=item Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
2335
2336(W) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
2337a hash. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
2338The difference is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2339assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> behaves
2340like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
2341subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
2342
2343On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash
2344element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
2345Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2346L<perlref>.
2347
a0d0e21e
LW
2348=item Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
2349
54310121
PP
2350(F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script without a setuid
2351or setgid bit set. This doesn't make much sense.
a0d0e21e
LW
2352
2353=item Search pattern not terminated
2354
2355(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{}
2356construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2357Missing the leading C<$> from a variable C<$m> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2358
96e4d5b1 2359=item %sseek() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2360
96e4d5b1
PP
2361(W) You tried to use the seek() or sysseek() function on a filehandle that
2362was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2363
2364=item select not implemented
2365
2366(F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.
2367
2368=item sem%s not implemented
2369
2370(F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.
2371
2372=item semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
2373
2374(S) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a scalar
2375that had previously been marked as free.
2376
2377=item Semicolon seems to be missing
2378
2379(W) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing semicolon,
2380or possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.
2381
2382=item Send on closed socket
2383
2384(W) The filehandle you're sending to got itself closed sometime before now.
2385Check your logic flow.
2386
1b1626e4 2387=item Sequence (? incomplete
7b8d334a 2388
1b1626e4
G
2389(F) A regular expression ended with an incomplete extension (?.
2390See L<perlre>.
2391
a0d0e21e
LW
2392=item Sequence (?#... not terminated
2393
2394(F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing
5f05dabc 2395parenthesis. Embedded parentheses aren't allowed. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2396
2397=item Sequence (?%s...) not implemented
2398
2399(F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved
2400but has not yet been written. See L<perlre>.
2401
2402=item Sequence (?%s...) not recognized
2403
2404(F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense.
2405See L<perlre>.
2406
a5f75d66
AD
2407=item Server error
2408
9607fc9c
PP
2409Also known as "500 Server error".
2410
2411B<This is a CGI error, not a Perl error>.
2412
2413You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible by the user
2414CGI is running the script under (which is probably not the user account you
2415tested it under), does not rely on any environment variables (like PATH)
2416from the user it isn't running under, and isn't in a location where the CGI
2417server can't find it, basically, more or less. Please see the following
2418for more information:
2419
be94a901
GS
2420 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/idiots-guide.html
2421 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/perl-cgi-faq.html
9607fc9c
PP
2422 ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/www/cgi-faq
2423 http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/cgi/interface.html
2424 http://www-genome.wi.mit.edu/WWW/faqs/www-security-faq.html
a5f75d66 2425
be94a901
GS
2426You should also look at L<perlfaq9>.
2427
a0d0e21e
LW
2428=item setegid() not implemented
2429
8b1a09fc 2430(F) You tried to assign to C<$)>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2431the setegid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2432think so.
2433
2434=item seteuid() not implemented
2435
8b1a09fc 2436(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<gt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2437the seteuid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2438think so.
2439
2440=item setrgid() not implemented
2441
8b1a09fc 2442(F) You tried to assign to C<$(>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2443the setrgid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2444think so.
2445
2446=item setruid() not implemented
2447
1f8d2005 2448(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<lt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2449the setruid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2450think so.
2451
2452=item Setuid/gid script is writable by world
2453
2454(F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is writable by the world,
2455because the world might have written on it already.
2456
2457=item shm%s not implemented
2458
2459(F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your system.
2460
2461=item shutdown() on closed fd
2462
2463(W) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket. Seems a bit superfluous.
2464
f86702cc 2465=item SIG%s handler "%s" not defined
a0d0e21e
LW
2466
2467(W) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't, in fact, exist. Perhaps you
2468put it into the wrong package?
2469
2470=item sort is now a reserved word
2471
2472(F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into anymore.
2473But before sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a filehandle.
2474
2475=item Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value
2476
2477(F) A sort comparison routine must return a number. You probably blew
4633a7c4 2478it by not using C<E<lt>=E<gt>> or C<cmp>, or by not using them correctly.
a0d0e21e
LW
2479See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2480
2481=item Sort subroutine didn't return single value
2482
2483(F) A sort comparison subroutine may not return a list value with more
2484or less than one element. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2485
2486=item Split loop
2487
2488(P) The split was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a split shouldn't iterate
2489more times than there are characters of input, which is what happened.)
2490See L<perlfunc/split>.
2491
8b1a09fc 2492=item Stat on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2493
2494(W) You tried to use the stat() function (or an equivalent file test)
54310121 2495on a filehandle that was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2496
2497=item Statement unlikely to be reached
2498
2499(W) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than a die().
2500This is almost always an error, because exec() never returns unless
2501there was a failure. You probably wanted to use system() instead,
2502which does return. To suppress this warning, put the exec() in a block
2503by itself.
2504
17feb5d5
DD
2505=item Strange *+?{} on zero-length expression
2506
2507(W) You applied a regular expression quantifier in a place where it
2508makes no sense, such as on a zero-width assertion.
2509Try putting the quantifier inside the assertion instead. For example,
2510the way to match "abc" provided that it is followed by three
2511repetitions of "xyz" is C</abc(?=(?:xyz){3})/>, not C</abc(?=xyz){3}/>.
2512
e7ea3e70
IZ
2513=item Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
2514
2515(P) Overloading resolution over @ISA tree may be broken by importation stubs.
2516Stubs should never be implicitely created, but explicit calls to C<can>
2517may break this.
2518
a0d0e21e
LW
2519=item Subroutine %s redefined
2520
2521(W) You redefined a subroutine. To suppress this warning, say
2522
2523 {
2524 local $^W = 0;
2525 eval "sub name { ... }";
2526 }
2527
2528=item Substitution loop
2529
2530(P) The substitution was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a
2531substitution shouldn't iterate more times than there are characters of
68dc0745 2532input, which is what happened.) See the discussion of substitution in
5f05dabc 2533L<perlop/"Quote and Quote-like Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
2534
2535=item Substitution pattern not terminated
2536
2537(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2538construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2539Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2540
2541=item Substitution replacement not terminated
2542
2543(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2544construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2545Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2546
2547=item substr outside of string
2548
3e3baf6d
TB
2549(S),(W) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed outside of a
2550string. That is, the absolute value of the offset was larger than the
2551length of the string. See L<perlfunc/substr>. This warning is
2552mandatory if substr is used in an lvalue context (as the left hand side
2553of an assignment or as a subroutine argument for example).
a0d0e21e 2554
f86702cc 2555=item suidperl is no longer needed since %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2556
2557(F) Your Perl was compiled with B<-D>SETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW, but a
2558version of the setuid emulator somehow got run anyway.
2559
85ab1d1d
JH
2560=item switching effective %s is not implemented
2561
2562(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, we cannot switch the
2563real and effective uids or gids.
2564
a0d0e21e
LW
2565=item syntax error
2566
2567(F) Probably means you had a syntax error. Common reasons include:
2568
2569 A keyword is misspelled.
2570 A semicolon is missing.
2571 A comma is missing.
2572 An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
2573 An opening or closing brace is missing.
2574 A closing quote is missing.
2575
2576Often there will be another error message associated with the syntax
2577error giving more information. (Sometimes it helps to turn on B<-w>.)
2578The error message itself often tells you where it was in the line when
2579it decided to give up. Sometimes the actual error is several tokens
5f05dabc 2580before this, because Perl is good at understanding random input.
a0d0e21e
LW
2581Occasionally the line number may be misleading, and once in a blue moon
2582the only way to figure out what's triggering the error is to call
2583C<perl -c> repeatedly, chopping away half the program each time to see
2584if the error went away. Sort of the cybernetic version of S<20 questions>.
2585
cb1a09d0
AD
2586=item syntax error at line %d: `%s' unexpected
2587
8b1a09fc 2588(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 2589instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
2590into Perl yourself.
2591
6087ac44 2592=item System V %s is not implemented on this machine
a0d0e21e 2593
6087ac44
JH
2594(F) You tried to do something with a function beginning with "sem",
2595"shm", or "msg" but that System V IPC is not implemented in your
2596machine. In some machines the functionality can exist but be
2597unconfigured. Consult your system support.
a0d0e21e
LW
2598
2599=item Syswrite on closed filehandle
2600
2601(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2602Check your logic flow.
2603
fc36a67e
PP
2604=item Target of goto is too deeply nested
2605
2606(F) You tried to use C<goto> to reach a label that was too deeply
2607nested for Perl to reach. Perl is doing you a favor by refusing.
2608
8903cb82 2609=item tell() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2610
8903cb82
PP
2611(W) You tried to use the tell() function on a filehandle that was either
2612never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e 2613
8b1a09fc 2614=item Test on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2615
2616(W) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle that isn't
2617open. Check your logic. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
2618
2619=item That use of $[ is unsupported
2620
8b1a09fc 2621(F) Assignment to C<$[> is now strictly circumscribed, and interpreted as
5f05dabc 2622a compiler directive. You may say only one of
a0d0e21e
LW
2623
2624 $[ = 0;
2625 $[ = 1;
2626 ...
2627 local $[ = 0;
2628 local $[ = 1;
2629 ...
2630
2631This is to prevent the problem of one module changing the array base
2632out from under another module inadvertently. See L<perlvar/$[>.
2633
2634=item The %s function is unimplemented
2635
2636The function indicated isn't implemented on this architecture, according
2637to the probings of Configure.
2638
f86702cc 2639=item The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia
a0d0e21e
LW
2640
2641(F) Configure couldn't find the crypt() function on your machine,
2642probably because your vendor didn't supply it, probably because they
8b1a09fc 2643think the U.S. Government thinks it's a secret, or at least that they
a0d0e21e
LW
2644will continue to pretend that it is. And if you quote me on that, I
2645will deny it.
2646
2647=item The stat preceding C<-l _> wasn't an lstat
2648
2649(F) It makes no sense to test the current stat buffer for symbolic linkhood
2650if the last stat that wrote to the stat buffer already went past
2651the symlink to get to the real file. Use an actual filename instead.
2652
f675dbe5
CB
2653=item This Perl can't reset CRTL eviron elements (%s)
2654
2655=item This Perl can't set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s)
2656
2657(W) Warnings peculiar to VMS. You tried to change or delete an element
2658of the CRTL's internal environ array, but your copy of Perl wasn't
2659built with a CRTL that contained the setenv() function. You'll need to
2660rebuild Perl with a CRTL that does, or redefine F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see
2661L<perlvms>) so that the environ array isn't the target of the change to
2662%ENV which produced the warning.
2663
a0d0e21e
LW
2664=item times not implemented
2665
2666(F) Your version of the C library apparently doesn't do times(). I suspect
2667you're not running on Unix.
2668
2669=item Too few args to syscall
2670
2671(F) There has to be at least one argument to syscall() to specify the
2672system call to call, silly dilly.
2673
9607fc9c
PP
2674=item Too late for "B<-T>" option
2675
2676(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
8cc95fdb
PP
2677B<-T> option, but Perl was not invoked with B<-T> in its command line.
2678This is an error because, by the time Perl discovers a B<-T> in a
2679script, it's too late to properly taint everything from the environment.
2680So Perl gives up.
f86702cc 2681
9607fc9c
PP
2682If the Perl script is being executed as a command using the #!
2683mechanism (or its local equivalent), this error can usually be fixed
2684by editing the #! line so that the B<-T> option is a part of Perl's
2685first argument: e.g. change C<perl -n -T> to C<perl -T -n>.
f86702cc 2686
9607fc9c
PP
2687If the Perl script is being executed as C<perl scriptname>, then the
2688B<-T> option must appear on the command line: C<perl -T scriptname>.
f86702cc 2689
8cc95fdb
PP
2690=item Too late for "-%s" option
2691
2692(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
2693B<-M> or B<-m> option. This is an error because B<-M> and B<-m> options
2694are not intended for use inside scripts. Use the C<use> pragma instead.
2695
cb1a09d0
AD
2696=item Too many ('s
2697
2698=item Too many )'s
2699
2700(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
2701of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
2702Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 2703
a0d0e21e
LW
2704=item Too many args to syscall
2705
5f05dabc 2706(F) Perl supports a maximum of only 14 args to syscall().
a0d0e21e
LW
2707
2708=item Too many arguments for %s
2709
2710(F) The function requires fewer arguments than you specified.
2711
2712=item trailing \ in regexp
2713
2714(F) The regular expression ends with an unbackslashed backslash. Backslash
2715it. See L<perlre>.
2716
2c268ad5 2717=item Transliteration pattern not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
2718
2719(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
fb73857a
PP
2720or y/// or y[][] construct. Missing the leading C<$> from variables
2721C<$tr> or C<$y> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2722
2c268ad5 2723=item Transliteration replacement not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
2724
2725(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
2726construct.
2727
2728=item truncate not implemented
2729
2730(F) Your machine doesn't implement a file truncation mechanism that
2731Configure knows about.
2732
2733=item Type of arg %d to %s must be %s (not %s)
2734
2735(F) This function requires the argument in that position to be of a
8b1a09fc
PP
2736certain type. Arrays must be @NAME or C<@{EXPR}>. Hashes must be
2737%NAME or C<%{EXPR}>. No implicit dereferencing is allowed--use the
a0d0e21e
LW
2738{EXPR} forms as an explicit dereference. See L<perlref>.
2739
2740=item umask: argument is missing initial 0
2741
eec2d3df
GS
2742(W) A umask of 222 is incorrect. It should be 0222, because octal
2743literals always start with 0 in Perl, as in C.
2744
2745=item umask not implemented
2746
2747(F) Your machine doesn't implement the umask function and you tried
2748to use it to restrict permissions for yourself (EXPR & 0700).
a0d0e21e 2749
4633a7c4
LW
2750=item Unable to create sub named "%s"
2751
2752(F) You attempted to create or access a subroutine with an illegal name.
2753
a0d0e21e
LW
2754=item Unbalanced context: %d more PUSHes than POPs
2755
2756(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many execution
2757contexts were entered and left.
2758
2759=item Unbalanced saves: %d more saves than restores
2760
2761(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many
2762values were temporarily localized.
2763
2764=item Unbalanced scopes: %d more ENTERs than LEAVEs
2765
2766(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many blocks
2767were entered and left.
2768
2769=item Unbalanced tmps: %d more allocs than frees
2770
2771(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many mortal
2772scalars were allocated and freed.
2773
2774=item Undefined format "%s" called
2775
2776(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
2777another package? See L<perlform>.
2778
2779=item Undefined sort subroutine "%s" called
2780
2781(F) The sort comparison routine specified doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps
2782it's in a different package? See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2783
2784=item Undefined subroutine &%s called
2785
2786(F) The subroutine indicated hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2787has since been undefined.
2788
2789=item Undefined subroutine called
2790
2791(F) The anonymous subroutine you're trying to call hasn't been defined,
2792or if it was, it has since been undefined.
2793
2794=item Undefined subroutine in sort
2795
2796(F) The sort comparison routine specified is declared but doesn't seem to
2797have been defined yet. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2798
4633a7c4
LW
2799=item Undefined top format "%s" called
2800
2801(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
2802another package? See L<perlform>.
2803
20408e3c
GS
2804=item Undefined value assigned to typeglob
2805
2806(W) An undefined value was assigned to a typeglob, a la C<*foo = undef>.
2807This does nothing. It's possible that you really mean C<undef *foo>.
2808
a0d0e21e
LW
2809=item unexec of %s into %s failed!
2810
2811(F) The unexec() routine failed for some reason. See your local FSF
2812representative, who probably put it there in the first place.
2813
2814=item Unknown BYTEORDER
2815
5f05dabc 2816(F) There are no byte-swapping functions for a machine with this byte order.
a0d0e21e 2817
f675dbe5
CB
2818=item Unknown process %x sent message to prime_env_iter: %s
2819
2820(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl was reading values for %ENV before
2821iterating over it, and someone else stuck a message in the stream of
2822data Perl expected. Someone's very confused, or perhaps trying to
2823subvert Perl's population of %ENV for nefarious purposes.
2824
a0d0e21e
LW
2825=item unmatched () in regexp
2826
2827(F) Unbackslashed parentheses must always be balanced in regular
2828expressions. If you're a vi user, the % key is valuable for finding
5f05dabc 2829the matching parenthesis. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2830
d98d5fff 2831=item Unmatched right %s bracket
a0d0e21e 2832
d98d5fff
GS
2833(F) The lexer counted more closing curly or square brackets than
2834opening ones, so you're probably missing a matching opening bracket.
2835As a general rule, you'll find the missing one (so to speak) near the
2836place you were last editing.
a0d0e21e
LW
2837
2838=item unmatched [] in regexp
2839
2840(F) The brackets around a character class must match. If you wish to
2841include a closing bracket in a character class, backslash it or put it first.
2842See L<perlre>.
2843
2844=item Unquoted string "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2845
54310121 2846(W) You used a bareword that might someday be claimed as a reserved word.
a0d0e21e
LW
2847It's best to put such a word in quotes, or capitalize it somehow, or insert
2848an underbar into it. You might also declare it as a subroutine.
2849
54310121 2850=item Unrecognized character %s
a0d0e21e 2851
54310121
PP
2852(F) The Perl parser has no idea what to do with the specified character
2853in your Perl script (or eval). Perhaps you tried to run a compressed
2854script, a binary program, or a directory as a Perl program.
a0d0e21e 2855
c9f97d15
IZ
2856=item Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through
2857
2858(W) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
2859by Perl.
2860
a0d0e21e
LW
2861=item Unrecognized signal name "%s"
2862
2863(F) You specified a signal name to the kill() function that was not recognized.
2864Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
2865
90248788 2866=item Unrecognized switch: -%s (-h will show valid options)
a0d0e21e
LW
2867
2868(F) You specified an illegal option to Perl. Don't do that.
2869(If you think you didn't do that, check the #! line to see if it's
2870supplying the bad switch on your behalf.)
2871
2872=item Unsuccessful %s on filename containing newline
2873
2874(W) A file operation was attempted on a filename, and that operation
2875failed, PROBABLY because the filename contained a newline, PROBABLY
54310121 2876because you forgot to chop() or chomp() it off. See L<perlfunc/chomp>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2877
2878=item Unsupported directory function "%s" called
2879
2880(F) Your machine doesn't support opendir() and readdir().
2881
54310121
PP
2882=item Unsupported function fork
2883
2884(F) Your version of executable does not support forking.
2885
2886Note that under some systems, like OS/2, there may be different flavors of
2887Perl executables, some of which may support fork, some not. Try changing
2888the name you call Perl by to C<perl_>, C<perl__>, and so on.
2889
a0d0e21e
LW
2890=item Unsupported function %s
2891
7b8d334a 2892(F) This machine doesn't implement the indicated function, apparently.
a0d0e21e
LW
2893At least, Configure doesn't think so.
2894
2895=item Unsupported socket function "%s" called
2896
2897(F) Your machine doesn't support the Berkeley socket mechanism, or at
2898least that's what Configure thought.
2899
8b1a09fc 2900=item Unterminated E<lt>E<gt> operator
a0d0e21e
LW
2901
2902(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
2903a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
2904finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
2905the line, and you really meant a "less than".
2906
2907=item Use of $# is deprecated
2908
8b1a09fc 2909(D) This was an ill-advised attempt to emulate a poorly defined B<awk> feature.
a0d0e21e
LW
2910Use an explicit printf() or sprintf() instead.
2911
2912=item Use of $* is deprecated
2913
4a6725af 2914(D) This variable magically turned on multi-line pattern matching, both for
a0d0e21e
LW
2915you and for any luckless subroutine that you happen to call. You should
2916use the new C<//m> and C<//s> modifiers now to do that without the dangerous
2917action-at-a-distance effects of C<$*>.
2918
748a9306
LW
2919=item Use of %s in printf format not supported
2920
5f05dabc
PP
2921(F) You attempted to use a feature of printf that is accessible from
2922only C. This usually means there's a better way to do it in Perl.
748a9306 2923
8b1a09fc 2924=item Use of bare E<lt>E<lt> to mean E<lt>E<lt>"" is deprecated
4633a7c4
LW
2925
2926(D) You are now encouraged to use the explicitly quoted form if you
3fe9a6f1 2927wish to use an empty line as the terminator of the here-document.
4633a7c4 2928
a0d0e21e
LW
2929=item Use of implicit split to @_ is deprecated
2930
2931(D) It makes a lot of work for the compiler when you clobber a
2932subroutine's argument list, so it's better if you assign the results of
2933a split() explicitly to an array (or list).
2934
dc848c6f
PP
2935=item Use of inherited AUTOLOAD for non-method %s() is deprecated
2936
5cd24f17
PP
2937(D) As an (ahem) accidental feature, C<AUTOLOAD> subroutines are looked
2938up as methods (using the C<@ISA> hierarchy) even when the subroutines to
2939be autoloaded were called as plain functions (e.g. C<Foo::bar()>), not
7b8d334a 2940as methods (e.g. C<Foo-E<gt>bar()> or C<$obj-E<gt>bar()>).
dc848c6f
PP
2941
2942This bug will be rectified in Perl 5.005, which will use method lookup
2943only for methods' C<AUTOLOAD>s. However, there is a significant base
2944of existing code that may be using the old behavior. So, as an
2945interim step, Perl 5.004 issues an optional warning when non-methods
2946use inherited C<AUTOLOAD>s.
2947
2948The simple rule is: Inheritance will not work when autoloading
2949non-methods. The simple fix for old code is: In any module that used to
2950depend on inheriting C<AUTOLOAD> for non-methods from a base class named
2951C<BaseClass>, execute C<*AUTOLOAD = \&BaseClass::AUTOLOAD> during startup.
2952
fb73857a
PP
2953In code that currently says C<use AutoLoader; @ISA = qw(AutoLoader);> you
2954should remove AutoLoader from @ISA and change C<use AutoLoader;> to
7b8d334a 2955C<use AutoLoader 'AUTOLOAD';>.
fb73857a 2956
85b81015
LW
2957=item Use of reserved word "%s" is deprecated
2958
2959(D) The indicated bareword is a reserved word. Future versions of perl
2960may use it as a keyword, so you're better off either explicitly quoting
2961the word in a manner appropriate for its context of use, or using a
2962different name altogether. The warning can be suppressed for subroutine
2963names by either adding a C<&> prefix, or using a package qualifier,
2964e.g. C<&our()>, or C<Foo::our()>.
2965
dc848c6f
PP
2966=item Use of %s is deprecated
2967
2968(D) The construct indicated is no longer recommended for use, generally
2969because there's a better way to do it, and also because the old way has
2970bad side effects.
2971
a0d0e21e
LW
2972=item Use of uninitialized value
2973
2974(W) An undefined value was used as if it were already defined. It was
2975interpreted as a "" or a 0, but maybe it was a mistake. To suppress this
5311ebfa 2976warning assign a defined value to your variables.
a0d0e21e 2977
8202fd39
G
2978=item Useless use of "re" pragma
2979
2980(W) You did C<use re;> without any arguments. That isn't very useful.
2981
a0d0e21e
LW
2982=item Useless use of %s in void context
2983
2984(W) You did something without a side effect in a context that does nothing
2985with the return value, such as a statement that doesn't return a value
2986from a block, or the left side of a scalar comma operator. Very often
2987this points not to stupidity on your part, but a failure of Perl to parse
2988your program the way you thought it would. For example, you'd get this
2989if you mixed up your C precedence with Python precedence and said
2990
2991 $one, $two = 1, 2;
2992
2993when you meant to say
2994
2995 ($one, $two) = (1, 2);
2996
748a9306
LW
2997Another common error is to use ordinary parentheses to construct a list
2998reference when you should be using square or curly brackets, for
2999example, if you say
3000
3001 $array = (1,2);
3002
3003when you should have said
3004
3005 $array = [1,2];
3006
3007The square brackets explicitly turn a list value into a scalar value,
3008while parentheses do not. So when a parenthesized list is evaluated in
3009a scalar context, the comma is treated like C's comma operator, which
3010throws away the left argument, which is not what you want. See
3011L<perlref> for more on this.
3012
55497cff
PP
3013=item untie attempted while %d inner references still exist
3014
3015(W) A copy of the object returned from C<tie> (or C<tied>) was still
3016valid when C<untie> was called.
3017
68dc0745 3018=item Value of %s can be "0"; test with defined()
a6006777 3019
68dc0745
PP
3020(W) In a conditional expression, you used <HANDLE>, <*> (glob), C<each()>,
3021or C<readdir()> as a boolean value. Each of these constructs can return a
3022value of "0"; that would make the conditional expression false, which is
3023probably not what you intended. When using these constructs in conditional
3024expressions, test their values with the C<defined> operator.
a6006777 3025
f675dbe5
CB
3026=item Value of CLI symbol "%s" too long
3027
3028(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the value of an %ENV
3029element from a CLI symbol table, and found a resultant string longer
3030than 1024 characters. The return value has been truncated to 1024
3031characters.
3032
9607fc9c 3033=item Variable "%s" is not imported%s
4633a7c4
LW
3034
3035(F) While "use strict" in effect, you referred to a global variable
3036that you apparently thought was imported from another module, because
3037something else of the same name (usually a subroutine) is exported
3038by that module. It usually means you put the wrong funny character
3039on the front of your variable.
3040
44a8e56a
PP
3041=item Variable "%s" may be unavailable
3042
3043(W) An inner (nested) I<anonymous> subroutine is inside a I<named>
3044subroutine, and outside that is another subroutine; and the anonymous
3045(innermost) subroutine is referencing a lexical variable defined in
3046the outermost subroutine. For example:
3047
3048 sub outermost { my $a; sub middle { sub { $a } } }
3049
3050If the anonymous subroutine is called or referenced (directly or
3051indirectly) from the outermost subroutine, it will share the variable
3052as you would expect. But if the anonymous subroutine is called or
3053referenced when the outermost subroutine is not active, it will see
3054the value of the shared variable as it was before and during the
3055*first* call to the outermost subroutine, which is probably not what
3056you want.
3057
3058In these circumstances, it is usually best to make the middle
3059subroutine anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. Perl has specific
3060support for shared variables in nested anonymous subroutines; a named
3061subroutine in between interferes with this feature.
3062
3063=item Variable "%s" will not stay shared
3064
3065(W) An inner (nested) I<named> subroutine is referencing a lexical
3066variable defined in an outer subroutine.
3067
3068When the inner subroutine is called, it will probably see the value of
3069the outer subroutine's variable as it was before and during the
3070*first* call to the outer subroutine; in this case, after the first
3071call to the outer subroutine is complete, the inner and outer
3072subroutines will no longer share a common value for the variable. In
3073other words, the variable will no longer be shared.
3074
3075Furthermore, if the outer subroutine is anonymous and references a
3076lexical variable outside itself, then the outer and inner subroutines
3077will I<never> share the given variable.
3078
3079This problem can usually be solved by making the inner subroutine
3080anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. When inner anonymous subs that
3081reference variables in outer subroutines are called or referenced,
54310121 3082they are automatically rebound to the current values of such
44a8e56a
PP
3083variables.
3084
f86702cc 3085=item Variable syntax
cb1a09d0
AD
3086
3087(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
3088of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
3089Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 3090
3e6e419a
JH
3091=item perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3092
3093(S) The whole warning message will look something like:
3094
3095 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3096 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
3097 LC_ALL = "En_US",
3098 LANG = (unset)
3099 are supported and installed on your system.
3100 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
3101
3102Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies. In the above the
3103settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.
3104This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your system
3105administrator have set up the so-called variable system but Perl could
3106not use those settings. This was not dead serious, fortunately: there
3107is a "default locale" called "C" that Perl can and will use, the
3108script will be run. Before you really fix the problem, however, you
3109will get the same error message each time you run Perl. How to really
3110fix the problem can be found in L<perllocale> section B<LOCALE PROBLEMS>.
3111
7e1af8bc 3112=item Warning: something's wrong
5f05dabc
PP
3113
3114(W) You passed warn() an empty string (the equivalent of C<warn "">) or
3115you called it with no args and C<$_> was empty.
3116
f86702cc 3117=item Warning: unable to close filehandle %s properly
a0d0e21e 3118
8b1a09fc 3119(S) The implicit close() done by an open() got an error indication on the
5f05dabc 3120close(). This usually indicates your file system ran out of disk space.
a0d0e21e 3121
5f05dabc 3122=item Warning: Use of "%s" without parentheses is ambiguous
a0d0e21e
LW
3123
3124(S) You wrote a unary operator followed by something that looks like a
3125binary operator that could also have been interpreted as a term or
3126unary operator. For instance, if you know that the rand function
3127has a default argument of 1.0, and you write
3128
3129 rand + 5;
3130
3131you may THINK you wrote the same thing as
3132
3133 rand() + 5;
3134
3135but in actual fact, you got
3136
3137 rand(+5);
3138
5f05dabc 3139So put in parentheses to say what you really mean.
a0d0e21e
LW
3140
3141=item Write on closed filehandle
3142
3143(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
3144Check your logic flow.
3145
3146=item X outside of string
3147
3148(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position before
3149the beginning of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3150
3151=item x outside of string
3152
3153(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position after
3154the end of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3155
3156=item Xsub "%s" called in sort
3157
3158(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
3159
3160=item Xsub called in sort
3161
3162(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
3163
3164=item You can't use C<-l> on a filehandle
3165
3166(F) A filehandle represents an opened file, and when you opened the file it
3167already went past any symlink you are presumably trying to look for.
3168Use a filename instead.
3169
3170=item YOU HAVEN'T DISABLED SET-ID SCRIPTS IN THE KERNEL YET!
3171
5f05dabc 3172(F) And you probably never will, because you probably don't have the
a0d0e21e
LW
3173sources to your kernel, and your vendor probably doesn't give a rip
3174about what you want. Your best bet is to use the wrapsuid script in
3175the eg directory to put a setuid C wrapper around your script.
3176
3177=item You need to quote "%s"
3178
3179(W) You assigned a bareword as a signal handler name. Unfortunately, you
3180already have a subroutine of that name declared, which means that Perl 5
3181will try to call the subroutine when the assignment is executed, which is
3182probably not what you want. (If it IS what you want, put an & in front.)
3183
3184=item [gs]etsockopt() on closed fd
3185
3186(W) You tried to get or set a socket option on a closed socket.
3187Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
3188See L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
3189
3190=item \1 better written as $1
3191
3192(W) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables. The use
5f05dabc 3193of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
a0d0e21e
LW
3194substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
3195because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better
3196if there are more than 9 backreferences.
3197
8b1a09fc 3198=item '|' and 'E<lt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
3199
3200(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
3201found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to redirect STDIN using
8b1a09fc 3202'E<lt>'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
748a9306 3203
8b1a09fc 3204=item '|' and 'E<gt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
3205
3206(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
3207thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and into a pipe to another
3208command. You need to choose one or the other, though nothing's stopping you
3209from piping into a program or Perl script which 'splits' output into two
3210streams, such as
3211
3212 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
3213 while (<STDIN>) {
3214 print;
3215 print OUT;
3216 }
3217 close OUT;
3218
774d564b 3219=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
33c8a3fe 3220
774d564b
PP
3221(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
3222version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3223
3224=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
3225
dc848c6f 3226(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
33c8a3fe
IZ
3227
3228 prefix1;prefix2
3229
3230or
3231
3232 prefix1 prefix2
3233
dc848c6f
PP
3234with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix
3235of a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error
3236may appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
3237"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3238
3239=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
3240
54310121 3241(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
dc848c6f 3242C<sh>-shell in. See "PERL_SH_DIR" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3243
3244=item Process terminated by SIG%s
3245
3246(W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while *nix
dc848c6f
PP
3247applications die in silence. It is considered a feature of the OS/2
3248port. One can easily disable this by appropriate sighandlers, see
3249L<perlipc/"Signals">. See also "Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT"
3250in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe 3251
a0d0e21e
LW
3252=back
3253