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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
12 (S) A severe warning (mandatory).
13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
748a9306 18Optional warnings are enabled by using the B<-w> switch. Warnings may
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19be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}> to a reference to a routine that
20will be called on each warning instead of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
4438c4b7 21
748a9306 22Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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23L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
24disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
25See L<warnings>.
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26
27Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are denoted with a %s,
2ba9eb46 28just as in a printf format. Note that some messages start with a %s!
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29Since the messages are listed in alphabetical order, the symbols
30C<"%(-?@> sort before the letters, while C<[> and C<\> sort after.
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31
32=over 4
33
33633739
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34=item "%s" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same %s
35
36(W) A "my" or "our" variable has been redeclared in the current scope or statement,
37effectively eliminating all access to the previous instance. This is almost
38always a typographical error. Note that the earlier variable will still exist
39until the end of the scope or until all closure referents to it are
40destroyed.
41
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42=item "my sub" not yet implemented
43
44(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try that
45yet.
46
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47=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
48
49(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make sense
50to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use local()
51if you want to localize a package variable.
52
53=item "no" not allowed in expression
54
55(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
56no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
57
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58=item "our" variable %s redeclared
59
60(W) You seem to have already declared the same global once before in the
61current lexical scope.
62
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63=item "use" not allowed in expression
64
65(F) The "use" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
66no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
67
f61d411c 68=item '!' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 69
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70(F) The '!' is allowed in pack() and unpack() only after certain types.
71See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 72
17f4a12d 73=item / cannot take a count
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74
75(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string,
76but you have also specified an explicit size for the string.
77See L<perlfunc/pack>.
78
17f4a12d 79=item / must be followed by a, A or Z
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80
81(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string,
82which must be followed by one of the letters a, A or Z
83to indicate what sort of string is to be unpacked.
84See L<perlfunc/pack>.
85
17f4a12d 86=item / must be followed by a*, A* or Z*
43192e07 87
437784d6 88(F) You had a pack template indicating a counted-length string,
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89Currently the only things that can have their length counted are a*, A* or Z*.
90See L<perlfunc/pack>.
91
17f4a12d 92=item / must follow a numeric type
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93
94(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '#',
95but this did not follow some numeric unpack specification.
96See L<perlfunc/pack>.
97
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98=item % may only be used in unpack
99
5f05dabc 100(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
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101checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other
102way. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
103
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104=item Repeat count in pack overflows
105
106(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows
107your signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
108
109=item Repeat count in unpack overflows
110
111(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows
112your signed integers. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
113
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114=item /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through
115
116(W) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
117by Perl. This combination appears in an interpolated variable or a
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118C<'>-delimited regular expression. The character was understood literally.
119
120=item /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c in character class passed through
121
122(W) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
123by Perl inside character classes. The character was understood literally.
c9f97d15 124
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125=item /%s/ should probably be written as "%s"
126
127(W) You have used a pattern where Perl expected to find a string,
437784d6 128as in the first argument to C<join>. Perl will treat the true
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129or false result of matching the pattern against $_ as the string,
130which is probably not what you had in mind.
131
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132=item %s (...) interpreted as function
133
134(W) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator followed
8b1a09fc 135by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list operators arguments
5f05dabc 136found inside the parentheses. See L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
a0d0e21e 137
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138=item %s() called too early to check prototype
139
140(W) You've called a function that has a prototype before the parser saw a
141definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check that the call
142conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an early prototype
143declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the subroutine
144definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype checking. Alternatively,
145if you are certain that you're calling the function correctly, you may put
146an ampersand before the name to avoid the warning. See L<perlsub>.
147
8ea97a1e 148=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element
a0d0e21e 149
8ea97a1e 150(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element, such as:
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151
152 $foo{$bar}
8ea97a1e 153 $ref->[12]->["susie"]
a0d0e21e 154
8ea97a1e 155=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 156
8ea97a1e 157(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element, such as:
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158
159 $foo{$bar}
8ea97a1e 160 $ref->[12]->["susie"]
5f05dabc 161
8ea97a1e 162or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 163
8ea97a1e 164 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
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165 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
166
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167=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
168
169(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
170name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this error.
171
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172=item %s did not return a true value
173
174(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
175it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
176traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
177do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
178
179=item %s found where operator expected
180
181(S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator. If it
182sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an operator,
183it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an operator or
184delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
185
f86702cc 186=item %s had compilation errors
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187
188(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
189
f86702cc 190=item %s has too many errors
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191
192(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
193Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
194
195=item %s matches null string many times
196
197(W) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
198regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. See L<perlre>.
199
200=item %s never introduced
201
202(S) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of scope
203before it could possibly have been used.
204
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205=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
206
207(W) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a package-specific handler.
208That name might have a meaning to Perl itself some day, even though it
209doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a mixed-case attribute name, instead.
210See L<attributes>.
211
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212=item %s syntax OK
213
214(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> succeeds.
215
f86702cc 216=item %s: Command not found
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217
218(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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219of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
220Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 221
f86702cc 222=item %s: Expression syntax
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223
224(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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225of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
226Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 227
f86702cc 228=item %s: Undefined variable
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229
230(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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231of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
232Perl yourself.
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233
234=item %s: not found
235
8b1a09fc 236(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 237instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
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238into Perl yourself.
239
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240=item (in cleanup) %s
241
242(W) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
243the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by
244the system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast
245number of times, the warning is issued only once for any number
246of failures that would otherwise result in the same message being
247repeated.
248
249Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag
250could also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
251
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252=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
253
254(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
255found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
256the previous line just because you saw this message.
257
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258=item B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script
259
260(F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name,
261which provides a race condition that breaks security.
262
263=item C<-T> and C<-B> not implemented on filehandles
264
265(F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it doesn't
266know about your kind of stdio. You'll have to use a filename instead.
267
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268=item C<-p> destination: %s
269
270(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
271command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
272redirected it with select().)
273
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274=item 500 Server error
275
276See Server error.
277
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278=item ?+* follows nothing in regexp
279
280(F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it
281if you meant it literally. See L<perlre>.
282
283=item @ outside of string
284
2ba9eb46 285(F) You had a pack template that specified an absolute position outside
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286the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
287
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288=item <> should be quotes
289
290(F) You wrote C<require E<lt>fileE<gt>> when you should have written
291C<require 'file'>.
292
69282e91 293=item accept() on closed socket %s
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294
295(W) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
296the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/accept>.
297
298=item Allocation too large: %lx
299
54310121 300(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
55497cff 301
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302=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
303
2c268ad5 304(W) The pattern match (//), substitution (s///), and transliteration (tr///)
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305operators work on scalar values. If you apply one of them to an array
306or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to a scalar value -- the
307length of an array, or the population info of a hash -- and then work on
308that scalar value. This is probably not what you meant to do. See
309L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for alternatives.
310
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311=item Arg too short for msgsnd
312
313(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
314
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315=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
316
317(W)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
318you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
5f05dabc 319a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
748a9306 320
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321=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
322
323(W) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl keyword,
324and you have used the name without qualification for calling one or the
325other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the subroutine is
326not imported.
327
328To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
329before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
330Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
331imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
332
333To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
334on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or by declaring the subroutine
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335to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes">
336or L<attributes>).
5315574d 337
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338=item Args must match #! line
339
340(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
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341with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
342impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
343for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 344
f86702cc 345=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
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346
347(W) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator that
348expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
349will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
350
351=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
352
353(D) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some spots. This
354is now heavily deprecated.
355
356=item assertion botched: %s
357
358(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
359
360=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
361
362(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
363
364=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
365
366(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
367must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
368know which context to supply to the right side.
369
370=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
371
372(P) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas that will
373be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be outside any
374of those arenas.
375
54310121 376=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
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377
378(P) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of strings to
379optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other strings. This
380indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count of a string
381that can no longer be found in the table.
382
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383=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
384
385(W) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the free_tmps()
386routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the SV before
387the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the free_tmps()
388routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does try to free
389it.
390
391=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
392
393(P) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
394
395=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
396
397(W) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to see if it
398would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0 earlier,
399and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed. This
400could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or that
401SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was mortalized
402when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been corrupted.
403
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404=item Attempt to join self
405
406(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
407impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may
408need to move the join() to some other thread.
409
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410=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
411
412(W) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
413function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
414means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
415invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
416literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
417avoid this warning.
418
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419=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
420
421(W) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr() used
8b1a09fc 422as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
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423dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
424
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425=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
426
427(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl() or
2ba9eb46 428shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 429S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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430S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
431
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432=item Bad filehandle: %s
433
434(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the symbol
435has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an open(), or
436did it in another package.
437
438=item Bad free() ignored
439
440(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had never been
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441malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
442setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
443
444This message can be quite often seen with DB_File on systems with
445"hard" dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of
446C<Berkeley DB> which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving>
447system malloc().
a0d0e21e 448
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449=item Bad hash
450
451(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
452
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453=item Bad index while coercing array into hash
454
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455(F) The index looked up in the hash found as the 0'th element of a
456pseudo-hash is not legal. Index values must be at 1 or greater.
457See L<perlref>.
57079c46 458
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459=item Bad name after %s::
460
461(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then didn't
462finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside of quotes,
463so
464
465 $var = 'myvar';
466 $sym = mypack::$var;
467
468is not the same as
469
470 $var = 'myvar';
471 $sym = "mypack::$var";
472
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473=item Bad realloc() ignored
474
475(S) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had never been
476malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
477setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
478
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479=item Bad symbol for array
480
481(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
482wasn't a symbol table entry.
483
484=item Bad symbol for filehandle
485
486(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something that
487wasn't a symbol table entry.
488
489=item Bad symbol for hash
490
491(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
492wasn't a symbol table entry.
493
8b1a09fc 494=item Badly placed ()'s
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495
496(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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497of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
498Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 499
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500=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
501
502(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
d98d5fff 503subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>" symbol.
54310121 504Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
3fe9a6f1 505
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506=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
507
508(W) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but
509the compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point.
510Perhaps you need to predeclare a package?
511
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512=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
513
514(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN subroutine.
515Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is exited.
516
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517=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
518
519(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
520implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had
521already occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}>
522could not be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code
523likely depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
524
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525=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
526
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527(W) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
528(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
529L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 530
69282e91 531=item bind() on closed socket %s
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532
533(W) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
534the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
535
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536=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
537
538(W) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
539
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540=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
541
542(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not copiable.
543
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544=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
545
546(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to iterate over
547%ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition which was too long,
548so it was truncated to the string shown.
549
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550=item Callback called exit
551
552(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via perl_call_sv()
553exited by calling exit.
554
a651a37d 555=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
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556
557(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look
558like a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually
559occurs if you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which
560is a no-no. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
561
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562=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
563
564(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a
565foreach loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
566
a651a37d 567=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
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568
569(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
570except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a
571current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a
a651a37d
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572"loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep().
573You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect though,
574because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once.
575See L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e 576
a651a37d 577=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
a0d0e21e
LW
578
579(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
580there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
a651a37d
GS
581count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
582or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
583though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
584loops once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
a0d0e21e 585
f675dbe5
CB
586=item Can't read CRTL environ
587
588(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
589from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
590missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
591or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not searched.
592
a651a37d 593=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
a0d0e21e
LW
594
595(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
596there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
a651a37d
GS
597count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
598or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
599though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
600loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
a0d0e21e
LW
601
602=item Can't bless non-reference value
603
604(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
605encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
606
607=item Can't break at that line
608
54310121 609(S) A warning intended to only be printed while running within the debugger, indicating
a0d0e21e
LW
610the line number specified wasn't the location of a statement that could
611be stopped at.
612
613=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
614
615(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
616functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
617in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
618
619=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
620
54310121 621(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
a0d0e21e
LW
622ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but
623you didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't
624an object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
625
626=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
627
628(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
629object reference or package name contains an expression that returns
72b5445b
GS
630a defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
631Something like this will reproduce the error:
632
633 $BADREF = 42;
634 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
635 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
636
637=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
638
639(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
640object reference or package name contains an undefined value.
a0d0e21e
LW
641Something like this will reproduce the error:
642
643 $BADREF = undef;
644 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
645 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
646
647=item Can't chdir to %s
648
649(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
650that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
651
0545a864 652=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 653
e688b231 654(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for nosuid.
104d25b7 655
a0d0e21e
LW
656=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
657
658(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 659(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
660say things like:
661
662 *foo += 1;
663
664You CAN say
665
666 $foo = *foo;
667 $foo += 1;
668
669but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
670
671=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
672
673(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 674(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e
LW
675
676=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
677
678(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 679(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e 680
57079c46
GA
681=item Can't coerce array into hash
682
683(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
684information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
685only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
686
a0d0e21e
LW
687=item Can't create pipe mailbox
688
748a9306
LW
689(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted quotas
690or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 691
eb64745e 692=item Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
a0d0e21e 693
eb64745e
GS
694(S) Currently, only scalar variables can declared with a specific class
695qualifier in a "my" or "our" declaration. The semantics may be extended
696for other types of variables in future.
697
698=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
699
700(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my" or
701"our" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e
LW
702
703=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
704
705(S) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated reason.
706
54310121 707=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 708
54310121 709(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try reading
3fe9a6f1 710from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say C<-i.bak>, or some
a0d0e21e
LW
711such.
712
10f9c03d 713=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 714
10f9c03d
CK
715(S) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
716characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
717inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e
LW
718
719=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
720
721(S) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as a file in
722/dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
723
724=item Can't do setegid!
725
726(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
727of suidperl.
728
729=item Can't do seteuid!
730
731(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
732
733=item Can't do setuid
734
735(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to
736do setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the
737form sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides
738under the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines.
739If the file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask
740your sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
741
742=item Can't do waitpid with flags
743
744(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only waitpid()
745without flags is emulated.
746
8b1a09fc 747=item Can't do {n,m} with n E<gt> m
a0d0e21e
LW
748
749(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want
750your regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. See L<perlre>.
751
752=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
753
754(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this point.
755For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #! line.
756
757=item Can't exec "%s": %s
758
5f05dabc 759(W) An system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the named
a0d0e21e
LW
760program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the permissions
761were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in C<$ENV{PATH}>, the
762executable in question was compiled for another architecture, or the
763#! line in a script points to an interpreter that can't be run for
764similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support #! at all.)
765
766=item Can't exec %s
767
768(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because that's
769what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may need to
770mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
771
772=item Can't execute %s
773
2a92aaa0
GS
774(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute found
775in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
776
777=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
778
779(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
780in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The script
781exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
782
783=item Can't find %s on PATH
784
a0d0e21e 785(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
2a92aaa0 786in the PATH.
a0d0e21e
LW
787
788=item Can't find label %s
789
790(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's possible
791for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
792
793=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
794
795(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means that
5f05dabc 796the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count nesting
a0d0e21e
LW
797levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
798
fb73857a
PP
799 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
800
801If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
802included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good
803programmer's editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e
LW
804
805=item Can't fork
806
807(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a pipeline.
808
748a9306
LW
809=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
810
811(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference between
812access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes. Under VMS,
813access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in the stat buffer, so
814that ACLs and other protections can be taken into account. Unfortunately, Perl
815assumes that the stat buffer contains all the necessary information, and passes
816it, instead of the filespec, to the access checking routine. It will try to
817retrieve the filespec using the device name and FID present in the stat buffer,
818but this works only if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat()
5f05dabc 819routine, because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
748a9306
LW
820appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up and
821returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking routine
822knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you shouldn't ever
823see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises only if some internal
824code takes stat buffers lightly.)
825
a0d0e21e
LW
826=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
827
748a9306
LW
828(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a pipe, Perl
829can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
830
831=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
832
748a9306
LW
833(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
834mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e
LW
835
836=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
837
838(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one subroutine
839call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole cloth. In general
5f05dabc 840you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD routine anyway. See
a0d0e21e
LW
841L<perlfunc/goto>.
842
b150fb22
RH
843=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string
844
845(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval "string".
846(You can use it to jump out of an eval {BLOCK}, but you probably don't want to.)
847
0b5b802d
GS
848=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
849
850(W) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD signal
851(sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this signal
852will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
853processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value.
854This situation typically indicates that the parent program under
855which Perl may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
856
706a304b 857=item Can't localize through a reference
4633a7c4 858
706a304b
SM
859(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
860handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
861pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be
862sure that $ref will still be a reference.
4633a7c4 863
748a9306
LW
864=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
865
2ba9eb46 866(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
748a9306
LW
867lexical variable using "my". This is not allowed. If you want to
868localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
869package name.
870
0ebe0038
SM
871=item Can't localize pseudo-hash element
872
873(F) You said something like C<local $ar-E<gt>{'key'}>, where $ar is
874a reference to a pseudo-hash. That hasn't been implemented yet, but
875you can get a similar effect by localizing the corresponding array
876element directly -- C<local $ar-E<gt>[$ar-E<gt>[0]{'key'}]>.
877
4727527e
IZ
878=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
879
880(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows autoload,
881but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes are a misprint
882in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit> the file, say, by
883doing C<make install>.
884
ec889f3a
GS
885=item Can't locate %s
886
887(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
888found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
889unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
890to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the extra
891library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name to @INC. Or
892maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See L<perlfunc/require>
893and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e
LW
894
895=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
896
897(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
898functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 899method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
900
901=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
902
903(W) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that doesn't seem
904to exist.
905
3e3baf6d
TB
906=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
907
908(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably VMS.
909
a0d0e21e
LW
910=item Can't modify %s in %s
911
912(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try to
5f05dabc 913change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 914
cd06dffe
GS
915=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
916
437784d6
GS
917(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
918such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
cd06dffe 919
54310121 920=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
921
922(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
923a NULL.
924
5f05dabc 925=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 926
5f05dabc 927(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
928buffer.
929
930=item Can't open %s: %s
931
08e9d68e
DD
932(S) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<E<lt>E<gt>>
933filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
934switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
935is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named
936on the command line.
a0d0e21e
LW
937
938=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
939
940(W) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported. You can
941try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such as
7e1af8bc 942IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using "E<gt>",
a0d0e21e
LW
943and then read it in under a different file handle.
944
748a9306
LW
945=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
946
947(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
948couldn't open the file specified after '2E<gt>' or '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the
949command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
950
951=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
952
953(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc 954couldn't open the file specified after 'E<lt>' on the command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
955
956=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
957
958(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
959couldn't open the file specified after 'E<gt>' or 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command
960line for writing.
748a9306
LW
961
962=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
963
964(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
965couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined for stdout.
966
a0d0e21e
LW
967=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
968
969(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
970
7bac28a0
PP
971=item Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s
972
973(F) Perl optimizes the internal handling of sort subroutines and keeps
974pointers into them. You tried to redefine one such sort subroutine when it
975was currently active, which is not allowed. If you really want to do
976this, you should write C<sort { &func } @x> instead of C<sort func @x>.
977
10f9c03d
CK
978=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
979
980(S) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup file. Perl
981was unable to remove the original file to replace it with the modified
982file. The file was left unmodified.
983
a0d0e21e
LW
984=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
985
10f9c03d
CK
986(S) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
987probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 988
748a9306
LW
989=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
990
991(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried to
992reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
993
a0d0e21e
LW
994=item Can't reswap uid and euid
995
996(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
997of suidperl.
998
999=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1000
1001(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1002there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1003
cd06dffe
GS
1004=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1005
1006(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such
1007as temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue.
1008This is not allowed.
1009
a0d0e21e
LW
1010=item Can't stat script "%s"
1011
1012(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have
1013it open already. Bizarre.
1014
1015=item Can't swap uid and euid
1016
1017(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
1018of suidperl.
1019
1020=item Can't take log of %g
1021
fb73857a
PP
1022(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1023negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
1024standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for
1025the negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1026
1027=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1028
1029(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1030negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1031with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1032
1033=item Can't undef active subroutine
1034
1035(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1036however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1037redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1038
1039=item Can't unshift
1040
1041(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
1042as the main Perl stack.
1043
1044=item Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
1045
1046(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making
1047it into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are
1048so specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This
1049message indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
1050
1051=item Can't upgrade to undef
1052
1053(P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme
1054of upgradability. Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the
1055code calling sv_upgrade.
1056
1d2dff63
GS
1057=item Can't use %%! because Errno.pm is not available
1058
1059(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1060Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1061provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1062
c07a80fd
PP
1063=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1064
1065(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
8b1a09fc 1066You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the E<lt>=E<gt> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1067and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1068Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1069lexical variable.
1070
e9fa98b2
HS
1071=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
1072
1073(F) You've used the /e switch to evaluate the replacement for a
1074substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
1075most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
1076
a0d0e21e
LW
1077=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1078
1079(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a foreach.
1080
1081=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1082
1083(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1084reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1085test the type of the reference, if need be.
1086
9a7dcd9c 1087=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
748a9306
LW
1088
1089(W) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that creates
1090a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a backreference
5f05dabc 1091to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular expression pattern.
748a9306
LW
1092Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a value that prints
1093out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form instead.
1094
9a7dcd9c 1095=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
44a8e56a
PP
1096
1097(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
1098are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
1099
748a9306 1100=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e
LW
1101
1102(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
1103are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
1104
1105=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1106
1107(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
54310121 1108be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
a0d0e21e 1109
a0d0e21e
LW
1110=item Can't use global %s in "my"
1111
1112(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This is
5f05dabc 1113not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location (namely
a0d0e21e
LW
1114the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to have
1115variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
1116weren't.
1117
748a9306
LW
1118=item Can't use subscript on %s
1119
1120(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1121subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
1122didn't look like an array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
1123
810b8aa5
GS
1124=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1125
1126(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1127references can be weakened.
1128
5f05dabc 1129=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e
LW
1130
1131(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value) with
1132an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
1133Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1134
3f4520fe 1135=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
b6c543e3
IZ
1136
1137(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but
1138there is no builtin with the name C<word>.
1139
3f4520fe 1140=item Can't resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
e7ea3e70
IZ
1141
1142(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1143opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1144package. If method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
1145
b8c5462f 1146=item Character class [:%s:] unknown
4599a1de 1147
b8c5462f 1148(F) The class in the character class [: :] syntax is unknown.
437784d6 1149See L<perlre>.
4599a1de 1150
b8c5462f
JH
1151=item Character class syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes
1152
1153(W) The character class constructs [: :], [= =], and [. .] go
644a2880 1154I<inside> character classes, the [] are part of the construct,
437784d6
GS
1155for example: /[012[:alpha:]345]/. Note that [= =] and [. .]
1156are not currently implemented; they are simply placeholders for
1157future extensions.
b8c5462f 1158
644a2880 1159=item Character class syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions
4599a1de
JH
1160
1161(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
b8c5462f 1162with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future extensions.
4599a1de
JH
1163If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
1164expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
b8c5462f 1165backslash: "\[." and ".\]".
4599a1de
JH
1166
1167=item Character class syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions
1168
1169(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
1170beginning with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future extensions.
1171If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
1172expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
1173backslash: "\[=" and "=\]".
1174
a0d0e21e
LW
1175=item chmod: mode argument is missing initial 0
1176
1177(W) A novice will sometimes say
1178
1179 chmod 777, $filename
1180
1181not realizing that 777 will be interpreted as a decimal number, equivalent
1182to 01411. Octal constants are introduced with a leading 0 in Perl, as in C.
1183
8b1a09fc 1184=item Close on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
1185
1186(W) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1187
7a2e2cd6
PP
1188=item Compilation failed in require
1189
1190(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
1191Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it encountered
1192were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
1193
c3464db5
DD
1194=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1195
1196(W) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex situations
1197where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited to 32766,
1198or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1199arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1200recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1201under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather
1202than in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular
1203expression so that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlbook>
1204for information on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
1205
69282e91 1206=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1207
1208(W) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
1209the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/connect>.
1210
779c5bc9
GS
1211=item Constant is not %s reference
1212
1213(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
1214is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference. The
1215message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This usually
1216indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
1217See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1218
4cee8e80
CS
1219=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1220
9845ecba 1221(S|W) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
4cee8e80
CS
1222inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1223workarounds.
1224
9607fc9c
PP
1225=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1226
9845ecba 1227(W) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
9607fc9c
PP
1228inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1229workarounds.
1230
423cee85
JH
1231=item constant(%s): %%^H is not localized
1232
1233(F) When setting compile-time-lexicalized hash %^H one should set the
1234corresponding bit of $^H as well.
1235
1236=item constant(%s): %s
1237
1238(F) Compile-time-substitutions (such as overloaded constants and
1239character names) were not correctly set up.
1240
e7ea3e70
IZ
1241=item Copy method did not return a reference
1242
1243(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
1244
a0d0e21e
LW
1245=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1246
1247(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1248
1249=item corrupted regexp pointers
1250
1251(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1252expression compiler gave it.
1253
1254=item corrupted regexp program
1255
1256(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without
1257a valid magic number.
1258
1259=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1260
1261(W) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly) 100
3e3baf6d 1262times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an infinite
a0d0e21e
LW
1263recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in which
1264case it indicates something else.
1265
f10b0346 1266=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302
MJD
1267
1268(D) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it checks for an
1269undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the array is empty,
1270just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
1271
f10b0346 1272=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302
MJD
1273
1274(D) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it checks for an
1275undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash is empty,
1276just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
1277
fc36a67e
PP
1278=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1279
1280(F) In a here document construct like C<E<lt>E<lt>FOO>, the label
1281C<FOO> is too long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously
1282twisted to write code that triggers this error.
1283
3cdd684c
TP
1284=item Did not produce a valid header
1285
1286See Server error.
1287
4633a7c4
LW
1288=item Did you mean &%s instead?
1289
1290(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some such.
1291
33633739
GS
1292=item Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?
1293
1294(W) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global variable.
1295You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which seems superfluous.
1296
748a9306 1297=item Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?
a0d0e21e 1298
748a9306
LW
1299(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or @hash{@keys}.
1300On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got carried away.
1301
7e1af8bc 1302=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1303
1304(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1305you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1306
54310121 1307=item Do you need to predeclare %s?
748a9306
LW
1308
1309(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1310found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
1311name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1312because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
1313"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're
1314referencing something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have
1315to define the subroutine or package before the current location. You
1316can use an empty "sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward"
1317declaration.
a0d0e21e 1318
3cdd684c
TP
1319=item Document contains no data
1320
1321See Server error.
1322
a0d0e21e
LW
1323=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1324
1325(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1326
1327=item do_study: out of memory
1328
1329(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1330
1331=item Duplicate free() ignored
1332
1333(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had already
1334been freed.
1335
4633a7c4
LW
1336=item elseif should be elsif
1337
1338(S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1339ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1340named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
1341unlikely to be what you want.
1342
4f25aa18 1343=item %s failed--call queue aborted
a0d0e21e 1344
7d30b5c4 1345(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a CHECK, INIT, or
4f25aa18
GS
1346END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the queue of such
1347routines has been prematurely ended.
a0d0e21e 1348
85ab1d1d 1349=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1350
85ab1d1d 1351(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1352effective uids or gids failed.
1353
748a9306
LW
1354=item Error converting file specification %s
1355
5f05dabc 1356(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306
LW
1357specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
1358single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've
1359passed an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a
1360case the conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
1361
e4d48cc9
GS
1362=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1363
1364(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular expression
1365that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which is unsafe.
1366See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
1367
1368=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1369
1370(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion,
1371but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'> pragma is
1372in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
1373
1374=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time
1375
1376(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the C<(?{ ... })>
3c247ff3
GS
1377zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the pattern contains
1378interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it is not allowed.
e4d48cc9
GS
1379If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly building the pattern
1380from an interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval().
1381See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
1382
fc36a67e
PP
1383=item Excessively long <> operator
1384
1385(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1386Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1387filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1388variable and glob that.
1389
f86702cc 1390=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
1391
1392(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1393
1394=item Exiting eval via %s
1395
8b1a09fc 1396(W) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1397a goto, or a loop control statement.
1398
0a753a76
PP
1399=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1400
1401(W) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a sort block or
1402subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a loop control
1403statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
1404
a0d0e21e
LW
1405=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1406
8b1a09fc 1407(W) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1408a goto, or a loop control statement.
1409
1410=item Exiting substitution via %s
1411
8b1a09fc 1412(W) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1413a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
1414
7b8d334a
GS
1415=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1416
1417(W) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1418the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1419usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target
ae6c4aac 1420package, e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1421
73b437c8
JH
1422=item false [] range "%s" in regexp
1423
1424(W) A character class range must start and end at a literal character, not
1425another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-" in your false
1426range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the "-", "\-".
1427See L<perlre>.
1428
748a9306 1429=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1430
748a9306
LW
1431(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS system
1432service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more details. The
1433filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell you which section of
1434the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1435
1436=item fcntl is not implemented
1437
1438(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1439PDP-11 or something?
1440
1441=item Filehandle %s never opened
1442
1443(W) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was never initialized.
1444You need to do an open() or a socket() call, or call a constructor from
1445the FileHandle package.
1446
af8c498a 1447=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e
LW
1448
1449(W) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
1450intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1451"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
5f05dabc 1452you intended only to write the file, use "E<gt>" or "E<gt>E<gt>". See
8b1a09fc 1453L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1454
af8c498a 1455=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1456
af8c498a 1457(W) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing. If you
437784d6 1458intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1459"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
af8c498a 1460you intended only to read from the file, use "E<lt>". See
8b1a09fc 1461L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1462
1463=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1464
1465(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
1466a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1467that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1468the name.
1469
1470=item Final @ should be \@ or @name
1471
1472(F) You must now decide whether the final @ in a string was meant to be
1473a literal "at" sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1474that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1475the name.
1476
56e90b21
GS
1477=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1478
1479(W) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed some
1480time before now. Check your logic flow. flock() operates on filehandles.
1481Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the same name?
1482
a0d0e21e
LW
1483=item Format %s redefined
1484
1485(W) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
1486
1487 {
4438c4b7 1488 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
1489 eval "format NAME =...";
1490 }
1491
1492=item Format not terminated
1493
1494(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1495to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1496
1497=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1498
1499(W) You said
1500
1501 if ($foo = 123)
1502
1503when you meant
1504
1505 if ($foo == 123)
1506
1507(or something like that).
1508
1509=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1510
1511(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1512
1513=item gethostent not implemented
1514
1515(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1516because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1517on the Internet.
1518
69282e91 1519=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1520
1521(W) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed socket.
1522Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
1523
748a9306
LW
1524=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1525
1526(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1527C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1528
a0d0e21e
LW
1529=item Glob not terminated
1530
1531(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
1532a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
1533finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
1534the line, and you really meant a "less than".
1535
1536=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1537
68dc0745 1538(F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables
eb64745e
GS
1539must either be lexically scoped (using "my"), declared beforehand using
1540"our", or explicitly qualified to say which package the global variable
1541is in (using "::").
a0d0e21e
LW
1542
1543=item goto must have label
1544
1545(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1546unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1547
1548=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1549
1550(S) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought to have
1551existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be created on
1552an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
1553
1554=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1555
1556(D) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some spots. This
1557is now heavily deprecated.
1558
252aa082
JH
1559=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
1560
9e24b6e2
JH
1561(W) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
1562(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
1563L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 1564
8903cb82
PP
1565=item Identifier too long
1566
1567(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e
PP
1568about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
1569names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future
1570versions of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1571
f675dbe5
CB
1572=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
1573
1574(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's internal
1575environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=> delimiter
1576used to spearate keys from values. The element is ignored.
1577
1578=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
a0d0e21e 1579
f675dbe5
CB
1580(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical name
1581or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
1582didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the
1583line was ignored.
a0d0e21e 1584
4fdae800
PP
1585=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1586
d5898338
GS
1587(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
1588would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this
1589error when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason,
1590your version of Perl appears to have been built without this support.
1591Talk to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 1592
a0d0e21e
LW
1593=item Illegal division by zero
1594
1595(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in your
1596logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against meaningless input.
1597
1598=item Illegal modulus zero
1599
1600(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most numbers
1601don't take to this kindly.
1602
399388f4
GS
1603=item Illegal binary digit %s
1604
437784d6 1605(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
399388f4
GS
1606
1607=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1608
1609(F) You used an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1610
399388f4
GS
1611=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
1612
1613(W) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
1614Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the offending digit.
1615
1616=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306
LW
1617
1618(W) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in a octal number. Interpretation
1619of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
1620
651978e7 1621=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
6ff81951 1622
252aa082
JH
1623(W) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or A - F, a - f
1624in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal number stopped
6ff81951
GS
1625before the illegal character.
1626
81e118e0
JH
1627=item Illegal number of bits in vec
1628
0a1cd687 1629(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
c5a0f51a 1630two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
09bef843 1631
54310121
PP
1632=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
1633
1634(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
1635following switches: B<-[DIMUdmw]>.
1636
9607fc9c
PP
1637=item In string, @%s now must be written as \@%s
1638
1639(F) It used to be that Perl would try to guess whether you wanted an
1640array interpolated or a literal @. It did this when the string was first
1641used at runtime. Now strings are parsed at compile time, and ambiguous
1642instances of @ must be disambiguated, either by prepending a backslash to
1643indicate a literal, or by declaring (or using) the array within the
1644program before the string (lexically). (Someday it will simply assume
1645that an unbackslashed @ interpolates an array.)
1646
a0d0e21e
LW
1647=item Insecure dependency in %s
1648
8b1a09fc 1649(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
a0d0e21e
LW
1650The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or setgid,
1651or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The tainting mechanism
1652labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly from the user,
1653who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any such data is
1654used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See L<perlsec>
1655for more information.
1656
1657=item Insecure directory in %s
1658
1659(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or setgid
8b1a09fc 1660script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by the world.
a0d0e21e
LW
1661See L<perlsec>.
1662
62f468fc 1663=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1664
1665(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc
G
1666setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
1667C<$ENV{ENV}> or C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> are derived from data supplied (or
a0d0e21e
LW
1668potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set the path to a
1669known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
1670
a7ae9550
GS
1671=item Integer overflow in %s number
1672
9e24b6e2 1673(W) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified either
c6edd1b7 1674as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for your
9e24b6e2
JH
1675architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number. On a
167632-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
1677representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
16780b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
1679transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
1680internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
1681operations.
bbce6d69 1682
748a9306
LW
1683=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
1684
1685(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number
5f05dabc 1686of times you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine
2ba9eb46 1687whether the current call to C<exec> should affect the current
b687b08b 1688script or a subprocess (see L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count
748a9306
LW
1689has become scrambled, so Perl is making a guess and treating
1690this C<exec> as a request to terminate the Perl script
1691and execute the specified command.
1692
a0d0e21e
LW
1693=item internal disaster in regexp
1694
1695(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
1696
4eb79ab5
GS
1697=item glob failed (%s)
1698
1699(W) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for C<glob>
1700and C<E<lt>*.cE<gt>>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
1701pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a nonzero
1702status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit resulted in a
1703coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is broken. If so,
1704you should change all of the csh-related variables in config.sh: If you
1705have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it were csh (e.g.
1706C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all empty (except that
1707C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will think csh is missing.
1708In either case, after editing config.sh, run C<./Configure -S> and
1709rebuild Perl.
5cd24f17 1710
a0d0e21e
LW
1711=item internal urp in regexp at /%s/
1712
1713(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser.
1714
09bef843
SB
1715=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
1716
1717The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
1718by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
1719
1720=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
1721
1722The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not recognized
1723by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
1724
73b437c8 1725=item invalid [] range "%s" in regexp
a0d0e21e
LW
1726
1727(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
1209ba90 1728greater than the maximum character. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 1729
c635e13b
PP
1730=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
1731
878e08df 1732(W) Perl does not understand the given format conversion.
c635e13b
PP
1733See L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
1734
09bef843
SB
1735=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
1736
0120eecf 1737(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
09bef843
SB
1738elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute
1739had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated
1740too soon. See L<attributes>.
1741
96e4d5b1
PP
1742=item Invalid type in pack: '%s'
1743
8903cb82 1744(F) The given character is not a valid pack type. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
fb73857a
PP
1745(W) The given character is not a valid pack type but used to be silently
1746ignored.
96e4d5b1
PP
1747
1748=item Invalid type in unpack: '%s'
1749
8903cb82 1750(F) The given character is not a valid unpack type. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
fb73857a
PP
1751(W) The given character is not a valid unpack type but used to be silently
1752ignored.
96e4d5b1 1753
a0d0e21e
LW
1754=item ioctl is not implemented
1755
1756(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
1757strange for a machine that supports C.
1758
1759=item junk on end of regexp
1760
1761(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
1762
1763=item Label not found for "last %s"
1764
1765(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a
1766loop of that name, not even if you count where you were called from.
1767See L<perlfunc/last>.
1768
1769=item Label not found for "next %s"
1770
1771(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
1772that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1773L<perlfunc/last>.
1774
1775=item Label not found for "redo %s"
1776
1777(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
1778that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1779L<perlfunc/last>.
1780
85ab1d1d 1781=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1782
85ab1d1d 1783(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1784effective uids or gids failed.
1785
69282e91 1786=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1787
1788(W) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
1789the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/listen>.
1790
cd06dffe
GS
1791=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
1792
1793(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
1794values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context.
1795See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
1796
a0d0e21e
LW
1797=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
1798
1799(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 1800doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 1801
3cdd684c
TP
1802=item Method %s not permitted
1803
1804See Server error.
1805
a0d0e21e
LW
1806=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
1807
1808(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
1809by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
1810ended earlier on the current line.
1811
1812=item Misplaced _ in number
1813
1814(W) An underline in a decimal constant wasn't on a 3-digit boundary.
1815
1816=item Missing $ on loop variable
1817
8b1a09fc
PP
1818(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables are always
1819mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it can vary from
a0d0e21e
LW
1820one line to the next.
1821
4a2d328f 1822=item Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}
423cee85 1823
4a2d328f 1824(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
423cee85
JH
1825double-quotish context.
1826
a0d0e21e
LW
1827=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
1828
1829(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
1830"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
1831
06eaf0bc
GS
1832=item Missing command in piped open
1833
1834(W) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or C<open(FH, "command |")>
1835construction, but the command was missing or blank.
1836
748a9306
LW
1837=item Missing operator before %s?
1838
1839(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1840found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
1841
d98d5fff 1842=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 1843
d98d5fff
GS
1844(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than
1845closing ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place
1846you were last editing.
a0d0e21e 1847
a0d0e21e
LW
1848=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
1849
1850(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 1851constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
1852catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
1853
1854 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
1855 mod(2);
1856
1857Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
1858
4fe4fdb3 1859=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, subscript %d
a0d0e21e
LW
1860
1861(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
1862subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
1863backwards.
1864
4fe4fdb3 1865=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, subscript "%s"
a0d0e21e 1866
19a09eb8 1867(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it couldn't
a0d0e21e
LW
1868be created for some peculiar reason.
1869
1870=item Module name must be constant
1871
1872(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
1873
1874=item msg%s not implemented
1875
1876(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
1877
1878=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
1879
8b1a09fc
PP
1880(W) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>. They're written
1881like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
1882
09bef843
SB
1883=item Missing name in "my sub"
1884
1885(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that they
1886have a name with which they can be found.
1887
8b1a09fc
PP
1888=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
1889
68dc0745
PP
1890(W) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
1891If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention
77ca0c92
LW
1892it again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
1893provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e
LW
1894
1895=item Negative length
1896
1897(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer length
1898that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
1899
1900=item nested *?+ in regexp
1901
5f05dabc 1902(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
a0d0e21e
LW
1903things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal.
1904
5f05dabc 1905Note, however, that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and C<??> appear
a0d0e21e
LW
1906to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
1907
1908=item No #! line
1909
1910(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1911even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
1912
1913=item No %s allowed while running setuid
1914
1915(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or setgid
1916script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there will be
1917another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least securable.
1918See L<perlsec>.
1919
1920=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
1921
1922(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
1923
a67e862a
GS
1924=item No %s specified for -%c
1925
1926(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
1927you haven't specified one.
1928
a0d0e21e
LW
1929=item No comma allowed after %s
1930
1931(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
1932allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
1933Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
1934
0a753a76
PP
1935One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
1936constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
1937importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
1938does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
1939explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
1940L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
1941would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
1942remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
1943constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
1944list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
1945this error was triggered?
1946
748a9306
LW
1947=item No command into which to pipe on command line
1948
1949(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
54310121 1950and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know where you
748a9306
LW
1951want to pipe the output from this command.
1952
a0d0e21e
LW
1953=item No DB::DB routine defined
1954
1955(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1956but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1957didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
1958statement. Which is odd, because the file should have been required
1959automatically, and should have blown up the require if it didn't parse
1960right.
1961
1962=item No dbm on this machine
1963
1964(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 1965supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1966
1967=item No DBsub routine
1968
1969(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1970but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1971didn't define a DB::sub routine to be called at the beginning of each
1972ordinary subroutine call.
1973
8b1a09fc 1974=item No error file after 2E<gt> or 2E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1975
1976(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1977and found a '2E<gt>' or a '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find
1978the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 1979
8b1a09fc 1980=item No input file after E<lt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1981
1982(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1983and found a 'E<lt>' on the command line, but can't find the name of the file
1984from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 1985
8b1a09fc 1986=item No output file after E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1987
1988(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc 1989and found a lone 'E<gt>' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know
54310121 1990where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 1991
8b1a09fc 1992=item No output file after E<gt> or E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1993
1994(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1995and found a 'E<gt>' or a 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find the
1996name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 1997
1ec3e8de
GS
1998=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
1999
2000(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our" declarations,
2001because that doesn't make much sense under existing semantics. Such
2002syntax is reserved for future extensions.
2003
a0d0e21e
LW
2004=item No Perl script found in input
2005
2006(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2007with #! and containing the word "perl".
2008
2009=item No setregid available
2010
2011(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2012your system.
2013
2014=item No setreuid available
2015
2016(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2017your system.
2018
a67e862a 2019=item No space allowed after -%c
a0d0e21e 2020
a67e862a
GS
2021(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow immediately
2022after the switch, without intervening spaces.
a0d0e21e 2023
88e9b055 2024=item No such pseudo-hash field "%s"
57079c46 2025
88e9b055 2026(F) You tried to access an array as a hash, but the field name used is
57079c46
GA
2027not defined. The hash at index 0 should map all valid field names to
2028array indices for that to work.
2029
88e9b055 2030=item No such pseudo-hash field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
f1192cee
GA
2031
2032(F) You tried to access a field of a typed variable where the type
2033does not know about the field name. The field names are looked up in
2034the %FIELDS hash in the type package at compile time. The %FIELDS hash
2035is usually set up with the 'fields' pragma.
2036
748a9306
LW
2037=item No such pipe open
2038
2039(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
2040close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught earlier as
2041an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
2042
a0d0e21e
LW
2043=item No such signal: SIG%s
2044
2045(W) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was not recognized.
2046Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
2047
bd3fa61c
CB
2048=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
2049
db7c17d7 2050(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
f675dbe5
CB
2051timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
2052to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL>
2053to translate to the number of seconds which need to be added to UTC to
2054get local time.
2055
a0d0e21e
LW
2056=item Not a CODE reference
2057
2058(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2059subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
2060use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
2061See also L<perlref>.
2062
2063=item Not a format reference
2064
2065(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
2066format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
2067
2068=item Not a GLOB reference
2069
55497cff 2070(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is,
a0d0e21e
LW
2071a symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
2072something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out
2073what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2074
2075=item Not a HASH reference
2076
2077(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but
2078found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
2079function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2080
2081=item Not a perl script
2082
2083(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2084even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
2085mention perl.
2086
2087=item Not a SCALAR reference
2088
2089(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but
2090found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
2091function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2092
2093=item Not a subroutine reference
2094
2095(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2096subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
2097use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
2098See also L<perlref>.
2099
e7ea3e70 2100=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
2101
2102(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 2103doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2104
2105=item Not an ARRAY reference
2106
2107(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but
2108found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
2109function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2110
2111=item Not enough arguments for %s
2112
2113(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
2114
2115=item Not enough format arguments
2116
2117(W) A format specified more picture fields than the next line supplied.
2118See L<perlform>.
2119
2120=item Null filename used
2121
5f05dabc 2122(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many machines
a0d0e21e
LW
2123that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
2124
55497cff
PP
2125=item Null picture in formline
2126
2127(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
2128specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
2129supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
2130
a0d0e21e
LW
2131=item NULL OP IN RUN
2132
2133(P) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode pointer.
2134
2135=item Null realloc
2136
2137(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
2138
2139=item NULL regexp argument
2140
5f05dabc 2141(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2142
2143=item NULL regexp parameter
2144
2145(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
2146
fc36a67e
PP
2147=item Number too long
2148
2149(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to about
2150about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future versions of
2151Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In the meantime,
2152try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of "1_000_000").
2153
252aa082
JH
2154=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
2155
9e24b6e2
JH
2156(W) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1 (4294967295)
2157and therefore non-portable between systems. See L<perlport> for more
2158on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
2159
2160See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
2161
3cb0bbe5
GS
2162=item Octal number in vector unsupported
2163
2164(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors. The
2165octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a future
2166version.
2167
1930e939 2168=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 2169
9845ecba 2170(W) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash, which
1930e939 2171is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 2172
bbce6d69
PP
2173=item Offset outside string
2174
2175(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
2176pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to imagine.
2177The sole exception to this is that C<sysread()>ing past the buffer
2178will extend the buffer and zero pad the new area.
2179
a0d0e21e
LW
2180=item oops: oopsAV
2181
2182(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
2183
2184=item oops: oopsHV
2185
2186(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
2187
56f7f34b 2188=item Operation `%s': no method found, %s
44a8e56a 2189
e7ea3e70
IZ
2190(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which
2191no handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in
2192terms of other handlers, there is no default handler for any
2193operation, unless C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be
2194true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 2195
748a9306
LW
2196=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
2197
2198(S) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser was
2199expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant
2200to use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect.
2201For example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as
2202if you said "*foo * 'foo'".
2203
a80b8354
GS
2204=item Out of memory!
2205
2206(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
2207remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl
2208has no option but to exit immediately.
2209
a0d0e21e
LW
2210=item Out of memory for yacc stack
2211
2212(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue parsing,
2213but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or otherwise.
2214
1b979e0a 2215=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 2216
55497cff 2217(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
54310121 2218remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request.
eff9c6e2
CS
2219
2220The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
2221depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
2222However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as
2223an emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the
55497cff
PP
2224error is trappable I<once>.
2225
1b979e0a 2226=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
55497cff
PP
2227
2228(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
2229remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
2230the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so
2231a possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
2232
1b979e0a
IZ
2233=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
2234
2235(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
2236is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g., C<$arr[time]>
2237instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
2238
a0d0e21e
LW
2239=item page overflow
2240
2241(W) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a page.
2242See L<perlform>.
2243
2244=item panic: ck_grep
2245
2246(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
2247
2248=item panic: ck_split
2249
2250(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
2251
2252=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
2253
2254(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than there
2255are in the savestack.
2256
810b8aa5
GS
2257=item panic: del_backref
2258
2259(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
2260reference.
2261
a0d0e21e
LW
2262=item panic: die %s
2263
2264(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
2265it wasn't an eval context.
2266
2267=item panic: do_match
2268
2269(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2270
2271=item panic: do_split
2272
2273(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
2274
2275=item panic: do_subst
2276
2277(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2278
2279=item panic: do_trans
2280
2281(P) The internal do_trans() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2282
c635e13b
PP
2283=item panic: frexp
2284
2285(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
2286
a0d0e21e
LW
2287=item panic: goto
2288
2289(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
2290and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
2291
2292=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
2293
2294(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
2295
2296=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
2297
2298(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
2299
e446cec8
IZ
2300=item panic: kid popen errno read
2301
2302(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
2303
a0d0e21e
LW
2304=item panic: last
2305
2306(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
2307it wasn't a block context.
2308
2309=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
2310
5f05dabc 2311(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
2312
2313=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
2314
2315(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
2316invalid enum on the top of it.
2317
2318=item panic: malloc
2319
2320(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
2321
810b8aa5
GS
2322=item panic: magic_killbackrefs
2323
2324(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak
2325references to an object.
2326
a0d0e21e
LW
2327=item panic: mapstart
2328
2329(P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.
2330
2331=item panic: null array
2332
2333(P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.
2334
2335=item panic: pad_alloc
2336
2337(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2338and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2339
2340=item panic: pad_free curpad
2341
2342(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2343and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2344
2345=item panic: pad_free po
2346
2347(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2348
2349=item panic: pad_reset curpad
2350
2351(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2352and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2353
2354=item panic: pad_sv po
2355
2356(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2357
2358=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
2359
2360(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2361and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2362
2363=item panic: pad_swipe po
2364
2365(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2366
2367=item panic: pp_iter
2368
2369(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
2370
2371=item panic: realloc
2372
2373(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
2374
2375=item panic: restartop
2376
2377(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
2378didn't supply the destination.
2379
2380=item panic: return
2381
2382(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
2383then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
2384
2385=item panic: scan_num
2386
2387(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
2388
2389=item panic: sv_insert
2390
2391(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
2392was string.
2393
2394=item panic: top_env
2395
6224f72b 2396(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
a0d0e21e
LW
2397
2398=item panic: yylex
2399
2400(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
2401
b3c9acc1
IZ
2402=item panic: %s
2403
2404(P) An internal error.
2405
7b8d334a 2406=item Parentheses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e
LW
2407
2408(W) You said something like
2409
2410 my $foo, $bar = @_;
2411
2412when you meant
2413
2414 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
2415
eb64745e 2416Remember that "my", "our" and "local" bind closer than comma.
a0d0e21e
LW
2417
2418=item Perl %3.3f required--this is only version %s, stopped
2419
2420(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more recent
2421than the currently running version. How long has it been since you upgraded,
2422anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
2423
2424=item Permission denied
2425
2426(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
2427
bd3fa61c 2428=item pid %x not a child
748a9306
LW
2429
2430(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a process which
2431isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is fine from VMS'
2432perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
2433
a0d0e21e
LW
2434=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
2435
81777298 2436(F) Your system has POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
a0d0e21e
LW
2437the BSD version, which takes a pid.
2438
6bc102ca
GS
2439=item Possible Y2K bug: %s
2440
2441(W) You are concatenating the number 19 with another number, which
2442could be a potential Year 2000 problem.
2443
bbce6d69
PP
2444=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
2445
774d564b
PP
2446(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal
2447strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated
2448as literal data. (You may have used different delimiters than the
7b8d334a 2449parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently used.)
bbce6d69 2450
774d564b
PP
2451You probably wrote something like this:
2452
54310121 2453 @list = qw(
774d564b 2454 a # a comment
bbce6d69 2455 b # another comment
774d564b 2456 );
bbce6d69
PP
2457
2458when you should have written this:
2459
774d564b 2460 @list = qw(
54310121
PP
2461 a
2462 b
774d564b
PP
2463 );
2464
2465If you really want comments, build your list the
2466old-fashioned way, with quotes and commas:
2467
2468 @list = (
2469 'a', # a comment
2470 'b', # another comment
2471 );
bbce6d69
PP
2472
2473=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
2474
774d564b 2475(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore commas
68dc0745 2476aren't needed to separate the items. (You may have used different
774d564b
PP
2477delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently
2478used.)
bbce6d69 2479
54310121 2480You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69 2481
774d564b
PP
2482 qw! a, b, c !;
2483
2484which puts literal commas into some of the list items. Write it without
2485commas if you don't want them to appear in your data:
bbce6d69 2486
774d564b 2487 qw! a b c !;
bbce6d69 2488
a0d0e21e
LW
2489=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
2490
2491(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
2492Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
2493end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
2494Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
2495
2496=item Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
2497
2498(S) The old irregular construct
cb1a09d0 2499
a0d0e21e
LW
2500 open FOO || die;
2501
2502is now misinterpreted as
2503
2504 open(FOO || die);
2505
68dc0745
PP
2506because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary
2507and list operators. (The old open was a little of both.) You must
2508put parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator
2509instead of "||".
a0d0e21e 2510
3cdd684c
TP
2511=item Premature end of script headers
2512
2513See Server error.
2514
9a7dcd9c 2515=item print() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2516
2517(W) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime before now.
2518Check your logic flow.
2519
9a7dcd9c 2520=item printf() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2521
2522(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2523Check your logic flow.
2524
2525=item Probable precedence problem on %s
2526
54310121 2527(W) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a conditional,
a0d0e21e
LW
2528which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part of the
2529last argument of the previous construct, for example:
2530
2531 open FOO || die;
2532
3fe9a6f1 2533=item Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
4633a7c4 2534
3fe9a6f1
PP
2535(S) The subroutine being declared or defined had previously been declared
2536or defined with a different function prototype.
4633a7c4 2537
89ea2908
GA
2538=item Range iterator outside integer range
2539
2540(F) One (or both) of the numeric arguments to the range operator ".."
2541are outside the range which can be represented by integers internally.
2542One possible workaround is to force Perl to use magical string
2543increment by prepending "0" to your numbers.
2544
9a7dcd9c 2545=item readline() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2546
2547(W) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime before now.
2548Check your logic flow.
2549
4ad56ec9
IZ
2550=item realloc() of freed memory ignored
2551
2552(S) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had already
2553been freed.
2554
a0d0e21e
LW
2555=item Reallocation too large: %lx
2556
54310121 2557(F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e
LW
2558
2559=item Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch
2560
2561(F) You can't use the B<-D> option unless the code to produce the
2562desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead,
2563which is why it's currently left out of your copy.
2564
3e0ccd42 2565=item Recursive inheritance detected in package '%s'
a0d0e21e
LW
2566
2567(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used. Probably indicates
2568an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2569
3e0ccd42
JP
2570=item Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method '%s' in package '%s'
2571
2572(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were encountered while invoking a
2573method. Probably indicates an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2574
1930e939
TP
2575=item Reference found where even-sized list expected
2576
2577(W) You gave a single reference where Perl was expecting a list with
2578an even number of elements (for assignment to a hash). This
2579usually means that you used the anon hash constructor when you meant
2580to use parens. In any case, a hash requires key/value B<pairs>.
7b8d334a
GS
2581
2582 %hash = { one => 1, two => 2, }; # WRONG
2583 %hash = [ qw/ an anon array / ]; # WRONG
2584 %hash = ( one => 1, two => 2, ); # right
2585 %hash = qw( one 1 two 2 ); # also fine
2586
810b8aa5
GS
2587=item Reference is already weak
2588
2589(W) You have attempted to weaken a reference that is already weak.
2590Doing so has no effect.
2591
a0d0e21e
LW
2592=item Reference miscount in sv_replace()
2593
2594(W) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with a
2595reference count of other than 1.
2596
fb73857a
PP
2597=item regexp *+ operand could be empty
2598
2599(F) The part of the regexp subject to either the * or + quantifier
2600could match an empty string.
2601
a0d0e21e
LW
2602=item regexp memory corruption
2603
2604(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
2605expression compiler gave it.
2606
2607=item regexp out of space
2608
2609(P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it earlier.
2610
a0d0e21e
LW
2611=item Reversed %s= operator
2612
2613(W) You wrote your assignment operator backwards. The = must always
2614comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.
2615
2616=item Runaway format
2617
2618(F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it
2619produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the
2620199th line. Apparently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
2621themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar variables), or by
2622shifting or popping (for array variables). See L<perlform>.
2623
2624=item Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
2625
a6006777 2626(W) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
a0d0e21e 2627an array. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
8b1a09fc
PP
2628The difference is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2629assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo[&bar]> behaves
a0d0e21e 2630like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
5f05dabc 2631subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
a0d0e21e 2632
748a9306 2633On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
5f05dabc 2634element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
748a9306
LW
2635Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2636L<perlref>.
2637
a6006777
PP
2638=item Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
2639
2640(W) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
2641a hash. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
2642The difference is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2643assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> behaves
2644like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
2645subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
2646
2647On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash
2648element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
2649Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2650L<perlref>.
2651
a0d0e21e
LW
2652=item Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
2653
54310121
PP
2654(F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script without a setuid
2655or setgid bit set. This doesn't make much sense.
a0d0e21e
LW
2656
2657=item Search pattern not terminated
2658
2659(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{}
2660construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2661Missing the leading C<$> from a variable C<$m> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2662
96e4d5b1 2663=item %sseek() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2664
96e4d5b1
PP
2665(W) You tried to use the seek() or sysseek() function on a filehandle that
2666was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2667
2668=item select not implemented
2669
2670(F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.
2671
2672=item sem%s not implemented
2673
2674(F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.
2675
2676=item semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
2677
2678(S) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a scalar
2679that had previously been marked as free.
2680
2681=item Semicolon seems to be missing
2682
2683(W) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing semicolon,
2684or possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.
2685
69282e91 2686=item send() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2687
9a7dcd9c 2688(W) The socket you're sending to got itself closed sometime before now.
a0d0e21e
LW
2689Check your logic flow.
2690
1b1626e4 2691=item Sequence (? incomplete
7b8d334a 2692
1b1626e4
G
2693(F) A regular expression ended with an incomplete extension (?.
2694See L<perlre>.
2695
a0d0e21e
LW
2696=item Sequence (?#... not terminated
2697
2698(F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing
5f05dabc 2699parenthesis. Embedded parentheses aren't allowed. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2700
2701=item Sequence (?%s...) not implemented
2702
2703(F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved
2704but has not yet been written. See L<perlre>.
2705
2706=item Sequence (?%s...) not recognized
2707
2708(F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense.
2709See L<perlre>.
2710
a5f75d66
AD
2711=item Server error
2712
3cdd684c
TP
2713This is the error message generally seen in a browser window when trying
2714to run a CGI program (including SSI) over the web. The actual error
2715text varies widely from server to server. The most frequently-seen
2716variants are "500 Server error", "Method (something) not permitted",
2717"Document contains no data", "Premature end of script headers", and
2718"Did not produce a valid header".
9607fc9c
PP
2719
2720B<This is a CGI error, not a Perl error>.
2721
2722You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible by the user
2723CGI is running the script under (which is probably not the user account you
2724tested it under), does not rely on any environment variables (like PATH)
2725from the user it isn't running under, and isn't in a location where the CGI
2726server can't find it, basically, more or less. Please see the following
2727for more information:
2728
be94a901
GS
2729 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/idiots-guide.html
2730 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/perl-cgi-faq.html
9607fc9c
PP
2731 ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/www/cgi-faq
2732 http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/cgi/interface.html
2733 http://www-genome.wi.mit.edu/WWW/faqs/www-security-faq.html
a5f75d66 2734
be94a901
GS
2735You should also look at L<perlfaq9>.
2736
a0d0e21e
LW
2737=item setegid() not implemented
2738
8b1a09fc 2739(F) You tried to assign to C<$)>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2740the setegid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2741think so.
2742
2743=item seteuid() not implemented
2744
8b1a09fc 2745(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<gt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2746the seteuid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2747think so.
2748
81777298
GS
2749=item setpgrp can't take arguments
2750
2751(F) Your system has the setpgrp() from BSD 4.2, which takes no arguments,
2752unlike POSIX setpgid(), which takes a process ID and process group ID.
2753
a0d0e21e
LW
2754=item setrgid() not implemented
2755
8b1a09fc 2756(F) You tried to assign to C<$(>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2757the setrgid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2758think so.
2759
2760=item setruid() not implemented
2761
1f8d2005 2762(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<lt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2763the setruid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2764think so.
2765
2766=item Setuid/gid script is writable by world
2767
2768(F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is writable by the world,
2769because the world might have written on it already.
2770
2771=item shm%s not implemented
2772
2773(F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your system.
2774
69282e91 2775=item shutdown() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2776
2777(W) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket. Seems a bit superfluous.
2778
f86702cc 2779=item SIG%s handler "%s" not defined
a0d0e21e
LW
2780
2781(W) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't, in fact, exist. Perhaps you
2782put it into the wrong package?
2783
2784=item sort is now a reserved word
2785
2786(F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into anymore.
2787But before sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a filehandle.
2788
2789=item Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value
2790
2791(F) A sort comparison routine must return a number. You probably blew
4633a7c4 2792it by not using C<E<lt>=E<gt>> or C<cmp>, or by not using them correctly.
a0d0e21e
LW
2793See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2794
2795=item Sort subroutine didn't return single value
2796
2797(F) A sort comparison subroutine may not return a list value with more
2798or less than one element. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2799
2800=item Split loop
2801
2802(P) The split was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a split shouldn't iterate
2803more times than there are characters of input, which is what happened.)
2804See L<perlfunc/split>.
2805
8b1a09fc 2806=item Stat on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2807
2808(W) You tried to use the stat() function (or an equivalent file test)
54310121 2809on a filehandle that was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2810
2811=item Statement unlikely to be reached
2812
2813(W) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than a die().
2814This is almost always an error, because exec() never returns unless
2815there was a failure. You probably wanted to use system() instead,
2816which does return. To suppress this warning, put the exec() in a block
2817by itself.
2818
17feb5d5
DD
2819=item Strange *+?{} on zero-length expression
2820
2821(W) You applied a regular expression quantifier in a place where it
2822makes no sense, such as on a zero-width assertion.
2823Try putting the quantifier inside the assertion instead. For example,
2824the way to match "abc" provided that it is followed by three
2825repetitions of "xyz" is C</abc(?=(?:xyz){3})/>, not C</abc(?=xyz){3}/>.
2826
e7ea3e70
IZ
2827=item Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
2828
2829(P) Overloading resolution over @ISA tree may be broken by importation stubs.
2830Stubs should never be implicitely created, but explicit calls to C<can>
2831may break this.
2832
a0d0e21e
LW
2833=item Subroutine %s redefined
2834
2835(W) You redefined a subroutine. To suppress this warning, say
2836
2837 {
4438c4b7 2838 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
2839 eval "sub name { ... }";
2840 }
2841
2842=item Substitution loop
2843
2844(P) The substitution was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a
2845substitution shouldn't iterate more times than there are characters of
68dc0745 2846input, which is what happened.) See the discussion of substitution in
5f05dabc 2847L<perlop/"Quote and Quote-like Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
2848
2849=item Substitution pattern not terminated
2850
2851(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2852construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2853Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2854
2855=item Substitution replacement not terminated
2856
2857(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2858construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2859Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2860
2861=item substr outside of string
2862
3e3baf6d
TB
2863(S),(W) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed outside of a
2864string. That is, the absolute value of the offset was larger than the
2865length of the string. See L<perlfunc/substr>. This warning is
2866mandatory if substr is used in an lvalue context (as the left hand side
2867of an assignment or as a subroutine argument for example).
a0d0e21e 2868
f86702cc 2869=item suidperl is no longer needed since %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2870
2871(F) Your Perl was compiled with B<-D>SETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW, but a
2872version of the setuid emulator somehow got run anyway.
2873
85ab1d1d
JH
2874=item switching effective %s is not implemented
2875
2876(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, we cannot switch the
2877real and effective uids or gids.
2878
a0d0e21e
LW
2879=item syntax error
2880
2881(F) Probably means you had a syntax error. Common reasons include:
2882
2883 A keyword is misspelled.
2884 A semicolon is missing.
2885 A comma is missing.
2886 An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
2887 An opening or closing brace is missing.
2888 A closing quote is missing.
2889
2890Often there will be another error message associated with the syntax
2891error giving more information. (Sometimes it helps to turn on B<-w>.)
2892The error message itself often tells you where it was in the line when
2893it decided to give up. Sometimes the actual error is several tokens
5f05dabc 2894before this, because Perl is good at understanding random input.
a0d0e21e
LW
2895Occasionally the line number may be misleading, and once in a blue moon
2896the only way to figure out what's triggering the error is to call
2897C<perl -c> repeatedly, chopping away half the program each time to see
2898if the error went away. Sort of the cybernetic version of S<20 questions>.
2899
cb1a09d0
AD
2900=item syntax error at line %d: `%s' unexpected
2901
8b1a09fc 2902(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 2903instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
2904into Perl yourself.
2905
6087ac44 2906=item System V %s is not implemented on this machine
a0d0e21e 2907
6087ac44
JH
2908(F) You tried to do something with a function beginning with "sem",
2909"shm", or "msg" but that System V IPC is not implemented in your
2910machine. In some machines the functionality can exist but be
2911unconfigured. Consult your system support.
a0d0e21e 2912
69282e91 2913=item syswrite() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2914
2915(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2916Check your logic flow.
2917
fc36a67e
PP
2918=item Target of goto is too deeply nested
2919
2920(F) You tried to use C<goto> to reach a label that was too deeply
2921nested for Perl to reach. Perl is doing you a favor by refusing.
2922
8903cb82 2923=item tell() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2924
8903cb82
PP
2925(W) You tried to use the tell() function on a filehandle that was either
2926never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e 2927
8b1a09fc 2928=item Test on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2929
2930(W) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle that isn't
2931open. Check your logic. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
2932
2933=item That use of $[ is unsupported
2934
8b1a09fc 2935(F) Assignment to C<$[> is now strictly circumscribed, and interpreted as
5f05dabc 2936a compiler directive. You may say only one of
a0d0e21e
LW
2937
2938 $[ = 0;
2939 $[ = 1;
2940 ...
2941 local $[ = 0;
2942 local $[ = 1;
2943 ...
2944
2945This is to prevent the problem of one module changing the array base
2946out from under another module inadvertently. See L<perlvar/$[>.
2947
2948=item The %s function is unimplemented
2949
2950The function indicated isn't implemented on this architecture, according
2951to the probings of Configure.
2952
f86702cc 2953=item The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia
a0d0e21e
LW
2954
2955(F) Configure couldn't find the crypt() function on your machine,
2956probably because your vendor didn't supply it, probably because they
8b1a09fc 2957think the U.S. Government thinks it's a secret, or at least that they
a0d0e21e
LW
2958will continue to pretend that it is. And if you quote me on that, I
2959will deny it.
2960
2961=item The stat preceding C<-l _> wasn't an lstat
2962
2963(F) It makes no sense to test the current stat buffer for symbolic linkhood
2964if the last stat that wrote to the stat buffer already went past
2965the symlink to get to the real file. Use an actual filename instead.
2966
437784d6 2967=item This Perl can't reset CRTL environ elements (%s)
f675dbe5
CB
2968
2969=item This Perl can't set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s)
2970
2971(W) Warnings peculiar to VMS. You tried to change or delete an element
2972of the CRTL's internal environ array, but your copy of Perl wasn't
2973built with a CRTL that contained the setenv() function. You'll need to
2974rebuild Perl with a CRTL that does, or redefine F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see
2975L<perlvms>) so that the environ array isn't the target of the change to
2976%ENV which produced the warning.
2977
a0d0e21e
LW
2978=item times not implemented
2979
2980(F) Your version of the C library apparently doesn't do times(). I suspect
2981you're not running on Unix.
2982
2983=item Too few args to syscall
2984
2985(F) There has to be at least one argument to syscall() to specify the
2986system call to call, silly dilly.
2987
9607fc9c
PP
2988=item Too late for "B<-T>" option
2989
2990(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
8cc95fdb
PP
2991B<-T> option, but Perl was not invoked with B<-T> in its command line.
2992This is an error because, by the time Perl discovers a B<-T> in a
2993script, it's too late to properly taint everything from the environment.
2994So Perl gives up.
f86702cc 2995
9607fc9c
PP
2996If the Perl script is being executed as a command using the #!
2997mechanism (or its local equivalent), this error can usually be fixed
2998by editing the #! line so that the B<-T> option is a part of Perl's
2999first argument: e.g. change C<perl -n -T> to C<perl -T -n>.
f86702cc 3000
9607fc9c
PP
3001If the Perl script is being executed as C<perl scriptname>, then the
3002B<-T> option must appear on the command line: C<perl -T scriptname>.
f86702cc 3003
8cc95fdb
PP
3004=item Too late for "-%s" option
3005
3006(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
3007B<-M> or B<-m> option. This is an error because B<-M> and B<-m> options
3008are not intended for use inside scripts. Use the C<use> pragma instead.
3009
cb1a09d0
AD
3010=item Too many ('s
3011
3012=item Too many )'s
3013
3014(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
3015of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
3016Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 3017
a0d0e21e
LW
3018=item Too many args to syscall
3019
5f05dabc 3020(F) Perl supports a maximum of only 14 args to syscall().
a0d0e21e
LW
3021
3022=item Too many arguments for %s
3023
3024(F) The function requires fewer arguments than you specified.
3025
3026=item trailing \ in regexp
3027
3028(F) The regular expression ends with an unbackslashed backslash. Backslash
3029it. See L<perlre>.
3030
2c268ad5 3031=item Transliteration pattern not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
3032
3033(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
fb73857a
PP
3034or y/// or y[][] construct. Missing the leading C<$> from variables
3035C<$tr> or C<$y> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 3036
2c268ad5 3037=item Transliteration replacement not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
3038
3039(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
3040construct.
3041
3042=item truncate not implemented
3043
3044(F) Your machine doesn't implement a file truncation mechanism that
3045Configure knows about.
3046
3047=item Type of arg %d to %s must be %s (not %s)
3048
3049(F) This function requires the argument in that position to be of a
8b1a09fc
PP
3050certain type. Arrays must be @NAME or C<@{EXPR}>. Hashes must be
3051%NAME or C<%{EXPR}>. No implicit dereferencing is allowed--use the
a0d0e21e
LW
3052{EXPR} forms as an explicit dereference. See L<perlref>.
3053
3054=item umask: argument is missing initial 0
3055
eec2d3df
GS
3056(W) A umask of 222 is incorrect. It should be 0222, because octal
3057literals always start with 0 in Perl, as in C.
3058
3059=item umask not implemented
3060
3061(F) Your machine doesn't implement the umask function and you tried
3062to use it to restrict permissions for yourself (EXPR & 0700).
a0d0e21e 3063
4633a7c4
LW
3064=item Unable to create sub named "%s"
3065
3066(F) You attempted to create or access a subroutine with an illegal name.
3067
a0d0e21e
LW
3068=item Unbalanced context: %d more PUSHes than POPs
3069
3070(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many execution
3071contexts were entered and left.
3072
3073=item Unbalanced saves: %d more saves than restores
3074
3075(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many
3076values were temporarily localized.
3077
3078=item Unbalanced scopes: %d more ENTERs than LEAVEs
3079
3080(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many blocks
3081were entered and left.
3082
3083=item Unbalanced tmps: %d more allocs than frees
3084
3085(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many mortal
3086scalars were allocated and freed.
3087
3088=item Undefined format "%s" called
3089
3090(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
3091another package? See L<perlform>.
3092
3093=item Undefined sort subroutine "%s" called
3094
3095(F) The sort comparison routine specified doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps
3096it's in a different package? See L<perlfunc/sort>.
3097
3098=item Undefined subroutine &%s called
3099
3100(F) The subroutine indicated hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
3101has since been undefined.
3102
3103=item Undefined subroutine called
3104
3105(F) The anonymous subroutine you're trying to call hasn't been defined,
3106or if it was, it has since been undefined.
3107
3108=item Undefined subroutine in sort
3109
3110(F) The sort comparison routine specified is declared but doesn't seem to
3111have been defined yet. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
3112
4633a7c4
LW
3113=item Undefined top format "%s" called
3114
3115(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
3116another package? See L<perlform>.
3117
20408e3c
GS
3118=item Undefined value assigned to typeglob
3119
3120(W) An undefined value was assigned to a typeglob, a la C<*foo = undef>.
3121This does nothing. It's possible that you really mean C<undef *foo>.
3122
a0d0e21e
LW
3123=item unexec of %s into %s failed!
3124
3125(F) The unexec() routine failed for some reason. See your local FSF
3126representative, who probably put it there in the first place.
3127
3128=item Unknown BYTEORDER
3129
5f05dabc 3130(F) There are no byte-swapping functions for a machine with this byte order.
a0d0e21e 3131
6170680b
IZ
3132=item Unknown open() mode '%s'
3133
437784d6 3134(F) The second argument of 3-argument open() is not among the list
6d0f518e
GS
3135of valid modes: C<E<lt>>, C<E<gt>>, C<E<gt>E<gt>>, C<+E<lt>>,
3136C<+E<gt>>, C<+E<gt>E<gt>>, C<-|>, C<|E<45>>.
6170680b 3137
f675dbe5
CB
3138=item Unknown process %x sent message to prime_env_iter: %s
3139
3140(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl was reading values for %ENV before
3141iterating over it, and someone else stuck a message in the stream of
3142data Perl expected. Someone's very confused, or perhaps trying to
3143subvert Perl's population of %ENV for nefarious purposes.
3144
a0d0e21e
LW
3145=item unmatched () in regexp
3146
3147(F) Unbackslashed parentheses must always be balanced in regular
3148expressions. If you're a vi user, the % key is valuable for finding
5f05dabc 3149the matching parenthesis. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3150
d98d5fff 3151=item Unmatched right %s bracket
a0d0e21e 3152
d98d5fff
GS
3153(F) The lexer counted more closing curly or square brackets than
3154opening ones, so you're probably missing a matching opening bracket.
3155As a general rule, you'll find the missing one (so to speak) near the
3156place you were last editing.
a0d0e21e
LW
3157
3158=item unmatched [] in regexp
3159
3160(F) The brackets around a character class must match. If you wish to
3161include a closing bracket in a character class, backslash it or put it first.
3162See L<perlre>.
3163
3164=item Unquoted string "%s" may clash with future reserved word
3165
54310121 3166(W) You used a bareword that might someday be claimed as a reserved word.
a0d0e21e
LW
3167It's best to put such a word in quotes, or capitalize it somehow, or insert
3168an underbar into it. You might also declare it as a subroutine.
3169
54310121 3170=item Unrecognized character %s
a0d0e21e 3171
54310121
PP
3172(F) The Perl parser has no idea what to do with the specified character
3173in your Perl script (or eval). Perhaps you tried to run a compressed
3174script, a binary program, or a directory as a Perl program.
a0d0e21e 3175
c9f97d15
IZ
3176=item Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through
3177
3178(W) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
3179by Perl.
3180
a0d0e21e
LW
3181=item Unrecognized signal name "%s"
3182
3183(F) You specified a signal name to the kill() function that was not recognized.
3184Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
3185
90248788 3186=item Unrecognized switch: -%s (-h will show valid options)
a0d0e21e
LW
3187
3188(F) You specified an illegal option to Perl. Don't do that.
3189(If you think you didn't do that, check the #! line to see if it's
3190supplying the bad switch on your behalf.)
3191
3192=item Unsuccessful %s on filename containing newline
3193
3194(W) A file operation was attempted on a filename, and that operation
3195failed, PROBABLY because the filename contained a newline, PROBABLY
54310121 3196because you forgot to chop() or chomp() it off. See L<perlfunc/chomp>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3197
3198=item Unsupported directory function "%s" called
3199
3200(F) Your machine doesn't support opendir() and readdir().
3201
54310121
PP
3202=item Unsupported function fork
3203
3204(F) Your version of executable does not support forking.
3205
3206Note that under some systems, like OS/2, there may be different flavors of
3207Perl executables, some of which may support fork, some not. Try changing
3208the name you call Perl by to C<perl_>, C<perl__>, and so on.
3209
a0d0e21e
LW
3210=item Unsupported function %s
3211
7b8d334a 3212(F) This machine doesn't implement the indicated function, apparently.
a0d0e21e
LW
3213At least, Configure doesn't think so.
3214
3215=item Unsupported socket function "%s" called
3216
3217(F) Your machine doesn't support the Berkeley socket mechanism, or at
3218least that's what Configure thought.
3219
8b1a09fc 3220=item Unterminated E<lt>E<gt> operator
a0d0e21e
LW
3221
3222(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
3223a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
3224finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
3225the line, and you really meant a "less than".
3226
09bef843
SB
3227=item Unterminated attribute parameter in attribute list
3228
3229(F) The lexer saw an opening (left) parenthesis character while parsing an
3230attribute list, but the matching closing (right) parenthesis
3231character was not found. You may need to add (or remove) a backslash
3232character to get your parentheses to balance. See L<attributes>.
3233
3234=item Unterminated attribute list
3235
3236(F) The lexer found something other than a simple identifier at the start
3237of an attribute, and it wasn't a semicolon or the start of a
3238block. Perhaps you terminated the parameter list of the previous attribute
3239too soon. See L<attributes>.
3240
a0d0e21e
LW
3241=item Use of $# is deprecated
3242
8b1a09fc 3243(D) This was an ill-advised attempt to emulate a poorly defined B<awk> feature.
a0d0e21e
LW
3244Use an explicit printf() or sprintf() instead.
3245
3246=item Use of $* is deprecated
3247
4a6725af 3248(D) This variable magically turned on multi-line pattern matching, both for
a0d0e21e
LW
3249you and for any luckless subroutine that you happen to call. You should
3250use the new C<//m> and C<//s> modifiers now to do that without the dangerous
3251action-at-a-distance effects of C<$*>.
3252
748a9306
LW
3253=item Use of %s in printf format not supported
3254
5f05dabc
PP
3255(F) You attempted to use a feature of printf that is accessible from
3256only C. This usually means there's a better way to do it in Perl.
748a9306 3257
8b1a09fc 3258=item Use of bare E<lt>E<lt> to mean E<lt>E<lt>"" is deprecated
4633a7c4
LW
3259
3260(D) You are now encouraged to use the explicitly quoted form if you
3fe9a6f1 3261wish to use an empty line as the terminator of the here-document.
4633a7c4 3262
a0d0e21e
LW
3263=item Use of implicit split to @_ is deprecated
3264
3265(D) It makes a lot of work for the compiler when you clobber a
3266subroutine's argument list, so it's better if you assign the results of
3267a split() explicitly to an array (or list).
3268
dc848c6f
PP
3269=item Use of inherited AUTOLOAD for non-method %s() is deprecated
3270
5cd24f17
PP
3271(D) As an (ahem) accidental feature, C<AUTOLOAD> subroutines are looked
3272up as methods (using the C<@ISA> hierarchy) even when the subroutines to
3273be autoloaded were called as plain functions (e.g. C<Foo::bar()>), not
7b8d334a 3274as methods (e.g. C<Foo-E<gt>bar()> or C<$obj-E<gt>bar()>).
dc848c6f
PP
3275
3276This bug will be rectified in Perl 5.005, which will use method lookup
3277only for methods' C<AUTOLOAD>s. However, there is a significant base
3278of existing code that may be using the old behavior. So, as an
3279interim step, Perl 5.004 issues an optional warning when non-methods
3280use inherited C<AUTOLOAD>s.
3281
3282The simple rule is: Inheritance will not work when autoloading
3283non-methods. The simple fix for old code is: In any module that used to
3284depend on inheriting C<AUTOLOAD> for non-methods from a base class named
3285C<BaseClass>, execute C<*AUTOLOAD = \&BaseClass::AUTOLOAD> during startup.
3286
fb73857a
PP
3287In code that currently says C<use AutoLoader; @ISA = qw(AutoLoader);> you
3288should remove AutoLoader from @ISA and change C<use AutoLoader;> to
7b8d334a 3289C<use AutoLoader 'AUTOLOAD';>.
fb73857a 3290
85b81015
LW
3291=item Use of reserved word "%s" is deprecated
3292
3293(D) The indicated bareword is a reserved word. Future versions of perl
3294may use it as a keyword, so you're better off either explicitly quoting
3295the word in a manner appropriate for its context of use, or using a
3296different name altogether. The warning can be suppressed for subroutine
3297names by either adding a C<&> prefix, or using a package qualifier,
3298e.g. C<&our()>, or C<Foo::our()>.
3299
dc848c6f
PP
3300=item Use of %s is deprecated
3301
3302(D) The construct indicated is no longer recommended for use, generally
3303because there's a better way to do it, and also because the old way has
3304bad side effects.
3305
cc95b072 3306=item Use of uninitialized value%s
a0d0e21e
LW
3307
3308(W) An undefined value was used as if it were already defined. It was
3309interpreted as a "" or a 0, but maybe it was a mistake. To suppress this
5311ebfa 3310warning assign a defined value to your variables.
a0d0e21e 3311
8202fd39
G
3312=item Useless use of "re" pragma
3313
3314(W) You did C<use re;> without any arguments. That isn't very useful.
3315
a0d0e21e
LW
3316=item Useless use of %s in void context
3317
3318(W) You did something without a side effect in a context that does nothing
3319with the return value, such as a statement that doesn't return a value
3320from a block, or the left side of a scalar comma operator. Very often
3321this points not to stupidity on your part, but a failure of Perl to parse
3322your program the way you thought it would. For example, you'd get this
3323if you mixed up your C precedence with Python precedence and said
3324
3325 $one, $two = 1, 2;
3326
3327when you meant to say
3328
3329 ($one, $two) = (1, 2);
3330
748a9306
LW
3331Another common error is to use ordinary parentheses to construct a list
3332reference when you should be using square or curly brackets, for
3333example, if you say
3334
3335 $array = (1,2);
3336
3337when you should have said
3338
3339 $array = [1,2];
3340
3341The square brackets explicitly turn a list value into a scalar value,
3342while parentheses do not. So when a parenthesized list is evaluated in
3343a scalar context, the comma is treated like C's comma operator, which
3344throws away the left argument, which is not what you want. See
3345L<perlref> for more on this.
3346
55497cff
PP
3347=item untie attempted while %d inner references still exist
3348
3349(W) A copy of the object returned from C<tie> (or C<tied>) was still
3350valid when C<untie> was called.
3351
68dc0745 3352=item Value of %s can be "0"; test with defined()
a6006777 3353
68dc0745
PP
3354(W) In a conditional expression, you used <HANDLE>, <*> (glob), C<each()>,
3355or C<readdir()> as a boolean value. Each of these constructs can return a
3356value of "0"; that would make the conditional expression false, which is
3357probably not what you intended. When using these constructs in conditional
3358expressions, test their values with the C<defined> operator.
a6006777 3359
f675dbe5
CB
3360=item Value of CLI symbol "%s" too long
3361
3362(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the value of an %ENV
3363element from a CLI symbol table, and found a resultant string longer
3364than 1024 characters. The return value has been truncated to 1024
3365characters.
3366
9607fc9c 3367=item Variable "%s" is not imported%s
4633a7c4
LW
3368
3369(F) While "use strict" in effect, you referred to a global variable
3370that you apparently thought was imported from another module, because
3371something else of the same name (usually a subroutine) is exported
3372by that module. It usually means you put the wrong funny character
3373on the front of your variable.
3374
44a8e56a
PP
3375=item Variable "%s" may be unavailable
3376
3377(W) An inner (nested) I<anonymous> subroutine is inside a I<named>
3378subroutine, and outside that is another subroutine; and the anonymous
3379(innermost) subroutine is referencing a lexical variable defined in
3380the outermost subroutine. For example:
3381
3382 sub outermost { my $a; sub middle { sub { $a } } }
3383
3384If the anonymous subroutine is called or referenced (directly or
3385indirectly) from the outermost subroutine, it will share the variable
3386as you would expect. But if the anonymous subroutine is called or
3387referenced when the outermost subroutine is not active, it will see
3388the value of the shared variable as it was before and during the
3389*first* call to the outermost subroutine, which is probably not what
3390you want.
3391
3392In these circumstances, it is usually best to make the middle
3393subroutine anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. Perl has specific
3394support for shared variables in nested anonymous subroutines; a named
3395subroutine in between interferes with this feature.
3396
3397=item Variable "%s" will not stay shared
3398
3399(W) An inner (nested) I<named> subroutine is referencing a lexical
3400variable defined in an outer subroutine.
3401
3402When the inner subroutine is called, it will probably see the value of
3403the outer subroutine's variable as it was before and during the
3404*first* call to the outer subroutine; in this case, after the first
3405call to the outer subroutine is complete, the inner and outer
3406subroutines will no longer share a common value for the variable. In
3407other words, the variable will no longer be shared.
3408
3409Furthermore, if the outer subroutine is anonymous and references a
3410lexical variable outside itself, then the outer and inner subroutines
3411will I<never> share the given variable.
3412
3413This problem can usually be solved by making the inner subroutine
3414anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. When inner anonymous subs that
3415reference variables in outer subroutines are called or referenced,
54310121 3416they are automatically rebound to the current values of such
44a8e56a
PP
3417variables.
3418
f86702cc 3419=item Variable syntax
cb1a09d0
AD
3420
3421(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
3422of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
3423Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 3424
084610c0
GS
3425=item Version number must be a constant number
3426
3427(P) The attempt to translate a C<use Module n.n LIST> statement into
3428its equivalent C<BEGIN> block found an internal inconsistency with
3429the version number.
3430
3e6e419a
JH
3431=item perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3432
3433(S) The whole warning message will look something like:
3434
3435 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3436 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
3437 LC_ALL = "En_US",
3438 LANG = (unset)
3439 are supported and installed on your system.
3440 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
3441
3442Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies. In the above the
3443settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.
3444This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your system
3445administrator have set up the so-called variable system but Perl could
3446not use those settings. This was not dead serious, fortunately: there
3447is a "default locale" called "C" that Perl can and will use, the
3448script will be run. Before you really fix the problem, however, you
3449will get the same error message each time you run Perl. How to really
3450fix the problem can be found in L<perllocale> section B<LOCALE PROBLEMS>.
3451
7e1af8bc 3452=item Warning: something's wrong
5f05dabc
PP
3453
3454(W) You passed warn() an empty string (the equivalent of C<warn "">) or
3455you called it with no args and C<$_> was empty.
3456
f86702cc 3457=item Warning: unable to close filehandle %s properly
a0d0e21e 3458
8b1a09fc 3459(S) The implicit close() done by an open() got an error indication on the
5f05dabc 3460close(). This usually indicates your file system ran out of disk space.
a0d0e21e 3461
5f05dabc 3462=item Warning: Use of "%s" without parentheses is ambiguous
a0d0e21e
LW
3463
3464(S) You wrote a unary operator followed by something that looks like a
3465binary operator that could also have been interpreted as a term or
3466unary operator. For instance, if you know that the rand function
3467has a default argument of 1.0, and you write
3468
3469 rand + 5;
3470
3471you may THINK you wrote the same thing as
3472
3473 rand() + 5;
3474
3475but in actual fact, you got
3476
3477 rand(+5);
3478
5f05dabc 3479So put in parentheses to say what you really mean.
a0d0e21e 3480
9a7dcd9c 3481=item write() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e
LW
3482
3483(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
3484Check your logic flow.
3485
3486=item X outside of string
3487
3488(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position before
3489the beginning of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3490
3491=item x outside of string
3492
3493(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position after
3494the end of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3495
3496=item Xsub "%s" called in sort
3497
3498(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
3499
3500=item Xsub called in sort
3501
3502(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
3503
3504=item You can't use C<-l> on a filehandle
3505
3506(F) A filehandle represents an opened file, and when you opened the file it
3507already went past any symlink you are presumably trying to look for.
3508Use a filename instead.
3509
3510=item YOU HAVEN'T DISABLED SET-ID SCRIPTS IN THE KERNEL YET!
3511
5f05dabc 3512(F) And you probably never will, because you probably don't have the
a0d0e21e
LW
3513sources to your kernel, and your vendor probably doesn't give a rip
3514about what you want. Your best bet is to use the wrapsuid script in
3515the eg directory to put a setuid C wrapper around your script.
3516
3517=item You need to quote "%s"
3518
3519(W) You assigned a bareword as a signal handler name. Unfortunately, you
3520already have a subroutine of that name declared, which means that Perl 5
3521will try to call the subroutine when the assignment is executed, which is
3522probably not what you want. (If it IS what you want, put an & in front.)
3523
69282e91 3524=item %cetsockopt() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e
LW
3525
3526(W) You tried to get or set a socket option on a closed socket.
3527Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
9a7dcd9c 3528See L<perlfunc/getsockopt> and L<perlfunc/setsockopt>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3529
3530=item \1 better written as $1
3531
3532(W) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables. The use
5f05dabc 3533of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
a0d0e21e
LW
3534substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
3535because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better
3536if there are more than 9 backreferences.
3537
8b1a09fc 3538=item '|' and 'E<lt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
3539
3540(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
3541found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to redirect STDIN using
8b1a09fc 3542'E<lt>'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
748a9306 3543
8b1a09fc 3544=item '|' and 'E<gt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
3545
3546(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
3547thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and into a pipe to another
3548command. You need to choose one or the other, though nothing's stopping you
3549from piping into a program or Perl script which 'splits' output into two
3550streams, such as
3551
3552 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
3553 while (<STDIN>) {
3554 print;
3555 print OUT;
3556 }
3557 close OUT;
3558
774d564b 3559=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
33c8a3fe 3560
774d564b
PP
3561(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
3562version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3563
3564=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
3565
dc848c6f 3566(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
33c8a3fe
IZ
3567
3568 prefix1;prefix2
3569
3570or
3571
3572 prefix1 prefix2
3573
dc848c6f
PP
3574with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix
3575of a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error
3576may appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
3577"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3578
3579=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
3580
54310121 3581(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
dc848c6f 3582C<sh>-shell in. See "PERL_SH_DIR" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3583
3584=item Process terminated by SIG%s
3585
3586(W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while *nix
dc848c6f
PP
3587applications die in silence. It is considered a feature of the OS/2
3588port. One can easily disable this by appropriate sighandlers, see
3589L<perlipc/"Signals">. See also "Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT"
3590in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe 3591
a0d0e21e
LW
3592=back
3593
56e90b21 3594=cut