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Correct the File::DosGlob version in perldelta
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1=encoding utf8
2
3=head1 NAME
4
5076a392 5perldelta - what is new for perl v5.14.0
c71a852f 6
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7=head1 DESCRIPTION
8
9This document describes differences between the 5.12.0 release and
10the 5.14.0 release.
11
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12If you are upgrading from an earlier release such as 5.10.0, first read
13L<perl5120delta>, which describes differences between 5.10.0 and
145.12.0.
15
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16Some of the bug fixes in this release have been backported to subsequent
17releases of 5.12.x. Those are indicated with the 5.12.x version in
18parentheses.
19
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20=head1 Notice
21
22XXX Any important notices here
23
24=head1 Core Enhancements
25
1f539a1a 26=head2 Unicode
5076a392 27
1f539a1a 28=head3 Unicode Version 6.0 is now supported (mostly)
5076a392 29
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30Perl comes with the Unicode 6.0 data base updated with
31L<Corrigendum #8|http://www.unicode.org/versions/corrigendum8.html>,
32with one exception noted below.
33See L<http://unicode.org/versions/Unicode6.0.0> for details on the new
34release. Perl does not support any Unicode provisional properties,
a3c24add 35including the new ones for this release.
5076a392 36
1f539a1a 37Unicode 6.0 has chosen to use the name C<BELL> for the character at U+1F514,
e1b1739f 38which is a symbol that looks like a bell, and is used in Japanese cell
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39phones. This conflicts with the long-standing Perl usage of having
40C<BELL> mean the ASCII C<BEL> character, U+0007. In Perl 5.14,
41C<\N{BELL}> will continue to mean U+0007, but its use will generate a
42deprecated warning message, unless such warnings are turned off. The
43new name for U+0007 in Perl will be C<ALERT>, which corresponds nicely
44with the existing shorthand sequence for it, C<"\a">. C<\N{BEL}> will
45mean U+0007, with no warning given. The character at U+1F514 will not
46have a name in 5.14, but can be referred to by C<\N{U+1F514}>. The plan
47is that in Perl 5.16, C<\N{BELL}> will refer to U+1F514, and so all code
48that uses C<\N{BELL}> should convert by then to using C<\N{ALERT}>,
49C<\N{BEL}>, or C<"\a"> instead.
5076a392 50
1f539a1a 51=head3 Full functionality for C<use feature 'unicode_strings'>
5076a392 52
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53This release provides full functionality for C<use feature
54'unicode_strings'>. Under its scope, all string operations executed and
55regular expressions compiled (even if executed outside its scope) have
56Unicode semantics. See L<feature>.
5076a392 57
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58This feature avoids most forms of the "Unicode Bug" (See
59L<perlunicode/The "Unicode Bug"> for details.) If there is a
60possibility that your code will process Unicode strings, you are
61B<strongly> encouraged to use this subpragma to avoid nasty surprises.
5076a392 62
1f539a1a 63=head3 C<\N{I<name>}> and C<charnames> enhancements
5076a392 64
1f539a1a 65=over
5076a392 66
1f539a1a 67=item *
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68
69C<\N{}> and C<charnames::vianame> now know about the abbreviated
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70character names listed by Unicode, such as NBSP, SHY, LRO, ZWJ, etc., all
71the customary abbreviations for the C0 and C1 control characters (such as
72ACK, BEL, CAN, etc.), and a few new variants of some C1 full names that
73are in common usage.
5076a392 74
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75=item *
76
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77Unicode has a number of named character sequences, in which particular sequences
78of code points are given names. C<\N{...}> now recognizes these.
79
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80=item *
81
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82C<\N{}>, C<charnames::vianame>, C<charnames::viacode> now know about every
83character in Unicode. Previously, they didn't know about the Hangul syllables
84nor a number of CJK (Chinese/Japanese/Korean) characters.
85
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86=item *
87
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88In the past, it was ineffective to override one of Perl's abbreviations
89with your own custom alias. Now it works.
90
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91=item *
92
e1b1739f 93You can also create a custom alias of the ordinal of a
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94character, known by C<\N{...}>, C<charnames::vianame()>, and
95C<charnames::viacode()>. Previously, an alias had to be to an official
96Unicode character name. This made it impossible to create an alias for
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97a code point that had no name, such as those reserved for private
98use.
5076a392 99
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100=item *
101
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102A new function, C<charnames::string_vianame()>, has been added.
103This function is a run-time version of C<\N{...}>, returning the string
104of characters whose Unicode name is its parameter. It can handle
105Unicode named character sequences, whereas the pre-existing
106C<charnames::vianame()> cannot, as the latter returns a single code
107point.
108
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109=back
110
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111See L<charnames> for details on all these changes.
112
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113=head3 New warnings categories for problematic (non-)Unicode code points.
114
115Three new warnings subcategories of "utf8" have been added. These
116allow you to turn off some "utf8" warnings, while allowing
117others warnings to remain on. The three categories are:
118C<surrogate> when UTF-16 surrogates are encountered;
119C<nonchar> when Unicode non-character code points are encountered;
120and C<non_unicode> when code points that are above the legal Unicode
121maximum of 0x10FFFF are encountered.
122
1f539a1a 123=head3 Any unsigned value can be encoded as a character
5076a392 124
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125With this release, Perl is adopting a model that any unsigned value can
126be treated as a code point and encoded internally (as utf8) without
54c7bb16 127warnings - not just the code points that are legal in Unicode.
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128However, unless utf8 or the corresponding sub-category (see previous
129item) warnings have been
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130explicitly lexically turned off, outputting or performing a
131Unicode-defined operation (such as upper-casing) on such a code point
132will generate a warning. Attempting to input these using strict rules
133(such as with the C<:encoding('UTF-8')> layer) will continue to fail.
134Prior to this release the handling was very inconsistent, and incorrect
135in places. Also, the Unicode non-characters, some of which previously were
136erroneously considered illegal in places by Perl, contrary to the Unicode
137standard, are now always legal internally. But inputting or outputting
138them will work the same as for the non-legal Unicode code points, as the
139Unicode standard says they are illegal for "open interchange".
5076a392 140
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141=head3 Unicode database files not installed
142
143The Unicode database files are no longer installed with Perl. This
144doesn't affect any functionality in Perl and saves significant disk
145space. If you previously were explicitly opening and reading those
146files, you can download them from
147L<http://www.unicode.org/Public/zipped/6.0.0/>.
148
1f539a1a 149=head2 Regular Expressions
5076a392 150
1f539a1a 151=head3 C<(?^...)> construct to signify default modifiers
5076a392 152
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153An ASCII caret (also called a "circumflex accent") C<"^">
154immediately following a C<"(?"> in a regular expression
155now means that the subexpression does not inherit the
156surrounding modifiers such as C</i>, but reverts to the
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157Perl defaults. Any modifiers following the caret override the defaults.
158
159The stringification of regular expressions now uses this
160notation. E.g., before, C<qr/hlagh/i> would be stringified as
161C<(?i-xsm:hlagh)>, but now it's stringified as C<(?^i:hlagh)>.
162
163The main purpose of this is to allow tests that rely on the
e1b1739f 164stringification not to have to change when new modifiers are added.
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165See L<perlre/Extended Patterns>.
166
1f539a1a 167=head3 C</d>, C</l>, C</u>, C</a>, and C</aa> modifiers
5076a392 168
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169Four new regular expression modifiers have been added. These are mutually
170exclusive; one only can be turned on at a time.
5076a392 171
959ad7d5 172The C</l> modifier says to compile the regular expression as if it were
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173in the scope of C<use locale>, even if it is not.
174
959ad7d5 175The C</u> modifier says to compile the regular expression as if it were
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176in the scope of a C<use feature "unicode_strings"> pragma.
177
e1b1739f 178The C</d> (default) modifier is used to override any C<use locale> and
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179C<use feature "unicode_strings"> pragmas that are in effect at the time
180of compiling the regular expression.
181
959ad7d5 182The C</a> regular expression modifier restricts C<\s>, C<\d> and C<\w> and
7baaf023 183the Posix (C<[[:posix:]]>) character classes to the ASCII range. Their
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184complements and C<\b> and C<\B> are correspondingly
185affected. Otherwise, C</a> behaves like the C</u> modifier, in that
e1b1739f 186case-insensitive matching uses Unicode semantics.
5076a392 187
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188The C</aa> modifier is like C</a>, except that, in case-insensitive matching, no ASCII character will match a
189non-ASCII character. For example,
5076a392 190
959ad7d5 191 'k' =~ /\N{KELVIN SIGN}/ai
5076a392 192
959ad7d5 193will match; it won't under C</aa>.
5076a392 194
959ad7d5 195See L<perlre/Modifiers> for more detail.
5076a392 196
1f539a1a 197=head3 Non-destructive substitution
5076a392 198
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199The substitution (C<s///>) and transliteration
200(C<y///>) operators now support an C</r> option that
201copies the input variable, carries out the substitution on
202the copy and returns the result. The original remains unmodified.
5076a392 203
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204 my $old = 'cat';
205 my $new = $old =~ s/cat/dog/r;
206 # $old is 'cat' and $new is 'dog'
5076a392 207
1f539a1a 208This is particularly useful with C<map>. See L<perlop> for more examples.
5076a392 209
1f539a1a 210=head3 Reentrant regular expression engine
5076a392 211
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212It is now safe to use regular expressions within C<(?{...})> and
213C<(??{...})> code blocks inside regular expressions.
5076a392 214
1f539a1a 215These block are still experimental, however, and still have problems with
e1b1739f 216lexical (C<my>) variables and abnormal exiting.
5076a392 217
1f539a1a 218=head3 C<use re '/flags';>
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219
220The C<re> pragma now has the ability to turn on regular expression flags
221till the end of the lexical scope:
222
223 use re '/x';
224 "foo" =~ / (.+) /; # /x implied
225
226See L<re/"'/flags' mode"> for details.
227
1f539a1a 228=head3 \o{...} for octals
5076a392 229
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230There is a new octal escape sequence, C<"\o">, in double-quote-like
231contexts. This construct allows large octal ordinals beyond the
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232current max of 0777 to be represented. It also allows you to specify a
233character in octal which can safely be concatenated with other regex
234snippets and which won't be confused with being a backreference to
235a regex capture group. See L<perlre/Capture groups>.
236
237=head3 Add C<\p{Titlecase}> as a synonym for C<\p{Title}>
238
239This synonym is added for symmetry with the Unicode property names
240C<\p{Uppercase}> and C<\p{Lowercase}>.
5076a392 241
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242=head3 Regular expression debugging output improvement
243
244Regular expression debugging output (turned on by C<use re 'debug';>) now
245uses hexadecimal when escaping non-ASCII characters, instead of octal.
246
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247=head3 Return value of C<delete $+{...}>
248
249Custom regular expression engines can now determine the return value of
250C<delete> on an entry of C<%+> or C<%->.
251
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252=head2 Syntactical Enhancements
253
254=head3 Array and hash container functions accept references
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255
256All built-in functions that operate directly on array or hash
257containers now also accept hard references to arrays or hashes:
258
259 |----------------------------+---------------------------|
260 | Traditional syntax | Terse syntax |
261 |----------------------------+---------------------------|
262 | push @$arrayref, @stuff | push $arrayref, @stuff |
263 | unshift @$arrayref, @stuff | unshift $arrayref, @stuff |
264 | pop @$arrayref | pop $arrayref |
265 | shift @$arrayref | shift $arrayref |
266 | splice @$arrayref, 0, 2 | splice $arrayref, 0, 2 |
267 | keys %$hashref | keys $hashref |
268 | keys @$arrayref | keys $arrayref |
269 | values %$hashref | values $hashref |
270 | values @$arrayref | values $arrayref |
271 | ($k,$v) = each %$hashref | ($k,$v) = each $hashref |
272 | ($k,$v) = each @$arrayref | ($k,$v) = each $arrayref |
273 |----------------------------+---------------------------|
274
275This allows these built-in functions to act on long dereferencing chains
276or on the return value of subroutines without needing to wrap them in
277C<@{}> or C<%{}>:
278
279 push @{$obj->tags}, $new_tag; # old way
280 push $obj->tags, $new_tag; # new way
281
282 for ( keys %{$hoh->{genres}{artists}} ) {...} # old way
283 for ( keys $hoh->{genres}{artists} ) {...} # new way
284
285For C<push>, C<unshift> and C<splice>, the reference will auto-vivify
286if it is not defined, just as if it were wrapped with C<@{}>.
287
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288For C<keys>, C<values>, C<each>, when overloaded dereferencing is
289present, the overloaded dereference is used instead of dereferencing the
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290underlying reftype. Warnings are issued about assumptions made in
291ambiguous cases.
5076a392 292
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293=head3 Single term prototype
294
295The C<+> prototype is a special alternative to C<$> that will act like
296C<\[@%]> when given a literal array or hash variable, but will otherwise
e1b1739f 297force scalar context on the argument. See L<perlsub/Prototypes>.
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298
299=head3 C<package> block syntax
300
301A package declaration can now contain a code block, in which case the
302declaration is in scope only inside that block. So C<package Foo { ... }>
303is precisely equivalent to C<{ package Foo; ... }>. It also works with
304a version number in the declaration, as in C<package Foo 1.2 { ... }>.
e1b1739f 305See L<perlfunc>.
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306
307=head3 Statement labels can appear in more places
308
309Statement labels can now occur before any type of statement or declaration,
310such as C<package>.
311
312=head3 Stacked labels
313
314Multiple statement labels can now appear before a single statement.
315
316=head3 Uppercase X/B allowed in hexadecimal/binary literals
317
318Literals may now use either upper case C<0X...> or C<0B...> prefixes,
319in addition to the already supported C<0x...> and C<0b...>
e1b1739f 320syntax [perl #76296].
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321
322C, Ruby, Python and PHP already supported this syntax, and it makes
323Perl more internally consistent. A round-trip with C<eval sprintf
e1b1739f 324"%#X", 0x10> now returns C<16>, the way C<eval sprintf "%#x", 0x10> does.
1f539a1a 325
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326=head3 Overridable tie functions
327
328C<tie>, C<tied> and C<untie> can now be overridden [perl #75902].
329
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330=head2 Exception Handling
331
332Several changes have been made to the way C<die>, C<warn>, and C<$@>
333behave, in order to make them more reliable and consistent.
334
335When an exception is thrown inside an C<eval>, the exception is no
336longer at risk of being clobbered by code running during unwinding
337(e.g., destructors). Previously, the exception was written into C<$@>
338early in the throwing process, and would be overwritten if C<eval> was
339used internally in the destructor for an object that had to be freed
340while exiting from the outer C<eval>. Now the exception is written
341into C<$@> last thing before exiting the outer C<eval>, so the code
342running immediately thereafter can rely on the value in C<$@> correctly
343corresponding to that C<eval>. (C<$@> is still also set before exiting the
344C<eval>, for the sake of destructors that rely on this.)
345
346Likewise, a C<local $@> inside an C<eval> will no longer clobber any
347exception thrown in its scope. Previously, the restoration of C<$@> upon
348unwinding would overwrite any exception being thrown. Now the exception
349gets to the C<eval> anyway. So C<local $@> is safe before a C<die>.
350
351Exceptions thrown from object destructors no longer modify the C<$@>
352of the surrounding context. (If the surrounding context was exception
353unwinding, this used to be another way to clobber the exception being
354thrown.) Previously such an exception was
355sometimes emitted as a warning, and then either was
356string-appended to the surrounding C<$@> or completely replaced the
357surrounding C<$@>, depending on whether that exception and the surrounding
358C<$@> were strings or objects. Now, an exception in this situation is
359always emitted as a warning, leaving the surrounding C<$@> untouched.
360In addition to object destructors, this also affects any function call
361performed by XS code using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag.
362
363Warnings for C<warn> can now be objects, in the same way as exceptions
364for C<die>. If an object-based warning gets the default handling,
365of writing to standard error, it is stringified as
366before, with the file and line number appended. But
367a C<$SIG{__WARN__}> handler will now receive an
368object-based warning as an object, where previously it was passed the
369result of stringifying the object.
370
371=head2 Other Enhancements
372
373=head3 Assignment to C<$0> sets the legacy process name with C<prctl()> on Linux
374
375On Linux the legacy process name will be set with L<prctl(2)>, in
376addition to altering the POSIX name via C<argv[0]> as perl has done
377since version 4.000. Now system utilities that read the legacy process
378name such as ps, top and killall will recognize the name you set when
379assigning to C<$0>. The string you supply will be cut off at 16 bytes,
380this is a limitation imposed by Linux.
381
382=head3 C<srand()> now returns the seed
383
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384This allows programs that need to have repeatable results not to have to come
385up with their own seed-generating mechanism. Instead, they can use C<srand()>
386and stash the return value for future use. Typical is a test program which
1f539a1a 387has too many combinations to test comprehensively in the time available to it
e1b1739f 388each run. It can test a random subset each time and, should there be a failure,
1f539a1a 389log the seed used for that run so that it can later be used to reproduce the
e1b1739f 390same results.
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391
392=head3 printf-like functions understand post-1980 size modifiers
393
394Perl's printf and sprintf operators, and Perl's internal printf replacement
395function, now understand the C90 size modifiers "hh" (C<char>), "z"
396(C<size_t>), and "t" (C<ptrdiff_t>). Also, when compiled with a C99
397compiler, Perl now understands the size modifier "j" (C<intmax_t>).
398
399So, for example, on any modern machine, C<sprintf('%hhd', 257)> returns '1'.
400
401=head3 New global variable C<${^GLOBAL_PHASE}>
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402
403A new global variable, C<${^GLOBAL_PHASE}>, has been added to allow
404introspection of the current phase of the perl interpreter. It's explained in
405detail in L<perlvar/"${^GLOBAL_PHASE}"> and
406L<perlmod/"BEGIN, UNITCHECK, CHECK, INIT and END">.
407
1f539a1a 408=head3 C<-d:-foo> calls C<Devel::foo::unimport>
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409
410The syntax C<-dI<B<:>foo>> was extended in 5.6.1 to make C<-dI<:fooB<=bar>>>
411equivalent to C<-MDevel::foo=bar>, which expands
412internally to C<use Devel::foo 'bar';>.
413F<perl> now allows prefixing the module name with C<->, with the same
414semantics as C<-M>, I<i.e.>
415
416=over 4
417
418=item C<-d:-foo>
419
420Equivalent to C<-M-Devel::foo>, expands to
421C<no Devel::foo;>, calls C<< Devel::foo->unimport() >>
422if the method exists.
423
424=item C<-d:-foo=bar>
425
426Equivalent to C<-M-Devel::foo=bar>, expands to C<no Devel::foo 'bar';>,
427calls C<< Devel::foo->unimport('bar') >> if the method exists.
428
429=back
430
e1b1739f 431This is particularly useful for suppressing the default actions of a
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432C<Devel::*> module's C<import> method whilst still loading it for debugging.
433
1f539a1a 434=head3 Filehandle method calls load L<IO::File> on demand
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435
436When a method call on a filehandle would die because the method cannot
437be resolved, and L<IO::File> has not been loaded, Perl now loads L<IO::File>
438via C<require> and attempts method resolution again:
439
440 open my $fh, ">", $file;
441 $fh->binmode(":raw"); # loads IO::File and succeeds
442
443This also works for globs like STDOUT, STDERR and STDIN:
444
445 STDOUT->autoflush(1);
446
447Because this on-demand load only happens if method resolution fails, the
448legacy approach of manually loading an L<IO::File> parent class for partial
449method support still works as expected:
450
451 use IO::Handle;
452 open my $fh, ">", $file;
453 $fh->autoflush(1); # IO::File not loaded
454
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455=head3 IPv6 support
456
457The C<Socket> module provides new affordances for IPv6,
458including implementations of the C<Socket::getaddrinfo()> and
459C<Socket::getnameinfo()> functions, along with related constants, and a
460handful of new functions. See L<Socket>.
461
1f539a1a 462=head3 DTrace probes now include package name
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463
464The DTrace probes now include an additional argument (C<arg3>) which contains
465the package the subroutine being entered or left was compiled in.
466
467For example using the following DTrace script:
468
469 perl$target:::sub-entry
470 {
471 printf("%s::%s\n", copyinstr(arg0), copyinstr(arg3));
472 }
473
474and then running:
475
476 perl -e'sub test { }; test'
477
478DTrace will print:
479
480 main::test
481
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482=head2 New C APIs
483
1e463951 484See L</Internal Changes>.
9378886b 485
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486=head1 Security
487
948b8455 488=head2 User-defined regular expression properties
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489
490In L<perlunicode/"User-Defined Character Properties">, it says you can
491create custom properties by defining subroutines whose names begin with
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492"In" or "Is". However, Perl did not actually enforce that naming
493restriction, so \p{foo::bar} could call foo::bar() if it existed. Now this
494convention has been enforced.
5076a392 495
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496Also, Perl no longer allows a tainted regular expression to invoke a
497user-defined. It simply dies instead [perl #82616].
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498
499=head1 Incompatible Changes
500
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501Perl 5.14.0 is not binary-compatible with any previous stable release.
502
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503In addition to the sections that follow, see L</C API Changes>.
504
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505=head2 Regular Expressions and String Escapes
506
54c7bb16 507=head3 \400-\777
5076a392 508
54c7bb16 509Use of C<\400>-C<\777> in regexes in certain circumstances has given
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510different, anomalous behavior than their use in all other
511double-quote-like contexts. Since 5.10.1, a deprecated warning message
512has been raised when this happens. Now, all double-quote-like contexts
513have the same behavior, namely to be equivalent to C<\x{100}> -
514C<\x{1FF}>, with no deprecation warning. Use of these values in the
515command line option C<"-0"> retains the current meaning to slurp input
516files whole; previously, this was documented only for C<"-0777">. It is
517recommended, however, because of various ambiguities, to use the new
518C<\o{...}> construct to represent characters in octal.
5076a392 519
61752d82 520=head3 Most C<\p{}> properties are now immune to case-insensitive matching
5076a392 521
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522For most Unicode properties, it doesn't make sense to have them match
523differently under C</i> case-insensitive matching than not. And doing
524so leads to unexpected results and potential security holes. For
525example
5076a392 526
61752d82 527 m/\p{ASCII_Hex_Digit}+/i
5076a392 528
61752d82 529could previously match non-ASCII characters because of the Unicode
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530matching rules (although there were a number of bugs with this). Now
531matching under C</i> gives the same results as non-C</i> matching except
532for those few properties where people have come to expect differences,
533namely the ones where casing is an integral part of their meaning, such
534as C<m/\p{Uppercase}/i> and C<m/\p{Lowercase}/i>, both of which match
535the exact same code points, namely those matched by C<m/\p{Cased}/i>.
536Details are in L<perlrecharclass/Unicode Properties>.
5076a392 537
61752d82 538User-defined property handlers that need to match differently under
4cf6a51f 539C</i> must change to read the new boolean parameter passed to them which is
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540non-zero if case-insensitive matching is in effect or 0 otherwise. See
541L<perluniprops/User-Defined Character Properties>.
5076a392 542
61752d82 543=head3 \p{} implies Unicode semantics
5076a392 544
61752d82
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545Now, a Unicode property match specified in the pattern will indicate
546that the pattern is meant for matching according to Unicode rules, the way
bc15a0a0 547C<\N{}> does.
5076a392 548
61752d82 549=head3 Regular expressions retain their localeness when interpolated
5076a392 550
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551Regular expressions compiled under C<"use locale"> now retain this when
552interpolated into a new regular expression compiled outside a
553C<"use locale">, and vice-versa.
5076a392 554
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555Previously, a regular expression interpolated into another one inherited
556the localeness of the surrounding one, losing whatever state it
557originally had. This is considered a bug fix, but may trip up code that
558has come to rely on the incorrect behavior.
5076a392 559
61752d82 560=head3 Stringification of regexes has changed
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561
562Default regular expression modifiers are now notated by using
563C<(?^...)>. Code relying on the old stringification will fail. The
564purpose of this is so that when new modifiers are added, such code will
565not have to change (after this one time), as the stringification will
566automatically incorporate the new modifiers.
567
568Code that needs to work properly with both old- and new-style regexes
f318e2e6 569can avoid the whole issue by using (for Perls since 5.9.5; see L<re>):
5076a392
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570
571 use re qw(regexp_pattern);
572 my ($pat, $mods) = regexp_pattern($re_ref);
573
5076a392
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574If the actual stringification is important, or older Perls need to be
575supported, you can use something like the following:
576
577 # Accept both old and new-style stringification
578 my $modifiers = (qr/foobar/ =~ /\Q(?^/) ? '^' : '-xism';
579
580And then use C<$modifiers> instead of C<-xism>.
581
61752d82 582=head3 Run-time code blocks in regular expressions inherit pragmata
5076a392 583
61752d82
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584Code blocks in regular expressions (C<(?{...})> and C<(??{...})>) used not
585to inherit any pragmata (strict, warnings, etc.) if the regular expression
586was compiled at run time as happens in cases like these two:
5076a392 587
61752d82
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588 use re 'eval';
589 $foo =~ $bar; # when $bar contains (?{...})
590 $foo =~ /$bar(?{ $finished = 1 })/;
591
592This was a bug, which has now been fixed. But it has the potential to break
593any code that was relying on it.
5076a392 594
61752d82 595=head2 Stashes and Package Variables
5076a392 596
61752d82 597=head3 Localised tied hashes and arrays are no longed tied
5076a392 598
61752d82 599In the following:
5076a392 600
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601 tie @a, ...;
602 {
603 local @a;
604 # here, @a is a now a new, untied array
605 }
606 # here, @a refers again to the old, tied array
5076a392 607
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608The new local array used to be made tied too, which was fairly pointless,
609and has now been fixed. This fix could however potentially cause a change
610in behaviour of some code.
5076a392 611
61752d82 612=head3 Stashes are now always defined
5076a392 613
61752d82
FC
614C<defined %Foo::> now always returns true, even when no symbols have yet been
615defined in that package.
5076a392 616
61752d82
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617This is a side effect of removing a special case kludge in the tokeniser,
618added for 5.10.0, to hide side effects of changes to the internal storage of
619hashes that drastically reduce their memory usage overhead.
620
621Calling defined on a stash has been deprecated since 5.6.0, warned on
622lexicals since 5.6.0, and warned for stashes (and other package
623variables) since 5.12.0. C<defined %hash> has always exposed an
624implementation detail - emptying a hash by deleting all entries from it does
625not make C<defined %hash> false, hence C<defined %hash> is not valid code to
626determine whether an arbitrary hash is empty. Instead, use the behaviour
627that an empty C<%hash> always returns false in a scalar context.
628
629=head3 Dereferencing typeglobs
5076a392
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630
631If you assign a typeglob to a scalar variable:
632
633 $glob = *foo;
634
635the glob that is copied to C<$glob> is marked with a special flag
636indicating that the glob is just a copy. This allows subsequent assignments
637to C<$glob> to overwrite the glob. The original glob, however, is
638immutable.
639
640Many Perl operators did not distinguish between these two types of globs.
641This would result in strange behaviour in edge cases: C<untie $scalar>
642would do nothing if the last thing assigned to the scalar was a glob
643(because it treated it as C<untie *$scalar>, which unties a handle).
f318e2e6 644Assignment to a glob slot (e.g., C<*$glob = \@some_array>) would simply
5076a392
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645assign C<\@some_array> to C<$glob>.
646
647To fix this, the C<*{}> operator (including the C<*foo> and C<*$foo> forms)
648has been modified to make a new immutable glob if its operand is a glob
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FC
649copy. This allows operators that make a distinction between globs and
650scalars to be modified to treat only immutable globs as globs. (C<tie>,
651C<tied> and C<untie> have been left as they are for compatibility's sake,
61752d82 652but will warn. See L</Deprecations>.)
5076a392
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653
654This causes an incompatible change in code that assigns a glob to the
655return value of C<*{}> when that operator was passed a glob copy. Take the
656following code, for instance:
657
658 $glob = *foo;
659 *$glob = *bar;
660
661The C<*$glob> on the second line returns a new immutable glob. That new
662glob is made an alias to C<*bar>. Then it is discarded. So the second
663assignment has no effect.
664
5076a392
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665See L<http://rt.perl.org/rt3/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=77810> for even
666more detail.
667
61752d82 668=head3 Clearing stashes
5076a392
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669
670Stash list assignment C<%foo:: = ()> used to make the stash anonymous
671temporarily while it was being emptied. Consequently, any of its
672subroutines referenced elsewhere would become anonymous (showing up as
673"(unknown)" in C<caller>). Now they retain their package names, such that
674C<caller> will return the original sub name if there is still a reference
675to its typeglob, or "foo::__ANON__" otherwise [perl #79208].
676
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677=head3 Magic variables outside the main package
678
679In previous versions of Perl, magic variables like C<$!>, C<%SIG>, etc. would
680'leak' into other packages. So C<%foo::SIG> could be used to access signals,
681C<${"foo::!"}> (with strict mode off) to access C's C<errno>, etc.
682
683This was a bug, or an 'unintentional' feature, which caused various ill effects,
684such as signal handlers being wiped when modules were loaded, etc.
685
686This has been fixed (or the feature has been removed, depending on how you see
687it).
688
689=head2 Changes to Syntax or to Perl Operators
690
691=head3 C<given> return values
692
693C<given> blocks now return the last evaluated
694expression, or an empty list if the block was exited by C<break>. Thus you
695can now write:
696
697 my $type = do {
698 given ($num) {
699 break when undef;
700 'integer' when /^[+-]?[0-9]+$/;
701 'float' when /^[+-]?[0-9]+(?:\.[0-9]+)?$/;
702 'unknown';
703 }
704 };
705
706See L<perlsyn/Return value> for details.
707
708=head3 Change in the parsing of certain prototypes
709
710Functions declared with the following prototypes now behave correctly as unary
711functions:
712
713 *
714 \$ \% \@ \* \&
715 \[...]
716 ;$ ;*
717 ;\$ ;\% etc.
718 ;\[...]
719
720Due to this bug fix [perl #75904], functions
721using the C<(*)>, C<(;$)> and C<(;*)> prototypes
722are parsed with higher precedence than before. So in the following example:
723
724 sub foo($);
725 foo $a < $b;
726
727the second line is now parsed correctly as C<< foo($a) < $b >>, rather than
728C<< foo($a < $b) >>. This happens when one of these operators is used in
729an unparenthesised argument:
730
731 < > <= >= lt gt le ge
732 == != <=> eq ne cmp ~~
733 &
734 | ^
735 &&
736 || //
737 .. ...
738 ?:
739 = += -= *= etc.
740
741=head3 Smart-matching against array slices
742
743Previously, the following code resulted in a successful match:
744
745 my @a = qw(a y0 z);
746 my @b = qw(a x0 z);
747 @a[0 .. $#b] ~~ @b;
748
749This odd behaviour has now been fixed [perl #77468].
750
751=head3 Negation treats strings differently from before
752
753The unary negation operator C<-> now treats strings that look like numbers
754as numbers [perl #57706].
755
756=head3 Negative zero
757
758Negative zero (-0.0), when converted to a string, now becomes "0" on all
759platforms. It used to become "-0" on some, but "0" on others.
760
761If you still need to determine whether a zero is negative, use
762C<sprintf("%g", $zero) =~ /^-/> or the L<Data::Float> module on CPAN.
763
764=head3 C<:=> is now a syntax error
5076a392
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765
766Previously C<my $pi := 4;> was exactly equivalent to C<my $pi : = 4;>,
767with the C<:> being treated as the start of an attribute list, ending before
768the C<=>. The use of C<:=> to mean C<: => was deprecated in 5.12.0, and is now
769a syntax error. This will allow the future use of C<:=> as a new token.
770
771We find no Perl 5 code on CPAN using this construction, outside the core's
772tests for it, so we believe that this change will have very little impact on
773real-world codebases.
774
775If it is absolutely necessary to have empty attribute lists (for example,
776because of a code generator) then avoid the error by adding a space before
777the C<=>.
778
61752d82 779=head2 Threads and Processes
5076a392 780
61752d82 781=head3 Directory handles not copied to threads
5076a392 782
61752d82
FC
783On systems other than Windows that do not have
784a C<fchdir> function, newly-created threads no
785longer inherit directory handles from their parent threads. Such programs
786would usually have crashed anyway [perl #75154].
5076a392 787
61752d82 788=head3 C<close> on shared pipes
5076a392 789
61752d82
FC
790The C<close> function no longer waits for the child process to exit if the
791underlying file descriptor is still in use by another thread, to avoid
792deadlocks. It returns true in such cases.
5076a392 793
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794=head3 fork() emulation will not wait for signalled children
795
796On Windows parent processes would not terminate until all forked
797childred had terminated first. However, C<kill('KILL', ...)> is
798inherently unstable on pseudo-processes, and C<kill('TERM', ...)>
799might not get delivered if the child if blocked in a system call.
800
801To avoid the deadlock and still provide a safe mechanism to terminate
802the hosting process, Perl will now no longer wait for children that
803have been sent a SIGTERM signal. It is up to the parent process to
804waitpid() for these children if child clean-up processing must be
805allowed to finish. However, it is also the responsibility of the
806parent then to avoid the deadlock by making sure the child process
807can't be blocked on I/O either.
808
809See L<perlfork> for more information about the fork() emulation on
810Windows.
811
61752d82 812=head2 Configuration
5076a392 813
61752d82 814=head3 Naming fixes in Policy_sh.SH may invalidate Policy.sh
5076a392 815
61752d82
FC
816Several long-standing typos and naming confusions in Policy_sh.SH have
817been fixed, standardizing on the variable names used in config.sh.
5076a392 818
61752d82
FC
819This will change the behavior of Policy.sh if you happen to have been
820accidentally relying on the Policy.sh incorrect behavior.
f318e2e6 821
5a1f7719
FC
822=head3 Perl source code is read in text mode on Windows
823
824Perl scripts used to be read in binary mode on Windows for the benefit
825of the ByteLoader module (which is no longer part of core Perl). This
826had the side effect of breaking various operations on the DATA filehandle,
827including seek()/tell(), and even simply reading from DATA after file handles
828have been flushed by a call to system(), backticks, fork() etc.
829
830The default build options for Windows have been changed to read Perl source
831code on Windows in text mode now. Hopefully ByteLoader will be updated on
832CPAN to automatically handle this situation [perl #28106].
833
5076a392
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834=head1 Deprecations
835
1e463951
FC
836See also L</Deprecated C APIs>.
837
5076a392
FC
838=head2 Omitting a space between a regular expression and subsequent word
839
18139a1b
FC
840Omitting a space between a regular expression operator or
841its modifiers and the following word is deprecated. For
842example, C<< m/foo/sand $bar >> will still be parsed
843as C<< m/foo/s and $bar >> but will issue a warning.
5076a392 844
e683df94
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845=head2 C<\cI<X>>
846
847The backslash-c construct was designed as a way of specifying
848non-printable characters, but there were no restrictions (on ASCII
849platforms) on what the character following the C<c> could be. Now,
850a deprecation warning is raised if that character isn't an ASCII character.
851Also, a deprecation warning is raised for C<"\c{"> (which is the same
852as simply saying C<";">).
853
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KW
854=head2 C<"\b{"> and C<"\B{">
855
856In regular expressions, a literal C<"{"> immediately following a C<"\b">
857(not in a bracketed character class) or a C<"\B{"> is now deprecated
858to allow for its future use by Perl itself.
859
5076a392
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860=head2 Deprecation warning added for deprecated-in-core .pl libs
861
862This is a mandatory warning, not obeying -X or lexical warning bits.
863The warning is modelled on that supplied by deprecate.pm for
864deprecated-in-core .pm libraries. It points to the specific CPAN
823d0e46
FC
865distribution that contains the .pl libraries. The CPAN version, of
866course, does not generate the warning.
5076a392
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867
868=head2 List assignment to C<$[>
869
823d0e46
FC
870Assignment to C<$[> was deprecated and started to give warnings in
871Perl version 5.12.0. This version of perl also starts to emit a warning when
872assigning to C<$[> in list context. This fixes an oversight in 5.12.0.
5076a392
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873
874=head2 Use of qw(...) as parentheses
875
876Historically the parser fooled itself into thinking that C<qw(...)> literals
877were always enclosed in parentheses, and as a result you could sometimes omit
878parentheses around them:
879
880 for $x qw(a b c) { ... }
881
882The parser no longer lies to itself in this way. Wrap the list literal in
823d0e46 883parentheses, like this:
5076a392
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884
885 for $x (qw(a b c)) { ... }
886
887=head2 C<\N{BELL}> is deprecated
888
889This is because Unicode is using that name for a different character.
890See L</Unicode Version 6.0 is now supported (mostly)> for more
891explanation.
892
893=head2 C<?PATTERN?> is deprecated
894
895C<?PATTERN?> (without the initial m) has been deprecated and now produces
896a warning. This is to allow future use of C<?> in new operators.
897The match-once functionality is still available in the form of C<m?PATTERN?>.
898
5076a392
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899=head2 Tie functions on scalars holding typeglobs
900
901Calling a tie function (C<tie>, C<tied>, C<untie>) with a scalar argument
902acts on a file handle if the scalar happens to hold a typeglob.
903
904This is a long-standing bug that will be removed in Perl 5.16, as
905there is currently no way to tie the scalar itself when it holds
906a typeglob, and no way to untie a scalar that has had a typeglob
907assigned to it.
908
823d0e46 909Now there is a deprecation warning whenever a tie
5076a392
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910function is used on a handle without an explicit C<*>.
911
18139a1b 912=head2 User-defined case-mapping
5076a392 913
18139a1b
FC
914This feature is being deprecated due to its many issues, as documented in
915L<perlunicode/User-Defined Case Mappings (for serious hackers only)>.
e48f36f0
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916It is planned to remove this feature in Perl 5.16. Instead use the CPAN module
917L<Unicode::Casing>, which provides improved functionality.
823d0e46 918
18139a1b 919=head2 Deprecated modules
5076a392
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920
921The following modules will be removed from the core distribution in a
922future release, and should be installed from CPAN instead. Distributions
923on CPAN which require these should add them to their prerequisites. The
823d0e46 924core versions of these modules will issue a deprecation warning.
5076a392
FC
925
926If you ship a packaged version of Perl, either alone or as part of a
927larger system, then you should carefully consider the repercussions of
823d0e46 928core module deprecations. You may want to consider shipping your default
5076a392 929build of Perl with packages for some or all deprecated modules which
823d0e46 930install into C<vendor> or C<site> perl library directories. This will
5076a392
FC
931inhibit the deprecation warnings.
932
933Alternatively, you may want to consider patching F<lib/deprecate.pm>
934to provide deprecation warnings specific to your packaging system
935or distribution of Perl, consistent with how your packaging system
936or distribution manages a staged transition from a release where the
937installation of a single package provides the given functionality, to
938a later release where the system administrator needs to know to install
939multiple packages to get that same functionality.
940
941You can silence these deprecation warnings by installing the modules
942in question from CPAN. To install the latest version of all of them,
943just install C<Task::Deprecations::5_14>.
944
945=over
946
947=item L<Devel::DProf>
948
949We strongly recommend that you install and used L<Devel::NYTProf> in
950preference, as it offers significantly improved profiling and reporting.
951
952=back
953
5076a392
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954=head1 Performance Enhancements
955
54c7bb16 956=head2 "Safe signals" optimisation
df91d470
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957
958Signal dispatch has been moved from the runloop into control ops. This
959should give a few percent speed increase, and eliminates almost all of
960the speed penalty caused by the introduction of "safe signals" in
9615.8.0. Signals should still be dispatched within the same statement as
962they were previously - if this is not the case, or it is possible to
963create uninterruptible loops, this is a bug, and reports are encouraged
964of how to recreate such issues.
965
54c7bb16 966=head2 Optimisation of shift; and pop; calls without arguments
df91d470 967
111b6aa7
FC
968Two fewer OPs are used for shift and pop calls with no argument (with
969implicit C<@_>). This change makes C<shift;> 5% faster than C<shift @_;>
970on non-threaded perls and 25% faster on threaded.
df91d470 971
fa232254 972=head2 Optimisation of regexp engine string comparison work
df91d470 973
fa232254
FC
974The foldEQ_utf8 API function for case-insensitive comparison of strings (which
975is used heavily by the regexp engine) was substantially refactored and
976optimised - and its documentation much improved as a free bonus gift.
df91d470 977
fa232254 978=head2 Regular expression compilation speed-up
df91d470 979
fa232254
FC
980Compiling regular expressions has been made faster for the case where upgrading
981the regex to utf8 is necessary but that isn't known when the compilation begins.
df91d470 982
fa232254 983=head2 String appending is 100 times faster
df91d470 984
fa232254
FC
985When doing a lot of string appending, perl could end up allocating a lot more
986memory than needed in a very inefficient way, if perl was configured to use the
987system's C<malloc> implementation instead of its own.
988
989C<sv_grow>, which is what's being used to allocate more memory if necessary
990when appending to a string, has now been taught how to round up the memory
991it requests to a certain geometric progression, making it much faster on
992certain platforms and configurations. On Win32, it's now about 100 times
993faster.
994
995=head2 Eliminate C<PL_*> accessor functions under ithreads
996
997When C<MULTIPLICITY> was first developed, and interpreter state moved into
998an interpreter struct, thread and interpreter local C<PL_*> variables were
999defined as macros that called accessor functions, returning the address of
1000the value, outside of the perl core. The intent was to allow members
1001within the interpreter struct to change size without breaking binary
1002compatibility, so that bug fixes could be merged to a maintenance branch
1003that necessitated such a size change.
1004
1005However, some non-core code defines C<PERL_CORE>, sometimes intentionally
1006to bypass this mechanism for speed reasons, sometimes for other reasons but
1007with the inadvertent side effect of bypassing this mechanism. As some of
1008this code is widespread in production use, the result is that the core
1009I<can't> change the size of members of the interpreter struct, as it will
1010break such modules compiled against a previous release on that maintenance
1011branch. The upshot is that this mechanism is redundant, and well-behaved
1012code is penalised by it. Hence it can and should be removed (and has
1013been).
1014
1015=head2 Freeing weak references
1016
1017When an object has many weak references to it, freeing that object
1018can under some some circumstances take O(N^2) time to free (where N is the
1019number of references). The number of circumstances has been reduced
1020[perl #75254]
1021
1022=head2 Lexical array and hash assignments
1023
1024An earlier optimisation to speed up C<my @array = ...> and
1025C<my %hash = ...> assignments caused a bug and was disabled in Perl 5.12.0.
1026
1027Now we have found another way to speed up these assignments [perl #82110].
df91d470 1028
111b6aa7 1029=head2 C<@_> uses less memory
df91d470 1030
111b6aa7
FC
1031Previously, C<@_> was allocated for every subroutine at compile time with
1032enough space for four entries. Now this allocation is done on demand when
1033the subroutine is called [perl #72416].
5076a392 1034
5076a392
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1035=head2 Size optimisations to SV and HV structures
1036
1037xhv_fill has been eliminated from struct xpvhv, saving 1 IV per hash and
111b6aa7 1038on some systems will cause struct xpvhv to become cache-aligned. To avoid
5076a392
FC
1039this memory saving causing a slowdown elsewhere, boolean use of HvFILL
1040now calls HvTOTALKEYS instead (which is equivalent) - so while the fill
111b6aa7
FC
1041data when actually required are now calculated on demand, the cases when
1042this needs to be done should be few and far between.
5076a392 1043
111b6aa7
FC
1044The order of structure elements in SV bodies has changed. Effectively,
1045the NV slot has swapped location with STASH and MAGIC. As all access to
1046SV members is via macros, this should be completely transparent. This
5076a392
FC
1047change allows the space saving for PVHVs documented above, and may reduce
1048the memory allocation needed for PVIVs on some architectures.
1049
fa232254
FC
1050C<XPV>, C<XPVIV>, and C<XPVNV> now only allocate the parts of the C<SV> body
1051they actually use, saving some space.
5076a392 1052
fa232254
FC
1053Scalars containing regular expressions now only allocate the part of the C<SV>
1054body they actually use, saving some space.
5076a392
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1055
1056=head2 Memory consumption improvements to Exporter
1057
1058The @EXPORT_FAIL AV is no longer created unless required, hence neither is
111b6aa7
FC
1059the typeglob backing it. This saves about 200 bytes for every package that
1060uses Exporter but doesn't use this functionality.
5076a392 1061
111b6aa7 1062=head2 Memory savings for weak references
5076a392
FC
1063
1064For weak references, the common case of just a single weak reference per
1065referent has been optimised to reduce the storage required. In this case it
111b6aa7 1066saves the equivalent of one small Perl array per referent.
5076a392 1067
111b6aa7 1068=head2 C<%+> and C<%-> use less memory
5076a392
FC
1069
1070The bulk of the C<Tie::Hash::NamedCapture> module used to be in the perl
111b6aa7 1071core. It has now been moved to an XS module, to reduce the overhead for
5076a392
FC
1072programs that do not use C<%+> or C<%->.
1073
fa232254 1074=head2 Multiple small improvements to threads
5076a392 1075
fa232254
FC
1076The internal structures of threading now make fewer API calls and fewer
1077allocations, resulting in noticeably smaller object code. Additionally,
1078many thread context checks have been deferred so that they're only done
1079when required (although this is only possible for non-debugging builds).
5076a392 1080
fa232254 1081=head2 Adjacent pairs of nextstate opcodes are now optimized away
5076a392 1082
fa232254 1083Previously, in code such as
5076a392 1084
fa232254 1085 use constant DEBUG => 0;
5076a392 1086
fa232254
FC
1087 sub GAK {
1088 warn if DEBUG;
1089 print "stuff\n";
1090 }
5076a392 1091
fa232254
FC
1092the ops for C<warn if DEBUG;> would be folded to a C<null> op (C<ex-const>), but
1093the C<nextstate> op would remain, resulting in a runtime op dispatch of
1094C<nextstate>, C<nextstate>, ....
5076a392 1095
fa232254
FC
1096The execution of a sequence of C<nextstate> ops is indistinguishable from just
1097the last C<nextstate> op so the peephole optimizer now eliminates the first of
1098a pair of C<nextstate> ops, except where the first carries a label, since labels
1099must not be eliminated by the optimizer and label usage isn't conclusively known
1100at compile time.
5076a392
FC
1101
1102=head1 Modules and Pragmata
1103
1104=head2 New Modules and Pragmata
1105
1106=over 4
1107
1108=item *
1109
1110C<CPAN::Meta::YAML> 0.003 has been added as a dual-life module. It supports a
1111subset of YAML sufficient for reading and writing META.yml and MYMETA.yml files
1112included with CPAN distributions or generated by the module installation
1113toolchain. It should not be used for any other general YAML parsing or
1114generation task.
1115
1116=item *
1117
1118C<CPAN::Meta> version 2.110440 has been added as a dual-life module. It
1119provides a standard library to read, interpret and write CPAN distribution
1120metadata files (e.g. META.json and META.yml) which describes a
1121distribution, its contents, and the requirements for building it and
1122installing it. The latest CPAN distribution metadata specification is
1123included as C<CPAN::Meta::Spec> and notes on changes in the specification
1124over time are given in C<CPAN::Meta::History>.
1125
1126=item *
1127
5a553547 1128C<HTTP::Tiny> 0.011 has been added as a dual-life module. It is a very
5076a392
FC
1129small, simple HTTP/1.1 client designed for simple GET requests and file
1130mirroring. It has has been added to enable CPAN.pm and CPANPLUS to
1131"bootstrap" HTTP access to CPAN using pure Perl without relying on external
1132binaries like F<curl> or F<wget>.
1133
1134=item *
1135
1136C<JSON::PP> 2.27105 has been added as a dual-life module, for the sake of
1137reading F<META.json> files in CPAN distributions.
1138
1139=item *
1140
21ef4e45 1141C<Module::Metadata> 1.000004 has been added as a dual-life module. It gathers
5076a392
FC
1142package and POD information from Perl module files. It is a standalone module
1143based on Module::Build::ModuleInfo for use by other module installation
1144toolchain components. Module::Build::ModuleInfo has been deprecated in
1145favor of this module instead.
1146
1147=item *
1148
1149C<Perl::OSType> 1.002 has been added as a dual-life module. It maps Perl
1150operating system names (e.g. 'dragonfly' or 'MSWin32') to more generic types
1151with standardized names (e.g. "Unix" or "Windows"). It has been refactored
1152out of Module::Build and ExtUtils::CBuilder and consolidates such mappings into
1153a single location for easier maintenance.
1154
1155=item *
1156
1157The following modules were added by the C<Unicode::Collate>
1158upgrade. See below for details.
1159
1160C<Unicode::Collate::CJK::Big5>
1161
1162C<Unicode::Collate::CJK::GB2312>
1163
1164C<Unicode::Collate::CJK::JISX0208>
1165
1166C<Unicode::Collate::CJK::Korean>
1167
1168C<Unicode::Collate::CJK::Pinyin>
1169
1170C<Unicode::Collate::CJK::Stroke>
1171
1172=item *
1173
1174C<Version::Requirements> version 0.101020 has been added as a dual-life
1175module. It provides a standard library to model and manipulates module
1176prerequisites and version constraints as defined in the L<CPAN::Meta::Spec>.
1177
1178=back
1179
a5794e94 1180=head2 Updated Modules and Pragma
5076a392
FC
1181
1182=over 4
1183
1184=item *
1185
5076a392
FC
1186C<Archive::Extract> has been upgraded from version 0.38 to 0.48.
1187
1188Updates since 0.38 include: a safe print method that guards
1189Archive::Extract from changes to $\; a fix to the tests when run in core
1984204c
FC
1190perl; support for TZ files; a modification for the lzma
1191logic to favour IO::Uncompress::Unlzma; and a fix
1192for an issue with NetBSD-current and its new unzip
5076a392
FC
1193executable.
1194
1195=item *
1196
1197C<Archive::Tar> has been upgraded from version 1.54 to 1.76.
1198
1984204c
FC
1199Important changes since 1.54 include the following:
1200
1201=over
1202
1203=item *
1204
1205Compatibility with busybox implementations of tar
1206
1207=item *
1208
1209A fix so that C<write()> and C<create_archive()>
1210close only handles they opened
1211
1212=item *
1213
1214A bug was fixed regarding the exit code of extract_archive.
5076a392 1215
1984204c
FC
1216=item *
1217
4f978a3b 1218The C<ptar> utility has a new option to allow safe
5076a392
FC
1219creation of tarballs without world-writable files on Windows, allowing those
1220archives to be uploaded to CPAN.
1221
1984204c
FC
1222=item *
1223
1224A new ptargrep utility for using regular expressions against
5076a392
FC
1225the contents of files in a tar archive.
1226
1984204c
FC
1227=item *
1228
1229Pax extended headers are now skipped.
1230
1231=back
5076a392
FC
1232
1233=item *
1234
5076a392
FC
1235C<B> has been upgraded from version 1.23 to 1.27.
1236
1237It no longer crashes when taking apart a C<y///> containing characters
1238outside the octet range or compiled in a C<use utf8> scope.
1239
1240The size of the shared object has been reduced by about 40%, with no
1241reduction in functionality.
1242
1243=item *
1244
1245C<B::Concise> has been upgraded from version 0.78 to 0.82.
1246
1247B::Concise marks rv2sv, rv2av and rv2hv ops with the new OPpDEREF flag
1248as "DREFed".
1249
1250It no longer produces mangled output with the C<-tree> option
1251[perl #80632].
1252
1253=item *
1254
5076a392
FC
1255C<B::Deparse> has been upgraded from version 0.96 to 1.02.
1256
1984204c 1257The deparsing of a nextstate op has changed when it has both a
5076a392
FC
1258change of package (relative to the previous nextstate), or a change of
1259C<%^H> or other state, and a label. Previously the label was emitted
cdc10f43 1260first, but now the label is emitted last (5.12.1).
5076a392 1261
5a553547
FC
1262The C<no 5.13.2> or similar form is now correctly handled by B::Deparse
1263(5.12.3).
5076a392
FC
1264
1265B::Deparse now properly handles the code that applies a conditional
1266pattern match against implicit C<$_> as it was fixed in [perl #20444].
1267
1984204c
FC
1268Deparsing of C<our> followed by a variable with funny characters
1269(as permitted under the C<utf8> pragma) has also been fixed [perl #33752].
5076a392
FC
1270
1271=item *
1272
d430b8e7 1273C<Carp> has been upgraded from version 1.15 to 1.19.
5076a392
FC
1274
1275L<Carp> now detects incomplete L<caller()|perlfunc/"caller EXPR"> overrides and
d430b8e7
FC
1276avoids using bogus C<@DB::args>. To provide backtraces,
1277Carp relies on particular behaviour of the C<caller>
1278built-in. Carp now detects if other code has
5076a392 1279overridden this with an incomplete implementation, and modifies its backtrace
d430b8e7
FC
1280accordingly. Previously incomplete overrides would cause incorrect values
1281in backtraces (best case), or obscure fatal errors (worst case).
5076a392
FC
1282
1283This fixes certain cases of C<Bizarre copy of ARRAY> caused by modules
d430b8e7 1284overriding C<caller()> incorrectly (5.12.2).
5076a392 1285
1984204c 1286It now also avoids using regular expressions that cause perl to
5076a392
FC
1287load its Unicode tables, in order to avoid the 'BEGIN not safe after
1288errors' error that will ensue if there has been a syntax error
1289[perl #82854].
1290
1291=item *
1292
1293C<CGI> has been upgraded from version 3.48 to 3.51.
1294
1295This provides the following security fixes: the MIME boundary in
1984204c
FC
1296multipart_init is now random and the handling of
1297newlines embedded in header values has been improved.
5076a392
FC
1298
1299=item *
1300
5076a392
FC
1301C<Compress::Raw::Bzip2> has been upgraded from version 2.024 to 2.033.
1302
1984204c 1303It has been updated to use bzip2 1.0.6.
5076a392
FC
1304
1305=item *
1306
f75b7efc 1307C<CPAN> has been upgraded from version 1.94_56 to 1.9600.
1984204c
FC
1308
1309Major highlights:
5076a392
FC
1310
1311=over 4
1312
1984204c 1313=item * much less configuration dialog hassle
5076a392 1314
1984204c 1315=item * support for META/MYMETA.json
5076a392 1316
1984204c 1317=item * support for local::lib
5076a392 1318
1984204c 1319=item * support for HTTP::Tiny to reduce the dependency on ftp sites
5076a392 1320
1984204c 1321=item * automatic mirror selection
5076a392 1322
1984204c 1323=item * iron out all known bugs in configure_requires
5076a392 1324
1984204c
FC
1325=item * support for distributions compressed with bzip2
1326
1327=item * allow Foo/Bar.pm on the commandline to mean Foo::Bar
1328
1329=back
5076a392
FC
1330
1331=item *
1332
d430b8e7
FC
1333C<CPANPLUS> has been upgraded from version 0.90 to 0.9103.
1334
1335A change to F<cpanp-run-perl>
1336resolves L<RT #55964|http://rt.cpan.org/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=55964>
1337and L<RT #57106|http://rt.cpan.org/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=57106>, both
1338of which related to failures to install distributions that use
1339C<Module::Install::DSL> (5.12.2).
5076a392 1340
1984204c
FC
1341A dependency on Config was not recognised as a
1342core module dependency. This has been fixed.
5076a392 1343
1984204c 1344CPANPLUS now includes support for META.json and MYMETA.json.
5076a392
FC
1345
1346=item *
1347
5076a392
FC
1348C<Data::Dumper> has been upgraded from version 2.125 to 2.130_02.
1349
4ed2cea4
FC
1350The indentation used to be off when C<$Data::Dumper::Terse> was set. This
1351has been fixed [perl #73604].
1352
1984204c
FC
1353This upgrade also fixes a crash when using custom sort functions that might
1354cause the stack to change [perl #74170].
5076a392
FC
1355
1356C<Dumpxs> no longer crashes with globs returned by C<*$io_ref>
1357[perl #72332].
1358
1359=item *
1360
5076a392
FC
1361C<Devel::DProf> has been upgraded from version 20080331.00 to 20110228.00.
1362
1363Merely loading C<Devel::DProf> now no longer triggers profiling to start.
1364C<use Devel::DProf> and C<perl -d:DProf ...> still behave as before and start
1365the profiler.
1366
1367NOTE: C<Devel::DProf> is deprecated and will be removed from a future
1984204c 1368version of Perl. We strongly recommend that you install and use
5076a392
FC
1369L<Devel::NYTProf> instead, as it offers significantly improved
1370profiling and reporting.
1371
1372=item *
1373
5076a392
FC
1374C<diagnostics> has been upgraded from version 1.19 to 1.22.
1375
1376It now renders pod links slightly better, and has been taught to find
1377descriptions for messages that share their descriptions with other
1378messages.
1379
1380=item *
1381
1382C<Digest::MD5> has been upgraded from version 2.39 to 2.51.
1383
1384It is now safe to use this module in combination with threads.
1385
1386=item *
1387
1388C<Digest::SHA> has been upgraded from version 5.47 to 5.61.
1389
1390C<shasum> now more closely mimics C<sha1sum>/C<md5sum>.
1391
1392C<Addfile> accepts all POSIX filenames.
1393
1984204c
FC
1394New SHA-512/224 and SHA-512/256 transforms (ref. NIST Draft FIPS 180-4
1395[February 2011])
5076a392
FC
1396
1397=item *
1398
5076a392
FC
1399C<DynaLoader> has been upgraded from version 1.10 to 1.12.
1400
1401It fixes a buffer overflow when passed a very long file name.
1402
1403It no longer inherits from AutoLoader; hence it no longer
1404produces weird error messages for unsuccessful method calls on classes that
1405inherit from DynaLoader [perl #84358].
1406
1407=item *
1408
1409C<Encode> has been upgraded from version 2.39 to 2.42.
1410
1411Now, all 66 Unicode non-characters are treated the same way U+FFFF has
1984204c
FC
1412always been treated; in cases when it was disallowed, all 66 are
1413disallowed; in those cases where it warned, all 66 warn.
5076a392
FC
1414
1415=item *
1416
5076a392
FC
1417C<Errno> has been upgraded from version 1.11 to 1.13.
1418
1419The implementation of C<Errno> has been refactored to use about 55% less memory.
5076a392
FC
1420
1421On some platforms with unusual header files, like Win32/gcc using mingw64
1422headers, some constants which weren't actually error numbers have been exposed
1423by C<Errno>. This has been fixed [perl #77416].
1424
1425=item *
1426
1427C<Exporter> has been upgraded from version 5.64_01 to 5.64_03.
1428
1429Exporter no longer overrides C<$SIG{__WARN__}> [perl #74472]
1430
1431=item *
1432
5076a392
FC
1433C<ExtUtils::Constant> has been upgraded from 0.22 to 0.23.
1434
1435The C<AUTOLOAD> helper code generated by C<ExtUtils::Constant::ProxySubs>
1436can now C<croak> for missing constants, or generate a complete C<AUTOLOAD>
1984204c
FC
1437subroutine in XS, allowing simplification of many modules that use it
1438(C<Fcntl>, C<File::Glob>, C<GDBM_File>, C<I18N::Langinfo>, C<POSIX>,
1439C<Socket>).
5076a392
FC
1440
1441C<ExtUtils::Constant::ProxySubs> can now optionally push the names of all
1984204c 1442constants onto the package's C<@EXPORT_OK>.
5076a392
FC
1443
1444=item *
1445
e12786fa 1446C<File::DosGlob> has been upgraded from version 1.01 to 1.04.
5076a392
FC
1447
1448It allows patterns containing literal parentheses (they no longer need to
1984204c
FC
1449be escaped). On Windows, it no longer
1450adds an extra F<./> to the file names
5076a392
FC
1451returned when the pattern is a relative glob with a drive specification,
1452like F<c:*.pl> [perl #71712].
1453
1454=item *
1455
1456C<File::Fetch> has been upgraded from version 0.24 to 0.32.
1457
1458C<HTTP::Lite> is now supported for 'http' scheme.
1459
1460The C<fetch> utility is supported on FreeBSD, NetBSD and
1461Dragonfly BSD for the C<http> and C<ftp> schemes.
1462
1463=item *
1464
23f2cbb1 1465C<File::Find> has been upgraded from version 1.15 to 1.19.
5076a392 1466
1984204c 1467It improves handling of backslashes on Windows, so that paths like
5076a392
FC
1468F<c:\dir\/file> are no longer generated [perl #71710].
1469
1470=item *
1471
d430b8e7
FC
1472C<File::Spec> has been upgraded from version 3.31 to 3.33.
1473
1474Several portability fixes were made in C<File::Spec::VMS>: a colon is now
1475recognized as a delimiter in native filespecs; caret-escaped delimiters are
1476recognized for better handling of extended filespecs; C<catpath()> returns
1477an empty directory rather than the current directory if the input directory
1478name is empty; C<abs2rel()> properly handles Unix-style input (5.12.2).
1479
1480=item *
1481
46ba0657 1482C<File::stat> has been upgraded from 1.02 to 1.05.
5076a392
FC
1483
1484The C<-x> and C<-X> file test operators now work correctly under the root
1485user.
1486
1487=item *
1488
b7edcc3c
FR
1489C<Filter::Simple> has been upgraded from version 0.84 to 0.86.
1490
1491=item *
1492
dc6857fd 1493C<GDBM_File> has been upgraded from 1.10 to 1.14.
5076a392
FC
1494
1495This fixes a memory leak when DBM filters are used.
1496
1497=item *
1498
6e107b45 1499C<Hash::Util> has been upgraded from 0.07 to 0.11.
5076a392 1500
1984204c
FC
1501Hash::Util no longer emits spurious "uninitialized" warnings when
1502recursively locking hashes that have undefined values [perl #74280].
5076a392
FC
1503
1504=item *
1505
eec33fe6
FR
1506C<I18N::Collate> has been upgraded from version 1.01 to 1.02.
1507
1508=item *
1509
ad5f8f47 1510C<I18N::Langinfo> has been upgraded from version 0.03 to 0.08.
5076a392
FC
1511
1512C<langinfo()> now defaults to using C<$_> if there is no argument given, just
5334145a 1513as the documentation has always claimed.
5076a392
FC
1514
1515=item *
1516
c41635f7
FR
1517C<I18N::LangTags> has been upgraded from version 0.35 to 0.35_01.
1518
1519=item *
1520
98a6a4ff
FR
1521C<if> has been upgraded from version 0.05 to 0.0601.
1522
1523=item *
1524
f6ff7fb6
FR
1525C<IO> has been upgraded from version 1.25_02 to 1.25_04.
1526
1527=item *
1528
d13528c5 1529C<IO::Select> has been upgraded from version 1.17 to 1.20.
5076a392
FC
1530
1531It now allows IO::Handle objects (and objects in derived classes) to be
1532removed from an IO::Select set even if the underlying file descriptor is
1533closed or invalid.
1534
1535=item *
1536
d07561d3 1537C<IPC::Cmd> has been upgraded from version 0.54 to 0.70.
5076a392 1538
1984204c
FC
1539Resolves an issue with splitting Win32 command lines. An argument
1540consisting of the single character "0" used to be omitted (CPAN RT #62961).
5076a392
FC
1541
1542=item *
1543
3f16e4eb 1544C<IPC::Open3> has been upgraded from 1.05 to 1.09.
5076a392 1545
4ed2cea4
FC
1546C<open3> now produces an error if the C<exec> call fails, allowing this
1547condition to be distinguished from a child process that exited with a
1548non-zero status [perl #72016].
1549
5076a392
FC
1550The internal C<xclose> routine now knows how to handle file descriptors, as
1551documented, so duplicating STDIN in a child process using its file
1552descriptor now works [perl #76474].
1553
1554=item *
1555
c8b41807
FR
1556C<IPC::SysV> has been upgraded from version 2.01 to 2.03.
1557
1558=item *
1559
ef79f038
FR
1560C<lib> has been upgraded from version 0.62 to 0.63.
1561
1562=item *
1563
5b1884f4 1564C<Locale::Maketext> has been upgraded from version 1.14 to 1.19.
5076a392 1565
1984204c 1566Locale::Maketext now supports external caches.
5076a392 1567
1984204c
FC
1568This upgrade also fixes an infinite loop in
1569C<Locale::Maketext::Guts::_compile()> when
5076a392
FC
1570working with tainted values (CPAN RT #40727).
1571
1984204c 1572C<< ->maketext >> calls will now back up and restore C<$@> so that error
5076a392
FC
1573messages are not suppressed (CPAN RT #34182).
1574
1575=item *
1576
3811bd2b
FR
1577C<Log::Message> has been upgraded from version 0.02 to 0.04.
1578
1579=item *
1580
8eb65377
FR
1581C<Log::Message::Simple> has been upgraded from version 0.06 to 0.08.
1582
1583=item *
1584
5076a392
FC
1585C<Math::BigInt> has been upgraded from version 1.89_01 to 1.994.
1586
1587This fixes, among other things, incorrect results when computing binomial
1588coefficients [perl #77640].
1589
1984204c 1590It also prevents C<sqrt($int)> from crashing under C<use bigrat;>
5076a392
FC
1591[perl #73534].
1592
1593=item *
1594
846c1cec
FR
1595C<Math::BigInt::FastCalc> has been upgraded from version 0.19 to 0.28.
1596
1597=item *
1598
fce4aef3
FR
1599C<Math::BigRat> has been upgraded from version 0.24 to 0.26_02.
1600
1601=item *
1602
12e26027
FR
1603C<Memoize> has been upgraded from version 1.01_03 to 1.02.
1604
1605=item *
1606
5076a392
FC
1607C<MIME::Base64> has been upgraded from 3.08 to 3.13.
1608
1609Includes new functions to calculate the length of encoded and decoded
1610base64 strings.
1611
1612Now provides C<encode_base64url> and C<decode_base64url> functions to process
1613the base64 scheme for "URL applications".
1614
1615=item *
1616
1617C<Module::Build> has been upgraded from version 0.3603 to 0.3800.
1618
1619A notable change is the deprecation of several modules.
1620Module::Build::Version has been deprecated and Module::Build now relies
1621directly upon L<version>. Module::Build::ModuleInfo has been deprecated in
1622favor of a standalone copy of it called L<Module::Metadata>.
1623Module::Build::YAML has been deprecated in favor of L<CPAN::Meta::YAML>.
1624
1625Module::Build now also generates META.json and MYMETA.json files
1626in accordance with version 2 of the CPAN distribution metadata specification,
1627L<CPAN::Meta::Spec>. The older format META.yml and MYMETA.yml files are
1628still generated, as well.
1629
1630=item *
1631
7259fe26 1632C<Module::CoreList> has been upgraded from version 2.29 to 2.47.
5076a392
FC
1633
1634Besides listing the updated core modules of this release, it also stops listing
1984204c 1635the C<Filespec> module. That module never existed in core. The scripts
5076a392 1636generating C<Module::CoreList> confused it with C<VMS::Filespec>, which actually
1984204c 1637is a core module as of perl 5.8.7.
5076a392
FC
1638
1639=item *
1640
193af05b
FR
1641C<Module::Load> has been upgraded from version 0.16 to 0.18.
1642
1643=item *
1644
5b3a054f
FR
1645C<Module::Load::Conditional> has been upgraded from version 0.34 to 0.44.
1646
1647=item *
1648
4f978a3b
FR
1649C<NDBM_File> has been upgraded from version 1.08 to 1.11.
1650
1651This fixes a memory leak when DBM filters are used.
1652
1653=item *
1654
d0aa5c91
FR
1655C<Net::Ping> has been upgraded from version 2.36 to 2.38.
1656
1657=item *
1658
d44b8a8c
FR
1659C<NEXT> has been upgraded from version 0.64 to 0.65.
1660
1661=item *
1662
678d4fd4
FR
1663C<Object::Accessor> has been upgraded from version 0.36 to 0.38.
1664
1665=item *
1666
34188656 1667C<ODBM_File> have been upgraded from version 1.07 to 1.10.
5076a392
FC
1668
1669This fixes a memory leak when DBM filters are used.
1670
1671=item *
1672
77be713d 1673C<overload> has been upgraded from 1.10 to 1.12.
5076a392
FC
1674
1675C<overload::Method> can now handle subroutines that are themselves blessed
1676into overloaded classes [perl #71998].
1677
5076a392
FC
1678The documentation has greatly improved. See L</Documentation> below.
1679
1680=item *
1681
f84c796e
FR
1682C<Params::Check> has been upgraded from version 0.26 to 0.28.
1683
1684=item *
1685
550ee92b
FR
1686C<parent> has been upgraded from version 0.223 to 0.225.
1687
1688=item *
1689
5076a392
FC
1690C<Parse::CPAN::Meta> has been upgraded from version 1.40 to 1.4401.
1691
1984204c 1692The latest Parse::CPAN::Meta can now read YAML and JSON files using
5076a392
FC
1693L<CPAN::Meta::YAML> and L<JSON::PP>, which are now part of the Perl core.
1694
1695=item *
1696
5076a392
FC
1697C<PerlIO::scalar> has been upgraded from 0.07 to 0.11.
1698
1699A C<read> after a C<seek> beyond the end of the string no longer thinks it
1700has data to read [perl #78716].
1701
1702=item *
1703
be3c8498
FR
1704C<Pod::LaTeX> has been upgraded from version 0.58 to 0.59.
1705
1706=item *
1707
fd8a2e89
FR
1708C<Pod::Perldoc> has been upgraded from version 3.15_02 to 3.15_03.
1709
1710=item *
1711
5bcb6583
FR
1712C<Pod::Simple> has been upgraded from version 3.13 to 3.16.
1713
1714=item *
1715
abb8c779 1716C<POSIX> has been upgraded from 1.19 to 1.24.
5076a392
FC
1717
1718It now includes constants for POSIX signal constants.
1719
1720=item *
1721
1984204c 1722C<re> has been upgraded from version 0.11 to 0.17.
5076a392
FC
1723
1724New C<use re "/flags"> pragma
1725
5076a392 1726The C<regmust> function used to crash when called on a regular expression
1984204c 1727belonging to a pluggable engine. Now it croaks instead.
5076a392
FC
1728
1729C<regmust> no longer leaks memory.
1730
1731=item *
1732
1733C<Safe> has been upgraded from version 2.25 to 2.29.
1734
cdc10f43
FC
1735Coderefs returned by C<reval()> and C<rdo()> are now wrapped via
1736C<wrap_code_refs> (5.12.1).
1737
5076a392
FC
1738This fixes a possible infinite loop when looking for coderefs.
1739
cdc10f43 1740It adds several version::vxs::* routines to the default share.
5076a392
FC
1741
1742=item *
1743
5076a392
FC
1744C<SelfLoader> has been upgraded from 1.17 to 1.18.
1745
1746It now works in taint mode [perl #72062].
1747
1748=item *
1749
1750C<sigtrap> has been upgraded from version 1.04 to 1.05.
1751
1752It no longer tries to modify read-only arguments when generating a
1753backtrace [perl #72340].
1754
1755=item *
1756
1984204c 1757C<Socket> has been upgraded from version 1.87 to 1.94.
5076a392 1758
1984204c 1759See L</IPv6 support>, above.
5076a392
FC
1760
1761=item *
1762
1763C<Storable> has been upgraded from version 2.22 to 2.27.
1764
1765Includes performance improvement for overloaded classes.
1766
5076a392 1767This adds support for serialising code references that contain UTF-8 strings
1984204c
FC
1768correctly. The Storable minor version
1769number changed as a result, meaning that
5076a392
FC
1770Storable users who set C<$Storable::accept_future_minor> to a C<FALSE> value
1771will see errors (see L<Storable/FORWARD COMPATIBILITY> for more details).
1772
1773Freezing no longer gets confused if the Perl stack gets reallocated
1774during freezing [perl #80074].
1775
1776=item *
1777
90c6e78f
FR
1778C<Term::ANSIColor> has been upgraded from version 2.02 to 3.00.
1779
1780=item *
1781
d9f2f059
FR
1782C<Term::UI> has been upgraded from version 0.20 to 0.26.
1783
1784=item *
1785
80ebb519
FR
1786C<Test::Harness> has been upgraded from version 3.17 to 3.23.
1787
1788=item *
1789
5076a392
FC
1790C<Test::Simple> has been upgraded from version 0.94 to 0.98.
1791
1792Among many other things, subtests without a C<plan> or C<no_plan> now have an
1793implicit C<done_testing()> added to them.
1794
1795=item *
1796
5076a392
FC
1797C<Thread::Semaphore> has been upgraded from version 2.09 to 2.12.
1798
1984204c
FC
1799It provides two new methods that give more control over the decrementing of
1800semaphores: C<down_nb> and C<down_force>.
5076a392
FC
1801
1802=item *
1803
f0d895e1
FR
1804C<Thread::Queue> has been upgraded from version 2.11 to 2.12.
1805
1806=item *
1807
1a6b954e
FR
1808C<threads> has been upgraded from version 1.75 to 1.83.
1809
1810=item *
1811
55816daa
FR
1812C<threads::shared> has been upgraded from version 1.32 to 1.36.
1813
1814=item *
1815
5076a392
FC
1816C<Tie::Hash> has been upgraded from version 1.03 to 1.04.
1817
1818Calling C<< Tie::Hash-E<gt>TIEHASH() >> used to loop forever. Now it C<croak>s.
1819
1820=item *
1821
ed68b07e
FR
1822C<Tie::RefHash> has been upgraded from version 1.38 to 1.39.
1823
1824=item *
1825
bb3c221a
FR
1826C<Time::HiRes> has been upgraded from version 1.9719 to 1.9721_01.
1827
1828=item *
1829
97fa568b
FR
1830C<Time::Local> has been upgraded from version 1.1901_01 to 1.2000.
1831
1832=item *
1833
a83cb732
FR
1834C<Time::Piece> has been upgraded from version 1.15_01 to 1.20_01.
1835
1836=item *
1837
5076a392
FC
1838C<Unicode::Collate> has been upgraded from version 0.52_01 to 0.73.
1839
1984204c 1840Unicode::Collate has been updated to use Unicode 6.0.0.
5076a392 1841
1984204c
FC
1842Unicode::Collate::Locale now supports a plethora of new locales: ar, be,
1843bg, de__phonebook, hu, hy, kk, mk, nso, om, tn, vi, hr, ig, ja, ko, ru, sq,
1844se, sr, to, uk, zh, zh__big5han, zh__gb2312han, zh__pinyin and zh__stroke.
5076a392
FC
1845
1846The following modules have been added:
1847
1848C<Unicode::Collate::CJK::Big5> for C<zh__big5han> which makes
1849tailoring of CJK Unified Ideographs in the order of CLDR's big5han ordering.
1850
1851C<Unicode::Collate::CJK::GB2312> for C<zh__gb2312han> which makes
1852tailoring of CJK Unified Ideographs in the order of CLDR's gb2312han ordering.
1853
1854C<Unicode::Collate::CJK::JISX0208> which makes tailoring of 6355 kanji
1855(CJK Unified Ideographs) in the JIS X 0208 order.
1856
1857C<Unicode::Collate::CJK::Korean> which makes tailoring of CJK Unified Ideographs
1858in the order of CLDR's Korean ordering.
1859
1860C<Unicode::Collate::CJK::Pinyin> for C<zh__pinyin> which makes
1861tailoring of CJK Unified Ideographs in the order of CLDR's pinyin ordering.
1862
1863C<Unicode::Collate::CJK::Stroke> for C<zh__stroke> which makes
1864tailoring of CJK Unified Ideographs in the order of CLDR's stroke ordering.
1865
5076a392
FC
1866This also sees the switch from using the pure-perl version of this
1867module to the XS version.
1868
1869=item *
1870
ec52b54b
FR
1871C<Unicode::Normalize> has been upgraded from version 1.03 to 1.10.
1872
1873=item *
1874
5076a392
FC
1875C<Unicode::UCD> has been upgraded from version 0.27 to 0.32.
1876
1984204c
FC
1877A new function, C<Unicode::UCD::num()>, has been added. This function
1878returns the numeric value of the string passed it or C<undef> if the string
1879in its entirety has no "safe" numeric value. (For more detail, and for the
1880definition of "safe", see L<Unicode::UCD/num>.)
5076a392 1881
1984204c 1882This upgrade also includes a number of bug fixes:
5076a392
FC
1883
1884=over 4
1885
1886=item charinfo()
1887
1888=over 4
1889
1890=item *
1891
1892It is now updated to Unicode Version 6 with Corrigendum #8, except,
1893as with Perl 5.14, the code point at U+1F514 has no name.
1894
1895=item *
1896
1897The Hangul syllable code points have the correct names, and their
1898decompositions are always output without requiring L<Lingua::KO::Hangul::Util>
1899to be installed.
1900
1901=item *
1902
54c7bb16
FC
1903The CJK (Chinese-Japanese-Korean) code points U+2A700 to U+2B734
1904and U+2B740 to U+2B81D are now properly handled.
5076a392
FC
1905
1906=item *
1907
1908The numeric values are now output for those CJK code points that have them.
1909
1910=item *
1911
1912The names that are output for code points with multiple aliases are now the
1913corrected ones.
1914
1915=back
1916
1917=item charscript()
1918
1919This now correctly returns "Unknown" instead of C<undef> for the script
1920of a code point that hasn't been assigned another one.
1921
1922=item charblock()
1923
1924This now correctly returns "No_Block" instead of C<undef> for the block
1925of a code point that hasn't been assigned to another one.
1926
1927=back
1928
5076a392
FC
1929=item *
1930
1931C<version> has been upgraded from 0.82 to 0.88.
1932
1984204c 1933Due to a bug, now fixed, the C<is_strict> and C<is_lax> functions did not
cdc10f43 1934work when exported (5.12.1).
5076a392
FC
1935
1936=item *
1937
3e625598 1938C<warnings> has been upgraded from version 1.09 to 1.12.
5076a392
FC
1939
1940Calling C<use warnings> without arguments is now significantly more efficient.
1941
4f978a3b
FR
1942=item *
1943
1944C<warnings::register> have been upgraded from version 1.01 to 1.02.
1945
5076a392
FC
1946It is now possible to register warning categories other than the names of
1947packages using C<warnings::register>. See L<perllexwarn> for more information.
1948
1949=item *
1950
62e270c2
FR
1951C<XSLoader> has been upgraded from version 0.10 to 0.13.
1952
1953=item *
1954
5076a392
FC
1955C<VMS::DCLsym> has been upgraded from version 1.03 to 1.05.
1956
1957Two bugs have been fixed [perl #84086]:
1958
1959The symbol table name was lost when tying a hash, due to a thinko in
1960C<TIEHASH>. The result was that all tied hashes interacted with the
1961local symbol table.
1962
1963Unless a symbol table name had been explicitly specified in the call
1964to the constructor, querying the special key ':LOCAL' failed to
1965identify objects connected to the local symbol table.
1966
1967=item *
1968
1969C<Win32> has been upgraded from version 0.39 to 0.44.
1970
1984204c
FC
1971This release has several new functions: C<Win32::GetSystemMetrics>,
1972C<Win32::GetProductInfo>, C<Win32::GetOSDisplayName>.
5076a392 1973
1984204c
FC
1974The names returned by C<Win32::GetOSName> and C<Win32::GetOSDisplayName>
1975have been corrected.
5076a392 1976
5076a392
FC
1977=back
1978
5076a392
FC
1979=head2 Removed Modules and Pragmata
1980
1981The following modules have been removed from the core distribution, and if
1982needed should be installed from CPAN instead.
1983
1984=over
1985
4f978a3b
FR
1986=item *
1987
1988C<Class::ISA> has been removed from the Perl core. Prior version was 0.36.
5076a392 1989
4f978a3b
FR
1990=item *
1991
1992C<Pod::Plainer> has been removed from the Perl core. Prior version was 1.02.
1993
1994=item *
5076a392 1995
4f978a3b 1996C<Switch> has been removed from the Perl core. Prior version was 2.16.
5076a392
FC
1997
1998=back
1999
2000The removal of C<Shell> has been deferred until after 5.14, as the
2001implementation of C<Shell> shipped with 5.12.0 did not correctly issue the
2002warning that it was to be removed from core.
2003
2004=head1 Documentation
2005
5076a392
FC
2006=head2 New Documentation
2007
41e29def 2008=head3 L<perlgpl>
5076a392
FC
2009
2010L<perlgpl> has been updated to contain GPL version 1, as is included in the
cdc10f43 2011F<README> distributed with perl (5.12.1).
5076a392 2012
41e29def 2013=head3 Perl 5.12.x delta files
5076a392 2014
41e29def
FC
2015The perldelta files for Perl 5.12.1 to 5.12.3 have been added from the
2016maintenance branch: L<perl5121delta>, L<perl5122delta>, L<perl5123delta>.
5076a392
FC
2017
2018=head3 L<perlpodstyle>
2019
2020New style guide for POD documentation,
2021split mostly from the NOTES section of the pod2man man page.
2022
41e29def
FC
2023=head3 L<perlsource>, L<perlinterp>, L<perlhacktut>, and L<perlhacktips>
2024
2025See L</L<perlhack> and perlrepository revamp>, below.
5076a392
FC
2026
2027=head2 Changes to Existing Documentation
2028
41e29def 2029=head3 L<perlmodlib> is now complete
4ed2cea4
FC
2030
2031The perlmodlib page that came with Perl 5.12.0 was missing a lot of
2032modules, due to a bug in the script that generates the list. This has been
cdc10f43 2033fixed [perl #74332] (5.12.1).
4ed2cea4 2034
41e29def 2035=head3 Replace wrong tr/// table in L<perlebcdic>
5076a392 2036
41e29def 2037L<perlebcdic> contains a helpful table to use in tr/// to convert
5076a392
FC
2038between EBCDIC and Latin1/ASCII. Unfortunately, the table was the
2039inverse of the one it describes, though the code that used the table
2040worked correctly for the specific example given.
2041
2042The table has been changed to its inverse, and the sample code changed
2043to correspond, as this is easier for the person trying to follow the
2044instructions since deriving the old table is somewhat more complicated.
2045
2046The table has also been changed to hex from octal, as that is more the norm
2047these days, and the recipes in the pod altered to print out leading
41e29def 2048zeros to make all the values the same length.
5076a392 2049
41e29def 2050=head3 Tricks for user-defined casing
5076a392 2051
41e29def
FC
2052L<perlunicode> now contains an explanation of how to override, mangle
2053and otherwise tweak the way perl handles upper-, lower- and other-case
2054conversions on Unicode data, and how to provide scoped changes to alter
2055one's own code's behaviour without stomping on anybody else.
5076a392
FC
2056
2057=head3 INSTALL explicitly states the requirement for C89
2058
d430b8e7
FC
2059This was already true but it's now Officially Stated For The Record
2060(5.12.2).
5076a392 2061
41e29def 2062=head3 Explanation of C<\xI<HH>> and C<\oI<OOO>> escapes
5076a392 2063
41e29def
FC
2064L<perlop> has been updated with more detailed explanation of these two
2065character escapes.
5076a392 2066
41e29def 2067=head3 C<-0I<NNN>> switch
5076a392 2068
41e29def 2069In L<perlrun>, the behavior of the C<-0NNN> switch for C<-0400> or higher
d430b8e7 2070has been clarified (5.12.2).
5076a392 2071
cdc10f43
FC
2072=head3 Maintenance policy
2073
2074L<perlpolicy> now contains the policy on what patches are acceptable for
2075maintenance branches (5.12.1).
2076
41e29def 2077=head3 Deprecation policy
5076a392 2078
41e29def 2079L<perlpolicy> now contains the policy on compatibility and deprecation
d430b8e7 2080along with definitions of terms like "deprecation" (5.12.2).
5076a392 2081
41e29def 2082=head3 New descriptions in L<perldiag>
5076a392
FC
2083
2084The following existing diagnostics are now documented:
2085
2086=over 4
2087
2088=item *
2089
2090L<Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c|perldiag/"Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c">
2091
2092=item *
2093
2094L<Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s|perldiag/"Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s">
2095
2096=item *
2097
2098L<Ambiguous use of %c{%s%s} resolved to %c%s%s|perldiag/"Ambiguous use of %c{%s%s} resolved to %c%s%s">
2099
2100=item *
2101
2102L<Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()|perldiag/"Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()">
2103
2104=item *
2105
2106L<Invalid strict version format (%s)|perldiag/"Invalid strict version format (%s)">
2107
2108=item *
2109
2110L<Invalid version format (%s)|perldiag/"Invalid version format (%s)">
2111
2112=item *
2113
2114L<Invalid version object|perldiag/"Invalid version object">
2115
2116=back
2117
5076a392
FC
2118=head3 L<perlbook>
2119
41e29def 2120L<perlbook> has been expanded to cover many more popular books.
5076a392 2121
41e29def 2122=head3 C<SvTRUE> macro
5076a392 2123
41e29def
FC
2124The documentation for the C<SvTRUE> macro in
2125L<perlapi> was simply wrong in stating that
5076a392
FC
2126get-magic is not processed. It has been corrected.
2127
41e29def 2128=head3 L<perlvar> revamp
5076a392 2129
41e29def 2130L<perlvar> reorders the variables and groups them by topic. Each variable
5076a392 2131introduced after Perl 5.000 notes the first version in which it is
41e29def 2132available. L<perlvar> also has a new section for deprecated variables to
5076a392
FC
2133note when they were removed.
2134
41e29def 2135=head3 Array and hash slices in scalar context
5076a392 2136
41e29def 2137These are now documented in L<perldata>.
5076a392 2138
41e29def 2139=head3 C<use locale> and formats
5076a392
FC
2140
2141L<perlform> and L<perllocale> have been corrected to state that
2142C<use locale> affects formats.
2143
5076a392
FC
2144=head3 L<overload>
2145
5076a392
FC
2146L<overload>'s documentation has practically undergone a rewrite. It
2147is now much more straightforward and clear.
2148
41e29def 2149=head3 L<perlhack> and perlrepository revamp
5076a392
FC
2150
2151The L<perlhack> and perlrepository documents have been heavily edited and
2152split up into several new documents.
2153
2154The L<perlhack> document is now much shorter, and focuses on the Perl 5
2155development process and submitting patches to Perl. The technical content has
2156been moved to several new documents, L<perlsource>, L<perlinterp>,
2157L<perlhacktut>, and L<perlhacktips>. This technical content has only been
2158lightly edited.
2159
2160The perlrepository document has been renamed to L<perlgit>. This new document
2161is just a how-to on using git with the Perl source code. Any other content
2162that used to be in perlrepository has been moved to perlhack.
2163
41e29def 2164=head3 Time::Piece examples
5076a392
FC
2165
2166Examples in L<perlfaq4> have been updated to show the use of
41e29def 2167L<Time::Piece>.
5076a392
FC
2168
2169=head1 Diagnostics
2170
2171The following additions or changes have been made to diagnostic output,
2172including warnings and fatal error messages. For the complete list of
2173diagnostic messages, see L<perldiag>.
2174
2175=head2 New Diagnostics
2176
a593b319
FC
2177=head3 New Errors
2178
5076a392
FC
2179=over
2180
a593b319 2181=item Closure prototype called
5076a392 2182
a593b319
FC
2183This error occurs when a subroutine reference passed to an attribute
2184handler is called, if the subroutine is a closure [perl #68560].
5076a392 2185
a593b319 2186=item Insecure user-defined property %s
5076a392 2187
a593b319
FC
2188Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2189expression that contains a call to a user-defined character property
2190function, i.e. C<\p{IsFoo}> or C<\p{InFoo}>.
2191See L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties> and L<perlsec>.
5076a392 2192
a593b319 2193=item panic: gp_free failed to free glob pointer - something is repeatedly re-creating entries
5076a392 2194
a593b319
FC
2195This new error is triggered if a destructor called on an object in a
2196typeglob that is being freed creates a new typeglob entry containing an
2197object with a destructor that creates a new entry containing an object....
5076a392 2198
a593b319 2199=item Parsing code internal error (%s)
5076a392 2200
a593b319
FC
2201This new fatal error is produced when parsing
2202code supplied by an extension violates the
2203parser's API in a detectable way.
5076a392 2204
a593b319 2205=item refcnt: fd %d%s
5076a392 2206
a593b319
FC
2207This new error only occurs if a internal consistency check fails when a
2208pipe is about to be closed.
5076a392 2209
a593b319 2210=item Regexp modifier "/%c" may not appear twice
5076a392 2211
a593b319
FC
2212The regular expression pattern has one of the
2213mutually exclusive modifiers repeated.
5076a392 2214
a593b319 2215=item Regexp modifiers "/%c" and "/%c" are mutually exclusive
5076a392 2216
a593b319
FC
2217The regular expression pattern has more than one of the mutually
2218exclusive modifiers.
5076a392 2219
a593b319 2220=item Using !~ with %s doesn't make sense
5076a392 2221
a593b319 2222This error occurs when C<!~> is used with C<s///r> or C<y///r>.
5076a392 2223
a593b319 2224=back
5076a392 2225
a593b319 2226=head3 New Warnings
5076a392 2227
a593b319 2228=over
5076a392 2229
a593b319 2230=item "\b{" is deprecated; use "\b\{" instead
5076a392 2231
a593b319 2232=item "\B{" is deprecated; use "\B\{" instead
5076a392 2233
a593b319
FC
2234Use of an unescaped "{" immediately following a C<\b> or C<\B> is now
2235deprecated so as to reserve its use for Perl itself in a future release.
5076a392 2236
a593b319 2237=item Operation "%s" returns its argument for ...
5076a392 2238
a593b319
FC
2239Performing an operation requiring Unicode semantics (such as case-folding)
2240on a Unicode surrogate or a non-Unicode character now triggers a warning:
2241'Operation "%s" returns its argument for ...'.
5076a392 2242
a593b319
FC
2243=item Use of qw(...) as parentheses is deprecated
2244
2245See L</"Use of qw(...) as parentheses">, above, for details.
5076a392
FC
2246
2247=back
2248
2249=head2 Changes to Existing Diagnostics
2250
2251=over 4
2252
2253=item *
2254
4ed2cea4
FC
2255The "Variable $foo is not imported" warning that precedes a
2256C<strict 'vars'> error has now been assigned the "misc" category, so that
2257C<no warnings> will suppress it [perl #73712].
2258
2259=item *
2260
5076a392
FC
2261C<warn> and C<die> now produce 'Wide character' warnings when fed a
2262character outside the byte range if STDERR is a byte-sized handle.
2263
2264=item *
2265
2266The 'Layer does not match this perl' error message has been replaced with
a593b319 2267these more helpful messages [perl #73754]:
5076a392
FC
2268
2269=over 4
2270
2271=item *
2272
2273PerlIO layer function table size (%d) does not match size expected by this
2274perl (%d)
2275
2276=item *
2277
2278PerlIO layer instance size (%d) does not match size expected by this perl
2279(%d)
2280
2281=back
2282
5076a392
FC
2283=item *
2284
2285The "Found = in conditional" warning that is emitted when a constant is
2286assigned to a variable in a condition is now withheld if the constant is
2287actually a subroutine or one generated by C<use constant>, since the value
2288of the constant may not be known at the time the program is written
2289[perl #77762].
2290
2291=item *
2292
2293Previously, if none of the C<gethostbyaddr>, C<gethostbyname> and
2294C<gethostent> functions were implemented on a given platform, they would
2295all die with the message 'Unsupported socket function "gethostent" called',
2296with analogous messages for C<getnet*> and C<getserv*>. This has been
2297corrected.
2298
2299=item *
2300
a593b319
FC
2301The warning message about unrecognized regular expression escapes passed
2302through has been changed to include any literal '{' following the
2303two-character escape. E.g., "\q{" is now emitted instead of "\q".
5076a392
FC
2304
2305=back
2306
2307=head1 Utility Changes
2308
0b88cc74 2309=head3 L<perlbug>
5076a392
FC
2310
2311=over 4
2312
2313=item *
2314
0b88cc74
FC
2315L<perlbug> now looks in the EMAIL environment variable for a return address
2316if the REPLY-TO and REPLYTO variables are empty.
5076a392
FC
2317
2318=item *
2319
0b88cc74
FC
2320L<perlbug> did not previously generate a From: header, potentially
2321resulting in dropped mail. Now it does include that header.
5076a392
FC
2322
2323=item *
2324
0b88cc74 2325The user's address is now used as the return-path.
4ed2cea4 2326
0b88cc74
FC
2327Many systems these days don't have a valid Internet domain name and
2328perlbug@perl.org does not accept email with a return-path that does
2329not resolve. So the user's address is now passed to sendmail so it's
2330less likely to get stuck in a mail queue somewhere [perl #82996].
5076a392 2331
2c389f6c
FC
2332=item *
2333
d430b8e7
FC
2334L<perlbug> now always gives the reporter a chance to change the email
2335address it guesses for them (5.12.2).
2336
2337=item *
2338
2339L<perlbug> should no longer warn about uninitialized values when using the C<-d>
2340and C<-v> options (5.12.2).
2c389f6c 2341
5076a392
FC
2342=back
2343
0b88cc74 2344=head3 L<perl5db.pl>
5076a392 2345
0b88cc74 2346=over
5076a392
FC
2347
2348=item *
2349
0b88cc74
FC
2350The remote terminal works after forking and spawns new sessions - one
2351for each forked process.
5076a392
FC
2352
2353=back
2354
0b88cc74 2355=head3 L<ptargrep>
5076a392
FC
2356
2357=over 4
2358
2359=item *
2360
0b88cc74
FC
2361L<ptargrep> is a new utility to apply pattern matching to the contents of
2362files in a tar archive. It comes with C<Archive::Tar>.
5076a392
FC
2363
2364=back
2365
2366=head1 Configuration and Compilation
2367
61752d82
FC
2368See also L</"Naming fixes in Policy_sh.SH may invalidate Policy.sh">,
2369above.
2370
5076a392
FC
2371=over 4
2372
2373=item *
2374
87595b22
FC
2375CCINCDIR and CCLIBDIR for the mingw64
2376cross-compiler are now correctly under
5076a392
FC
2377$(CCHOME)\mingw\include and \lib rather than immediately below $(CCHOME).
2378
5076a392
FC
2379This means the 'incpath', 'libpth', 'ldflags', 'lddlflags' and
2380'ldflags_nolargefiles' values in Config.pm and Config_heavy.pl are now
87595b22 2381set correctly.
5076a392
FC
2382
2383=item *
2384
87595b22
FC
2385'make test.valgrind' has been adjusted to account for cpan/dist/ext
2386separation.
5076a392
FC
2387
2388=item *
2389
2390On compilers that support it, C<-Wwrite-strings> is now added to cflags by
2391default.
2392
2393=item *
2394
2395The C<Encode> module can now (once again) be included in a static Perl
2396build. The special-case handling for this situation got broken in Perl
23975.11.0, and has now been repaired.
2398
1e463951
FC
2399=item *
2400
2401The previous default size of a PerlIO buffer (4096 bytes) has been increased
2402to the larger of 8192 bytes and your local BUFSIZ. Benchmarks show that doubling
2403this decade-old default increases read and write performance in the neighborhood
2404of 25% to 50% when using the default layers of perlio on top of unix. To choose
2405a non-default size, such as to get back the old value or to obtain an even
2406larger value, configure with:
2407
2408 ./Configure -Accflags=-DPERLIOBUF_DEFAULT_BUFSIZ=N
2409
2410where N is the desired size in bytes; it should probably be a multiple of
2411your page size.
2412
d430b8e7
FC
2413=item *
2414
2415An "incompatible operand types" error in ternary expressions when building
2416with C<clang> has been fixed (5.12.2).
2417
2418=item *
2419
2420Perl now skips setuid C<File::Copy> tests on partitions it detects to be mounted
2421as C<nosuid> (5.12.2).
2422
5076a392
FC
2423=back
2424
5076a392
FC
2425=head1 Platform Support
2426
5076a392
FC
2427=head2 New Platforms
2428
5076a392
FC
2429=over 4
2430
2431=item AIX
2432
cdc10f43 2433Perl now builds on AIX 4.2 (5.12.1).
5076a392
FC
2434
2435=back
2436
2437=head2 Discontinued Platforms
2438
2439=over 4
2440
5076a392
FC
2441=item Apollo DomainOS
2442
2443The last vestiges of support for this platform have been excised from the
2444Perl distribution. It was officially discontinued in version 5.12.0. It had
2445not worked for years before that.
2446
2447=item MacOS Classic
2448
2449The last vestiges of support for this platform have been excised from the
2450Perl distribution. It was officially discontinued in an earlier version.
2451
2452=back
2453
2454=head2 Platform-Specific Notes
2455
d430b8e7
FC
2456=head3 AIX
2457
2458=over
2459
2460=item *
2461
2462F<README.aix> has been updated with information about the XL C/C++ V11 compiler
2463suite (5.12.2).
2464
2465=back
2466
2467=head3 ARM
2468
2469=over
2470
2471=item *
2472
2473The C<d_u32align> configuration probe on ARM has been fixed (5.12.2).
2474
2475=back
2476
554003a2 2477=head3 Cygwin
5076a392
FC
2478
2479=over 4
2480
2481=item *
2482
554003a2 2483MakeMaker has been updated to build man pages on cygwin.
5076a392
FC
2484
2485=item *
2486
554003a2
FC
2487Improved rebase behaviour
2488
2489If a dll is updated on cygwin the old imagebase address is reused.
2490This solves most rebase errors, especially when updating on core dll's.
2491See L<http://www.tishler.net/jason/software/rebase/rebase-2.4.2.README> for more information.
5076a392
FC
2492
2493=item *
2494
554003a2 2495Support for the standard cygwin dll prefix, which is e.g. needed for FFI's
5076a392
FC
2496
2497=item *
2498
554003a2 2499Updated build hints file
5076a392
FC
2500
2501=back
2502
cdc10f43
FC
2503=head3 FreeBSD 7
2504
2505=over
2506
2507=item *
2508
2509FreeBSD 7 no longer contains F</usr/bin/objformat>. At build time,
2510Perl now skips the F<objformat> check for versions 7 and higher and
2511assumes ELF (5.12.1).
2512
2513=back
2514
2515=head3 HP-UX
2516
2517=over
2518
2519=item *
2520
2521Perl now allows -Duse64bitint without promoting to use64bitall on HP-UX
2522(5.12.1).
2523
2524=back
2525
554003a2 2526=head3 IRIX
5076a392
FC
2527
2528Conversion of strings to floating-point numbers is now more accurate on
2529IRIX systems [perl #32380].
2530
554003a2 2531=head3 Mac OS X
5076a392
FC
2532
2533Early versions of Mac OS X (Darwin) had buggy implementations of the
2534C<setregid>, C<setreuid>, C<setrgid> and C<setruid> functions, so perl
2535would pretend they did not exist.
2536
2537These functions are now recognised on Mac OS 10.5 (Leopard; Darwin 9) and
2538higher, as they have been fixed [perl #72990].
2539
554003a2 2540=head3 MirBSD
5076a392 2541
554003a2
FC
2542Previously if you built perl with a shared libperl.so on MirBSD (the
2543default config), it would work up to the installation; however, once
2544installed, it would be unable to find libperl. So path handling is now
2545treated as in the other BSD dialects.
5076a392 2546
554003a2 2547=head3 NetBSD
5076a392 2548
554003a2
FC
2549The NetBSD hints file has been changed to make the system's malloc the
2550default.
5076a392 2551
554003a2 2552=head3 Recent OpenBSDs now use perl's malloc
5076a392 2553
554003a2
FC
2554OpenBSD E<gt> 3.7 has a new malloc implementation which is mmap-based
2555and as such can release memory back to the OS; however, perl's use of
2556this malloc causes a substantial slowdown so we now default to using
2557perl's malloc instead [perl #75742].
5076a392 2558
554003a2 2559=head3 OpenVOS
5076a392 2560
554003a2 2561perl now builds again with OpenVOS (formerly known as Stratus VOS)
5a553547 2562[perl #78132] (5.12.3).
5076a392 2563
554003a2 2564=head3 Solaris
5076a392 2565
554003a2 2566DTrace is now supported on Solaris. There used to be build failures, but
5a553547 2567these have been fixed [perl #73630] (5.12.3).
5076a392 2568
554003a2 2569=head3 VMS
5076a392
FC
2570
2571=over
2572
2573=item *
2574
cdc10f43
FC
2575It's now possible to build extensions on older (pre 7.3-2) VMS systems.
2576
2577DCL symbol length was limited to 1K up until about seven years or
2578so ago, but there was no particularly deep reason to prevent those
2579older systems from configuring and building Perl (5.12.1).
2580
2581=item *
2582
2583We fixed the previously-broken C<-Uuseperlio> build on VMS.
2584
2585We were checking a variable that doesn't exist in the non-default
2586case of disabling perlio. Now we only look at it when it exists (5.12.1).
2587
2588=item *
2589
2590We fixed the -Uuseperlio command-line option in configure.com.
2591
2592Formerly it only worked if you went through all the questions
2593interactively and explicitly answered no (5.12.1).
2594
2595=item *
2596
554003a2 2597C<PerlIOUnix_open> now honours the default permissions on VMS.
5076a392 2598
554003a2
FC
2599When C<perlio> became the default and C<unixio> became the default bottom layer,
2600the most common path for creating files from Perl became C<PerlIOUnix_open>,
2601which has always explicitly used C<0666> as the permission mask.
5076a392 2602
554003a2
FC
2603To avoid this, C<0777> is now passed as the permissions to C<open()>. In the
2604VMS CRTL, C<0777> has a special meaning over and above intersecting with the
2605current umask; specifically, it allows Unix syscalls to preserve native default
5a553547
FC
2606permissions (5.12.3).
2607
2608=item *
2609
2610Spurious record boundaries are no longer
2611introduced by the PerlIO layer during output (5.12.3).
5076a392
FC
2612
2613=item *
2614
554003a2
FC
2615The shortening of symbols longer than 31 characters in the C sources is
2616now done by the compiler rather than by xsubpp (which could only do so
2617for generated symbols in XS code).
5076a392
FC
2618
2619=item *
2620
554003a2
FC
2621Record-oriented files (record format variable or variable with fixed control)
2622opened for write by the perlio layer will now be line-buffered to prevent the
2623introduction of spurious line breaks whenever the perlio buffer fills up.
5076a392 2624
d430b8e7
FC
2625=item *
2626
2627F<git_version.h> is now installed on VMS. This was an oversight in v5.12.0 which
2628caused some extensions to fail to build (5.12.2).
2629
2630=item *
2631
2632Several memory leaks in L<stat()|perlfunc/"stat FILEHANDLE"> have been fixed (5.12.2).
2633
2634=item *
2635
2636A memory leak in C<Perl_rename()> due to a double allocation has been
2637fixed (5.12.2).
2638
2639=item *
2640
2641A memory leak in C<vms_fid_to_name()> (used by C<realpath()> and
2642C<realname()>) has been fixed (5.12.2).
2643
5076a392
FC
2644=back
2645
554003a2 2646=head3 Windows
5076a392 2647
5a1f7719
FC
2648See also L</"fork() emulation will not wait for signalled children"> and
2649L</"Perl source code is read in text mode on Windows">, above.
2650
5076a392
FC
2651=over 4
2652
2653=item *
2654
554003a2 2655Fixed build process for SDK2003SP1 compilers.
5076a392 2656
554003a2 2657=item *
5076a392 2658
01b1a9e4
FC
2659Compilation with Visual Studio 2010 is now supported.
2660
2661=item *
2662
554003a2
FC
2663When using old 32-bit compilers, the define C<_USE_32BIT_TIME_T> will now
2664be set in C<$Config{ccflags}>. This improves portability when compiling
2665XS extensions using new compilers, but for a perl compiled with old 32-bit
2666compilers.
5076a392
FC
2667
2668=item *
2669
554003a2
FC
2670C<$Config{gccversion}> is now set correctly when perl is built using the
2671mingw64 compiler from L<http://mingw64.org> [perl #73754].
5076a392 2672
554003a2
FC
2673=item *
2674
d430b8e7
FC
2675When building Perl with the mingw64 x64 cross-compiler C<incpath>,
2676C<libpth>, C<ldflags>, C<lddlflags> and C<ldflags_nolargefiles> values
2677in F<Config.pm> and F<Config_heavy.pl> were not previously being set
2678correctly because, with that compiler, the include and lib directories
2679are not immediately below C<$(CCHOME)> (5.12.2).
2680
2681=item *
2682
554003a2
FC
2683The build process proceeds more smoothly with mingw and dmake when
2684F<C:\MSYS\bin> is in the PATH, due to a C<Cwd> fix.
5076a392
FC
2685
2686=item *
2687
554003a2
FC
2688Support for building with Visual C++ 2010 is now underway, but is not yet
2689complete. See F<README.win32> or L<perlwin32> for more details.
5076a392 2690
554003a2
FC
2691=item *
2692
2693The option to use an externally-supplied C<crypt()>, or to build with no
2694C<crypt()> at all, has been removed. Perl supplies its own C<crypt()>
2695implementation for Windows, and the political situation that required
2696this part of the distribution to sometimes be omitted is long gone.
5076a392
FC
2697
2698=back
2699
2700=head1 Internal Changes
2701
1e463951 2702=head2 New APIs
5076a392 2703
1e463951 2704=head3 CLONE_PARAMS structure added to ease correct thread creation
5076a392 2705
1e463951
FC
2706Modules that create threads should now create C<CLONE_PARAMS> structures
2707by calling the new function C<Perl_clone_params_new()>, and free them with
2708C<Perl_clone_params_del()>. This will ensure compatibility with any future
2709changes to the internals of the C<CLONE_PARAMS> structure layout, and that
2710it is correctly allocated and initialised.
5076a392 2711
1e463951 2712=head3 New parsing functions
5076a392 2713
1e463951
FC
2714Several functions have been added for parsing statements or multiple
2715statements:
5076a392 2716
1e463951 2717=over
5076a392
FC
2718
2719=item *
2720
1e463951 2721C<parse_fullstmt> parses a complete Perl statement.
5076a392
FC
2722
2723=item *
2724
1e463951
FC
2725C<parse_stmtseq> parses a sequence of statements, up
2726to closing brace or EOF.
5076a392
FC
2727
2728=item *
2729
1e463951 2730C<parse_block> parses a block [perl #78222].
5076a392
FC
2731
2732=item *
2733
1e463951
FC
2734C<parse_barestmt> parses a statement
2735without a label.
5076a392
FC
2736
2737=item *
2738
1e463951 2739C<parse_label> parses a statement label, separate from statements.
5076a392 2740
1e463951 2741=back
5076a392 2742
1e463951
FC
2743The
2744L<C<parse_fullexpr()>|perlapi/parse_fullexpr>,
2745L<C<parse_listexpr()>|perlapi/parse_listexpr>,
2746L<C<parse_termexpr()>|perlapi/parse_termexpr>, and
2747L<C<parse_arithexpr()>|perlapi/parse_arithexpr>
2748functions have been added to the API. They perform
2749recursive-descent parsing of expressions at various precedence levels.
2750They are expected to be used by syntax plugins.
5076a392 2751
1e463951 2752See L<perlapi> for details.
5076a392 2753
1e463951 2754=head3 Hints hash API
5076a392 2755
1e463951
FC
2756A new C API for introspecting the hinthash C<%^H> at runtime has been
2757added. See C<cop_hints_2hv>, C<cop_hints_fetchpvn>, C<cop_hints_fetchpvs>,
2758C<cop_hints_fetchsv>, and C<hv_copy_hints_hv> in L<perlapi> for details.
5076a392 2759
1e463951
FC
2760A new, experimental API has been added for accessing the internal
2761structure that Perl uses for C<%^H>. See the functions beginning with
2762C<cophh_> in L<perlapi>.
5076a392 2763
1e463951 2764=head3 C interface to C<caller()>
5076a392 2765
1e463951
FC
2766The C<caller_cx> function has been added as an XSUB-writer's equivalent of
2767C<caller()>. See L<perlapi> for details.
5076a392 2768
1e463951 2769=head3 Custom per-subroutine check hooks
5076a392 2770
1e463951
FC
2771XS code in an extension module can now annotate a subroutine (whether
2772implemented in XS or in Perl) so that nominated XS code will be called
2773at compile time (specifically as part of op checking) to change the op
2774tree of that subroutine. The compile-time check function (supplied by
2775the extension module) can implement argument processing that can't be
2776expressed as a prototype, generate customised compile-time warnings,
2777perform constant folding for a pure function, inline a subroutine
2778consisting of sufficiently simple ops, replace the whole call with a
2779custom op, and so on. This was previously all possible by hooking the
2780C<entersub> op checker, but the new mechanism makes it easy to tie the
2781hook to a specific subroutine. See L<perlapi/cv_set_call_checker>.
5076a392 2782
1e463951
FC
2783To help in writing custom check hooks, several subtasks within standard
2784C<entersub> op checking have been separated out and exposed in the API.
5076a392 2785
1e463951 2786=head3 Improved support for custom OPs
5076a392 2787
1e463951
FC
2788Custom ops can now be registered with the new C<custom_op_register> C
2789function and the C<XOP> structure. This will make it easier to add new
2790properties of custom ops in the future. Two new properties have been added
2791already, C<xop_class> and C<xop_peep>.
5076a392 2792
1e463951
FC
2793C<xop_class> is one of the OA_*OP constants, and allows L<B> and other
2794introspection mechanisms to work with custom ops
2795that aren't BASEOPs. C<xop_peep> is a pointer to
2796a function that will be called for ops of this
2797type from C<Perl_rpeep>.
5076a392 2798
1e463951
FC
2799See L<perlguts/Custom Operators> and L<perlapi/Custom Operators> for more
2800detail.
5076a392 2801
1e463951
FC
2802The old C<PL_custom_op_names>/C<PL_custom_op_descs> interface is still
2803supported but discouraged.
5076a392 2804
1e463951 2805=head3 Scope hooks
5076a392 2806
1e463951
FC
2807It is now possible for XS code to hook into Perl's lexical scope
2808mechanism at compile time, using the new C<Perl_blockhook_register>
2809function. See L<perlguts/"Compile-time scope hooks">.
5076a392 2810
1e463951 2811=head3 The recursive part of the peephole optimizer is now hookable
5076a392
FC
2812
2813In addition to C<PL_peepp>, for hooking into the toplevel peephole optimizer, a
2814C<PL_rpeepp> is now available to hook into the optimizer recursing into
2815side-chains of the optree.
2816
1e463951 2817=head3 New non-magical variants of existing functions
5076a392 2818
1e463951
FC
2819The following functions/macros have been added to the API. The C<*_nomg>
2820macros are equivalent to their non-_nomg variants, except that they ignore
2821get-magic. Those ending in C<_flags> allow one to specify whether
2822get-magic is processed.
5076a392 2823
1e463951
FC
2824 sv_2bool_flags
2825 SvTRUE_nomg
2826 sv_2nv_flags
2827 SvNV_nomg
2828 sv_cmp_flags
2829 sv_cmp_locale_flags
2830 sv_eq_flags
2831 sv_collxfrm_flags
5076a392 2832
1e463951 2833In some of these cases, the non-_flags functions have
5076a392
FC
2834been replaced with wrappers around the new functions.
2835
1e463951 2836=head3 pv/pvs/sv versions of existing functions
5076a392 2837
1e463951 2838Many functions ending with pvn now have equivalent pv/pvs/sv versions.
5076a392 2839
1e463951 2840=head3 List op-building functions
5076a392 2841
1e463951
FC
2842List op-building functions have been added to the
2843API. See L<op_append_elem|perlapi/op_append_elem>,
2844L<op_append_list|perlapi/op_append_list>, and
2845L<op_prepend_elem|perlapi/op_prepend_elem> in L<perlapi>.
5076a392 2846
1e463951 2847=head3 C<LINKLIST>
5076a392 2848
1e463951
FC
2849The L<LINKLIST|perlapi/LINKLIST> macro, part of op building that
2850constructs the execution-order op chain, has been added to the API.
5076a392 2851
1e463951 2852=head3 Localisation functions
5076a392 2853
1e463951
FC
2854The C<save_freeop>, C<save_op>, C<save_pushi32ptr> and C<save_pushptrptr>
2855functions have been added to the API.
5076a392 2856
1e463951 2857=head3 Stash names
5076a392 2858
1e463951
FC
2859A stash can now have a list of effective names in addition to its usual
2860name. The first effective name can be accessed via the C<HvENAME> macro,
2861which is now the recommended name to use in MRO linearisations (C<HvNAME>
2862being a fallback if there is no C<HvENAME>).
5076a392 2863
1e463951
FC
2864These names are added and deleted via C<hv_ename_add> and
2865C<hv_ename_delete>. These two functions are I<not> part of the API.
5076a392 2866
1e463951 2867=head3 New functions for finding and removing magic
5076a392 2868
1e463951
FC
2869The L<C<mg_findext()>|perlapi/mg_findext> and
2870L<C<sv_unmagicext()>|perlapi/sv_unmagicext>
2871functions have been added to the API.
2872They allow extension authors to find and remove magic attached to
2873scalars based on both the magic type and the magic virtual table, similar to how
2874C<sv_magicext()> attaches magic of a certain type and with a given virtual table
2875to a scalar. This eliminates the need for extensions to walk the list of
2876C<MAGIC> pointers of an C<SV> to find the magic that belongs to them.
5076a392 2877
1e463951 2878=head3 C<find_rundefsv>
5076a392 2879
1e463951
FC
2880This function returns the SV representing C<$_>, whether it's lexical
2881or dynamic.
5076a392 2882
1e463951 2883=head3 C<Perl_croak_no_modify>
5076a392 2884
1e463951
FC
2885C<Perl_croak_no_modify()> is short-hand for
2886C<Perl_croak("%s", PL_no_modify)>.
5076a392 2887
1e463951 2888=head3 C<PERL_STATIC_INLINE> define
5076a392 2889
1e463951
FC
2890The C<PERL_STATIC_INLINE> define has been added to provide the best-guess
2891incantation to use for static inline functions, if the C compiler supports
2892C99-style static inline. If it doesn't, it'll give a plain C<static>.
5076a392 2893
1e463951
FC
2894C<HAS_STATIC_INLINE> can be used to check if the compiler actually supports
2895inline functions.
5076a392 2896
1e463951 2897=head3 New C<pv_escape> option for hexadecimal escapes
5076a392 2898
1e463951
FC
2899A new option, C<PERL_PV_ESCAPE_NONASCII>, has been added to C<pv_escape> to
2900dump all characters above ASCII in hexadecimal. Before, one could get all
2901characters as hexadecimal or the Latin1 non-ASCII as octal.
5076a392 2902
1e463951 2903=head3 C<lex_start>
5076a392 2904
1e463951 2905C<lex_start> has been added to the API, but is considered experimental.
5076a392 2906
1e463951 2907=head3 C<op_scope()> and C<op_lvalue()>
5076a392 2908
1e463951
FC
2909The C<op_scope()> and C<op_lvalue()> functions have been added to the API,
2910but are considered experimental.
5076a392 2911
1e463951 2912=head2 C API Changes
5076a392 2913
1e463951 2914=head3 C<PERL_POLLUTE> has been removed
5076a392 2915
1e463951
FC
2916The option to define C<PERL_POLLUTE> to expose older 5.005 symbols for
2917backwards compatibility has been removed. It's use was always discouraged,
2918and MakeMaker contains a more specific escape hatch:
5076a392 2919
1e463951 2920 perl Makefile.PL POLLUTE=1
5076a392 2921
1e463951
FC
2922This can be used for modules that have not been upgraded to 5.6 naming
2923conventions (and really should be completely obsolete by now).
5076a392 2924
1e463951 2925=head3 Check API compatibility when loading XS modules
5076a392 2926
1e463951
FC
2927When perl's API changes in incompatible ways (which usually happens between
2928major releases), XS modules compiled for previous versions of perl will not
2929work anymore. They will need to be recompiled against the new perl.
5076a392 2930
1e463951
FC
2931In order to ensure that modules are recompiled, and to prevent users from
2932accidentally loading modules compiled for old perls into newer ones, the
2933C<XS_APIVERSION_BOOTCHECK> macro has been added. That macro, which is
2934called when loading every newly compiled extension, compares the API
2935version of the running perl with the version a module has been compiled for
2936and raises an exception if they don't match.
5076a392 2937
1e463951 2938=head3 Perl_fetch_cop_label
5076a392 2939
1e463951
FC
2940The first argument of the C API function C<Perl_fetch_cop_label> has changed
2941from C<struct refcounted he *> to C<COP *>, to insulate the user from
2942implementation details.
5076a392 2943
1e463951
FC
2944This API function was marked as "may change", and likely isn't in use outside
2945the core. (Neither an unpacked CPAN, nor Google's codesearch, finds any other
2946references to it.)
5076a392 2947
1e463951 2948=head3 GvCV() and GvGP() are no longer lvalues
5076a392 2949
1e463951
FC
2950The new GvCV_set() and GvGP_set() macros are now provided to replace
2951assignment to those two macros.
5076a392 2952
1e463951
FC
2953This allows a future commit to eliminate some backref magic between GV
2954and CVs, which will require complete control over assignment to the
2955gp_cv slot.
5076a392 2956
1e463951 2957=head3 CvGV() is no longer an lvalue
5076a392 2958
1e463951
FC
2959Under some circumstances, the C<CvGV()> field of a CV is now
2960reference-counted. To ensure consistent behaviour, direct assignment to
2961it, for example C<CvGV(cv) = gv> is now a compile-time error. A new macro,
2962C<CvGV_set(cv,gv)> has been introduced to perform this operation
2963safely. Note that modification of this field is not part of the public
2964API, regardless of this new macro (and despite its being listed in this section).
5076a392 2965
1e463951 2966=head3 CvSTASH() is no longer an lvalue
5076a392 2967
1e463951
FC
2968The C<CvSTASH()> macro can now only be used as an rvalue. C<CvSTASH_set()>
2969has been added to replace assignment to C<CvSTASH()>. This is to ensure
2970that backreferences are handled properly. These macros are not part of the
2971API.
5076a392 2972
1e463951 2973=head3 Calling conventions for C<newFOROP> and C<newWHILEOP>
5076a392 2974
1e463951
FC
2975The way the parser handles labels has been cleaned up and refactored. As a
2976result, the C<newFOROP()> constructor function no longer takes a parameter
2977stating what label is to go in the state op.
5076a392 2978
1e463951
FC
2979The C<newWHILEOP()> and C<newFOROP()> functions no longer accept a line
2980number as a parameter.
5076a392 2981
1e463951 2982=head3 Flags passed to C<uvuni_to_utf8_flags> and C<utf8n_to_uvuni>
5076a392 2983
1e463951
FC
2984Some of the flags parameters to uvuni_to_utf8_flags() and
2985utf8n_to_uvuni() have changed. This is a result of Perl's now allowing
5076a392
FC
2986internal storage and manipulation of code points that are problematic
2987in some situations. Hence, the default actions for these functions has
2988been complemented to allow these code points. The new flags are
2989documented in L<perlapi>. Code that requires the problematic code
483b16f3 2990points to be rejected needs to change to use the new flags. Some flag
5076a392
FC
2991names are retained for backward source compatibility, though they do
2992nothing, as they are now the default. However the flags
2993C<UNICODE_ALLOW_FDD0>, C<UNICODE_ALLOW_FFFF>, C<UNICODE_ILLEGAL>, and
2994C<UNICODE_IS_ILLEGAL> have been removed, as they stem from a
2995fundamentally broken model of how the Unicode non-character code points
2996should be handled, which is now described in
2997L<perlunicode/Non-character code points>. See also L</Selected Bug Fixes>.
2998
1e463951 2999XXX Which bugs in particular? Selected Bug Fixes is too long for this link
483b16f3
KW
3000to be meaningful right now
3001I don't see the bugs in that section currently -- khw
5076a392 3002
1e463951 3003=head2 Deprecated C APIs
5076a392 3004
1e463951 3005=over
5076a392 3006
1e463951 3007=item C<Perl_ptr_table_clear>
5076a392 3008
1e463951
FC
3009C<Perl_ptr_table_clear> is no longer part of Perl's public API. Calling it
3010now generates a deprecation warning, and it will be removed in a future
3011release.
5076a392 3012
1e463951 3013=item C<sv_compile_2op>
5076a392 3014
1e463951
FC
3015The C<sv_compile_2op()> API function is now deprecated. Searches suggest
3016that nothing on CPAN is using it, so this should have zero impact.
5076a392 3017
1e463951
FC
3018It attempted to provide an API to compile code down to an optree, but failed
3019to bind correctly to lexicals in the enclosing scope. It's not possible to
3020fix this problem within the constraints of its parameters and return value.
5076a392 3021
1e463951 3022=item C<find_rundefsvoffset>
5076a392 3023
1e463951
FC
3024The C<find_rundefsvoffset> function has been deprecated. It appeared that
3025its design was insufficient for reliably getting the lexical C<$_> at
3026run-time.
5076a392 3027
1e463951
FC
3028Use the new C<find_rundefsv> function or the C<UNDERBAR> macro
3029instead. They directly return the right SV representing C<$_>, whether it's
3030lexical or dynamic.
5076a392 3031
1e463951 3032=item C<CALL_FPTR> and C<CPERLscope>
5076a392 3033
1e463951
FC
3034Those are left from an old implementation of C<MULTIPLICITY> using C++ objects,
3035which was removed in Perl 5.8. Nowadays these macros do exactly nothing, so
3036they shouldn't be used anymore.
5076a392 3037
1e463951
FC
3038For compatibility, they are still defined for external C<XS> code. Only
3039extensions defining C<PERL_CORE> must be updated now.
5076a392 3040
1e463951 3041=back
5076a392 3042
1e463951 3043=head2 Other Internal Changes
5076a392 3044
1e463951 3045=head3 Stack unwinding
5076a392 3046
1e463951
FC
3047The protocol for unwinding the C stack at the last stage of a C<die>
3048has changed how it identifies the target stack frame. This now uses
3049a separate variable C<PL_restartjmpenv>, where previously it relied on
3050the C<blk_eval.cur_top_env> pointer in the C<eval> context frame that
3051has nominally just been discarded. This change means that code running
3052during various stages of Perl-level unwinding no longer needs to take
3053care to avoid destroying the ghost frame.
5076a392 3054
1e463951 3055=head3 Scope stack entries
5076a392 3056
1e463951
FC
3057The format of entries on the scope stack has been changed, resulting in a
3058reduction of memory usage of about 10%. In particular, the memory used by
3059the scope stack to record each active lexical variable has been halved.
5076a392 3060
1e463951 3061=head3 Memory allocation for pointer tables
5076a392 3062
1e463951
FC
3063Memory allocation for pointer tables has been changed. Previously
3064C<Perl_ptr_table_store> allocated memory from the same arena system as
3065C<SV> bodies and C<HE>s, with freed memory remaining bound to those arenas
3066until interpreter exit. Now it allocates memory from arenas private to the
3067specific pointer table, and that memory is returned to the system when
3068C<Perl_ptr_table_free> is called. Additionally, allocation and release are
3069both less CPU intensive.
5076a392 3070
1e463951 3071=head3 C<UNDERBAR>
5076a392 3072
1e463951
FC
3073The C<UNDERBAR> macro now calls C<find_rundefsv>. C<dUNDERBAR> is now a
3074noop but should still be used to ensure past and future compatibility.
5076a392 3075
1e463951 3076=head3 String comparison routines renamed
5076a392 3077
1e463951
FC
3078The ibcmp_* functions have been renamed and are now called foldEQ,
3079foldEQ_locale and foldEQ_utf8. The old names are still available as
3080macros.
3081
3082=head3 C<chop> and C<chomp> implementations merged
3083
3084The opcode bodies for C<chop> and C<chomp> and for C<schop> and C<schomp>
3085have been merged. The implementation functions C<Perl_do_chop()> and
3086C<Perl_do_chomp()>, never part of the public API, have been merged and
3087moved to a static function in F<pp.c>. This shrinks the perl binary
3088slightly, and should not affect any code outside the core (unless it is
3089relying on the order of side effects when C<chomp> is passed a I<list> of
3090values).
5076a392
FC
3091
3092=head1 Selected Bug Fixes
3093
e8e35311
FC
3094=head2 I/O
3095
5076a392
FC
3096=over 4
3097
3098=item *
3099
e8e35311 3100Perl no longer produces this warning:
a593b319
FC
3101
3102 $ perl -we 'open my $f, ">", \my $x; binmode $f, "scalar"'
3103 Use of uninitialized value in binmode at -e line 1.
3104
3105=item *
3106
e8e35311
FC
3107Opening a glob reference via C<< open $fh, "E<gt>", \*glob >> will no longer
3108cause the glob to be corrupted when the filehandle is printed to. This would
3109cause perl to crash whenever the glob's contents were accessed
3110[perl #77492].
4ed2cea4
FC
3111
3112=item *
3113
e8e35311
FC
3114PerlIO no longer crashes when called recursively, e.g., from a signal
3115handler. Now it just leaks memory [perl #75556].
4ed2cea4
FC
3116
3117=item *
3118
e8e35311
FC
3119Most I/O functions were not warning for unopened handles unless the
3120'closed' and 'unopened' warnings categories were both enabled. Now only
3121C<use warnings 'unopened'> is necessary to trigger these warnings (as was
438c239f 3122always meant to be the case).
4ed2cea4
FC
3123
3124=item *
3125
438c239f 3126There have been several fixes to PerlIO layers:
e8e35311 3127
438c239f
FC
3128When C<binmode FH, ":crlf"> pushes the C<:crlf> layer on top of the stack,
3129it no longer enables crlf layers lower in the stack, to avoid unexpected
3130results [perl #38456].
4ed2cea4 3131
438c239f
FC
3132Opening a file in C<:raw> mode now does what it advertises to do (first
3133open the file, then binmode it), instead of simply leaving off the top
3134layer [perl #80764].
5076a392 3135
438c239f
FC
3136The three layers C<:pop>, C<:utf8> and C<:bytes> didn't allow stacking when
3137opening a file. For example
e8e35311 3138this:
5076a392 3139
e8e35311 3140 open FH, '>:pop:perlio', 'some.file' or die $!;
5076a392 3141
438c239f
FC
3142Would throw an error: "Invalid argument". This has been fixed in this
3143release [perl #82484].
5076a392 3144
e8e35311
FC
3145=back
3146
3147=head2 Regular Expression Bug Fixes
3148
3149=over
5076a392
FC
3150
3151=item *
3152
e8e35311
FC
3153The regular expression engine no longer loops when matching
3154C<"\N{LATIN SMALL LIGATURE FF}" =~ /f+/i> and similar expressions
cdc10f43 3155[perl #72998] (5.12.1).
5076a392
FC
3156
3157=item *
3158
e8e35311
FC
3159The trie runtime code should no longer allocate massive amounts of memory,
3160fixing #74484.
5076a392
FC
3161
3162=item *
3163
438c239f
FC
3164Syntax errors in C<< (?{...}) >> blocks no longer cause panic messages
3165[perl #2353].
5076a392
FC
3166
3167=item *
3168
438c239f
FC
3169A pattern like C<(?:(o){2})?> no longer causes a "panic" error
3170[perl #39233].
5076a392
FC
3171
3172=item *
3173
438c239f 3174A fatal error in regular expressions containing C<(.*?)> when processing
d430b8e7 3175UTF-8 data has been fixed [perl #75680] (5.12.2).
5076a392
FC
3176
3177=item *
3178
e8e35311 3179An erroneous regular expression engine optimisation that caused regex verbs like
438c239f 3180C<*COMMIT> sometimes to be ignored has been removed.
5076a392
FC
3181
3182=item *
3183
e8e35311
FC
3184The regular expression bracketed character class C<[\8\9]> was effectively the
3185same as C<[89\000]>, incorrectly matching a NULL character. It also gave
3186incorrect warnings that the C<8> and C<9> were ignored. Now C<[\8\9]> is the
3187same as C<[89]> and gives legitimate warnings that C<\8> and C<\9> are
3188unrecognized escape sequences, passed-through.
5076a392
FC
3189
3190=item *
3191
e8e35311
FC
3192A regular expression match in the right-hand side of a global substitution
3193(C<s///g>) that is in the same scope will no longer cause match variables
3194to have the wrong values on subsequent iterations. This can happen when an
3195array or hash subscript is interpolated in the right-hand side, as in
3196C<s|(.)|@a{ print($1), /./ }|g> [perl #19078].
5076a392
FC
3197
3198=item *
3199
438c239f
FC
3200Several cases in which characters in the Latin-1 non-ASCII range (0x80 to
32010xFF) used not to match themselves or used to match both a character class
3202and its complement have been fixed. For instance, U+00E2 could match both
3203C<\w> and C<\W> [perl #78464] [perl #18281] [perl #60156].
5076a392
FC
3204
3205=item *
3206
e8e35311
FC
3207Matching a Unicode character against an alternation containing characters
3208that happened to match continuation bytes in the former's UTF8
3209representation (C<qq{\x{30ab}} =~ /\xab|\xa9/>) would cause erroneous
3210warnings [perl #70998].
5076a392
FC
3211
3212=item *
3213
e8e35311
FC
3214The trie optimisation was not taking empty groups into account, preventing
3215'foo' from matching C</\A(?:(?:)foo|bar|zot)\z/> [perl #78356].
5076a392
FC
3216
3217=item *
3218
e8e35311
FC
3219A pattern containing a C<+> inside a lookahead would sometimes cause an
3220incorrect match failure in a global match (e.g., C</(?=(\S+))/g>)
3221[perl #68564].
5076a392
FC
3222
3223=item *
3224
e8e35311
FC
3225A regular expression optimisation would sometimes cause a match with a
3226C<{n,m}> quantifier to fail when it should match [perl #79152].
5076a392
FC
3227
3228=item *
3229
e8e35311 3230Case insensitive matching in regular expressions compiled under C<use
438c239f
FC
3231locale> now works much more sanely when the pattern or
3232target string is encoded internally in
3233UTF8. Previously, under these conditions the localeness
e8e35311
FC
3234was completely lost. Now, code points above 255 are treated as Unicode,
3235but code points between 0 and 255 are treated using the current locale
438c239f
FC
3236rules, regardless of whether the pattern or the string is encoded in UTF8.
3237The few case-insensitive matches that cross the 255/256 boundary are not
e8e35311
FC
3238allowed. For example, 0xFF does not caselessly match the character at
32390x178, LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Y WITH DIAERESIS, because 0xFF may not be
3240LATIN SMALL LETTER Y in the current locale, and Perl has no way of
3241knowing if that character even exists in the locale, much less what code
3242point it is.
5076a392
FC
3243
3244=item *
3245
e8e35311
FC
3246The C<(?|...)> regular expression construct no longer crashes if the final
3247branch has more sets of capturing parentheses than any other branch. This
3248was fixed in Perl 5.10.1 for the case of a single branch, but that fix did
3249not take multiple branches into account [perl #84746].
5076a392
FC
3250
3251=item *
3252
e8e35311
FC
3253A bug has been fixed in the implementation of C<{...}> quantifiers in
3254regular expressions that prevented the code block in
3255C</((\w+)(?{ print $2 })){2}/> from seeing the C<$2> sometimes
3256[perl #84294].
5076a392 3257
e8e35311 3258=back
5076a392 3259
e8e35311
FC
3260=head2 Syntax/Parsing Bugs
3261
3262=over
5076a392
FC
3263
3264=item *
3265
e8e35311 3266C<when(scalar){...}> no longer crashes, but produces a syntax error
cdc10f43 3267[perl #74114] (5.12.1).
5076a392
FC
3268
3269=item *
3270
e8e35311
FC
3271A label right before a string eval (C<foo: eval $string>) no longer causes
3272the label to be associated also with the first statement inside the eval
3273[perl #74290] (5.12.1).
5076a392
FC
3274
3275=item *
3276
b2c076b5 3277The C<no 5.13.2;> form of C<no> no longer tries to turn on features or
d430b8e7 3278pragmata (i.e., strict) [perl #70075] (5.12.2).
5076a392
FC
3279
3280=item *
3281
b2c076b5
FC
3282C<BEGIN {require 5.12.0}> now behaves as documented, rather than behaving
3283identically to C<use 5.12.0;>. Previously, C<require> in a C<BEGIN> block
3284was erroneously executing the C<use feature ':5.12.0'> and
3285C<use strict;> behaviour, which only C<use> was documented to
3286provide [perl #69050].
5076a392
FC
3287
3288=item *
3289
5076a392
FC
3290A regression introduced in Perl 5.12.0, making
3291C<< my $x = 3; $x = length(undef) >> result in C<$x> set to C<3> has been
d430b8e7 3292fixed. C<$x> will now be C<undef> [perl #85508] (5.12.2).
b2c076b5
FC
3293
3294=item *
3295
3296When strict 'refs' mode is off, C<%{...}> in rvalue context returns
3297C<undef> if its argument is undefined. An optimisation introduced in perl
32985.12.0 to make C<keys %{...}> faster when used as a boolean did not take
3299this into account, causing C<keys %{+undef}> (and C<keys %$foo> when
3300C<$foo> is undefined) to be an error, which it should only be in strict
3301mode [perl #81750].
5076a392
FC
3302
3303=item *
3304
e8e35311 3305Constant-folding used to cause
5076a392 3306
e8e35311 3307 $text =~ ( 1 ? /phoo/ : /bear/)
5076a392 3308
e8e35311
FC
3309to turn into
3310
3311 $text =~ /phoo/
3312
3313at compile time. Now it correctly matches against C<$_> [perl #20444].
5076a392
FC
3314
3315=item *
3316
e8e35311
FC
3317Parsing Perl code (either with string C<eval> or by loading modules) from
3318within a C<UNITCHECK> block no longer causes the interpreter to crash
3319[perl #70614].
5076a392
FC
3320
3321=item *
3322
b2c076b5
FC
3323String evals no longer fail after 2 billion scopes have been
3324compiled [perl #83364].
3325
3326=item *
3327
e8e35311
FC
3328The parser no longer hangs when encountering certain Unicode characters,
3329such as U+387 [perl #74022].
5076a392
FC
3330
3331=item *
3332
b2c076b5
FC
3333Several contexts no longer allow a Unicode character to begin a word
3334that should never begin words, for an example an accent that must follow
3335another character previously could precede all other characters.
5076a392
FC
3336
3337=item *
3338
e8e35311
FC
3339Defining a constant with the same name as one of perl's special blocks
3340(e.g., INIT) stopped working in 5.12.0, but has now been fixed
3341[perl #78634].
5076a392
FC
3342
3343=item *
3344
e8e35311
FC
3345A reference to a literal value used as a hash key (C<$hash{\"foo"}>) used
3346to be stringified, even if the hash was tied [perl #79178].
5076a392
FC
3347
3348=item *
3349
e8e35311
FC
3350A closure containing an C<if> statement followed by a constant or variable
3351is no longer treated as a constant [perl #63540].
5076a392
FC
3352
3353=item *
3354
e8e35311
FC
3355C<state> can now be used with attributes. It used to mean the same thing as
3356C<my> if attributes were present [perl #68658].
5076a392
FC
3357
3358=item *
3359
e8e35311
FC
3360Expressions like C<< @$a > 3 >> no longer cause C<$a> to be mentioned in
3361the "Use of uninitialized value in numeric gt" warning when C<$a> is
3362undefined (since it is not part of the C<E<gt>> expression, but the operand
3363of the C<@>) [perl #72090].
5076a392
FC
3364
3365=item *
3366
e8e35311
FC
3367Accessing an element of a package array with a hard-coded number (as
3368opposed to an arbitrary expression) would crash if the array did not exist.
3369Usually the array would be autovivified during compilation, but typeglob
3370manipulation could remove it, as in these two cases which used to crash:
5076a392 3371
e8e35311
FC
3372 *d = *a; print $d[0];
3373 undef *d; print $d[0];
5076a392 3374
2c389f6c
FC
3375=item *
3376
3377The C<-C> command line option, when used on the shebang line, can now be
3378followed by other options [perl #72434].
3379
3380=item *
3381
3382The C<B> module was returning C<B::OP>s instead of C<B::LOGOP>s for C<entertry> [perl #80622].
3383This was due to a bug in the perl core, not in C<B> itself.
3384
e8e35311 3385=back
5076a392 3386
e262cb24
FC
3387=head2 Stashes, Globs and Method Lookup
3388
3389Perl 5.10.0 introduced a new internal mechanism for caching MROs (method
3390resolution orders, or lists of parent classes; aka "isa" caches) to make
3391method lookup faster (so @ISA arrays would not have to be searched
3392repeatedly). Unfortunately, this brought with it quite a few bugs. Almost
3393all of these have been fixed now, along with a few MRO-related bugs that
3394existed before 5.10.0:
3395
3396=over
3397
3398=item *
3399
3400The following used to have erratic effects on method resolution, because
3401the "isa" caches were not reset or otherwise ended up listing the wrong
3402classes. These have been fixed.
3403
3404=over
3405
3406=item Aliasing packages by assigning to globs [perl #77358]
3407
3408=item Deleting packages by deleting their containing stash elements
3409
3410=item Undefining the glob containing a package (C<undef *Foo::>)
3411
3412=item Undefining an ISA glob (C<undef *Foo::ISA>)
3413
3414=item Deleting an ISA stash element (C<delete $Foo::{ISA}>)
3415
3416=item Sharing @ISA arrays between classes (via C<*Foo::ISA = \@Bar::ISA> or
3417C<*Foo::ISA = *Bar::ISA>) [perl #77238]
3418
3419=back
3420
3421C<undef *Foo::ISA> would even stop a new C<@Foo::ISA> array from updating
3422caches.
3423
3424=item *
3425
3426Typeglob assignments would crash if the glob's stash no longer existed, so
3427long as the glob assigned to was named 'ISA' or the glob on either side of
3428the assignment contained a subroutine.
3429
3430=item *
3431
3432C<PL_isarev>, which is accessible to Perl via C<mro::get_isarev> is now
3433updated properly when packages are deleted or removed from the C<@ISA> of
3434other classes. This allows many packages to be created and deleted without
3435causing a memory leak [perl #75176].
3436
3437=back
3438
3439In addition, various other bugs related to typeglobs and stashes have been
3440fixed:
5076a392 3441
e8e35311 3442=over
5076a392
FC
3443
3444=item *
3445
e8e35311 3446Some work has been done on the internal pointers that link between symbol
e262cb24 3447tables (stashes), typeglobs and subroutines. This has the effect that
e8e35311
FC
3448various edge cases related to deleting stashes or stash entries (e.g.
3449<%FOO:: = ()>), and complex typeglob or code reference aliasing, will no
3450longer crash the interpreter.
5076a392
FC
3451
3452=item *
3453
e262cb24
FC
3454Assigning a reference to a glob copy now assigns to a glob slot instead of
3455overwriting the glob with a scalar [perl #1804] [perl #77508].
5076a392
FC
3456
3457=item *
3458
e8e35311
FC
3459A bug when replacing the glob of a loop variable within the loop has been fixed
3460[perl #21469]. This
3461means the following code will no longer crash:
5076a392 3462
e8e35311
FC
3463 for $x (...) {
3464 *x = *y;
3465 }
5076a392
FC
3466
3467=item *
3468
3469Assigning a glob to a PVLV used to convert it to a plain string. Now it
3470works correctly, and a PVLV can hold a glob. This would happen when a
3471nonexistent hash or array element was passed to a subroutine:
3472
3473 sub { $_[0] = *foo }->($hash{key});
3474 # $_[0] would have been the string "*main::foo"
3475
3476It also happened when a glob was assigned to, or returned from, an element
3477of a tied array or hash [perl #36051].
3478
3479=item *
44691e6f 3480
e8e35311 3481When trying to report C<Use of uninitialized value $Foo::BAR>, crashes could
e262cb24
FC
3482occur if the glob holding the global variable in question had been detached
3483from its original stash by, for example, C<delete $::{'Foo::'}>. This has
3484been fixed by disabling the reporting of variable names in those
e8e35311 3485cases.
44691e6f
AB
3486
3487=item *
3488
e8e35311
FC
3489During the restoration of a localised typeglob on scope exit, any
3490destructors called as a result would be able to see the typeglob in an
3491inconsistent state, containing freed entries, which could result in a
3492crash. This would affect code like this:
3493
3494 local *@;
3495 eval { die bless [] }; # puts an object in $@
3496 sub DESTROY {
3497 local $@; # boom
3498 }
3499
3500Now the glob entries are cleared before any destructors are called. This
3501also means that destructors can vivify entries in the glob. So perl tries
3502again and, if the entries are re-created too many times, dies with a
3503'panic: gp_free...' error message.
3504
3505=back
3506
3507=head2 Unicode
3508
3509=over
44691e6f 3510
5076a392 3511=item *
44691e6f 3512
e8e35311
FC
3513What has become known as the "Unicode Bug" is mostly resolved in this release.
3514Under C<use feature 'unicode_strings'>, the internal storage format of a
3515string no longer affects the external semantics. There are two known
3516exceptions. User-defined case changing functions, which are planned to
3517be deprecated in 5.14, require utf8-encoded strings to function; and the
3518character C<LATIN SMALL LETTER SHARP S> in regular expression
3519case-insensitive matching has a somewhat different set of bugs depending
3520on the internal storage format. Case-insensitive matching of all
3521characters that have multi-character matches, as this one does, is
3522problematical in Perl [perl #58182].
911a3729 3523
5076a392 3524=item *
c8c13991 3525
e8e35311
FC
3526The handling of Unicode non-characters has changed.
3527Previously they were mostly considered illegal, except that only one of
3528the 66 of them was known about in places. The Unicode standard
3529considers them legal, but forbids the "open interchange" of them.
3530This is part of the change to allow the internal use of any code point
3531(see L</Core Enhancements>). Together, these changes resolve
9a5a48b7
FC
3532[perl #38722], [perl #51918], [perl #51936], [perl #63446].
3533
3534=item *
3535
3536Naming a deprecated character in \N{...} no longer leaks memory.
3537
3538=item *
3539
cdc10f43
FC
3540We fixed a bug that could cause \N{} constructs followed by a single . to
3541be parsed incorrectly [perl #74978] (5.12.1).
3542
3543=item *
3544
9a5a48b7
FC
3545C<chop> now correctly handles characters above "\x{7fffffff}"
3546[perl #73246].
3547
3548=item *
3549
3550Passing to C<index> an offset beyond the end of the string when the string
3551is encoded internally in UTF8 no longer causes panics [perl #75898].
3552
3553=item *
3554
3555C<warn()> and C<die()> now respect utf8-encoded scalars [perl #45549].
c8c13991 3556
5076a392
FC
3557=item *
3558
9a5a48b7 3559Sometimes the UTF8 length cache would not be reset on a value
e8e35311 3560returned by substr, causing C<length(substr($uni_string,...))> to give
9a5a48b7
FC
3561wrong answers. With C<${^UTF8CACHE}> set to -1, it would produce a 'panic'
3562error message, too [perl #77692].
e8e35311
FC
3563