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pp_match(): output regex debugging info
[perl5.git] / pp_hot.c
CommitLineData
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1/* pp_hot.c
2 *
1129b882
NC
3 * Copyright (C) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000,
4 * 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 by Larry Wall and others
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LW
5 *
6 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
7 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
8 *
9 */
10
11/*
12 * Then he heard Merry change the note, and up went the Horn-cry of Buckland,
13 * shaking the air.
14 *
4ac71550
TC
15 * Awake! Awake! Fear, Fire, Foes! Awake!
16 * Fire, Foes! Awake!
17 *
18 * [p.1007 of _The Lord of the Rings_, VI/viii: "The Scouring of the Shire"]
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LW
19 */
20
166f8a29
DM
21/* This file contains 'hot' pp ("push/pop") functions that
22 * execute the opcodes that make up a perl program. A typical pp function
23 * expects to find its arguments on the stack, and usually pushes its
24 * results onto the stack, hence the 'pp' terminology. Each OP structure
25 * contains a pointer to the relevant pp_foo() function.
26 *
27 * By 'hot', we mean common ops whose execution speed is critical.
28 * By gathering them together into a single file, we encourage
29 * CPU cache hits on hot code. Also it could be taken as a warning not to
30 * change any code in this file unless you're sure it won't affect
31 * performance.
32 */
33
a0d0e21e 34#include "EXTERN.h"
864dbfa3 35#define PERL_IN_PP_HOT_C
a0d0e21e 36#include "perl.h"
e0be7821 37#include "regcomp.h"
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LW
38
39/* Hot code. */
40
41PP(pp_const)
42{
39644a26 43 dSP;
996c9baa 44 XPUSHs(cSVOP_sv);
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LW
45 RETURN;
46}
47
48PP(pp_nextstate)
49{
533c011a 50 PL_curcop = (COP*)PL_op;
a0d0e21e 51 TAINT_NOT; /* Each statement is presumed innocent */
4ebe6e95 52 PL_stack_sp = PL_stack_base + CX_CUR()->blk_oldsp;
a0d0e21e 53 FREETMPS;
f410a211 54 PERL_ASYNC_CHECK();
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LW
55 return NORMAL;
56}
57
58PP(pp_gvsv)
59{
39644a26 60 dSP;
924508f0 61 EXTEND(SP,1);
5d9574c1 62 if (UNLIKELY(PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO))
1d7c1841 63 PUSHs(save_scalar(cGVOP_gv));
a0d0e21e 64 else
c69033f2 65 PUSHs(GvSVn(cGVOP_gv));
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LW
66 RETURN;
67}
68
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DM
69
70/* also used for: pp_lineseq() pp_regcmaybe() pp_scalar() pp_scope() */
71
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72PP(pp_null)
73{
74 return NORMAL;
75}
76
3dd9d4e4
FC
77/* This is sometimes called directly by pp_coreargs, pp_grepstart and
78 amagic_call. */
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LW
79PP(pp_pushmark)
80{
3280af22 81 PUSHMARK(PL_stack_sp);
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LW
82 return NORMAL;
83}
84
85PP(pp_stringify)
86{
20b7effb 87 dSP; dTARGET;
4cc783ef
DD
88 SV * const sv = TOPs;
89 SETs(TARG);
90 sv_copypv(TARG, sv);
91 SvSETMAGIC(TARG);
92 /* no PUTBACK, SETs doesn't inc/dec SP */
93 return NORMAL;
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LW
94}
95
96PP(pp_gv)
97{
20b7effb 98 dSP;
ad64d0ec 99 XPUSHs(MUTABLE_SV(cGVOP_gv));
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LW
100 RETURN;
101}
102
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DM
103
104/* also used for: pp_andassign() */
105
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LW
106PP(pp_and)
107{
f410a211 108 PERL_ASYNC_CHECK();
4cc783ef
DD
109 {
110 /* SP is not used to remove a variable that is saved across the
111 sv_2bool_flags call in SvTRUE_NN, if a RISC/CISC or low/high machine
112 register or load/store vs direct mem ops macro is introduced, this
113 should be a define block between direct PL_stack_sp and dSP operations,
114 presently, using PL_stack_sp is bias towards CISC cpus */
115 SV * const sv = *PL_stack_sp;
116 if (!SvTRUE_NN(sv))
117 return NORMAL;
118 else {
119 if (PL_op->op_type == OP_AND)
120 --PL_stack_sp;
121 return cLOGOP->op_other;
122 }
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LW
123 }
124}
125
126PP(pp_sassign)
127{
20b7effb 128 dSP;
3e75a3c4
RU
129 /* sassign keeps its args in the optree traditionally backwards.
130 So we pop them differently.
131 */
132 SV *left = POPs; SV *right = TOPs;
748a9306 133
354eabfa 134 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpASSIGN_BACKWARDS) { /* {or,and,dor}assign */
0bd48802
AL
135 SV * const temp = left;
136 left = right; right = temp;
a0d0e21e 137 }
d48c660d
DM
138 assert(TAINTING_get || !TAINT_get);
139 if (UNLIKELY(TAINT_get) && !SvTAINTED(right))
a0d0e21e 140 TAINT_NOT;
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DM
141 if (UNLIKELY(PL_op->op_private & OPpASSIGN_CV_TO_GV)) {
142 /* *foo =\&bar */
3e75a3c4 143 SV * const cv = SvRV(right);
e26df76a 144 const U32 cv_type = SvTYPE(cv);
3e75a3c4 145 const bool is_gv = isGV_with_GP(left);
6136c704 146 const bool got_coderef = cv_type == SVt_PVCV || cv_type == SVt_PVFM;
e26df76a
NC
147
148 if (!got_coderef) {
149 assert(SvROK(cv));
150 }
151
3e75a3c4
RU
152 /* Can do the optimisation if left (LVALUE) is not a typeglob,
153 right (RVALUE) is a reference to something, and we're in void
e26df76a 154 context. */
13be902c 155 if (!got_coderef && !is_gv && GIMME_V == G_VOID) {
e26df76a 156 /* Is the target symbol table currently empty? */
3e75a3c4 157 GV * const gv = gv_fetchsv_nomg(left, GV_NOINIT, SVt_PVGV);
bb112e5a 158 if (SvTYPE(gv) != SVt_PVGV && !SvOK(gv)) {
e26df76a
NC
159 /* Good. Create a new proxy constant subroutine in the target.
160 The gv becomes a(nother) reference to the constant. */
161 SV *const value = SvRV(cv);
162
ad64d0ec 163 SvUPGRADE(MUTABLE_SV(gv), SVt_IV);
1ccdb730 164 SvPCS_IMPORTED_on(gv);
e26df76a 165 SvRV_set(gv, value);
b37c2d43 166 SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void(value);
3e75a3c4 167 SETs(left);
e26df76a
NC
168 RETURN;
169 }
170 }
171
172 /* Need to fix things up. */
13be902c 173 if (!is_gv) {
e26df76a 174 /* Need to fix GV. */
3e75a3c4 175 left = MUTABLE_SV(gv_fetchsv_nomg(left,GV_ADD, SVt_PVGV));
e26df76a
NC
176 }
177
178 if (!got_coderef) {
179 /* We've been returned a constant rather than a full subroutine,
180 but they expect a subroutine reference to apply. */
53a42478 181 if (SvROK(cv)) {
d343c3ef 182 ENTER_with_name("sassign_coderef");
53a42478
NC
183 SvREFCNT_inc_void(SvRV(cv));
184 /* newCONSTSUB takes a reference count on the passed in SV
185 from us. We set the name to NULL, otherwise we get into
186 all sorts of fun as the reference to our new sub is
187 donated to the GV that we're about to assign to.
188 */
3e75a3c4 189 SvRV_set(right, MUTABLE_SV(newCONSTSUB(GvSTASH(left), NULL,
ad64d0ec 190 SvRV(cv))));
fc2b2dca 191 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(cv);
d343c3ef 192 LEAVE_with_name("sassign_coderef");
53a42478
NC
193 } else {
194 /* What can happen for the corner case *{"BONK"} = \&{"BONK"};
195 is that
196 First: ops for \&{"BONK"}; return us the constant in the
197 symbol table
198 Second: ops for *{"BONK"} cause that symbol table entry
199 (and our reference to it) to be upgraded from RV
200 to typeblob)
201 Thirdly: We get here. cv is actually PVGV now, and its
202 GvCV() is actually the subroutine we're looking for
203
204 So change the reference so that it points to the subroutine
205 of that typeglob, as that's what they were after all along.
206 */
159b6efe 207 GV *const upgraded = MUTABLE_GV(cv);
53a42478
NC
208 CV *const source = GvCV(upgraded);
209
210 assert(source);
211 assert(CvFLAGS(source) & CVf_CONST);
212
0ad694a7 213 SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN(source);
fc2b2dca 214 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(upgraded);
3e75a3c4 215 SvRV_set(right, MUTABLE_SV(source));
53a42478 216 }
e26df76a 217 }
53a42478 218
e26df76a 219 }
8fe85e3f 220 if (
5d9574c1 221 UNLIKELY(SvTEMP(left)) && !SvSMAGICAL(left) && SvREFCNT(left) == 1 &&
3e75a3c4 222 (!isGV_with_GP(left) || SvFAKE(left)) && ckWARN(WARN_MISC)
8fe85e3f
FC
223 )
224 Perl_warner(aTHX_
225 packWARN(WARN_MISC), "Useless assignment to a temporary"
226 );
3e75a3c4
RU
227 SvSetMagicSV(left, right);
228 SETs(left);
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229 RETURN;
230}
231
232PP(pp_cond_expr)
233{
20b7effb 234 dSP;
f4c975aa
DM
235 SV *sv;
236
f410a211 237 PERL_ASYNC_CHECK();
f4c975aa
DM
238 sv = POPs;
239 RETURNOP(SvTRUE_NN(sv) ? cLOGOP->op_other : cLOGOP->op_next);
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LW
240}
241
242PP(pp_unstack)
243{
f5319de9 244 PERL_CONTEXT *cx;
8f3964af 245 PERL_ASYNC_CHECK();
a0d0e21e 246 TAINT_NOT; /* Each statement is presumed innocent */
4ebe6e95 247 cx = CX_CUR();
f5319de9 248 PL_stack_sp = PL_stack_base + cx->blk_oldsp;
a0d0e21e 249 FREETMPS;
eae48c89 250 if (!(PL_op->op_flags & OPf_SPECIAL)) {
93661e56 251 assert(CxTYPE(cx) == CXt_BLOCK || CxTYPE_is_LOOP(cx));
dfe0f39b 252 CX_LEAVE_SCOPE(cx);
eae48c89 253 }
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254 return NORMAL;
255}
256
16fe3f8a
DM
257
258/* The main body of pp_concat, not including the magic/overload and
259 * stack handling.
260 * It does targ = left . right.
261 * Moved into a separate function so that pp_multiconcat() can use it
262 * too.
263 */
264
265PERL_STATIC_INLINE void
266S_do_concat(pTHX_ SV *left, SV *right, SV *targ, U8 targmy)
a0d0e21e 267{
8d6d96c1
HS
268 bool lbyte;
269 STRLEN rlen;
d4c19fe8 270 const char *rpv = NULL;
a6b599c7 271 bool rbyte = FALSE;
a9c4fd4e 272 bool rcopied = FALSE;
8d6d96c1 273
6f1401dc
DM
274 if (TARG == right && right != left) { /* $r = $l.$r */
275 rpv = SvPV_nomg_const(right, rlen);
c75ab21a 276 rbyte = !DO_UTF8(right);
59cd0e26 277 right = newSVpvn_flags(rpv, rlen, SVs_TEMP);
349d4f2f 278 rpv = SvPV_const(right, rlen); /* no point setting UTF-8 here */
db79b45b 279 rcopied = TRUE;
8d6d96c1 280 }
7889fe52 281
89734059 282 if (TARG != left) { /* not $l .= $r */
a9c4fd4e 283 STRLEN llen;
6f1401dc 284 const char* const lpv = SvPV_nomg_const(left, llen);
90f5826e 285 lbyte = !DO_UTF8(left);
8d6d96c1
HS
286 sv_setpvn(TARG, lpv, llen);
287 if (!lbyte)
288 SvUTF8_on(TARG);
289 else
290 SvUTF8_off(TARG);
291 }
18ea7bf2
SM
292 else { /* $l .= $r and left == TARG */
293 if (!SvOK(left)) {
51f69a24 294 if ((left == right /* $l .= $l */
16fe3f8a 295 || targmy) /* $l = $l . $r */
51f69a24
AC
296 && ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED)
297 )
298 report_uninit(left);
adf14ec6 299 SvPVCLEAR(left);
c75ab21a 300 }
18ea7bf2
SM
301 else {
302 SvPV_force_nomg_nolen(left);
303 }
583a5589 304 lbyte = !DO_UTF8(left);
90f5826e 305 if (IN_BYTES)
18ea7bf2 306 SvUTF8_off(left);
8d6d96c1 307 }
a12c0f56 308
c75ab21a 309 if (!rcopied) {
6f1401dc 310 rpv = SvPV_nomg_const(right, rlen);
c75ab21a
RH
311 rbyte = !DO_UTF8(right);
312 }
8d6d96c1
HS
313 if (lbyte != rbyte) {
314 if (lbyte)
315 sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg(TARG);
316 else {
db79b45b 317 if (!rcopied)
59cd0e26 318 right = newSVpvn_flags(rpv, rlen, SVs_TEMP);
8d6d96c1 319 sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg(right);
6f1401dc 320 rpv = SvPV_nomg_const(right, rlen);
69b47968 321 }
a0d0e21e 322 }
8d6d96c1 323 sv_catpvn_nomg(TARG, rpv, rlen);
16fe3f8a
DM
324 SvSETMAGIC(TARG);
325}
326
43ebc500 327
16fe3f8a
DM
328PP(pp_concat)
329{
330 dSP; dATARGET; tryAMAGICbin_MG(concat_amg, AMGf_assign);
331 {
332 dPOPTOPssrl;
333 S_do_concat(aTHX_ left, right, targ, PL_op->op_private & OPpTARGET_MY);
334 SETs(TARG);
a0d0e21e 335 RETURN;
748a9306 336 }
a0d0e21e
LW
337}
338
e839e6ed
DM
339
340/* pp_multiconcat()
341
342Concatenate one or more args, possibly interleaved with constant string
343segments. The result may be assigned to, or appended to, a variable or
344expression.
345
346Several op_flags and/or op_private bits indicate what the target is, and
347whether it's appended to. Valid permutations are:
348
349 - (PADTMP) = (A.B.C....)
350 OPpTARGET_MY $lex = (A.B.C....)
351 OPpTARGET_MY,OPpLVAL_INTRO my $lex = (A.B.C....)
352 OPpTARGET_MY,OPpMULTICONCAT_APPEND $lex .= (A.B.C....)
353 OPf_STACKED expr = (A.B.C....)
354 OPf_STACKED,OPpMULTICONCAT_APPEND expr .= (A.B.C....)
355
356Other combinations like (A.B).(C.D) are not optimised into a multiconcat
357op, as it's too hard to get the correct ordering of ties, overload etc.
358
359In addition:
360
361 OPpMULTICONCAT_FAKE: not a real concat, instead an optimised
362 sprintf "...%s...". Don't call '.'
363 overloading: only use '""' overloading.
364
55b62dee
DM
365 OPpMULTICONCAT_STRINGIFY: the RHS was of the form
366 "...$a...$b..." rather than
e839e6ed
DM
367 "..." . $a . "..." . $b . "..."
368
369An OP_MULTICONCAT is of type UNOP_AUX. The fixed slots of the aux array are
370defined with PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_FOO constants, where:
371
372
373 FOO index description
374 -------- ----- ----------------------------------
375 NARGS 0 number of arguments
376 PLAIN_PV 1 non-utf8 constant string
377 PLAIN_LEN 2 non-utf8 constant string length
378 UTF8_PV 3 utf8 constant string
379 UTF8_LEN 4 utf8 constant string length
380 LENGTHS 5 first of nargs+1 const segment lengths
381
382The idea is that a general string concatenation will have a fixed (known
383at compile time) number of variable args, interspersed with constant
384strings, e.g. "a=$a b=$b\n"
385
386All the constant string segments "a=", " b=" and "\n" are stored as a
387single string "a= b=\n", pointed to from the PLAIN_PV/UTF8_PV slot, along
388with a series of segment lengths: e.g. 2,3,1. In the case where the
389constant string is plain but has a different utf8 representation, both
390variants are stored, and two sets of (nargs+1) segments lengths are stored
391in the slots beginning at PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_LENGTHS.
392
393A segment length of -1 indicates that there is no constant string at that
394point; this distinguishes between e.g. ($a . $b) and ($a . "" . $b), which
395have differing overloading behaviour.
396
397*/
398
399PP(pp_multiconcat)
400{
401 dSP;
402 SV *targ; /* The SV to be assigned or appended to */
057ba76a 403 char *targ_pv; /* where within SvPVX(targ) we're writing to */
e839e6ed
DM
404 STRLEN targ_len; /* SvCUR(targ) */
405 SV **toparg; /* the highest arg position on the stack */
406 UNOP_AUX_item *aux; /* PL_op->op_aux buffer */
407 UNOP_AUX_item *const_lens; /* the segment length array part of aux */
408 const char *const_pv; /* the current segment of the const string buf */
ca84e88e
DM
409 SSize_t nargs; /* how many args were expected */
410 SSize_t stack_adj; /* how much to adjust SP on return */
057ba76a 411 STRLEN grow; /* final size of destination string (targ) */
e839e6ed
DM
412 UV targ_count; /* how many times targ has appeared on the RHS */
413 bool is_append; /* OPpMULTICONCAT_APPEND flag is set */
414 bool slow_concat; /* args too complex for quick concat */
415 U32 dst_utf8; /* the result will be utf8 (indicate this with
416 SVf_UTF8 in a U32, rather than using bool,
417 for ease of testing and setting) */
418 /* for each arg, holds the result of an SvPV() call */
419 struct multiconcat_svpv {
420 char *pv;
421 SSize_t len;
422 }
423 *targ_chain, /* chain of slots where targ has appeared on RHS */
424 *svpv_p, /* ptr for looping through svpv_buf */
425 *svpv_base, /* first slot (may be greater than svpv_buf), */
426 *svpv_end, /* and slot after highest result so far, of: */
427 svpv_buf[PERL_MULTICONCAT_MAXARG]; /* buf for storing SvPV() results */
428
429 aux = cUNOP_AUXx(PL_op)->op_aux;
ca84e88e 430 stack_adj = nargs = aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_NARGS].ssize;
e839e6ed
DM
431 is_append = cBOOL(PL_op->op_private & OPpMULTICONCAT_APPEND);
432
433 /* get targ from the stack or pad */
434
435 if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_STACKED) {
436 if (is_append) {
437 /* for 'expr .= ...', expr is the bottom item on the stack */
438 targ = SP[-nargs];
439 stack_adj++;
440 }
441 else
442 /* for 'expr = ...', expr is the top item on the stack */
443 targ = POPs;
444 }
445 else {
446 SV **svp = &(PAD_SVl(PL_op->op_targ));
447 targ = *svp;
448 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO) {
449 assert(PL_op->op_private & OPpTARGET_MY);
450 save_clearsv(svp);
451 }
452 if (!nargs)
453 /* $lex .= "const" doesn't cause anything to be pushed */
454 EXTEND(SP,1);
455 }
456
457 toparg = SP;
458 SP -= (nargs - 1);
e839e6ed
DM
459 grow = 1; /* allow for '\0' at minimum */
460 targ_count = 0;
461 targ_chain = NULL;
462 targ_len = 0;
463 svpv_end = svpv_buf;
464 /* only utf8 variants of the const strings? */
465 dst_utf8 = aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_PLAIN_PV].pv ? 0 : SVf_UTF8;
466
467
468 /* --------------------------------------------------------------
469 * Phase 1:
470 *
471 * stringify (i.e. SvPV()) every arg and store the resultant pv/len/utf8
472 * triplets in svpv_buf[]. Also increment 'grow' by the args' lengths.
473 *
474 * utf8 is indicated by storing a negative length.
475 *
476 * Where an arg is actually targ, the stringification is deferred:
477 * the length is set to 0, and the slot is added to targ_chain.
478 *
af390142
DM
479 * If a magic, overloaded, or otherwise weird arg is found, which
480 * might have side effects when stringified, the loop is abandoned and
481 * we goto a code block where a more basic 'emulate calling
482 * pp_cpncat() on each arg in turn' is done.
e839e6ed
DM
483 */
484
485 for (; SP <= toparg; SP++, svpv_end++) {
e839e6ed
DM
486 U32 utf8;
487 STRLEN len;
488 SV *sv;
489
490 assert(svpv_end - svpv_buf < PERL_MULTICONCAT_MAXARG);
491
492 sv = *SP;
e839e6ed
DM
493
494 /* this if/else chain is arranged so that common/simple cases
495 * take few conditionals */
496
af390142
DM
497 if (LIKELY((SvFLAGS(sv) & (SVs_GMG|SVf_ROK|SVf_POK)) == SVf_POK)) {
498 /* common case: sv is a simple non-magical PV */
499 if (targ == sv) {
500 /* targ appears on RHS.
501 * Delay storing PV pointer; instead, add slot to targ_chain
502 * so it can be populated later, after targ has been grown and
503 * we know its final SvPVX() address.
504 */
505 targ_on_rhs:
506 svpv_end->len = 0; /* zerojng here means we can skip
507 updating later if targ_len == 0 */
508 svpv_end->pv = (char*)targ_chain;
509 targ_chain = svpv_end;
510 targ_count++;
511 continue;
512 }
513
e839e6ed 514 len = SvCUR(sv);
af390142 515 svpv_end->pv = SvPVX(sv);
e839e6ed 516 }
af390142
DM
517 else if (UNLIKELY(SvFLAGS(sv) & (SVs_GMG|SVf_ROK)))
518 /* may have side effects: tie, overload etc.
519 * Abandon 'stringify everything first' and handle
520 * args in strict order. Note that already-stringified args
521 * will be reprocessed, which is safe because the each first
522 * stringification would have been idempotent.
e839e6ed 523 */
af390142
DM
524 goto do_magical;
525 else if (SvNIOK(sv)) {
526 if (targ == sv)
527 goto targ_on_rhs;
528 /* stringify general valid scalar */
e839e6ed
DM
529 svpv_end->pv = sv_2pv_flags(sv, &len, 0);
530 }
af390142
DM
531 else if (!SvOK(sv)) {
532 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
533 /* an undef value in the presence of warnings may trigger
534 * side affects */
535 goto do_magical;
536 svpv_end->pv = (char*)"";
537 len = 0;
538 }
539 else
540 goto do_magical; /* something weird */
e839e6ed
DM
541
542 utf8 = (SvFLAGS(sv) & SVf_UTF8);
543 dst_utf8 |= utf8;
544 ASSUME(len < SSize_t_MAX);
545 svpv_end->len = utf8 ? -(SSize_t)len : (SSize_t)len;
546 grow += len;
547 }
548
549 /* --------------------------------------------------------------
550 * Phase 2:
551 *
552 * Stringify targ:
553 *
554 * if targ appears on the RHS or is appended to, force stringify it;
555 * otherwise set it to "". Then set targ_len.
556 */
557
558 if (is_append) {
af390142
DM
559 /* abandon quick route if using targ might have side effects */
560 if (UNLIKELY(SvFLAGS(targ) & (SVs_GMG|SVf_ROK)))
561 goto do_magical;
e839e6ed
DM
562
563 if (SvOK(targ)) {
564 U32 targ_utf8;
565 stringify_targ:
566 SvPV_force_nomg_nolen(targ);
567 targ_utf8 = SvFLAGS(targ) & SVf_UTF8;
568 if (UNLIKELY(dst_utf8 & ~targ_utf8)) {
569 if (LIKELY(!IN_BYTES))
570 sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg(targ);
571 }
572 else
573 dst_utf8 |= targ_utf8;
574
575 targ_len = SvCUR(targ);
576 grow += targ_len * (targ_count + is_append);
577 goto phase3;
578 }
af390142
DM
579 else if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
580 /* warning might have side effects */
581 goto do_magical;
582 /* the undef targ will be silently SvPVCLEAR()ed below */
e839e6ed
DM
583 }
584 else if (UNLIKELY(SvTYPE(targ) >= SVt_REGEXP)) {
585 /* Assigning to some weird LHS type. Don't force the LHS to be an
586 * empty string; instead, do things 'long hand' by using the
587 * overload code path, which concats to a TEMP sv and does
588 * sv_catsv() calls rather than COPY()s. This ensures that even
589 * bizarre code like this doesn't break or crash:
590 * *F = *F . *F.
591 * (which makes the 'F' typeglob an alias to the
592 * '*main::F*main::F' typeglob).
593 */
af390142 594 goto do_magical;
e839e6ed 595 }
af390142 596 else if (targ_chain)
e839e6ed 597 /* targ was found on RHS.
af390142
DM
598 * Force stringify it, using the same code as the append branch
599 * above, except that we don't need the magic/overload/undef
600 * checks as these will already have been done in the phase 1
601 * loop.
e839e6ed 602 */
e839e6ed 603 goto stringify_targ;
e839e6ed
DM
604
605 /* unrolled SvPVCLEAR() - mostly: no need to grow or set SvCUR() to 0;
606 * those will be done later. */
e839e6ed
DM
607 SV_CHECK_THINKFIRST_COW_DROP(targ);
608 SvUPGRADE(targ, SVt_PV);
609 SvFLAGS(targ) &= ~(SVf_OK|SVf_IVisUV|SVf_UTF8);
610 SvFLAGS(targ) |= (SVf_POK|SVp_POK|dst_utf8);
611
612 phase3:
613
614 /* --------------------------------------------------------------
615 * Phase 3:
616 *
057ba76a 617 * UTF-8 tweaks and grow targ:
e839e6ed
DM
618 *
619 * Now that we know the length and utf8-ness of both the targ and
057ba76a 620 * args, grow targ to the size needed to accumulate all the args, based
e839e6ed
DM
621 * on whether targ appears on the RHS, whether we're appending, and
622 * whether any non-utf8 args expand in size if converted to utf8.
623 *
624 * For the latter, if dst_utf8 we scan non-utf8 args looking for
625 * variant chars, and adjust the svpv->len value of those args to the
626 * utf8 size and negate it to flag them. At the same time we un-negate
627 * the lens of any utf8 args since after this phase we no longer care
628 * whether an arg is utf8 or not.
629 *
630 * Finally, initialise const_lens and const_pv based on utf8ness.
631 * Note that there are 3 permutations:
632 *
633 * * If the constant string is invariant whether utf8 or not (e.g. "abc"),
634 * then aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_PLAIN_PV/LEN] are the same as
635 * aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_UTF8_PV/LEN] and there is one set of
636 * segment lengths.
637 *
638 * * If the string is fully utf8, e.g. "\x{100}", then
639 * aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_PLAIN_PV/LEN] == (NULL,0) and there is
640 * one set of segment lengths.
641 *
642 * * If the string has different plain and utf8 representations
643 * (e.g. "\x80"), then then aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_PLAIN_PV/LEN]]
644 * holds the plain rep, while aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_UTF8_PV/LEN]
645 * holds the utf8 rep, and there are 2 sets of segment lengths,
646 * with the utf8 set following after the plain set.
647 *
648 * On entry to this section the (pv,len) pairs in svpv_buf have the
649 * following meanings:
650 * (pv, len) a plain string
651 * (pv, -len) a utf8 string
652 * (NULL, 0) left-most targ \ linked together R-to-L
653 * (next, 0) other targ / in targ_chain
654 */
655
656 /* turn off utf8 handling if 'use bytes' is in scope */
657 if (UNLIKELY(dst_utf8 && IN_BYTES)) {
658 dst_utf8 = 0;
057ba76a 659 SvUTF8_off(targ);
e839e6ed
DM
660 /* undo all the negative lengths which flag utf8-ness */
661 for (svpv_p = svpv_buf; svpv_p < svpv_end; svpv_p++) {
662 SSize_t len = svpv_p->len;
663 if (len < 0)
664 svpv_p->len = -len;
665 }
666 }
667
668 /* grow += total of lengths of constant string segments */
669 {
670 SSize_t len;
671 len = aux[dst_utf8 ? PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_UTF8_LEN
b5bf9f73 672 : PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_PLAIN_LEN].ssize;
e839e6ed
DM
673 slow_concat = cBOOL(len);
674 grow += len;
675 }
676
677 const_lens = aux + PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_LENGTHS;
678
679 if (dst_utf8) {
680 const_pv = aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_UTF8_PV].pv;
681 if ( aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_PLAIN_PV].pv
682 && const_pv != aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_PLAIN_PV].pv)
683 /* separate sets of lengths for plain and utf8 */
684 const_lens += nargs + 1;
685
686 /* If the result is utf8 but some of the args aren't,
687 * calculate how much extra growth is needed for all the chars
688 * which will expand to two utf8 bytes.
689 * Also, if the growth is non-zero, negate the length to indicate
690 * that this this is a variant string. Conversely, un-negate the
691 * length on utf8 args (which was only needed to flag non-utf8
692 * args in this loop */
693 for (svpv_p = svpv_buf; svpv_p < svpv_end; svpv_p++) {
7d5ed5d0 694 SSize_t len, extra;
e839e6ed
DM
695
696 len = svpv_p->len;
697 if (len <= 0) {
698 svpv_p->len = -len;
699 continue;
700 }
701
7d5ed5d0
KW
702 extra = variant_under_utf8_count((U8 *) svpv_p->pv,
703 (U8 *) svpv_p->pv + len);
e839e6ed
DM
704 if (UNLIKELY(extra)) {
705 grow += extra;
706 /* -ve len indicates special handling */
707 svpv_p->len = -(len + extra);
708 slow_concat = TRUE;
709 }
710 }
711 }
712 else
713 const_pv = aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_PLAIN_PV].pv;
714
715 /* unrolled SvGROW(), except don't check for SVf_IsCOW, which should
716 * already have been dropped */
057ba76a
DM
717 assert(!SvIsCOW(targ));
718 targ_pv = (SvLEN(targ) < (grow) ? sv_grow(targ,grow) : SvPVX(targ));
e839e6ed
DM
719
720
721 /* --------------------------------------------------------------
722 * Phase 4:
723 *
057ba76a
DM
724 * Now that targ has been grown, we know the final address of the targ
725 * PVX, if needed. Preserve / move targ contents if appending or if
726 * targ appears on RHS.
e839e6ed
DM
727 *
728 * Also update svpv_buf slots in targ_chain.
729 *
730 * Don't bother with any of this if the target length is zero:
731 * targ_len is set to zero unless we're appending or targ appears on
732 * RHS. And even if it is, we can optimise by skipping this chunk of
733 * code for zero targ_len. In the latter case, we don't need to update
734 * the slots in targ_chain with the (zero length) target string, since
735 * we set the len in such slots to 0 earlier, and since the Copy() is
736 * skipped on zero length, it doesn't matter what svpv_p->pv contains.
737 *
738 * On entry to this section the (pv,len) pairs in svpv_buf have the
739 * following meanings:
740 * (pv, len) a pure-plain or utf8 string
741 * (pv, -(len+extra)) a plain string which will expand by 'extra'
742 * bytes when converted to utf8
743 * (NULL, 0) left-most targ \ linked together R-to-L
744 * (next, 0) other targ / in targ_chain
745 *
746 * On exit, the targ contents will have been moved to the
747 * earliest place they are needed (e.g. $x = "abc$x" will shift them
748 * 3 bytes, while $x .= ... will leave them at the beginning);
057ba76a 749 * and dst_pv will point to the location within SvPVX(targ) where the
e839e6ed
DM
750 * next arg should be copied.
751 */
752
753 svpv_base = svpv_buf;
754
755 if (targ_len) {
756 struct multiconcat_svpv *tc_stop;
057ba76a 757 char *targ_buf = targ_pv; /* ptr to original targ string */
e839e6ed 758
e839e6ed
DM
759 assert(is_append || targ_count);
760
761 if (is_append) {
057ba76a 762 targ_pv += targ_len;
e839e6ed
DM
763 tc_stop = NULL;
764 }
765 else {
766 /* The targ appears on RHS, e.g. '$t = $a . $t . $t'.
767 * Move the current contents of targ to the first
768 * position where it's needed, and use that as the src buffer
769 * for any further uses (such as the second RHS $t above).
770 * In calculating the first position, we need to sum the
771 * lengths of all consts and args before that.
772 */
773
774 UNOP_AUX_item *lens = const_lens;
775 /* length of first const string segment */
b5bf9f73 776 STRLEN offset = lens->ssize > 0 ? lens->ssize : 0;
e839e6ed
DM
777
778 assert(targ_chain);
779 svpv_p = svpv_base;
780
781 for (;;) {
782 SSize_t len;
783 if (!svpv_p->pv)
784 break; /* the first targ argument */
785 /* add lengths of the next arg and const string segment */
786 len = svpv_p->len;
787 if (len < 0) /* variant args have this */
788 len = -len;
789 offset += (STRLEN)len;
b5bf9f73 790 len = (++lens)->ssize;
e839e6ed
DM
791 offset += (len >= 0) ? (STRLEN)len : 0;
792 if (!offset) {
793 /* all args and consts so far are empty; update
794 * the start position for the concat later */
795 svpv_base++;
796 const_lens++;
797 }
798 svpv_p++;
799 assert(svpv_p < svpv_end);
800 }
801
802 if (offset) {
057ba76a
DM
803 targ_buf += offset;
804 Move(targ_pv, targ_buf, targ_len, char);
e839e6ed 805 /* a negative length implies don't Copy(), but do increment */
90b21a3e 806 svpv_p->len = -((SSize_t)targ_len);
e839e6ed
DM
807 slow_concat = TRUE;
808 }
809 else {
810 /* skip the first targ copy */
811 svpv_base++;
812 const_lens++;
057ba76a 813 targ_pv += targ_len;
e839e6ed
DM
814 }
815
816 /* Don't populate the first targ slot in the loop below; it's
817 * either not used because we advanced svpv_base beyond it, or
818 * we already stored the special -targ_len value in it
819 */
820 tc_stop = svpv_p;
821 }
822
823 /* populate slots in svpv_buf representing targ on RHS */
824 while (targ_chain != tc_stop) {
825 struct multiconcat_svpv *p = targ_chain;
826 targ_chain = (struct multiconcat_svpv *)(p->pv);
057ba76a 827 p->pv = targ_buf;
e839e6ed
DM
828 p->len = (SSize_t)targ_len;
829 }
830 }
831
832
833 /* --------------------------------------------------------------
834 * Phase 5:
835 *
057ba76a 836 * Append all the args in svpv_buf, plus the const strings, to targ.
e839e6ed
DM
837 *
838 * On entry to this section the (pv,len) pairs in svpv_buf have the
839 * following meanings:
840 * (pv, len) a pure-plain or utf8 string (which may be targ)
841 * (pv, -(len+extra)) a plain string which will expand by 'extra'
842 * bytes when converted to utf8
843 * (0, -len) left-most targ, whose content has already
057ba76a 844 * been copied. Just advance targ_pv by len.
e839e6ed
DM
845 */
846
847 /* If there are no constant strings and no special case args
848 * (svpv_p->len < 0), use a simpler, more efficient concat loop
849 */
850 if (!slow_concat) {
851 for (svpv_p = svpv_base; svpv_p < svpv_end; svpv_p++) {
852 SSize_t len = svpv_p->len;
853 if (!len)
854 continue;
057ba76a
DM
855 Copy(svpv_p->pv, targ_pv, len, char);
856 targ_pv += len;
e839e6ed
DM
857 }
858 const_lens += (svpv_end - svpv_base + 1);
859 }
860 else {
861 /* Note that we iterate the loop nargs+1 times: to append nargs
862 * arguments and nargs+1 constant strings. For example, "-$a-$b-"
863 */
864 svpv_p = svpv_base - 1;
865
866 for (;;) {
b5bf9f73 867 SSize_t len = (const_lens++)->ssize;
e839e6ed
DM
868
869 /* append next const string segment */
870 if (len > 0) {
057ba76a
DM
871 Copy(const_pv, targ_pv, len, char);
872 targ_pv += len;
e839e6ed
DM
873 const_pv += len;
874 }
875
876 if (++svpv_p == svpv_end)
877 break;
878
879 /* append next arg */
880 len = svpv_p->len;
881
882 if (LIKELY(len > 0)) {
057ba76a
DM
883 Copy(svpv_p->pv, targ_pv, len, char);
884 targ_pv += len;
e839e6ed
DM
885 }
886 else if (UNLIKELY(len < 0)) {
887 /* negative length indicates two special cases */
888 const char *p = svpv_p->pv;
889 len = -len;
890 if (UNLIKELY(p)) {
891 /* copy plain-but-variant pv to a utf8 targ */
057ba76a 892 char * end_pv = targ_pv + len;
e839e6ed 893 assert(dst_utf8);
057ba76a 894 while (targ_pv < end_pv) {
e839e6ed 895 U8 c = (U8) *p++;
057ba76a 896 append_utf8_from_native_byte(c, (U8**)&targ_pv);
e839e6ed
DM
897 }
898 }
899 else
900 /* arg is already-copied targ */
057ba76a 901 targ_pv += len;
e839e6ed
DM
902 }
903
904 }
905 }
906
057ba76a
DM
907 *targ_pv = '\0';
908 SvCUR_set(targ, targ_pv - SvPVX(targ));
909 assert(grow >= SvCUR(targ) + 1);
910 assert(SvLEN(targ) >= SvCUR(targ) + 1);
e839e6ed
DM
911
912 /* --------------------------------------------------------------
913 * Phase 6:
914 *
af390142 915 * return result
e839e6ed
DM
916 */
917
af390142
DM
918 SP -= stack_adj;
919 SvTAINT(targ);
920 SETTARG;
921 RETURN;
e839e6ed 922
af390142
DM
923 /* --------------------------------------------------------------
924 * Phase 7:
925 *
926 * We only get here if any of the args (or targ too in the case of
927 * append) have something which might cause side effects, such
928 * as magic, overload, or an undef value in the presence of warnings.
929 * In that case, any earlier attempt to stringify the args will have
930 * been abandoned, and we come here instead.
931 *
932 * Here, we concat each arg in turn the old-fashioned way: essentially
933 * emulating pp_concat() in a loop. This means that all the weird edge
934 * cases will be handled correctly, if not necessarily speedily.
935 *
936 * Note that some args may already have been stringified - those are
937 * processed again, which is safe, since only args without side-effects
938 * were stringified earlier.
939 */
940
941 do_magical:
942 {
943 SSize_t i, n;
944 SV *left = NULL;
945 SV *right;
946 SV* nexttarg;
947 bool nextappend;
948 U32 utf8 = 0;
949 SV **svp;
950 const char *cpv = aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_PLAIN_PV].pv;
951 UNOP_AUX_item *lens = aux + PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_LENGTHS;
55b62dee 952 Size_t arg_count = 0; /* how many args have been processed */
af390142
DM
953
954 if (!cpv) {
955 cpv = aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_UTF8_PV].pv;
956 utf8 = SVf_UTF8;
957 }
958
959 svp = toparg - nargs + 1;
960
961 /* iterate for:
962 * nargs arguments,
963 * plus possible nargs+1 consts,
964 * plus, if appending, a final targ in an extra last iteration
965 */
966
967 n = nargs *2 + 1;
55b62dee
DM
968 for (i = 0; i <= n; i++) {
969 SSize_t len;
970
971 /* if necessary, stringify the final RHS result in
972 * something like $targ .= "$a$b$c" - simulating
973 * pp_stringify
974 */
975 if ( i == n
976 && (PL_op->op_private &OPpMULTICONCAT_STRINGIFY)
977 && !(SvPOK(left))
978 /* extra conditions for backwards compatibility:
979 * probably incorrect, but keep the existing behaviour
980 * for now. The rules are:
981 * $x = "$ov" single arg: stringify;
982 * $x = "$ov$y" multiple args: don't stringify,
983 * $lex = "$ov$y$z" except TARGMY with at least 2 concats
984 */
985 && ( arg_count == 1
986 || ( arg_count >= 3
987 && !is_append
988 && (PL_op->op_private & OPpTARGET_MY)
989 && !(PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO)
990 )
991 )
992 )
993 {
994 SV *tmp = sv_newmortal();
995 sv_copypv(tmp, left);
996 SvSETMAGIC(tmp);
997 left = tmp;
998 }
999
1000 /* do one extra iteration to handle $targ in $targ .= ... */
1001 if (i == n && !is_append)
1002 break;
1003
af390142 1004 /* get the next arg SV or regen the next const SV */
55b62dee 1005 len = lens[i >> 1].ssize;
af390142
DM
1006 if (i == n) {
1007 /* handle the final targ .= (....) */
1008 right = left;
1009 left = targ;
1010 }
1011 else if (i & 1)
1012 right = svp[(i >> 1)];
1013 else if (len < 0)
1014 continue; /* no const in this position */
1015 else {
1016 right = newSVpvn_flags(cpv, len, (utf8 | SVs_TEMP));
1017 cpv += len;
1018 }
e839e6ed 1019
55b62dee
DM
1020 arg_count++;
1021
1022 if (arg_count <= 1) {
af390142
DM
1023 left = right;
1024 continue; /* need at least two SVs to concat together */
1025 }
1026
55b62dee 1027 if (arg_count == 2 && i < n) {
af390142
DM
1028 /* for the first concat, create a mortal acting like the
1029 * padtmp from OP_CONST. In later iterations this will
1030 * be appended to */
1031 nexttarg = sv_newmortal();
1032 nextappend = FALSE;
af390142
DM
1033 }
1034 else {
1035 nexttarg = left;
1036 nextappend = TRUE;
1037 }
1038
1039 /* Handle possible overloading.
1040 * This is basically an unrolled
1041 * tryAMAGICbin_MG(concat_amg, AMGf_assign);
1042 * and
1043 * Perl_try_amagic_bin()
1044 * call, but using left and right rather than SP[-1], SP[0],
1045 * and not relying on OPf_STACKED implying .=
e839e6ed 1046 */
e839e6ed 1047
af390142
DM
1048 if ((SvFLAGS(left)|SvFLAGS(right)) & (SVf_ROK|SVs_GMG)) {
1049 SvGETMAGIC(left);
1050 if (left != right)
1051 SvGETMAGIC(right);
1052
1053 if ((SvAMAGIC(left) || SvAMAGIC(right))
1054 /* sprintf doesn't do concat overloading,
1055 * but allow for $x .= sprintf(...)
1056 */
1057 && ( !(PL_op->op_private & OPpMULTICONCAT_FAKE)
1058 || i == n)
e839e6ed 1059 )
af390142
DM
1060 {
1061 SV * const tmpsv = amagic_call(left, right, concat_amg,
1062 (nextappend ? AMGf_assign: 0));
1063 if (tmpsv) {
7554d344
DM
1064 /* NB: tryAMAGICbin_MG() includes an OPpTARGET_MY test
1065 * here, which isn't needed as any implicit
1066 * assign done under OPpTARGET_MY is done after
af390142
DM
1067 * this loop */
1068 if (nextappend) {
1069 sv_setsv(left, tmpsv);
1070 SvSETMAGIC(left);
e839e6ed 1071 }
af390142
DM
1072 else
1073 left = tmpsv;
1074 continue;
1075 }
1076 }
1077
1078 /* if both args are the same magical value, make one a copy */
1079 if (left == right && SvGMAGICAL(left)) {
1080 left = sv_newmortal();
1081 /* Print the uninitialized warning now, so it includes the
1082 * variable name. */
1083 if (!SvOK(right)) {
1084 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
1085 report_uninit(right);
1086 sv_setsv_flags(left, &PL_sv_no, 0);
e839e6ed 1087 }
af390142
DM
1088 else
1089 sv_setsv_flags(left, right, 0);
1090 SvGETMAGIC(right);
e839e6ed
DM
1091 }
1092 }
e839e6ed 1093
af390142
DM
1094 /* nexttarg = left . right */
1095 S_do_concat(aTHX_ left, right, nexttarg, 0);
1096 left = nexttarg;
e839e6ed 1097 }
e839e6ed 1098
af390142 1099 SP = toparg - stack_adj + 1;
e839e6ed 1100
4e521aaf
DM
1101 /* Return the result of all RHS concats, unless this op includes
1102 * an assign ($lex = x.y.z or expr = x.y.z), in which case copy
1103 * to target (which will be $lex or expr).
af390142
DM
1104 * If we are appending, targ will already have been appended to in
1105 * the loop */
4e521aaf
DM
1106 if ( !is_append
1107 && ( (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_STACKED)
1108 || (PL_op->op_private & OPpTARGET_MY))
1109 ) {
af390142
DM
1110 sv_setsv(targ, left);
1111 SvSETMAGIC(targ);
1112 }
4e521aaf
DM
1113 else
1114 targ = left;
af390142
DM
1115 SETs(targ);
1116 RETURN;
1117 }
e839e6ed
DM
1118}
1119
1120
0b5aba47
DM
1121/* push the elements of av onto the stack.
1122 * Returns PL_op->op_next to allow tail-call optimisation of its callers */
d5524600 1123
0b5aba47 1124STATIC OP*
d5524600
DM
1125S_pushav(pTHX_ AV* const av)
1126{
1127 dSP;
c70927a6 1128 const SSize_t maxarg = AvFILL(av) + 1;
d5524600 1129 EXTEND(SP, maxarg);
5d9574c1 1130 if (UNLIKELY(SvRMAGICAL(av))) {
c70927a6
FC
1131 PADOFFSET i;
1132 for (i=0; i < (PADOFFSET)maxarg; i++) {
fd77b29b
FC
1133 SV ** const svp = av_fetch(av, i, FALSE);
1134 SP[i+1] = LIKELY(svp)
1135 ? *svp
1136 : UNLIKELY(PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD)
1f1dcfb5 1137 ? av_nonelem(av,i)
fd77b29b 1138 : &PL_sv_undef;
d5524600
DM
1139 }
1140 }
1141 else {
c70927a6
FC
1142 PADOFFSET i;
1143 for (i=0; i < (PADOFFSET)maxarg; i++) {
6661956a 1144 SV *sv = AvARRAY(av)[i];
fd77b29b
FC
1145 SP[i+1] = LIKELY(sv)
1146 ? sv
1147 : UNLIKELY(PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD)
1f1dcfb5 1148 ? av_nonelem(av,i)
fd77b29b 1149 : &PL_sv_undef;
ce0d59fd 1150 }
d5524600
DM
1151 }
1152 SP += maxarg;
1153 PUTBACK;
0b5aba47 1154 return NORMAL;
d5524600
DM
1155}
1156
1157
a7fd8ef6
DM
1158/* ($lex1,@lex2,...) or my ($lex1,@lex2,...) */
1159
1160PP(pp_padrange)
1161{
20b7effb 1162 dSP;
a7fd8ef6
DM
1163 PADOFFSET base = PL_op->op_targ;
1164 int count = (int)(PL_op->op_private) & OPpPADRANGE_COUNTMASK;
d5524600
DM
1165 if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
1166 /* fake the RHS of my ($x,$y,..) = @_ */
1167 PUSHMARK(SP);
0b5aba47 1168 (void)S_pushav(aTHX_ GvAVn(PL_defgv));
d5524600
DM
1169 SPAGAIN;
1170 }
1171
a7fd8ef6
DM
1172 /* note, this is only skipped for compile-time-known void cxt */
1173 if ((PL_op->op_flags & OPf_WANT) != OPf_WANT_VOID) {
19742f39
AL
1174 int i;
1175
a7fd8ef6
DM
1176 EXTEND(SP, count);
1177 PUSHMARK(SP);
1178 for (i = 0; i <count; i++)
1179 *++SP = PAD_SV(base+i);
1180 }
1181 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO) {
4e09461c
DM
1182 SV **svp = &(PAD_SVl(base));
1183 const UV payload = (UV)(
1184 (base << (OPpPADRANGE_COUNTSHIFT + SAVE_TIGHT_SHIFT))
1185 | (count << SAVE_TIGHT_SHIFT)
1186 | SAVEt_CLEARPADRANGE);
19742f39
AL
1187 int i;
1188
6d59e610 1189 STATIC_ASSERT_STMT(OPpPADRANGE_COUNTMASK + 1 == (1 << OPpPADRANGE_COUNTSHIFT));
d081a355
DM
1190 assert((payload >> (OPpPADRANGE_COUNTSHIFT+SAVE_TIGHT_SHIFT))
1191 == (Size_t)base);
a3444cc5
DM
1192 {
1193 dSS_ADD;
1194 SS_ADD_UV(payload);
1195 SS_ADD_END(1);
1196 }
4e09461c 1197
a7fd8ef6 1198 for (i = 0; i <count; i++)
4e09461c 1199 SvPADSTALE_off(*svp++); /* mark lexical as active */
a7fd8ef6
DM
1200 }
1201 RETURN;
1202}
1203
1204
a0d0e21e
LW
1205PP(pp_padsv)
1206{
20b7effb 1207 dSP;
6c28b496
DD
1208 EXTEND(SP, 1);
1209 {
1210 OP * const op = PL_op;
1211 /* access PL_curpad once */
1212 SV ** const padentry = &(PAD_SVl(op->op_targ));
1213 {
1214 dTARG;
1215 TARG = *padentry;
1216 PUSHs(TARG);
1217 PUTBACK; /* no pop/push after this, TOPs ok */
8ec5e241 1218 }
6c28b496
DD
1219 if (op->op_flags & OPf_MOD) {
1220 if (op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO)
1221 if (!(op->op_private & OPpPAD_STATE))
1222 save_clearsv(padentry);
1223 if (op->op_private & OPpDEREF) {
8f90a16d
FC
1224 /* TOPs is equivalent to TARG here. Using TOPs (SP) rather
1225 than TARG reduces the scope of TARG, so it does not
1226 span the call to save_clearsv, resulting in smaller
1227 machine code. */
6c28b496
DD
1228 TOPs = vivify_ref(TOPs, op->op_private & OPpDEREF);
1229 }
1230 }
1231 return op->op_next;
4633a7c4 1232 }
a0d0e21e
LW
1233}
1234
1235PP(pp_readline)
1236{
30901a8a 1237 dSP;
12dc5f94
DM
1238 /* pp_coreargs pushes a NULL to indicate no args passed to
1239 * CORE::readline() */
30901a8a
FC
1240 if (TOPs) {
1241 SvGETMAGIC(TOPs);
fc99edcf 1242 tryAMAGICunTARGETlist(iter_amg, 0);
30901a8a
FC
1243 PL_last_in_gv = MUTABLE_GV(*PL_stack_sp--);
1244 }
1245 else PL_last_in_gv = PL_argvgv, PL_stack_sp--;
6e592b3a
BM
1246 if (!isGV_with_GP(PL_last_in_gv)) {
1247 if (SvROK(PL_last_in_gv) && isGV_with_GP(SvRV(PL_last_in_gv)))
159b6efe 1248 PL_last_in_gv = MUTABLE_GV(SvRV(PL_last_in_gv));
8efb3254 1249 else {
f5284f61 1250 dSP;
ad64d0ec 1251 XPUSHs(MUTABLE_SV(PL_last_in_gv));
f5284f61 1252 PUTBACK;
897d3989 1253 Perl_pp_rv2gv(aTHX);
159b6efe 1254 PL_last_in_gv = MUTABLE_GV(*PL_stack_sp--);
745e740c 1255 assert((SV*)PL_last_in_gv == &PL_sv_undef || isGV_with_GP(PL_last_in_gv));
f5284f61
IZ
1256 }
1257 }
a0d0e21e
LW
1258 return do_readline();
1259}
1260
1261PP(pp_eq)
1262{
20b7effb 1263 dSP;
33efebe6
DM
1264 SV *left, *right;
1265
0872de45 1266 tryAMAGICbin_MG(eq_amg, AMGf_numeric);
33efebe6
DM
1267 right = POPs;
1268 left = TOPs;
1269 SETs(boolSV(
1270 (SvIOK_notUV(left) && SvIOK_notUV(right))
1271 ? (SvIVX(left) == SvIVX(right))
1272 : ( do_ncmp(left, right) == 0)
1273 ));
1274 RETURN;
a0d0e21e
LW
1275}
1276
b1c05ba5 1277
4c2c3128 1278/* also used for: pp_i_preinc() */
b1c05ba5 1279
a0d0e21e
LW
1280PP(pp_preinc)
1281{
4c2c3128
DM
1282 SV *sv = *PL_stack_sp;
1283
1284 if (LIKELY(((sv->sv_flags &
1285 (SVf_THINKFIRST|SVs_GMG|SVf_IVisUV|
1286 SVf_IOK|SVf_NOK|SVf_POK|SVp_NOK|SVp_POK|SVf_ROK))
1287 == SVf_IOK))
1288 && SvIVX(sv) != IV_MAX)
1289 {
1290 SvIV_set(sv, SvIVX(sv) + 1);
1291 }
1292 else /* Do all the PERL_PRESERVE_IVUV and hard cases in sv_inc */
1293 sv_inc(sv);
1294 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
1295 return NORMAL;
1296}
1297
1298
1299/* also used for: pp_i_predec() */
1300
1301PP(pp_predec)
1302{
1303 SV *sv = *PL_stack_sp;
1304
1305 if (LIKELY(((sv->sv_flags &
1306 (SVf_THINKFIRST|SVs_GMG|SVf_IVisUV|
1307 SVf_IOK|SVf_NOK|SVf_POK|SVp_NOK|SVp_POK|SVf_ROK))
1308 == SVf_IOK))
1309 && SvIVX(sv) != IV_MIN)
55497cff 1310 {
4c2c3128 1311 SvIV_set(sv, SvIVX(sv) - 1);
748a9306 1312 }
4c2c3128
DM
1313 else /* Do all the PERL_PRESERVE_IVUV and hard cases in sv_dec */
1314 sv_dec(sv);
1315 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
a0d0e21e
LW
1316 return NORMAL;
1317}
1318
b1c05ba5
DM
1319
1320/* also used for: pp_orassign() */
1321
a0d0e21e
LW
1322PP(pp_or)
1323{
20b7effb 1324 dSP;
f4c975aa 1325 SV *sv;
f410a211 1326 PERL_ASYNC_CHECK();
f4c975aa
DM
1327 sv = TOPs;
1328 if (SvTRUE_NN(sv))
a0d0e21e
LW
1329 RETURN;
1330 else {
c960fc3b
SP
1331 if (PL_op->op_type == OP_OR)
1332 --SP;
a0d0e21e
LW
1333 RETURNOP(cLOGOP->op_other);
1334 }
1335}
1336
b1c05ba5
DM
1337
1338/* also used for: pp_dor() pp_dorassign() */
1339
25a55bd7 1340PP(pp_defined)
c963b151 1341{
20b7effb 1342 dSP;
eb578fdb 1343 SV* sv;
6136c704 1344 bool defined;
25a55bd7 1345 const int op_type = PL_op->op_type;
ea5195b7 1346 const bool is_dor = (op_type == OP_DOR || op_type == OP_DORASSIGN);
c963b151 1347
6136c704 1348 if (is_dor) {
f410a211 1349 PERL_ASYNC_CHECK();
25a55bd7 1350 sv = TOPs;
5d9574c1 1351 if (UNLIKELY(!sv || !SvANY(sv))) {
2bd49cfc
NC
1352 if (op_type == OP_DOR)
1353 --SP;
25a55bd7
SP
1354 RETURNOP(cLOGOP->op_other);
1355 }
b7c44293
RGS
1356 }
1357 else {
1358 /* OP_DEFINED */
25a55bd7 1359 sv = POPs;
5d9574c1 1360 if (UNLIKELY(!sv || !SvANY(sv)))
25a55bd7 1361 RETPUSHNO;
b7c44293 1362 }
25a55bd7 1363
6136c704 1364 defined = FALSE;
c963b151
BD
1365 switch (SvTYPE(sv)) {
1366 case SVt_PVAV:
1367 if (AvMAX(sv) >= 0 || SvGMAGICAL(sv) || (SvRMAGICAL(sv) && mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_tied)))
25a55bd7 1368 defined = TRUE;
c963b151
BD
1369 break;
1370 case SVt_PVHV:
1371 if (HvARRAY(sv) || SvGMAGICAL(sv) || (SvRMAGICAL(sv) && mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_tied)))
25a55bd7 1372 defined = TRUE;
c963b151
BD
1373 break;
1374 case SVt_PVCV:
1375 if (CvROOT(sv) || CvXSUB(sv))
25a55bd7 1376 defined = TRUE;
c963b151
BD
1377 break;
1378 default:
5b295bef 1379 SvGETMAGIC(sv);
c963b151 1380 if (SvOK(sv))
25a55bd7 1381 defined = TRUE;
6136c704 1382 break;
c963b151 1383 }
6136c704
AL
1384
1385 if (is_dor) {
c960fc3b
SP
1386 if(defined)
1387 RETURN;
1388 if(op_type == OP_DOR)
1389 --SP;
25a55bd7 1390 RETURNOP(cLOGOP->op_other);
25a55bd7 1391 }
d9aa96a4
SP
1392 /* assuming OP_DEFINED */
1393 if(defined)
1394 RETPUSHYES;
1395 RETPUSHNO;
c963b151
BD
1396}
1397
230ee21f
DM
1398
1399
a0d0e21e
LW
1400PP(pp_add)
1401{
20b7effb 1402 dSP; dATARGET; bool useleft; SV *svl, *svr;
230ee21f 1403
6f1401dc
DM
1404 tryAMAGICbin_MG(add_amg, AMGf_assign|AMGf_numeric);
1405 svr = TOPs;
1406 svl = TOPm1s;
1407
28e5dec8 1408#ifdef PERL_PRESERVE_IVUV
230ee21f
DM
1409
1410 /* special-case some simple common cases */
1411 if (!((svl->sv_flags|svr->sv_flags) & (SVf_IVisUV|SVs_GMG))) {
1412 IV il, ir;
1413 U32 flags = (svl->sv_flags & svr->sv_flags);
1414 if (flags & SVf_IOK) {
1415 /* both args are simple IVs */
1416 UV topl, topr;
1417 il = SvIVX(svl);
1418 ir = SvIVX(svr);
1419 do_iv:
1420 topl = ((UV)il) >> (UVSIZE * 8 - 2);
1421 topr = ((UV)ir) >> (UVSIZE * 8 - 2);
1422
1423 /* if both are in a range that can't under/overflow, do a
1424 * simple integer add: if the top of both numbers
1425 * are 00 or 11, then it's safe */
1426 if (!( ((topl+1) | (topr+1)) & 2)) {
1427 SP--;
1428 TARGi(il + ir, 0); /* args not GMG, so can't be tainted */
1429 SETs(TARG);
1430 RETURN;
1431 }
1432 goto generic;
1433 }
1434 else if (flags & SVf_NOK) {
1435 /* both args are NVs */
1436 NV nl = SvNVX(svl);
1437 NV nr = SvNVX(svr);
1438
3a019afd 1439 if (lossless_NV_to_IV(nl, &il) && lossless_NV_to_IV(nr, &ir)) {
230ee21f
DM
1440 /* nothing was lost by converting to IVs */
1441 goto do_iv;
3a019afd 1442 }
230ee21f
DM
1443 SP--;
1444 TARGn(nl + nr, 0); /* args not GMG, so can't be tainted */
1445 SETs(TARG);
1446 RETURN;
1447 }
1448 }
1449
1450 generic:
1451
1452 useleft = USE_LEFT(svl);
28e5dec8
JH
1453 /* We must see if we can perform the addition with integers if possible,
1454 as the integer code detects overflow while the NV code doesn't.
1455 If either argument hasn't had a numeric conversion yet attempt to get
1456 the IV. It's important to do this now, rather than just assuming that
1457 it's not IOK as a PV of "9223372036854775806" may not take well to NV
1458 addition, and an SV which is NOK, NV=6.0 ought to be coerced to
1459 integer in case the second argument is IV=9223372036854775806
1460 We can (now) rely on sv_2iv to do the right thing, only setting the
1461 public IOK flag if the value in the NV (or PV) slot is truly integer.
1462
1463 A side effect is that this also aggressively prefers integer maths over
7dca457a
NC
1464 fp maths for integer values.
1465
a00b5bd3 1466 How to detect overflow?
7dca457a
NC
1467
1468 C 99 section 6.2.6.1 says
1469
1470 The range of nonnegative values of a signed integer type is a subrange
1471 of the corresponding unsigned integer type, and the representation of
1472 the same value in each type is the same. A computation involving
1473 unsigned operands can never overflow, because a result that cannot be
1474 represented by the resulting unsigned integer type is reduced modulo
1475 the number that is one greater than the largest value that can be
1476 represented by the resulting type.
1477
1478 (the 9th paragraph)
1479
1480 which I read as "unsigned ints wrap."
1481
1482 signed integer overflow seems to be classed as "exception condition"
1483
1484 If an exceptional condition occurs during the evaluation of an
1485 expression (that is, if the result is not mathematically defined or not
1486 in the range of representable values for its type), the behavior is
1487 undefined.
1488
1489 (6.5, the 5th paragraph)
1490
1491 I had assumed that on 2s complement machines signed arithmetic would
1492 wrap, hence coded pp_add and pp_subtract on the assumption that
1493 everything perl builds on would be happy. After much wailing and
1494 gnashing of teeth it would seem that irix64 knows its ANSI spec well,
1495 knows that it doesn't need to, and doesn't. Bah. Anyway, the all-
1496 unsigned code below is actually shorter than the old code. :-)
1497 */
1498
01f91bf2 1499 if (SvIV_please_nomg(svr)) {
28e5dec8
JH
1500 /* Unless the left argument is integer in range we are going to have to
1501 use NV maths. Hence only attempt to coerce the right argument if
1502 we know the left is integer. */
eb578fdb 1503 UV auv = 0;
9c5ffd7c 1504 bool auvok = FALSE;
7dca457a
NC
1505 bool a_valid = 0;
1506
28e5dec8 1507 if (!useleft) {
7dca457a
NC
1508 auv = 0;
1509 a_valid = auvok = 1;
1510 /* left operand is undef, treat as zero. + 0 is identity,
1511 Could SETi or SETu right now, but space optimise by not adding
1512 lots of code to speed up what is probably a rarish case. */
1513 } else {
1514 /* Left operand is defined, so is it IV? */
01f91bf2 1515 if (SvIV_please_nomg(svl)) {
800401ee
JH
1516 if ((auvok = SvUOK(svl)))
1517 auv = SvUVX(svl);
7dca457a 1518 else {
eb578fdb 1519 const IV aiv = SvIVX(svl);
7dca457a
NC
1520 if (aiv >= 0) {
1521 auv = aiv;
1522 auvok = 1; /* Now acting as a sign flag. */
53e2bfb7 1523 } else {
9354a41f
KW
1524 /* Using 0- here and later to silence bogus warning
1525 * from MS VC */
1526 auv = (UV) (0 - (UV) aiv);
7dca457a
NC
1527 }
1528 }
1529 a_valid = 1;
28e5dec8
JH
1530 }
1531 }
7dca457a
NC
1532 if (a_valid) {
1533 bool result_good = 0;
1534 UV result;
eb578fdb 1535 UV buv;
800401ee 1536 bool buvok = SvUOK(svr);
a00b5bd3 1537
7dca457a 1538 if (buvok)
800401ee 1539 buv = SvUVX(svr);
7dca457a 1540 else {
eb578fdb 1541 const IV biv = SvIVX(svr);
7dca457a
NC
1542 if (biv >= 0) {
1543 buv = biv;
1544 buvok = 1;
1545 } else
9354a41f 1546 buv = (UV) (0 - (UV) biv);
7dca457a
NC
1547 }
1548 /* ?uvok if value is >= 0. basically, flagged as UV if it's +ve,
602f51c4 1549 else "IV" now, independent of how it came in.
7dca457a
NC
1550 if a, b represents positive, A, B negative, a maps to -A etc
1551 a + b => (a + b)
1552 A + b => -(a - b)
1553 a + B => (a - b)
1554 A + B => -(a + b)
1555 all UV maths. negate result if A negative.
1556 add if signs same, subtract if signs differ. */
1557
1558 if (auvok ^ buvok) {
1559 /* Signs differ. */
1560 if (auv >= buv) {
1561 result = auv - buv;
1562 /* Must get smaller */
1563 if (result <= auv)
1564 result_good = 1;
1565 } else {
1566 result = buv - auv;
1567 if (result <= buv) {
1568 /* result really should be -(auv-buv). as its negation
1569 of true value, need to swap our result flag */
1570 auvok = !auvok;
1571 result_good = 1;
28e5dec8
JH
1572 }
1573 }
7dca457a
NC
1574 } else {
1575 /* Signs same */
1576 result = auv + buv;
1577 if (result >= auv)
1578 result_good = 1;
1579 }
1580 if (result_good) {
1581 SP--;
1582 if (auvok)
28e5dec8 1583 SETu( result );
7dca457a
NC
1584 else {
1585 /* Negate result */
1586 if (result <= (UV)IV_MIN)
53e2bfb7
DM
1587 SETi(result == (UV)IV_MIN
1588 ? IV_MIN : -(IV)result);
7dca457a
NC
1589 else {
1590 /* result valid, but out of range for IV. */
1591 SETn( -(NV)result );
28e5dec8
JH
1592 }
1593 }
7dca457a
NC
1594 RETURN;
1595 } /* Overflow, drop through to NVs. */
28e5dec8
JH
1596 }
1597 }
230ee21f
DM
1598
1599#else
1600 useleft = USE_LEFT(svl);
28e5dec8 1601#endif
230ee21f 1602
a0d0e21e 1603 {
6f1401dc 1604 NV value = SvNV_nomg(svr);
4efa5a16 1605 (void)POPs;
28e5dec8
JH
1606 if (!useleft) {
1607 /* left operand is undef, treat as zero. + 0.0 is identity. */
1608 SETn(value);
1609 RETURN;
1610 }
6f1401dc 1611 SETn( value + SvNV_nomg(svl) );
28e5dec8 1612 RETURN;
a0d0e21e
LW
1613 }
1614}
1615
b1c05ba5
DM
1616
1617/* also used for: pp_aelemfast_lex() */
1618
a0d0e21e
LW
1619PP(pp_aelemfast)
1620{
20b7effb 1621 dSP;
93bad3fd 1622 AV * const av = PL_op->op_type == OP_AELEMFAST_LEX
8f878375 1623 ? MUTABLE_AV(PAD_SV(PL_op->op_targ)) : GvAVn(cGVOP_gv);
a3b680e6 1624 const U32 lval = PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD;
7e169e84
DM
1625 const I8 key = (I8)PL_op->op_private;
1626 SV** svp;
1627 SV *sv;
1628
1629 assert(SvTYPE(av) == SVt_PVAV);
1630
f4484b87
DM
1631 EXTEND(SP, 1);
1632
7e169e84
DM
1633 /* inlined av_fetch() for simple cases ... */
1634 if (!SvRMAGICAL(av) && key >= 0 && key <= AvFILLp(av)) {
1635 sv = AvARRAY(av)[key];
9fb994be 1636 if (sv) {
7e169e84
DM
1637 PUSHs(sv);
1638 RETURN;
1639 }
1640 }
1641
1642 /* ... else do it the hard way */
1643 svp = av_fetch(av, key, lval);
1644 sv = (svp ? *svp : &PL_sv_undef);
b024352e
DM
1645
1646 if (UNLIKELY(!svp && lval))
7e169e84 1647 DIE(aTHX_ PL_no_aelem, (int)key);
b024352e 1648
39cf747a 1649 if (!lval && SvRMAGICAL(av) && SvGMAGICAL(sv)) /* see note in pp_helem() */
fd69380d 1650 mg_get(sv);
be6c24e0 1651 PUSHs(sv);
a0d0e21e
LW
1652 RETURN;
1653}
1654
1655PP(pp_join)
1656{
20b7effb 1657 dSP; dMARK; dTARGET;
a0d0e21e
LW
1658 MARK++;
1659 do_join(TARG, *MARK, MARK, SP);
1660 SP = MARK;
1661 SETs(TARG);
1662 RETURN;
1663}
1664
a0d0e21e
LW
1665/* Oversized hot code. */
1666
b1c05ba5
DM
1667/* also used for: pp_say() */
1668
a0d0e21e
LW
1669PP(pp_print)
1670{
20b7effb 1671 dSP; dMARK; dORIGMARK;
eb578fdb 1672 PerlIO *fp;
236988e4 1673 MAGIC *mg;
159b6efe
NC
1674 GV * const gv
1675 = (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_STACKED) ? MUTABLE_GV(*++MARK) : PL_defoutgv;
9c9f25b8 1676 IO *io = GvIO(gv);
5b468f54 1677
9c9f25b8 1678 if (io
ad64d0ec 1679 && (mg = SvTIED_mg((const SV *)io, PERL_MAGIC_tiedscalar)))
5b468f54 1680 {
01bb7c6d 1681 had_magic:
68dc0745 1682 if (MARK == ORIGMARK) {
1c846c1f 1683 /* If using default handle then we need to make space to
a60c0954
NIS
1684 * pass object as 1st arg, so move other args up ...
1685 */
4352c267 1686 MEXTEND(SP, 1);
68dc0745
PP
1687 ++MARK;
1688 Move(MARK, MARK + 1, (SP - MARK) + 1, SV*);
1689 ++SP;
1690 }
3e0cb5de 1691 return Perl_tied_method(aTHX_ SV_CONST(PRINT), mark - 1, MUTABLE_SV(io),
94bc412f
NC
1692 mg,
1693 (G_SCALAR | TIED_METHOD_ARGUMENTS_ON_STACK
1694 | (PL_op->op_type == OP_SAY
1695 ? TIED_METHOD_SAY : 0)), sp - mark);
236988e4 1696 }
9c9f25b8 1697 if (!io) {
68b590d9 1698 if ( gv && GvEGVx(gv) && (io = GvIO(GvEGV(gv)))
ad64d0ec 1699 && (mg = SvTIED_mg((const SV *)io, PERL_MAGIC_tiedscalar)))
01bb7c6d 1700 goto had_magic;
51087808 1701 report_evil_fh(gv);
93189314 1702 SETERRNO(EBADF,RMS_IFI);
a0d0e21e
LW
1703 goto just_say_no;
1704 }
1705 else if (!(fp = IoOFP(io))) {
7716c5c5
NC
1706 if (IoIFP(io))
1707 report_wrongway_fh(gv, '<');
51087808 1708 else
7716c5c5 1709 report_evil_fh(gv);
93189314 1710 SETERRNO(EBADF,IoIFP(io)?RMS_FAC:RMS_IFI);
a0d0e21e
LW
1711 goto just_say_no;
1712 }
1713 else {
e23d9e2f 1714 SV * const ofs = GvSV(PL_ofsgv); /* $, */
a0d0e21e 1715 MARK++;
e23d9e2f 1716 if (ofs && (SvGMAGICAL(ofs) || SvOK(ofs))) {
a0d0e21e
LW
1717 while (MARK <= SP) {
1718 if (!do_print(*MARK, fp))
1719 break;
1720 MARK++;
1721 if (MARK <= SP) {
e23d9e2f
CS
1722 /* don't use 'ofs' here - it may be invalidated by magic callbacks */
1723 if (!do_print(GvSV(PL_ofsgv), fp)) {
a0d0e21e
LW
1724 MARK--;
1725 break;
1726 }
1727 }
1728 }
1729 }
1730 else {
1731 while (MARK <= SP) {
1732 if (!do_print(*MARK, fp))
1733 break;
1734 MARK++;
1735 }
1736 }
1737 if (MARK <= SP)
1738 goto just_say_no;
1739 else {
cfc4a7da
GA
1740 if (PL_op->op_type == OP_SAY) {
1741 if (PerlIO_write(fp, "\n", 1) == 0 || PerlIO_error(fp))
1742 goto just_say_no;
1743 }
1744 else if (PL_ors_sv && SvOK(PL_ors_sv))
7889fe52 1745 if (!do_print(PL_ors_sv, fp)) /* $\ */
a0d0e21e
LW
1746 goto just_say_no;
1747
1748 if (IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_FLUSH)
760ac839 1749 if (PerlIO_flush(fp) == EOF)
a0d0e21e
LW
1750 goto just_say_no;
1751 }
1752 }
1753 SP = ORIGMARK;
e52fd6f4 1754 XPUSHs(&PL_sv_yes);
a0d0e21e
LW
1755 RETURN;
1756
1757 just_say_no:
1758 SP = ORIGMARK;
e52fd6f4 1759 XPUSHs(&PL_sv_undef);
a0d0e21e
LW
1760 RETURN;
1761}
1762
b1c05ba5 1763
aa36782f
DM
1764/* do the common parts of pp_padhv() and pp_rv2hv()
1765 * It assumes the caller has done EXTEND(SP, 1) or equivalent.
af3b1cba 1766 * 'is_keys' indicates the OPpPADHV_ISKEYS/OPpRV2HV_ISKEYS flag is set.
e84e4286
DM
1767 * 'has_targ' indicates that the op has a target - this should
1768 * be a compile-time constant so that the code can constant-folded as
1769 * appropriate
aa36782f
DM
1770 * */
1771
1772PERL_STATIC_INLINE OP*
e84e4286 1773S_padhv_rv2hv_common(pTHX_ HV *hv, U8 gimme, bool is_keys, bool has_targ)
aa36782f 1774{
e80717e7
DM
1775 bool is_tied;
1776 bool is_bool;
e1ad5d4c 1777 MAGIC *mg;
aa36782f 1778 dSP;
e80717e7
DM
1779 IV i;
1780 SV *sv;
aa36782f
DM
1781
1782 assert(PL_op->op_type == OP_PADHV || PL_op->op_type == OP_RV2HV);
1783
1784 if (gimme == G_ARRAY) {
8dc9003f 1785 hv_pushkv(hv, 3);
af3b1cba 1786 return NORMAL;
aa36782f
DM
1787 }
1788
1789 if (is_keys)
1790 /* 'keys %h' masquerading as '%h': reset iterator */
1791 (void)hv_iterinit(hv);
1792
6f2dc9a6
DM
1793 if (gimme == G_VOID)
1794 return NORMAL;
1795
e80717e7
DM
1796 is_bool = ( PL_op->op_private & OPpTRUEBOOL
1797 || ( PL_op->op_private & OPpMAYBE_TRUEBOOL
1798 && block_gimme() == G_VOID));
1799 is_tied = SvRMAGICAL(hv) && (mg = mg_find(MUTABLE_SV(hv), PERL_MAGIC_tied));
1800
1801 if (UNLIKELY(is_tied)) {
1802 if (is_keys && !is_bool) {
1803 i = 0;
1804 while (hv_iternext(hv))
1805 i++;
1806 goto push_i;
1807 }
1808 else {
1809 sv = magic_scalarpack(hv, mg);
1810 goto push_sv;
1811 }
3cd2c7d4 1812 }
e80717e7
DM
1813 else {
1814 i = HvUSEDKEYS(hv);
1815 if (is_bool) {
1816 sv = i ? &PL_sv_yes : &PL_sv_zero;
1817 push_sv:
1818 PUSHs(sv);
1819 }
1820 else {
1821 push_i:
e84e4286
DM
1822 if (has_targ) {
1823 dTARGET;
1824 PUSHi(i);
1825 }
1826 else
6f2dc9a6
DM
1827 if (is_keys) {
1828 /* parent op should be an unused OP_KEYS whose targ we can
1829 * use */
1830 dTARG;
1831 OP *k;
1832
1833 assert(!OpHAS_SIBLING(PL_op));
1834 k = PL_op->op_sibparent;
1835 assert(k->op_type == OP_KEYS);
1836 TARG = PAD_SV(k->op_targ);
1837 PUSHi(i);
1838 }
1839 else
e84e4286 1840 mPUSHi(i);
aa36782f 1841 }
aa36782f
DM
1842 }
1843
1844 PUTBACK;
1845 return NORMAL;
1846}
1847
1848
e855b461
DM
1849/* This is also called directly by pp_lvavref. */
1850PP(pp_padav)
1851{
1852 dSP; dTARGET;
1853 U8 gimme;
1854 assert(SvTYPE(TARG) == SVt_PVAV);
1855 if (UNLIKELY( PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO ))
1856 if (LIKELY( !(PL_op->op_private & OPpPAD_STATE) ))
1857 SAVECLEARSV(PAD_SVl(PL_op->op_targ));
1858 EXTEND(SP, 1);
1859
1860 if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_REF) {
1861 PUSHs(TARG);
1862 RETURN;
1863 }
1864 else if (PL_op->op_private & OPpMAYBE_LVSUB) {
1865 const I32 flags = is_lvalue_sub();
1866 if (flags && !(flags & OPpENTERSUB_INARGS)) {
1867 if (GIMME_V == G_SCALAR)
1868 /* diag_listed_as: Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context */
1869 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't return array to lvalue scalar context");
1870 PUSHs(TARG);
1871 RETURN;
1872 }
1873 }
1874
1875 gimme = GIMME_V;
0b5aba47
DM
1876 if (gimme == G_ARRAY)
1877 return S_pushav(aTHX_ (AV*)TARG);
327c9b9e
DM
1878
1879 if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
e855b461
DM
1880 const SSize_t maxarg = AvFILL(MUTABLE_AV(TARG)) + 1;
1881 if (!maxarg)
1882 PUSHs(&PL_sv_zero);
1883 else if (PL_op->op_private & OPpTRUEBOOL)
1884 PUSHs(&PL_sv_yes);
1885 else
1886 mPUSHi(maxarg);
1887 }
1888 RETURN;
1889}
1890
1891
1892PP(pp_padhv)
1893{
1894 dSP; dTARGET;
1895 U8 gimme;
e855b461
DM
1896
1897 assert(SvTYPE(TARG) == SVt_PVHV);
e855b461
DM
1898 if (UNLIKELY( PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO ))
1899 if (LIKELY( !(PL_op->op_private & OPpPAD_STATE) ))
1900 SAVECLEARSV(PAD_SVl(PL_op->op_targ));
1901
aa36782f
DM
1902 EXTEND(SP, 1);
1903
1904 if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_REF) {
1905 PUSHs(TARG);
e855b461 1906 RETURN;
aa36782f 1907 }
e855b461
DM
1908 else if (PL_op->op_private & OPpMAYBE_LVSUB) {
1909 const I32 flags = is_lvalue_sub();
1910 if (flags && !(flags & OPpENTERSUB_INARGS)) {
1911 if (GIMME_V == G_SCALAR)
1912 /* diag_listed_as: Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context */
1913 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't return hash to lvalue scalar context");
aa36782f 1914 PUSHs(TARG);
e855b461
DM
1915 RETURN;
1916 }
1917 }
1918
1919 gimme = GIMME_V;
e855b461 1920
aa36782f 1921 return S_padhv_rv2hv_common(aTHX_ (HV*)TARG, gimme,
e84e4286
DM
1922 cBOOL(PL_op->op_private & OPpPADHV_ISKEYS),
1923 0 /* has_targ*/);
e855b461
DM
1924}
1925
1926
b1c05ba5 1927/* also used for: pp_rv2hv() */
bdaf10a5 1928/* also called directly by pp_lvavref */
b1c05ba5 1929
a0d0e21e
LW
1930PP(pp_rv2av)
1931{
20b7effb 1932 dSP; dTOPss;
1c23e2bd 1933 const U8 gimme = GIMME_V;
13c59d41
MH
1934 static const char an_array[] = "an ARRAY";
1935 static const char a_hash[] = "a HASH";
bdaf10a5
FC
1936 const bool is_pp_rv2av = PL_op->op_type == OP_RV2AV
1937 || PL_op->op_type == OP_LVAVREF;
d83b45b8 1938 const svtype type = is_pp_rv2av ? SVt_PVAV : SVt_PVHV;
a0d0e21e 1939
9026059d 1940 SvGETMAGIC(sv);
a0d0e21e 1941 if (SvROK(sv)) {
5d9574c1 1942 if (UNLIKELY(SvAMAGIC(sv))) {
93d7320b 1943 sv = amagic_deref_call(sv, is_pp_rv2av ? to_av_amg : to_hv_amg);
93d7320b 1944 }
17ab7946 1945 sv = SvRV(sv);
5d9574c1 1946 if (UNLIKELY(SvTYPE(sv) != type))
dcbac5bb 1947 /* diag_listed_as: Not an ARRAY reference */
13c59d41 1948 DIE(aTHX_ "Not %s reference", is_pp_rv2av ? an_array : a_hash);
5d9574c1
DM
1949 else if (UNLIKELY(PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD
1950 && PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO))
3da99855 1951 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "%s", PL_no_localize_ref);
a0d0e21e 1952 }
5d9574c1 1953 else if (UNLIKELY(SvTYPE(sv) != type)) {
67955e0c 1954 GV *gv;
1c846c1f 1955
6e592b3a 1956 if (!isGV_with_GP(sv)) {
13c59d41 1957 gv = Perl_softref2xv(aTHX_ sv, is_pp_rv2av ? an_array : a_hash,
dc3c76f8
NC
1958 type, &sp);
1959 if (!gv)
1960 RETURN;
35cd451c
GS
1961 }
1962 else {
159b6efe 1963 gv = MUTABLE_GV(sv);
a0d0e21e 1964 }
ad64d0ec 1965 sv = is_pp_rv2av ? MUTABLE_SV(GvAVn(gv)) : MUTABLE_SV(GvHVn(gv));
533c011a 1966 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO)
ad64d0ec 1967 sv = is_pp_rv2av ? MUTABLE_SV(save_ary(gv)) : MUTABLE_SV(save_hash(gv));
9f527363
FC
1968 }
1969 if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_REF) {
17ab7946 1970 SETs(sv);
a0d0e21e 1971 RETURN;
9f527363 1972 }
5d9574c1 1973 else if (UNLIKELY(PL_op->op_private & OPpMAYBE_LVSUB)) {
40c94d11
FC
1974 const I32 flags = is_lvalue_sub();
1975 if (flags && !(flags & OPpENTERSUB_INARGS)) {
cde874ca 1976 if (gimme != G_ARRAY)
042560a6 1977 goto croak_cant_return;
17ab7946 1978 SETs(sv);
78f9721b 1979 RETURN;
40c94d11 1980 }
a0d0e21e
LW
1981 }
1982
17ab7946 1983 if (is_pp_rv2av) {
502c6561 1984 AV *const av = MUTABLE_AV(sv);
0b5aba47 1985
96913b52 1986 if (gimme == G_ARRAY) {
d5524600
DM
1987 SP--;
1988 PUTBACK;
0b5aba47 1989 return S_pushav(aTHX_ av);
1c846c1f 1990 }
0b5aba47
DM
1991
1992 if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
c70927a6 1993 const SSize_t maxarg = AvFILL(av) + 1;
7be75ccf
DM
1994 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpTRUEBOOL)
1995 SETs(maxarg ? &PL_sv_yes : &PL_sv_zero);
1996 else {
1997 dTARGET;
1998 SETi(maxarg);
1999 }
93965878 2000 }
7be75ccf
DM
2001 }
2002 else {
aa36782f
DM
2003 SP--; PUTBACK;
2004 return S_padhv_rv2hv_common(aTHX_ (HV*)sv, gimme,
e84e4286
DM
2005 cBOOL(PL_op->op_private & OPpRV2HV_ISKEYS),
2006 1 /* has_targ*/);
17ab7946 2007 }
be85d344 2008 RETURN;
042560a6
NC
2009
2010 croak_cant_return:
2011 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context",
2012 is_pp_rv2av ? "array" : "hash");
77e217c6 2013 RETURN;
a0d0e21e
LW
2014}
2015
10c8fecd 2016STATIC void
fb8f4cf8 2017S_do_oddball(pTHX_ SV **oddkey, SV **firstkey)
10c8fecd 2018{
7918f24d
NC
2019 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_DO_ODDBALL;
2020
fb8f4cf8 2021 if (*oddkey) {
6d822dc4 2022 if (ckWARN(WARN_MISC)) {
a3b680e6 2023 const char *err;
fb8f4cf8
RZ
2024 if (oddkey == firstkey &&
2025 SvROK(*oddkey) &&
2026 (SvTYPE(SvRV(*oddkey)) == SVt_PVAV ||
2027 SvTYPE(SvRV(*oddkey)) == SVt_PVHV))
10c8fecd 2028 {
a3b680e6 2029 err = "Reference found where even-sized list expected";
10c8fecd
GS
2030 }
2031 else
a3b680e6 2032 err = "Odd number of elements in hash assignment";
f1f66076 2033 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_MISC), "%s", err);
10c8fecd 2034 }
6d822dc4 2035
10c8fecd
GS
2036 }
2037}
2038
a5f48505
DM
2039
2040/* Do a mark and sweep with the SVf_BREAK flag to detect elements which
2041 * are common to both the LHS and RHS of an aassign, and replace them
2042 * with copies. All these copies are made before the actual list assign is
2043 * done.
2044 *
2045 * For example in ($a,$b) = ($b,$a), assigning the value of the first RHS
2046 * element ($b) to the first LH element ($a), modifies $a; when the
2047 * second assignment is done, the second RH element now has the wrong
2048 * value. So we initially replace the RHS with ($b, mortalcopy($a)).
2049 * Note that we don't need to make a mortal copy of $b.
2050 *
2051 * The algorithm below works by, for every RHS element, mark the
2052 * corresponding LHS target element with SVf_BREAK. Then if the RHS
2053 * element is found with SVf_BREAK set, it means it would have been
2054 * modified, so make a copy.
2055 * Note that by scanning both LHS and RHS in lockstep, we avoid
2056 * unnecessary copies (like $b above) compared with a naive
2057 * "mark all LHS; copy all marked RHS; unmark all LHS".
2058 *
2059 * If the LHS element is a 'my' declaration' and has a refcount of 1, then
2060 * it can't be common and can be skipped.
ebc643ce
DM
2061 *
2062 * On DEBUGGING builds it takes an extra boolean, fake. If true, it means
2063 * that we thought we didn't need to call S_aassign_copy_common(), but we
2064 * have anyway for sanity checking. If we find we need to copy, then panic.
a5f48505
DM
2065 */
2066
2067PERL_STATIC_INLINE void
2068S_aassign_copy_common(pTHX_ SV **firstlelem, SV **lastlelem,
ebc643ce
DM
2069 SV **firstrelem, SV **lastrelem
2070#ifdef DEBUGGING
2071 , bool fake
2072#endif
2073)
a5f48505
DM
2074{
2075 dVAR;
2076 SV **relem;
2077 SV **lelem;
2078 SSize_t lcount = lastlelem - firstlelem + 1;
2079 bool marked = FALSE; /* have we marked any LHS with SVf_BREAK ? */
2080 bool const do_rc1 = cBOOL(PL_op->op_private & OPpASSIGN_COMMON_RC1);
beb08a1e 2081 bool copy_all = FALSE;
a5f48505
DM
2082
2083 assert(!PL_in_clean_all); /* SVf_BREAK not already in use */
2084 assert(firstlelem < lastlelem); /* at least 2 LH elements */
2085 assert(firstrelem < lastrelem); /* at least 2 RH elements */
2086
ebc643ce
DM
2087
2088 lelem = firstlelem;
a5f48505
DM
2089 /* we never have to copy the first RH element; it can't be corrupted
2090 * by assigning something to the corresponding first LH element.
2091 * So this scan does in a loop: mark LHS[N]; test RHS[N+1]
2092 */
ebc643ce 2093 relem = firstrelem + 1;
a5f48505
DM
2094
2095 for (; relem <= lastrelem; relem++) {
2096 SV *svr;
2097
2098 /* mark next LH element */
2099
2100 if (--lcount >= 0) {
2101 SV *svl = *lelem++;
2102
2103 if (UNLIKELY(!svl)) {/* skip AV alias marker */
2104 assert (lelem <= lastlelem);
2105 svl = *lelem++;
2106 lcount--;
2107 }
2108
2109 assert(svl);
beb08a1e
TC
2110 if (SvSMAGICAL(svl)) {
2111 copy_all = TRUE;
2112 }
a5f48505
DM
2113 if (SvTYPE(svl) == SVt_PVAV || SvTYPE(svl) == SVt_PVHV) {
2114 if (!marked)
2115 return;
2116 /* this LH element will consume all further args;
2117 * no need to mark any further LH elements (if any).
2118 * But we still need to scan any remaining RHS elements;
2119 * set lcount negative to distinguish from lcount == 0,
2120 * so the loop condition continues being true
2121 */
2122 lcount = -1;
2123 lelem--; /* no need to unmark this element */
2124 }
94a5f659 2125 else if (!(do_rc1 && SvREFCNT(svl) == 1) && !SvIMMORTAL(svl)) {
a5f48505
DM
2126 SvFLAGS(svl) |= SVf_BREAK;
2127 marked = TRUE;
2128 }
2129 else if (!marked) {
2130 /* don't check RH element if no SVf_BREAK flags set yet */
2131 if (!lcount)
2132 break;
2133 continue;
2134 }
2135 }
2136
2137 /* see if corresponding RH element needs copying */
2138
2139 assert(marked);
2140 svr = *relem;
2141 assert(svr);
2142
5c1db569 2143 if (UNLIKELY(SvFLAGS(svr) & (SVf_BREAK|SVs_GMG) || copy_all)) {
1050723f 2144 U32 brk = (SvFLAGS(svr) & SVf_BREAK);
a5f48505 2145
ebc643ce
DM
2146#ifdef DEBUGGING
2147 if (fake) {
9ae0115f 2148 /* op_dump(PL_op); */
ebc643ce
DM
2149 Perl_croak(aTHX_
2150 "panic: aassign skipped needed copy of common RH elem %"
2151 UVuf, (UV)(relem - firstrelem));
2152 }
2153#endif
2154
a5f48505
DM
2155 TAINT_NOT; /* Each item is independent */
2156
2157 /* Dear TODO test in t/op/sort.t, I love you.
2158 (It's relying on a panic, not a "semi-panic" from newSVsv()
2159 and then an assertion failure below.) */
2160 if (UNLIKELY(SvIS_FREED(svr))) {
2161 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: attempt to copy freed scalar %p",
2162 (void*)svr);
2163 }
2164 /* avoid break flag while copying; otherwise COW etc
2165 * disabled... */
2166 SvFLAGS(svr) &= ~SVf_BREAK;
2167 /* Not newSVsv(), as it does not allow copy-on-write,
8c1e192f
DM
2168 resulting in wasteful copies.
2169 Also, we use SV_NOSTEAL in case the SV is used more than
2170 once, e.g. (...) = (f())[0,0]
2171 Where the same SV appears twice on the RHS without a ref
2172 count bump. (Although I suspect that the SV won't be
2173 stealable here anyway - DAPM).
2174 */
a5f48505
DM
2175 *relem = sv_mortalcopy_flags(svr,
2176 SV_GMAGIC|SV_DO_COW_SVSETSV|SV_NOSTEAL);
2177 /* ... but restore afterwards in case it's needed again,
2178 * e.g. ($a,$b,$c) = (1,$a,$a)
2179 */
1050723f 2180 SvFLAGS(svr) |= brk;
a5f48505
DM
2181 }
2182
2183 if (!lcount)
2184 break;
2185 }
2186
2187 if (!marked)
2188 return;
2189
2190 /*unmark LHS */
2191
2192 while (lelem > firstlelem) {
2193 SV * const svl = *(--lelem);
2194 if (svl)
2195 SvFLAGS(svl) &= ~SVf_BREAK;
2196 }
2197}
2198
2199
2200
a0d0e21e
LW
2201PP(pp_aassign)
2202{
27da23d5 2203 dVAR; dSP;
3280af22
NIS
2204 SV **lastlelem = PL_stack_sp;
2205 SV **lastrelem = PL_stack_base + POPMARK;
2206 SV **firstrelem = PL_stack_base + POPMARK + 1;
a0d0e21e
LW
2207 SV **firstlelem = lastrelem + 1;
2208
eb578fdb
KW
2209 SV **relem;
2210 SV **lelem;
1c23e2bd 2211 U8 gimme;
a68090fe
DM
2212 /* PL_delaymagic is restored by JUMPENV_POP on dieing, so we
2213 * only need to save locally, not on the save stack */
2214 U16 old_delaymagic = PL_delaymagic;
ebc643ce
DM
2215#ifdef DEBUGGING
2216 bool fake = 0;
2217#endif
5637b936 2218
3280af22 2219 PL_delaymagic = DM_DELAY; /* catch simultaneous items */
a0d0e21e
LW
2220
2221 /* If there's a common identifier on both sides we have to take
2222 * special care that assigning the identifier on the left doesn't
2223 * clobber a value on the right that's used later in the list.
2224 */
acdea6f0 2225
beb08a1e
TC
2226 /* at least 2 LH and RH elements, or commonality isn't an issue */
2227 if (firstlelem < lastlelem && firstrelem < lastrelem) {
5c1db569
TC
2228 for (relem = firstrelem+1; relem <= lastrelem; relem++) {
2229 if (SvGMAGICAL(*relem))
2230 goto do_scan;
2231 }
beb08a1e
TC
2232 for (lelem = firstlelem; lelem <= lastlelem; lelem++) {
2233 if (*lelem && SvSMAGICAL(*lelem))
2234 goto do_scan;
a5f48505 2235 }
beb08a1e
TC
2236 if ( PL_op->op_private & (OPpASSIGN_COMMON_SCALAR|OPpASSIGN_COMMON_RC1) ) {
2237 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpASSIGN_COMMON_RC1) {
2238 /* skip the scan if all scalars have a ref count of 1 */
2239 for (lelem = firstlelem; lelem <= lastlelem; lelem++) {
8b0c3377 2240 SV *sv = *lelem;
beb08a1e
TC
2241 if (!sv || SvREFCNT(sv) == 1)
2242 continue;
2243 if (SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVAV && SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVAV)
2244 goto do_scan;
2245 break;
2246 }
2247 }
2248 else {
2249 do_scan:
2250 S_aassign_copy_common(aTHX_
2251 firstlelem, lastlelem, firstrelem, lastrelem
ebc643ce 2252#ifdef DEBUGGING
beb08a1e 2253 , fake
ebc643ce 2254#endif
beb08a1e
TC
2255 );
2256 }
a5f48505 2257 }
a0d0e21e 2258 }
ebc643ce
DM
2259#ifdef DEBUGGING
2260 else {
2261 /* on debugging builds, do the scan even if we've concluded we
2262 * don't need to, then panic if we find commonality. Note that the
2263 * scanner assumes at least 2 elements */
2264 if (firstlelem < lastlelem && firstrelem < lastrelem) {
2265 fake = 1;
2266 goto do_scan;
2267 }
2268 }
2269#endif
a0d0e21e 2270
a5f48505 2271 gimme = GIMME_V;
a0d0e21e
LW
2272 relem = firstrelem;
2273 lelem = firstlelem;
10c8fecd 2274
8b0c3377
DM
2275 if (relem > lastrelem)
2276 goto no_relems;
2277
2278 /* first lelem loop while there are still relems */
5d9574c1 2279 while (LIKELY(lelem <= lastlelem)) {
bdaf10a5 2280 bool alias = FALSE;
8b0c3377
DM
2281 SV *lsv = *lelem++;
2282
c73f612f
DM
2283 TAINT_NOT; /* Each item stands on its own, taintwise. */
2284
8b0c3377
DM
2285 assert(relem <= lastrelem);
2286 if (UNLIKELY(!lsv)) {
bdaf10a5 2287 alias = TRUE;
8b0c3377
DM
2288 lsv = *lelem++;
2289 ASSUME(SvTYPE(lsv) == SVt_PVAV);
bdaf10a5 2290 }
a5f48505 2291
8b0c3377
DM
2292 switch (SvTYPE(lsv)) {
2293 case SVt_PVAV: {
2294 SV **svp;
2295 SSize_t i;
2296 SSize_t tmps_base;
2297 SSize_t nelems = lastrelem - relem + 1;
b09ed995 2298 AV *ary = MUTABLE_AV(lsv);
8b0c3377
DM
2299
2300 /* Assigning to an aggregate is tricky. First there is the
2301 * issue of commonality, e.g. @a = ($a[0]). Since the
2302 * stack isn't refcounted, clearing @a prior to storing
2303 * elements will free $a[0]. Similarly with
2304 * sub FETCH { $status[$_[1]] } @status = @tied[0,1];
2305 *
2306 * The way to avoid these issues is to make the copy of each
2307 * SV (and we normally store a *copy* in the array) *before*
2308 * clearing the array. But this has a problem in that
2309 * if the code croaks during copying, the not-yet-stored copies
2310 * could leak. One way to avoid this is to make all the copies
2311 * mortal, but that's quite expensive.
2312 *
2313 * The current solution to these issues is to use a chunk
2314 * of the tmps stack as a temporary refcounted-stack. SVs
2315 * will be put on there during processing to avoid leaks,
2316 * but will be removed again before the end of this block,
2317 * so free_tmps() is never normally called. Also, the
2318 * sv_refcnt of the SVs doesn't have to be manipulated, since
2319 * the ownership of 1 reference count is transferred directly
2320 * from the tmps stack to the AV when the SV is stored.
2321 *
2322 * We disarm slots in the temps stack by storing PL_sv_undef
2323 * there: it doesn't matter if that SV's refcount is
2324 * repeatedly decremented during a croak. But usually this is
2325 * only an interim measure. By the end of this code block
2326 * we try where possible to not leave any PL_sv_undef's on the
2327 * tmps stack e.g. by shuffling newer entries down.
2328 *
2329 * There is one case where we don't copy: non-magical
2330 * SvTEMP(sv)'s with a ref count of 1. The only owner of these
2331 * is on the tmps stack, so its safe to directly steal the SV
2332 * rather than copying. This is common in things like function
2333 * returns, map etc, which all return a list of such SVs.
2334 *
2335 * Note however something like @a = (f())[0,0], where there is
2336 * a danger of the same SV being shared: this avoided because
2337 * when the SV is stored as $a[0], its ref count gets bumped,
2338 * so the RC==1 test fails and the second element is copied
2339 * instead.
2340 *
2341 * We also use one slot in the tmps stack to hold an extra
2342 * ref to the array, to ensure it doesn't get prematurely
2343 * freed. Again, this is removed before the end of this block.
2344 *
2345 * Note that OPpASSIGN_COMMON_AGG is used to flag a possible
2346 * @a = ($a[0]) case, but the current implementation uses the
2347 * same algorithm regardless, so ignores that flag. (It *is*
2348 * used in the hash branch below, however).
2349 */
2350
2351 /* Reserve slots for ary, plus the elems we're about to copy,
2352 * then protect ary and temporarily void the remaining slots
2353 * with &PL_sv_undef */
2354 EXTEND_MORTAL(nelems + 1);
2355 PL_tmps_stack[++PL_tmps_ix] = SvREFCNT_inc_simple_NN(ary);
2356 tmps_base = PL_tmps_ix + 1;
2357 for (i = 0; i < nelems; i++)
2358 PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base + i] = &PL_sv_undef;
2359 PL_tmps_ix += nelems;
2360
2361 /* Make a copy of each RHS elem and save on the tmps_stack
2362 * (or pass through where we can optimise away the copy) */
2363
2364 if (UNLIKELY(alias)) {
2365 U32 lval = (gimme == G_ARRAY)
2366 ? (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD || LVRET) : 0;
a5f48505 2367 for (svp = relem; svp <= lastrelem; svp++) {
8b0c3377
DM
2368 SV *rsv = *svp;
2369
2370 SvGETMAGIC(rsv);
2371 if (!SvROK(rsv))
2372 DIE(aTHX_ "Assigned value is not a reference");
2373 if (SvTYPE(SvRV(rsv)) > SVt_PVLV)
2374 /* diag_listed_as: Assigned value is not %s reference */
2375 DIE(aTHX_
2376 "Assigned value is not a SCALAR reference");
2377 if (lval)
2378 *svp = rsv = sv_mortalcopy(rsv);
2379 /* XXX else check for weak refs? */
2380 rsv = SvREFCNT_inc_NN(SvRV(rsv));
2381 assert(tmps_base <= PL_tmps_max);
2382 PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base++] = rsv;
a5f48505 2383 }
a5f48505 2384 }
8b0c3377
DM
2385 else {
2386 for (svp = relem; svp <= lastrelem; svp++) {
2387 SV *rsv = *svp;
a5f48505 2388
8b0c3377
DM
2389 if (SvTEMP(rsv) && !SvGMAGICAL(rsv) && SvREFCNT(rsv) == 1) {
2390 /* can skip the copy */
2391 SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN(rsv);
2392 SvTEMP_off(rsv);
2393 }
a5f48505 2394 else {
8b0c3377
DM
2395 SV *nsv;
2396 /* do get before newSV, in case it dies and leaks */
2397 SvGETMAGIC(rsv);
2398 nsv = newSV(0);
8c1e192f
DM
2399 /* see comment in S_aassign_copy_common about
2400 * SV_NOSTEAL */
8b0c3377
DM
2401 sv_setsv_flags(nsv, rsv,
2402 (SV_DO_COW_SVSETSV|SV_NOSTEAL));
2403 rsv = *svp = nsv;
a5f48505 2404 }
8b0c3377
DM
2405
2406 assert(tmps_base <= PL_tmps_max);
2407 PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base++] = rsv;
2408 }
2409 }
2410
2411 if (SvRMAGICAL(ary) || AvFILLp(ary) >= 0) /* may be non-empty */
2412 av_clear(ary);
2413
2414 /* store in the array, the SVs that are in the tmps stack */
2415
2416 tmps_base -= nelems;
2417
80c1439f 2418 if (SvMAGICAL(ary) || SvREADONLY(ary) || !AvREAL(ary)) {
8b0c3377
DM
2419 /* for arrays we can't cheat with, use the official API */
2420 av_extend(ary, nelems - 1);
2421 for (i = 0; i < nelems; i++) {
2422 SV **svp = &(PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base + i]);
2423 SV *rsv = *svp;
2424 /* A tied store won't take ownership of rsv, so keep
2425 * the 1 refcnt on the tmps stack; otherwise disarm
2426 * the tmps stack entry */
2427 if (av_store(ary, i, rsv))
2428 *svp = &PL_sv_undef;
2429 /* av_store() may have added set magic to rsv */;
2430 SvSETMAGIC(rsv);
2431 }
2432 /* disarm ary refcount: see comments below about leak */
2433 PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base - 1] = &PL_sv_undef;
2434 }
2435 else {
2436 /* directly access/set the guts of the AV */
2437 SSize_t fill = nelems - 1;
2438 if (fill > AvMAX(ary))
2439 av_extend_guts(ary, fill, &AvMAX(ary), &AvALLOC(ary),
2440 &AvARRAY(ary));
2441 AvFILLp(ary) = fill;
2442 Copy(&(PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base]), AvARRAY(ary), nelems, SV*);
2443 /* Quietly remove all the SVs from the tmps stack slots,
2444 * since ary has now taken ownership of the refcnt.
2445 * Also remove ary: which will now leak if we die before
2446 * the SvREFCNT_dec_NN(ary) below */
2447 if (UNLIKELY(PL_tmps_ix >= tmps_base + nelems))
2448 Move(&PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base + nelems],
2449 &PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base - 1],
2450 PL_tmps_ix - (tmps_base + nelems) + 1,
2451 SV*);
2452 PL_tmps_ix -= (nelems + 1);
2453 }
2454
5d9574c1 2455 if (UNLIKELY(PL_delaymagic & DM_ARRAY_ISA))
8b0c3377 2456 /* its assumed @ISA set magic can't die and leak ary */
ad64d0ec 2457 SvSETMAGIC(MUTABLE_SV(ary));
8b0c3377
DM
2458 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(ary);
2459
2460 relem = lastrelem + 1;
2461 goto no_relems;
a5f48505
DM
2462 }
2463
10c8fecd 2464 case SVt_PVHV: { /* normal hash */
8b0c3377
DM
2465
2466 SV **svp;
2467 bool dirty_tmps;
2468 SSize_t i;
2469 SSize_t tmps_base;
2470 SSize_t nelems = lastrelem - relem + 1;
b09ed995 2471 HV *hash = MUTABLE_HV(lsv);
8b0c3377
DM
2472
2473 if (UNLIKELY(nelems & 1)) {
2474 do_oddball(lastrelem, relem);
2475 /* we have firstlelem to reuse, it's not needed any more */
2476 *++lastrelem = &PL_sv_undef;
2477 nelems++;
2478 }
2479
2480 /* See the SVt_PVAV branch above for a long description of
2481 * how the following all works. The main difference for hashes
2482 * is that we treat keys and values separately (and have
2483 * separate loops for them): as for arrays, values are always
2484 * copied (except for the SvTEMP optimisation), since they
2485 * need to be stored in the hash; while keys are only
2486 * processed where they might get prematurely freed or
2487 * whatever. */
2488
2489 /* tmps stack slots:
2490 * * reserve a slot for the hash keepalive;
2491 * * reserve slots for the hash values we're about to copy;
2492 * * preallocate for the keys we'll possibly copy or refcount bump
2493 * later;
2494 * then protect hash and temporarily void the remaining
2495 * value slots with &PL_sv_undef */
2496 EXTEND_MORTAL(nelems + 1);
2497
2498 /* convert to number of key/value pairs */
2499 nelems >>= 1;
2500
2501 PL_tmps_stack[++PL_tmps_ix] = SvREFCNT_inc_simple_NN(hash);
2502 tmps_base = PL_tmps_ix + 1;
2503 for (i = 0; i < nelems; i++)
2504 PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base + i] = &PL_sv_undef;
2505 PL_tmps_ix += nelems;
2506
2507 /* Make a copy of each RHS hash value and save on the tmps_stack
2508 * (or pass through where we can optimise away the copy) */
2509
2510 for (svp = relem + 1; svp <= lastrelem; svp += 2) {
2511 SV *rsv = *svp;
2512
2513 if (SvTEMP(rsv) && !SvGMAGICAL(rsv) && SvREFCNT(rsv) == 1) {
2514 /* can skip the copy */
2515 SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN(rsv);
2516 SvTEMP_off(rsv);
2517 }
2518 else {
2519 SV *nsv;
2520 /* do get before newSV, in case it dies and leaks */
2521 SvGETMAGIC(rsv);
2522 nsv = newSV(0);
2523 /* see comment in S_aassign_copy_common about
2524 * SV_NOSTEAL */
2525 sv_setsv_flags(nsv, rsv,
2526 (SV_DO_COW_SVSETSV|SV_NOSTEAL));
2527 rsv = *svp = nsv;
1c4ea384
RZ
2528 }
2529
8b0c3377
DM
2530 assert(tmps_base <= PL_tmps_max);
2531 PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base++] = rsv;
2532 }
2533 tmps_base -= nelems;
a5f48505 2534
a5f48505 2535
8b0c3377
DM
2536 /* possibly protect keys */
2537
2538 if (UNLIKELY(gimme == G_ARRAY)) {
2539 /* handle e.g.
2540 * @a = ((%h = ($$r, 1)), $r = "x");
2541 * $_++ for %h = (1,2,3,4);
2542 */
2543 EXTEND_MORTAL(nelems);
2544 for (svp = relem; svp <= lastrelem; svp += 2)
2545 *svp = sv_mortalcopy_flags(*svp,
2546 SV_GMAGIC|SV_DO_COW_SVSETSV|SV_NOSTEAL);
2547 }
2548 else if (PL_op->op_private & OPpASSIGN_COMMON_AGG) {
2549 /* for possible commonality, e.g.
2550 * %h = ($h{a},1)
2551 * avoid premature freeing RHS keys by mortalising
2552 * them.
2553 * For a magic element, make a copy so that its magic is
2554 * called *before* the hash is emptied (which may affect
2555 * a tied value for example).
2556 * In theory we should check for magic keys in all
2557 * cases, not just under OPpASSIGN_COMMON_AGG, but in
2558 * practice, !OPpASSIGN_COMMON_AGG implies only
2559 * constants or padtmps on the RHS.
2560 */
2561 EXTEND_MORTAL(nelems);
2562 for (svp = relem; svp <= lastrelem; svp += 2) {
2563 SV *rsv = *svp;
2564 if (UNLIKELY(SvGMAGICAL(rsv))) {
2565 SSize_t n;
a5f48505
DM
2566 *svp = sv_mortalcopy_flags(*svp,
2567 SV_GMAGIC|SV_DO_COW_SVSETSV|SV_NOSTEAL);
8b0c3377
DM
2568 /* allow other branch to continue pushing
2569 * onto tmps stack without checking each time */
2570 n = (lastrelem - relem) >> 1;
2571 EXTEND_MORTAL(n);
a5f48505 2572 }
8b0c3377
DM
2573 else
2574 PL_tmps_stack[++PL_tmps_ix] =
2575 SvREFCNT_inc_simple_NN(rsv);
a5f48505 2576 }
8b0c3377 2577 }
a5f48505 2578
8b0c3377
DM
2579 if (SvRMAGICAL(hash) || HvUSEDKEYS(hash))
2580 hv_clear(hash);
a5f48505 2581
8b0c3377
DM
2582 /* now assign the keys and values to the hash */
2583
2584 dirty_tmps = FALSE;
2585
2586 if (UNLIKELY(gimme == G_ARRAY)) {
2587 /* @a = (%h = (...)) etc */
2588 SV **svp;
2589 SV **topelem = relem;
2590
2591 for (i = 0, svp = relem; svp <= lastrelem; i++, svp++) {
2592 SV *key = *svp++;
2593 SV *val = *svp;
2594 /* remove duplicates from list we return */
2595 if (!hv_exists_ent(hash, key, 0)) {
2596 /* copy key back: possibly to an earlier
2597 * stack location if we encountered dups earlier,
2598 * The values will be updated later
2599 */
2600 *topelem = key;
2601 topelem += 2;
632b9d6f 2602 }
8b0c3377
DM
2603 /* A tied store won't take ownership of val, so keep
2604 * the 1 refcnt on the tmps stack; otherwise disarm
2605 * the tmps stack entry */
2606 if (hv_store_ent(hash, key, val, 0))
2607 PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base + i] = &PL_sv_undef;
2608 else
2609 dirty_tmps = TRUE;
2610 /* hv_store_ent() may have added set magic to val */;
2611 SvSETMAGIC(val);
2612 }
2613 if (topelem < svp) {
1c4ea384
RZ
2614 /* at this point we have removed the duplicate key/value
2615 * pairs from the stack, but the remaining values may be
2616 * wrong; i.e. with (a 1 a 2 b 3) on the stack we've removed
2617 * the (a 2), but the stack now probably contains
2618 * (a <freed> b 3), because { hv_save(a,1); hv_save(a,2) }
2619 * obliterates the earlier key. So refresh all values. */
8b0c3377
DM
2620 lastrelem = topelem - 1;
2621 while (relem < lastrelem) {
1c4ea384
RZ
2622 HE *he;
2623 he = hv_fetch_ent(hash, *relem++, 0, 0);
2624 *relem++ = (he ? HeVAL(he) : &PL_sv_undef);
2625 }
2626 }
8b0c3377
DM
2627 }
2628 else {
2629 SV **svp;
2630 for (i = 0, svp = relem; svp <= lastrelem; i++, svp++) {
2631 SV *key = *svp++;
2632 SV *val = *svp;
2633 if (hv_store_ent(hash, key, val, 0))
2634 PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base + i] = &PL_sv_undef;
2635 else
2636 dirty_tmps = TRUE;
2637 /* hv_store_ent() may have added set magic to val */;
2638 SvSETMAGIC(val);
2639 }
2640 }
2641
2642 if (dirty_tmps) {
2643 /* there are still some 'live' recounts on the tmps stack
2644 * - usually caused by storing into a tied hash. So let
2645 * free_tmps() do the proper but slow job later.
2646 * Just disarm hash refcount: see comments below about leak
2647 */
2648 PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base - 1] = &PL_sv_undef;
2649 }
2650 else {
2651 /* Quietly remove all the SVs from the tmps stack slots,
2652 * since hash has now taken ownership of the refcnt.
2653 * Also remove hash: which will now leak if we die before
2654 * the SvREFCNT_dec_NN(hash) below */
2655 if (UNLIKELY(PL_tmps_ix >= tmps_base + nelems))
2656 Move(&PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base + nelems],
2657 &PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base - 1],
2658 PL_tmps_ix - (tmps_base + nelems) + 1,
2659 SV*);
2660 PL_tmps_ix -= (nelems + 1);
2661 }
2662
2663 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(hash);
2664
2665 relem = lastrelem + 1;
2666 goto no_relems;
2667 }
2668
a0d0e21e 2669 default:
8b0c3377 2670 if (!SvIMMORTAL(lsv)) {
d24e3eb1
DM
2671 SV *ref;
2672
8b0c3377
DM
2673 if (UNLIKELY(
2674 SvTEMP(lsv) && !SvSMAGICAL(lsv) && SvREFCNT(lsv) == 1 &&
2675 (!isGV_with_GP(lsv) || SvFAKE(lsv)) && ckWARN(WARN_MISC)
2676 ))
2677 Perl_warner(aTHX_
2678 packWARN(WARN_MISC),
2679 "Useless assignment to a temporary"
2680 );
d24e3eb1
DM
2681
2682 /* avoid freeing $$lsv if it might be needed for further
2683 * elements, e.g. ($ref, $foo) = (1, $$ref) */
2684 if ( SvROK(lsv)
2685 && ( ((ref = SvRV(lsv)), SvREFCNT(ref)) == 1)
2686 && lelem <= lastlelem
2687 ) {
2688 SSize_t ix;
2689 SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN(ref);
2690 /* an unrolled sv_2mortal */
2691 ix = ++PL_tmps_ix;
2692 if (UNLIKELY(ix >= PL_tmps_max))
2693 /* speculatively grow enough to cover other
2694 * possible refs */
67c3640a 2695 (void)tmps_grow_p(ix + (lastlelem - lelem));
d24e3eb1
DM
2696 PL_tmps_stack[ix] = ref;
2697 }
2698
8b0c3377
DM
2699 sv_setsv(lsv, *relem);
2700 *relem = lsv;
2701 SvSETMAGIC(lsv);
2702 }
2703 if (++relem > lastrelem)
2704 goto no_relems;
a0d0e21e 2705 break;
8b0c3377
DM
2706 } /* switch */
2707 } /* while */
2708
2709
2710 no_relems:
2711
2712 /* simplified lelem loop for when there are no relems left */
2713 while (LIKELY(lelem <= lastlelem)) {
2714 SV *lsv = *lelem++;
c73f612f
DM
2715
2716 TAINT_NOT; /* Each item stands on its own, taintwise. */
2717
8b0c3377
DM
2718 if (UNLIKELY(!lsv)) {
2719 lsv = *lelem++;
2720 ASSUME(SvTYPE(lsv) == SVt_PVAV);
a0d0e21e 2721 }
8b0c3377
DM
2722
2723 switch (SvTYPE(lsv)) {
2724 case SVt_PVAV:
b09ed995
DM
2725 if (SvRMAGICAL(lsv) || AvFILLp((SV*)lsv) >= 0) {
2726 av_clear((AV*)lsv);
8b0c3377 2727 if (UNLIKELY(PL_delaymagic & DM_ARRAY_ISA))
b09ed995 2728 SvSETMAGIC(lsv);
8b0c3377
DM
2729 }
2730 break;
2731
2732 case SVt_PVHV:
b09ed995
DM
2733 if (SvRMAGICAL(lsv) || HvUSEDKEYS((HV*)lsv))
2734 hv_clear((HV*)lsv);
8b0c3377
DM
2735 break;
2736
2737 default:
2738 if (!SvIMMORTAL(lsv)) {
e03e82a0 2739 sv_set_undef(lsv);
8b0c3377 2740 SvSETMAGIC(lsv);
b09ed995 2741 *relem++ = lsv;
8b0c3377
DM
2742 }
2743 break;
2744 } /* switch */
2745 } /* while */
2746
c73f612f
DM
2747 TAINT_NOT; /* result of list assign isn't tainted */
2748
5d9574c1 2749 if (UNLIKELY(PL_delaymagic & ~DM_DELAY)) {
985213f2 2750 /* Will be used to set PL_tainting below */
dfff4baf
BF
2751 Uid_t tmp_uid = PerlProc_getuid();
2752 Uid_t tmp_euid = PerlProc_geteuid();
2753 Gid_t tmp_gid = PerlProc_getgid();
2754 Gid_t tmp_egid = PerlProc_getegid();
985213f2 2755
b469f1e0 2756 /* XXX $> et al currently silently ignore failures */
3280af22 2757 if (PL_delaymagic & DM_UID) {
a0d0e21e 2758#ifdef HAS_SETRESUID
b469f1e0
JH
2759 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(
2760 setresuid((PL_delaymagic & DM_RUID) ? PL_delaymagic_uid : (Uid_t)-1,
2761 (PL_delaymagic & DM_EUID) ? PL_delaymagic_euid : (Uid_t)-1,
2762 (Uid_t)-1));
d1a21e44 2763#elif defined(HAS_SETREUID)
b469f1e0
JH
2764 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(
2765 setreuid((PL_delaymagic & DM_RUID) ? PL_delaymagic_uid : (Uid_t)-1,
2766 (PL_delaymagic & DM_EUID) ? PL_delaymagic_euid : (Uid_t)-1));
d1a21e44 2767#else
56febc5e 2768# ifdef HAS_SETRUID
b28d0864 2769 if ((PL_delaymagic & DM_UID) == DM_RUID) {
b469f1e0 2770 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(setruid(PL_delaymagic_uid));
b28d0864 2771 PL_delaymagic &= ~DM_RUID;
a0d0e21e 2772 }
56febc5e
AD
2773# endif /* HAS_SETRUID */
2774# ifdef HAS_SETEUID
b28d0864 2775 if ((PL_delaymagic & DM_UID) == DM_EUID) {
b469f1e0 2776 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(seteuid(PL_delaymagic_euid));
b28d0864 2777 PL_delaymagic &= ~DM_EUID;
a0d0e21e 2778 }
56febc5e 2779# endif /* HAS_SETEUID */
b28d0864 2780 if (PL_delaymagic & DM_UID) {
985213f2 2781 if (PL_delaymagic_uid != PL_delaymagic_euid)
cea2e8a9 2782 DIE(aTHX_ "No setreuid available");
b469f1e0 2783 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(PerlProc_setuid(PL_delaymagic_uid));
a0d0e21e 2784 }
56febc5e 2785#endif /* HAS_SETRESUID */
04783dc7 2786
985213f2
AB
2787 tmp_uid = PerlProc_getuid();
2788 tmp_euid = PerlProc_geteuid();
a0d0e21e 2789 }
b469f1e0 2790 /* XXX $> et al currently silently ignore failures */
3280af22 2791 if (PL_delaymagic & DM_GID) {
a0d0e21e 2792#ifdef HAS_SETRESGID
b469f1e0
JH
2793 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(
2794 setresgid((PL_delaymagic & DM_RGID) ? PL_delaymagic_gid : (Gid_t)-1,
2795 (PL_delaymagic & DM_EGID) ? PL_delaymagic_egid : (Gid_t)-1,
2796 (Gid_t)-1));
d1a21e44 2797#elif defined(HAS_SETREGID)
b469f1e0
JH
2798 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(
2799 setregid((PL_delaymagic & DM_RGID) ? PL_delaymagic_gid : (Gid_t)-1,
2800 (PL_delaymagic & DM_EGID) ? PL_delaymagic_egid : (Gid_t)-1));
d1a21e44 2801#else
56febc5e 2802# ifdef HAS_SETRGID
b28d0864 2803 if ((PL_delaymagic & DM_GID) == DM_RGID) {
b469f1e0 2804 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(setrgid(PL_delaymagic_gid));
b28d0864 2805 PL_delaymagic &= ~DM_RGID;
a0d0e21e 2806 }
56febc5e
AD
2807# endif /* HAS_SETRGID */
2808# ifdef HAS_SETEGID
b28d0864 2809 if ((PL_delaymagic & DM_GID) == DM_EGID) {
b469f1e0 2810 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(setegid(PL_delaymagic_egid));
b28d0864 2811 PL_delaymagic &= ~DM_EGID;
a0d0e21e 2812 }
56febc5e 2813# endif /* HAS_SETEGID */
b28d0864 2814 if (PL_delaymagic & DM_GID) {
985213f2 2815 if (PL_delaymagic_gid != PL_delaymagic_egid)
cea2e8a9 2816 DIE(aTHX_ "No setregid available");
b469f1e0 2817 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(PerlProc_setgid(PL_delaymagic_gid));
a0d0e21e 2818 }
56febc5e 2819#endif /* HAS_SETRESGID */
04783dc7 2820
985213f2
AB
2821 tmp_gid = PerlProc_getgid();
2822 tmp_egid = PerlProc_getegid();
a0d0e21e 2823 }
284167a5 2824 TAINTING_set( TAINTING_get | (tmp_uid && (tmp_euid != tmp_uid || tmp_egid != tmp_gid)) );
9a9b5ec9
DM
2825#ifdef NO_TAINT_SUPPORT
2826 PERL_UNUSED_VAR(tmp_uid);
2827 PERL_UNUSED_VAR(tmp_euid);
2828 PERL_UNUSED_VAR(tmp_gid);
2829 PERL_UNUSED_VAR(tmp_egid);
2830#endif
a0d0e21e 2831 }
a68090fe 2832 PL_delaymagic = old_delaymagic;
54310121 2833
54310121
PP
2834 if (gimme == G_VOID)
2835 SP = firstrelem - 1;
2836 else if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
54310121 2837 SP = firstrelem;
b09ed995 2838 EXTEND(SP,1);
7b394f12
DM
2839 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpASSIGN_TRUEBOOL)
2840 SETs((firstlelem - firstrelem) ? &PL_sv_yes : &PL_sv_zero);
2841 else {
2842 dTARGET;
2843 SETi(firstlelem - firstrelem);
2844 }
54310121 2845 }
b09ed995
DM
2846 else
2847 SP = relem - 1;
08aeb9f7 2848
54310121 2849 RETURN;
a0d0e21e
LW
2850}
2851
8782bef2
GB
2852PP(pp_qr)
2853{
20b7effb 2854 dSP;
eb578fdb 2855 PMOP * const pm = cPMOP;
fe578d7f 2856 REGEXP * rx = PM_GETRE(pm);
196a02af
DM
2857 regexp *prog = ReANY(rx);
2858 SV * const pkg = RXp_ENGINE(prog)->qr_package(aTHX_ (rx));
c4420975 2859 SV * const rv = sv_newmortal();
d63c20f2
DM
2860 CV **cvp;
2861 CV *cv;
288b8c02
NC
2862
2863 SvUPGRADE(rv, SVt_IV);
c2123ae3
NC
2864 /* For a subroutine describing itself as "This is a hacky workaround" I'm
2865 loathe to use it here, but it seems to be the right fix. Or close.
2866 The key part appears to be that it's essential for pp_qr to return a new
2867 object (SV), which implies that there needs to be an effective way to
2868 generate a new SV from the existing SV that is pre-compiled in the
2869 optree. */
2870 SvRV_set(rv, MUTABLE_SV(reg_temp_copy(NULL, rx)));
288b8c02
NC
2871 SvROK_on(rv);
2872
8d919b0a 2873 cvp = &( ReANY((REGEXP *)SvRV(rv))->qr_anoncv);
5d9574c1 2874 if (UNLIKELY((cv = *cvp) && CvCLONE(*cvp))) {
d63c20f2 2875 *cvp = cv_clone(cv);
fc2b2dca 2876 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(cv);
d63c20f2
DM
2877 }
2878
288b8c02 2879 if (pkg) {
f815daf2 2880 HV *const stash = gv_stashsv(pkg, GV_ADD);
fc2b2dca 2881 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(pkg);
288b8c02
NC
2882 (void)sv_bless(rv, stash);
2883 }
2884
196a02af 2885 if (UNLIKELY(RXp_ISTAINTED(prog))) {
e08e52cf 2886 SvTAINTED_on(rv);
9274aefd
DM
2887 SvTAINTED_on(SvRV(rv));
2888 }
c8c13c22 2889 XPUSHs(rv);
2890 RETURN;
8782bef2
GB
2891}
2892
e0be7821
KW
2893STATIC bool
2894S_are_we_in_Debug_EXECUTE_r(pTHX)
2895{
2896 /* Given a 'use re' is in effect, does it ask for outputting execution
2897 * debug info?
2898 *
2899 * This is separated from the sole place it's called, an inline function,
2900 * because it is the large-ish slow portion of the function */
2901
2902 DECLARE_AND_GET_RE_DEBUG_FLAGS_NON_REGEX;
2903
2904 return cBOOL(RE_DEBUG_FLAG(RE_DEBUG_EXECUTE_MASK));
2905}
2906
2907PERL_STATIC_INLINE bool
2908S_should_we_output_Debug_r(pTHX_ regexp *prog)
2909{
2910 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SHOULD_WE_OUTPUT_DEBUG_R;
2911
2912 /* pp_match can output regex debugging info. This function returns a
2913 * boolean as to whether or not it should.
2914 *
2915 * Under -Dr, it should. Any reasonable compiler will optimize this bit of
2916 * code away on non-debugging builds. */
2917 if (UNLIKELY(DEBUG_r_TEST)) {
2918 return TRUE;
2919 }
2920
2921 /* If the regex engine is using the non-debugging execution routine, then
2922 * no debugging should be output. Same if the field is NULL that pluggable
2923 * engines are not supposed to fill. */
2924 if ( LIKELY(prog->engine->exec == &Perl_regexec_flags)
2925 || UNLIKELY(prog->engine->op_comp == NULL))
2926 {
2927 return FALSE;
2928 }
2929
2930 /* Otherwise have to check */
2931 return S_are_we_in_Debug_EXECUTE_r(aTHX);
2932}
2933
a0d0e21e
LW
2934PP(pp_match)
2935{
20b7effb 2936 dSP; dTARG;
eb578fdb 2937 PMOP *pm = cPMOP;
d65afb4b 2938 PMOP *dynpm = pm;
eb578fdb 2939 const char *s;
5c144d81 2940 const char *strend;
99a90e59 2941 SSize_t curpos = 0; /* initial pos() or current $+[0] */
a0d0e21e 2942 I32 global;
7fadf4a7 2943 U8 r_flags = 0;
5c144d81 2944 const char *truebase; /* Start of string */
eb578fdb 2945 REGEXP *rx = PM_GETRE(pm);
196a02af 2946 regexp *prog = ReANY(rx);
b3eb6a9b 2947 bool rxtainted;
1c23e2bd 2948 const U8 gimme = GIMME_V;
a0d0e21e 2949 STRLEN len;
a3b680e6 2950 const I32 oldsave = PL_savestack_ix;
e60df1fa 2951 I32 had_zerolen = 0;
b1422d62 2952 MAGIC *mg = NULL;
a0d0e21e 2953
533c011a 2954 if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_STACKED)
a0d0e21e
LW
2955 TARG = POPs;
2956 else {
9399c607
DM
2957 if (ARGTARG)
2958 GETTARGET;
2959 else {
2960 TARG = DEFSV;
2961 }
a0d0e21e
LW
2962 EXTEND(SP,1);
2963 }
d9f424b2 2964
c277df42 2965 PUTBACK; /* EVAL blocks need stack_sp. */
69dc4b30
FC
2966 /* Skip get-magic if this is a qr// clone, because regcomp has
2967 already done it. */
196a02af 2968 truebase = prog->mother_re
69dc4b30
FC
2969 ? SvPV_nomg_const(TARG, len)
2970 : SvPV_const(TARG, len);
f1d31338 2971 if (!truebase)
2269b42e 2972 DIE(aTHX_ "panic: pp_match");
f1d31338 2973 strend = truebase + len;
196a02af 2974 rxtainted = (RXp_ISTAINTED(prog) ||
284167a5 2975 (TAINT_get && (pm->op_pmflags & PMf_RETAINT)));
9212bbba 2976 TAINT_NOT;
a0d0e21e 2977
6c864ec2 2978 /* We need to know this in case we fail out early - pos() must be reset */
de0df3c0
MH
2979 global = dynpm->op_pmflags & PMf_GLOBAL;
2980
d65afb4b 2981 /* PMdf_USED is set after a ?? matches once */
c737faaf
YO
2982 if (
2983#ifdef USE_ITHREADS
2984 SvREADONLY(PL_regex_pad[pm->op_pmoffset])
2985#else
2986 pm->op_pmflags & PMf_USED
2987#endif
2988 ) {
e0be7821
KW
2989 if (UNLIKELY(should_we_output_Debug_r(prog))) {
2990 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "?? already matched once");
2991 }
de0df3c0 2992 goto nope;
a0d0e21e
LW
2993 }
2994
5585e758 2995 /* handle the empty pattern */
196a02af 2996 if (!RX_PRELEN(rx) && PL_curpm && !prog->mother_re) {
5585e758
YO
2997 if (PL_curpm == PL_reg_curpm) {
2998 if (PL_curpm_under) {
2999 if (PL_curpm_under == PL_reg_curpm) {
3000 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Infinite recursion via empty pattern");
3001 } else {
3002 pm = PL_curpm_under;
3003 }
3004 }
3005 } else {
3006 pm = PL_curpm;
3007 }
3008 rx = PM_GETRE(pm);
196a02af 3009 prog = ReANY(rx);
a0d0e21e 3010 }
d65afb4b 3011
196a02af 3012 if (RXp_MINLEN(prog) >= 0 && (STRLEN)RXp_MINLEN(prog) > len) {
e0be7821
KW
3013 if (UNLIKELY(should_we_output_Debug_r(prog))) {
3014 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
3f5ee3fa 3015 "String shorter than min possible regex match (%zd < %zd)\n",
e0be7821
KW
3016 len, RXp_MINLEN(prog));
3017 }
de0df3c0 3018 goto nope;
e5dc5375 3019 }
c277df42 3020
8ef97b0e 3021 /* get pos() if //g */
de0df3c0 3022 if (global) {
b1422d62 3023 mg = mg_find_mglob(TARG);
8ef97b0e 3024 if (mg && mg->mg_len >= 0) {
25fdce4a 3025 curpos = MgBYTEPOS(mg, TARG, truebase, len);
8ef97b0e
DM
3026 /* last time pos() was set, it was zero-length match */
3027 if (mg->mg_flags & MGf_MINMATCH)
3028 had_zerolen = 1;
3029 }
a0d0e21e 3030 }
8ef97b0e 3031
6e240d0b 3032#ifdef PERL_SAWAMPERSAND
196a02af 3033 if ( RXp_NPARENS(prog)
6502e081 3034 || PL_sawampersand
196a02af 3035 || (RXp_EXTFLAGS(prog) & (RXf_EVAL_SEEN|RXf_PMf_KEEPCOPY))
5b0e71e9 3036 || (dynpm->op_pmflags & PMf_KEEPCOPY)
6e240d0b
FC
3037 )
3038#endif
3039 {
6502e081
DM
3040 r_flags |= (REXEC_COPY_STR|REXEC_COPY_SKIP_PRE);
3041 /* in @a =~ /(.)/g, we iterate multiple times, but copy the buffer
3042 * only on the first iteration. Therefore we need to copy $' as well
3043 * as $&, to make the rest of the string available for captures in
3044 * subsequent iterations */
3045 if (! (global && gimme == G_ARRAY))
3046 r_flags |= REXEC_COPY_SKIP_POST;
3047 };
5b0e71e9
DM
3048#ifdef PERL_SAWAMPERSAND
3049 if (dynpm->op_pmflags & PMf_KEEPCOPY)
3050 /* handle KEEPCOPY in pmop but not rx, eg $r=qr/a/; /$r/p */
3051 r_flags &= ~(REXEC_COPY_SKIP_PRE|REXEC_COPY_SKIP_POST);
3052#endif
22e551b9 3053
f1d31338
DM
3054 s = truebase;
3055
d7be1480 3056 play_it_again:
985afbc1 3057 if (global)
03c83e26 3058 s = truebase + curpos;
f722798b 3059
77da2310 3060 if (!CALLREGEXEC(rx, (char*)s, (char *)strend, (char*)truebase,
03c83e26 3061 had_zerolen, TARG, NULL, r_flags))
03b6c93d 3062 goto nope;
77da2310
NC
3063
3064 PL_curpm = pm;
985afbc1 3065 if (dynpm->op_pmflags & PMf_ONCE)
c737faaf 3066#ifdef USE_ITHREADS
77da2310 3067 SvREADONLY_on(PL_regex_pad[dynpm->op_pmoffset]);
c737faaf 3068#else
77da2310 3069 dynpm->op_pmflags |= PMf_USED;
c737faaf 3070#endif
a0d0e21e 3071
72311751 3072 if (rxtainted)
196a02af
DM
3073 RXp_MATCH_TAINTED_on(prog);
3074 TAINT_IF(RXp_MATCH_TAINTED(prog));
35c2ccc3
DM
3075
3076 /* update pos */
3077
3078 if (global && (gimme != G_ARRAY || (dynpm->op_pmflags & PMf_CONTINUE))) {
b1422d62 3079 if (!mg)
35c2ccc3 3080 mg = sv_magicext_mglob(TARG);
196a02af
DM
3081 MgBYTEPOS_set(mg, TARG, truebase, RXp_OFFS(prog)[0].end);
3082 if (RXp_ZERO_LEN(prog))
adf51885
DM
3083 mg->mg_flags |= MGf_MINMATCH;
3084 else
3085 mg->mg_flags &= ~MGf_MINMATCH;
35c2ccc3
DM
3086 }
3087
196a02af 3088 if ((!RXp_NPARENS(prog) && !global) || gimme != G_ARRAY) {
bf9dff51
DM
3089 LEAVE_SCOPE(oldsave);
3090 RETPUSHYES;
3091 }
3092
88ab22af
DM
3093 /* push captures on stack */
3094
bf9dff51 3095 {
196a02af 3096 const I32 nparens = RXp_NPARENS(prog);
a3b680e6 3097 I32 i = (global && !nparens) ? 1 : 0;
a0d0e21e 3098
c277df42 3099 SPAGAIN; /* EVAL blocks could move the stack. */
ffc61ed2
JH
3100 EXTEND(SP, nparens + i);
3101 EXTEND_MORTAL(nparens + i);
3102 for (i = !i; i <= nparens; i++) {
a0d0e21e 3103 PUSHs(sv_newmortal());
196a02af
DM
3104 if (LIKELY((RXp_OFFS(prog)[i].start != -1)
3105 && RXp_OFFS(prog)[i].end != -1 ))
5d9574c1 3106 {
196a02af
DM
3107 const I32 len = RXp_OFFS(prog)[i].end - RXp_OFFS(prog)[i].start;
3108 const char * const s = RXp_OFFS(prog)[i].start + truebase;
3109 if (UNLIKELY( RXp_OFFS(prog)[i].end < 0
3110 || RXp_OFFS(prog)[i].start < 0
3111 || len < 0
3112 || len > strend - s)
3113 )
5637ef5b 3114 DIE(aTHX_ "panic: pp_match start/end pointers, i=%ld, "
147e3846 3115 "start=%ld, end=%ld, s=%p, strend=%p, len=%" UVuf,
196a02af
DM
3116 (long) i, (long) RXp_OFFS(prog)[i].start,
3117 (long)RXp_OFFS(prog)[i].end, s, strend, (UV) len);
a0d0e21e 3118 sv_setpvn(*SP, s, len);
cce850e4 3119 if (DO_UTF8(TARG) && is_utf8_string((U8*)s, len))
a197cbdd 3120 SvUTF8_on(*SP);
a0d0e21e
LW
3121 }
3122 }
3123 if (global) {
196a02af
DM
3124 curpos = (UV)RXp_OFFS(prog)[0].end;
3125 had_zerolen = RXp_ZERO_LEN(prog);
c277df42 3126 PUTBACK; /* EVAL blocks may use stack */
cf93c79d 3127 r_flags |= REXEC_IGNOREPOS | REXEC_NOT_FIRST;
a0d0e21e
LW
3128 goto play_it_again;
3129 }
4633a7c4 3130 LEAVE_SCOPE(oldsave);
a0d0e21e
LW
3131 RETURN;
3132 }
e5964223 3133 NOT_REACHED; /* NOTREACHED */
a0d0e21e 3134
7b52d656 3135 nope:
d65afb4b 3136 if (global && !(dynpm->op_pmflags & PMf_CONTINUE)) {
b1422d62
DM
3137 if (!mg)
3138 mg = mg_find_mglob(TARG);
3139 if (mg)
3140 mg->mg_len = -1;
a0d0e21e 3141 }
4633a7c4 3142 LEAVE_SCOPE(oldsave);
a0d0e21e
LW
3143 if (gimme == G_ARRAY)
3144 RETURN;
3145 RETPUSHNO;
3146}
3147
3148OP *
864dbfa3 3149Perl_do_readline(pTHX)
a0d0e21e 3150{
20b7effb 3151 dSP; dTARGETSTACKED;
eb578fdb 3152 SV *sv;
a0d0e21e
LW
3153 STRLEN tmplen = 0;
3154 STRLEN offset;
760ac839 3155 PerlIO *fp;
eb578fdb
KW
3156 IO * const io = GvIO(PL_last_in_gv);
3157 const I32 type = PL_op->op_type;
1c23e2bd 3158 const U8 gimme = GIMME_V;
a0d0e21e 3159
6136c704 3160 if (io) {
50db69d8 3161 const MAGIC *const mg = SvTIED_mg((const SV *)io, PERL_MAGIC_tiedscalar);
6136c704 3162 if (mg) {
3e0cb5de 3163 Perl_tied_method(aTHX_ SV_CONST(READLINE), SP, MUTABLE_SV(io), mg, gimme, 0);
6136c704 3164 if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
50db69d8
NC
3165 SPAGAIN;
3166 SvSetSV_nosteal(TARG, TOPs);
3167 SETTARG;
6136c704 3168 }
50db69d8 3169 return NORMAL;
0b7c7b4f 3170 }
e79b0511 3171 }
4608196e 3172 fp = NULL;
a0d0e21e
LW
3173 if (io) {
3174 fp = IoIFP(io);
3175 if (!fp) {
3176 if (IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_ARGV) {
3177 if (IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_START) {
a0d0e21e 3178 IoLINES(io) = 0;
b9f2b683 3179 if (av_tindex(GvAVn(PL_last_in_gv)) < 0) {
1d7c1841 3180 IoFLAGS(io) &= ~IOf_START;
d5eb9a46 3181 do_open6(PL_last_in_gv, "-", 1, NULL, NULL, 0);
4bac9ae4 3182 SvTAINTED_off(GvSVn(PL_last_in_gv)); /* previous tainting irrelevant */
76f68e9b 3183 sv_setpvs(GvSVn(PL_last_in_gv), "-");
3280af22 3184 SvSETMAGIC(GvSV(PL_last_in_gv));
a2008d6d
GS
3185 fp = IoIFP(io);
3186 goto have_fp;
a0d0e21e
LW
3187 }
3188 }
157fb5a1 3189 fp = nextargv(PL_last_in_gv, PL_op->op_flags & OPf_SPECIAL);
a0d0e21e 3190 if (!fp) { /* Note: fp != IoIFP(io) */
3280af22 3191 (void)do_close(PL_last_in_gv, FALSE); /* now it does*/
a0d0e21e
LW
3192 }
3193 }
0d44d22b
NC
3194 else if (type == OP_GLOB)
3195 fp = Perl_start_glob(aTHX_ POPs, io);
a0d0e21e
LW
3196 }
3197 else if (type == OP_GLOB)
3198 SP--;
7716c5c5 3199 else if (IoTYPE(io) == IoTYPE_WRONLY) {
a5390457 3200 report_wrongway_fh(PL_last_in_gv, '>');
a00b5bd3 3201 }
a0d0e21e
LW
3202 }
3203 if (!fp) {
041457d9 3204 if ((!io || !(IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_START))
de7dabb6
TC
3205 && ckWARN(WARN_CLOSED)
3206 && type != OP_GLOB)
041457d9 3207 {
de7dabb6 3208 report_evil_fh(PL_last_in_gv);
3f4520fe 3209 }
54310121 3210 if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
79628082 3211 /* undef TARG, and push that undefined value */
ba92458f 3212 if (type != OP_RCATLINE) {
3773545d 3213 sv_set_undef(TARG);
ba92458f 3214 }
a0d0e21e
LW
3215 PUSHTARG;
3216 }
3217 RETURN;
3218 }
a2008d6d 3219 have_fp:
54310121 3220 if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
a0d0e21e 3221 sv = TARG;
0f722b55
RGS
3222 if (type == OP_RCATLINE && SvGMAGICAL(sv))
3223 mg_get(sv);
48de12d9
RGS
3224 if (SvROK(sv)) {
3225 if (type == OP_RCATLINE)
5668452f 3226 SvPV_force_nomg_nolen(sv);
48de12d9
RGS
3227 else
3228 sv_unref(sv);
3229 }
f7877b28 3230 else if (isGV_with_GP(sv)) {
5668452f 3231 SvPV_force_nomg_nolen(sv);
f7877b28 3232 }
862a34c6 3233 SvUPGRADE(sv, SVt_PV);
a0d0e21e 3234 tmplen = SvLEN(sv); /* remember if already alloced */
e3918bb7 3235 if (!tmplen && !SvREADONLY(sv) && !SvIsCOW(sv)) {
f72e8700
JJ
3236 /* try short-buffering it. Please update t/op/readline.t
3237 * if you change the growth length.
3238 */
3239 Sv_Grow(sv, 80);
3240 }
2b5e58c4
AMS
3241 offset = 0;
3242 if (type == OP_RCATLINE && SvOK(sv)) {
3243 if (!SvPOK(sv)) {
5668452f 3244 SvPV_force_nomg_nolen(sv);
2b5e58c4 3245 }
a0d0e21e 3246 offset = SvCUR(sv);
2b5e58c4 3247 }
a0d0e21e 3248 }
54310121 3249 else {
561b68a9 3250 sv = sv_2mortal(newSV(80));
54310121
PP
3251 offset = 0;
3252 }
fbad3eb5 3253
3887d568
AP
3254 /* This should not be marked tainted if the fp is marked clean */
3255#define MAYBE_TAINT_LINE(io, sv) \
3256 if (!(IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_UNTAINT)) { \
3257 TAINT; \
3258 SvTAINTED_on(sv); \
3259 }
3260
684bef36 3261/* delay EOF state for a snarfed empty file */
fbad3eb5 3262#define SNARF_EOF(gimme,rs,io,sv) \
684bef36 3263 (gimme != G_SCALAR || SvCUR(sv) \
b9fee9ba 3264 || (IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_NOLINE) || !RsSNARF(rs))
fbad3eb5 3265
a0d0e21e 3266 for (;;) {
09e8efcc 3267 PUTBACK;
fbad3eb5 3268 if (!sv_gets(sv, fp, offset)
2d726892
TF
3269 && (type == OP_GLOB
3270 || SNARF_EOF(gimme, PL_rs, io, sv)
3271 || PerlIO_error(fp)))
fbad3eb5 3272 {
760ac839 3273 PerlIO_clearerr(fp);
a0d0e21e 3274 if (IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_ARGV) {
157fb5a1 3275 fp = nextargv(PL_last_in_gv, PL_op->op_flags & OPf_SPECIAL);
a0d0e21e
LW
3276 if (fp)
3277 continue;
3280af22 3278 (void)do_close(PL_last_in_gv, FALSE);
a0d0e21e
LW
3279 }
3280 else if (type == OP_GLOB) {
a2a5de95
NC
3281 if (!do_close(PL_last_in_gv, FALSE)) {
3282 Perl_ck_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_GLOB),
3283 "glob failed (child exited with status %d%s)",
3284 (int)(STATUS_CURRENT >> 8),
3285 (STATUS_CURRENT & 0x80) ? ", core dumped" : "");
4eb79ab5 3286 }
a0d0e21e 3287 }
54310121 3288 if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
ba92458f
AE
3289 if (type != OP_RCATLINE) {
3290 SV_CHECK_THINKFIRST_COW_DROP(TARG);
0c34ef67 3291 SvOK_off(TARG);
ba92458f 3292 }
09e8efcc 3293 SPAGAIN;
a0d0e21e
LW
3294 PUSHTARG;
3295 }
3887d568 3296 MAYBE_TAINT_LINE(io, sv);
a0d0e21e
LW
3297 RETURN;
3298 }
3887d568 3299 MAYBE_TAINT_LINE(io, sv);
a0d0e21e 3300 IoLINES(io)++;
b9fee9ba 3301 IoFLAGS(io) |= IOf_NOLINE;
71be2cbc 3302 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
09e8efcc 3303 SPAGAIN;
a0d0e21e 3304 XPUSHs(sv);
a0d0e21e 3305 if (type == OP_GLOB) {
349d4f2f 3306 const char *t1;
45a23732 3307 Stat_t statbuf;
a0d0e21e 3308
3280af22 3309 if (SvCUR(sv) > 0 && SvCUR(PL_rs) > 0) {
6136c704 3310 char * const tmps = SvEND(sv) - 1;
aa07b2f6 3311 if (*tmps == *SvPVX_const(PL_rs)) {
c07a80fd 3312 *tmps = '\0';
b162af07 3313 SvCUR_set(sv, SvCUR(sv) - 1);
c07a80fd
PP
3314 }
3315 }
349d4f2f 3316 for (t1 = SvPVX_const(sv); *t1; t1++)
b51c3e77 3317#ifdef __VMS
4aada8b9 3318 if (memCHRs("*%?", *t1))
b51c3e77 3319#else
4aada8b9 3320 if (memCHRs("$&*(){}[]'\";\\|?<>~`", *t1))
b51c3e77 3321#endif
a0d0e21e 3322 break;
45a23732 3323 if (*t1 && PerlLIO_lstat(SvPVX_const(sv), &statbuf) < 0) {
a0d0e21e
LW
3324 (void)POPs; /* Unmatched wildcard? Chuck it... */
3325 continue;
3326 }
2d79bf7f 3327 } else if (SvUTF8(sv)) { /* OP_READLINE, OP_RCATLINE */
d4c19fe8
AL
3328 if (ckWARN(WARN_UTF8)) {
3329 const U8 * const s = (const U8*)SvPVX_const(sv) + offset;
3330 const STRLEN len = SvCUR(sv) - offset;
3331 const U8 *f;
3332
3333 if (!is_utf8_string_loc(s, len, &f))
3334 /* Emulate :encoding(utf8) warning in the same case. */
3335 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
3336 "utf8 \"\\x%02X\" does not map to Unicode",
3337 f < (U8*)SvEND(sv) ? *f : 0);
3338 }
a0d0e21e 3339 }
54310121 3340 if (gimme == G_ARRAY) {
a0d0e21e 3341 if (SvLEN(sv) - SvCUR(sv) > 20) {
1da4ca5f 3342 SvPV_shrink_to_cur(sv);
a0d0e21e 3343 }
561b68a9 3344 sv = sv_2mortal(newSV(80));
a0d0e21e
LW
3345 continue;
3346 }
54310121 3347 else if (gimme == G_SCALAR && !tmplen && SvLEN(sv) - SvCUR(sv) > 80) {
a0d0e21e 3348 /* try to reclaim a bit of scalar space (only on 1st alloc) */
d5b5861b
NC
3349 const STRLEN new_len
3350 = SvCUR(sv) < 60 ? 80 : SvCUR(sv)+40; /* allow some slop */
1da4ca5f 3351 SvPV_renew(sv, new_len);
a0d0e21e
LW
3352 }
3353 RETURN;
3354 }
3355}
3356
a0d0e21e
LW
3357PP(pp_helem)
3358{
20b7effb 3359 dSP;
760ac839 3360 HE* he;
ae77835f 3361 SV **svp;
c445ea15 3362 SV * const keysv = POPs;
85fbaab2 3363 HV * const hv = MUTABLE_HV(POPs);
a3b680e6
AL
3364 const U32 lval = PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD || LVRET;
3365 const U32 defer = PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_DEFER;
be6c24e0 3366 SV *sv;
92970b93 3367 const bool localizing = PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO;
d30e492c 3368 bool preeminent = TRUE;
a0d0e21e 3369
6dfc73ea
SM
3370 if (SvTYPE(hv) != SVt_PVHV)
3371 RETPUSHUNDEF;
d4c19fe8 3372
92970b93 3373 if (localizing) {
d4c19fe8
AL
3374 MAGIC *mg;
3375 HV *stash;
d30e492c
VP
3376
3377 /* If we can determine whether the element exist,
3378 * Try to preserve the existenceness of a tied hash
3379 * element by using EXISTS and DELETE if possible.
3380 * Fallback to FETCH and STORE otherwise. */
2c5f48c2 3381 if (SvCANEXISTDELETE(hv))
d30e492c 3382 preeminent = hv_exists_ent(hv, keysv, 0);
d4c19fe8 3383 }
d30e492c 3384
5f9d7e2b 3385 he = hv_fetch_ent(hv, keysv, lval && !defer, 0);
d4c19fe8 3386 svp = he ? &HeVAL(he) : NULL;
a0d0e21e 3387 if (lval) {
746f6409 3388 if (!svp || !*svp || *svp == &PL_sv_undef) {
68dc0745
PP
3389 SV* lv;
3390 SV* key2;
2d8e6c8d 3391 if (!defer) {
be2597df 3392 DIE(aTHX_ PL_no_helem_sv, SVfARG(keysv));
2d8e6c8d 3393 }
68dc0745
PP
3394 lv = sv_newmortal();
3395 sv_upgrade(lv, SVt_PVLV);
3396 LvTYPE(lv) = 'y';
6136c704 3397 sv_magic(lv, key2 = newSVsv(keysv), PERL_MAGIC_defelem, NULL, 0);
fc2b2dca 3398 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(key2); /* sv_magic() increments refcount */
0ad694a7 3399 LvTARG(lv) = SvREFCNT_inc_simple_NN(hv);
68dc0745
PP
3400 LvTARGLEN(lv) = 1;
3401 PUSHs(lv);
3402 RETURN;
3403 }
92970b93 3404 if (localizing) {
6881372e 3405 if (HvNAME_get(hv) && isGV_or_RVCV(*svp))
159b6efe 3406 save_gp(MUTABLE_GV(*svp), !(PL_op->op_flags & OPf_SPECIAL));
47cfc530
VP
3407 else if (preeminent)
3408 save_helem_flags(hv, keysv, svp,
3409 (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_SPECIAL) ? 0 : SAVEf_SETMAGIC);
3410 else
3411 SAVEHDELETE(hv, keysv);
5f05dabc 3412 }
9026059d
GG
3413 else if (PL_op->op_private & OPpDEREF) {
3414 PUSHs(vivify_ref(*svp, PL_op->op_private & OPpDEREF));
3415 RETURN;
3416 }
a0d0e21e 3417 }
746f6409 3418 sv = (svp && *svp ? *svp : &PL_sv_undef);
fd69380d
DM
3419 /* Originally this did a conditional C<sv = sv_mortalcopy(sv)>; this
3420 * was to make C<local $tied{foo} = $tied{foo}> possible.
3421 * However, it seems no longer to be needed for that purpose, and
3422 * introduced a new bug: stuff like C<while ($hash{taintedval} =~ /.../g>
3423 * would loop endlessly since the pos magic is getting set on the
3424 * mortal copy and lost. However, the copy has the effect of
3425 * triggering the get magic, and losing it altogether made things like
3426 * c<$tied{foo};> in void context no longer do get magic, which some
3427 * code relied on. Also, delayed triggering of magic on @+ and friends
3428 * meant the original regex may be out of scope by now. So as a
3429 * compromise, do the get magic here. (The MGf_GSKIP flag will stop it
3430 * being called too many times). */
39cf747a 3431 if (!lval && SvRMAGICAL(hv) && SvGMAGICAL(sv))
fd69380d 3432 mg_get(sv);
be6c24e0 3433 PUSHs(sv);
a0d0e21e
LW
3434 RETURN;
3435}
3436
fedf30e1
DM
3437
3438/* a stripped-down version of Perl_softref2xv() for use by
3439 * pp_multideref(), which doesn't use PL_op->op_flags */
3440
f9db5646 3441STATIC GV *
fedf30e1
DM
3442S_softref2xv_lite(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const char *const what,
3443 const svtype type)
3444{
3445 if (PL_op->op_private & HINT_STRICT_REFS) {
3446 if (SvOK(sv))
3447 Perl_die(aTHX_ PL_no_symref_sv, sv,
3448 (SvPOKp(sv) && SvCUR(sv)>32 ? "..." : ""), what);
3449 else
3450 Perl_die(aTHX_ PL_no_usym, what);
3451 }
3452 if (!SvOK(sv))
3453 Perl_die(aTHX_ PL_no_usym, what);
3454 return gv_fetchsv_nomg(sv, GV_ADD, type);
3455}
3456
3457
79815f56
DM
3458/* Handle one or more aggregate derefs and array/hash indexings, e.g.
3459 * $h->{foo} or $a[0]{$key}[$i] or f()->[1]
fedf30e1
DM
3460 *
3461 * op_aux points to an array of unions of UV / IV / SV* / PADOFFSET.
79815f56
DM
3462 * Each of these either contains a set of actions, or an argument, such as
3463 * an IV to use as an array index, or a lexical var to retrieve.
3464 * Several actions re stored per UV; we keep shifting new actions off the
3465 * one UV, and only reload when it becomes zero.
fedf30e1
DM
3466 */
3467
3468PP(pp_multideref)
3469{
3470 SV *sv = NULL; /* init to avoid spurious 'may be used uninitialized' */
3471 UNOP_AUX_item *items = cUNOP_AUXx(PL_op)->op_aux;
3472 UV actions = items->uv;
3473
3474 assert(actions);
3475 /* this tells find_uninit_var() where we're up to */
3476 PL_multideref_pc = items;
3477
3478 while (1) {
3479 /* there are three main classes of action; the first retrieve
3480 * the initial AV or HV from a variable or the stack; the second
3481 * does the equivalent of an unrolled (/DREFAV, rv2av, aelem),
3482 * the third an unrolled (/DREFHV, rv2hv, helem).
3483 */
3484 switch (actions & MDEREF_ACTION_MASK) {
3485
3486 case MDEREF_reload:
3487 actions = (++items)->uv;
3488 continue;
3489
3490 case MDEREF_AV_padav_aelem: /* $lex[...] */
3491 sv = PAD_SVl((++items)->pad_offset);
3492 goto do_AV_aelem;
3493
3494 case MDEREF_AV_gvav_aelem: /* $pkg[...] */
3495 sv = UNOP_AUX_item_sv(++items);
3496 assert(isGV_with_GP(sv));
3497 sv = (SV*)GvAVn((GV*)sv);
3498 goto do_AV_aelem;
3499
3500 case MDEREF_AV_pop_rv2av_aelem: /* expr->[...] */
3501 {
3502 dSP;
3503 sv = POPs;
3504 PUTBACK;
3505 goto do_AV_rv2av_aelem;
3506 }
3507
3508 case MDEREF_AV_gvsv_vivify_rv2av_aelem: /* $pkg->[...] */
3509 sv = UNOP_AUX_item_sv(++items);
3510 assert(isGV_with_GP(sv));
3511 sv = GvSVn((GV*)sv);
3512 goto do_AV_vivify_rv2av_aelem;
3513
3514 case MDEREF_AV_padsv_vivify_rv2av_aelem: /* $lex->[...] */
3515 sv = PAD_SVl((++items)->pad_offset);
3516 /* FALLTHROUGH */
3517
3518 do_AV_vivify_rv2av_aelem:
3519 case MDEREF_AV_vivify_rv2av_aelem: /* vivify, ->[...] */
3520 /* this is the OPpDEREF action normally found at the end of
3521 * ops like aelem, helem, rv2sv */
3522 sv = vivify_ref(sv, OPpDEREF_AV);
3523 /* FALLTHROUGH */
3524
3525 do_AV_rv2av_aelem:
3526 /* this is basically a copy of pp_rv2av when it just has the
3527 * sKR/1 flags */
3528 SvGETMAGIC(sv);
3529 if (LIKELY(SvROK(sv))) {
3530 if (UNLIKELY(SvAMAGIC(sv))) {
3531 sv = amagic_deref_call(sv, to_av_amg);
3532 }
3533 sv = SvRV(sv);
3534 if (UNLIKELY(SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVAV))
3535 DIE(aTHX_ "Not an ARRAY reference");
3536 }
3537 else if (SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVAV) {
3538 if (!isGV_with_GP(sv))
3539 sv = (SV*)S_softref2xv_lite(aTHX_ sv, "an ARRAY", SVt_PVAV);
3540 sv = MUTABLE_SV(GvAVn((GV*)sv));
3541 }
3542 /* FALLTHROUGH */
3543
3544 do_AV_aelem:
3545 {
3546 /* retrieve the key; this may be either a lexical or package
3547 * var (whose index/ptr is stored as an item) or a signed
3548 * integer constant stored as an item.
3549 */
3550 SV *elemsv;
3551 IV elem = 0; /* to shut up stupid compiler warnings */
3552
3553
3554 assert(SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVAV);
3555
3556 switch (actions & MDEREF_INDEX_MASK) {
3557 case MDEREF_INDEX_none:
3558 goto finish;
3559 case MDEREF_INDEX_const:
3560 elem = (++items)->iv;
3561 break;
3562 case MDEREF_INDEX_padsv:
3563 elemsv = PAD_SVl((++items)->pad_offset);
3564 goto check_elem;
3565 case MDEREF_INDEX_gvsv:
3566 elemsv = UNOP_AUX_item_sv(++items);
3567 assert(isGV_with_GP(elemsv));
3568 elemsv = GvSVn((GV*)elemsv);
3569 check_elem:
3570 if (UNLIKELY(SvROK(elemsv) && !SvGAMAGIC(elemsv)
3571 && ckWARN(WARN_MISC)))
3572 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_MISC),
147e3846 3573 "Use of reference \"%" SVf "\" as array index",
fedf30e1
DM
3574 SVfARG(elemsv));
3575 /* the only time that S_find_uninit_var() needs this
3576 * is to determine which index value triggered the
3577 * undef warning. So just update it here. Note that
3578 * since we don't save and restore this var (e.g. for
3579 * tie or overload execution), its value will be
3580 * meaningless apart from just here */
3581 PL_multideref_pc = items;
3582 elem = SvIV(elemsv);
3583 break;
3584 }
3585
3586
3587 /* this is basically a copy of pp_aelem with OPpDEREF skipped */
3588
3589 if (!(actions & MDEREF_FLAG_last)) {
3590 SV** svp = av_fetch((AV*)sv, elem, 1);
3591 if (!svp || ! (sv=*svp))
3592 DIE(aTHX_ PL_no_aelem, elem);
3593 break;
3594 }
3595
3596 if (PL_op->op_private &
3597 (OPpMULTIDEREF_EXISTS|OPpMULTIDEREF_DELETE))
3598 {
3599 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpMULTIDEREF_EXISTS) {
3600 sv = av_exists((AV*)sv, elem) ? &PL_sv_yes : &PL_sv_no;
3601 }
3602 else {
3603 I32 discard = (GIMME_V == G_VOID) ? G_DISCARD : 0;
3604 sv = av_delete((AV*)sv, elem, discard);
3605 if (discard)
3606 return NORMAL;
3607 if (!sv)
3608 sv = &PL_sv_undef;
3609 }
3610 }
3611 else {
3612 const U32 lval = PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD || LVRET;
3613 const U32 defer = PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_DEFER;
3614 const bool localizing = PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO;
3615 bool preeminent = TRUE;
3616 AV *const av = (AV*)sv;
3617 SV** svp;
3618
3619 if (UNLIKELY(localizing)) {
3620 MAGIC *mg;
3621 HV *stash;
3622
3623 /* If we can determine whether the element exist,
3624 * Try to preserve the existenceness of a tied array
3625 * element by using EXISTS and DELETE if possible.
3626 * Fallback to FETCH and STORE otherwise. */
3627 if (SvCANEXISTDELETE(av))
3628 preeminent = av_exists(av, elem);
3629 }
3630
3631 svp = av_fetch(av, elem, lval && !defer);
3632
3633 if (lval) {
3634 if (!svp || !(sv = *svp)) {
3635 IV len;
3636 if (!defer)
3637 DIE(aTHX_ PL_no_aelem, elem);
3638 len = av_tindex(av);
9ef753fe
FC
3639 /* Resolve a negative index that falls within
3640 * the array. Leave it negative it if falls
3641 * outside the array. */
3642 if (elem < 0 && len + elem >= 0)
3643 elem = len + elem;
3644 if (elem >= 0 && elem <= len)
3645 /* Falls within the array. */
3646 sv = av_nonelem(av,elem);
3647 else
3648 /* Falls outside the array. If it is neg-
3649 ative, magic_setdefelem will use the
3650 index for error reporting. */
3651 sv = sv_2mortal(newSVavdefelem(av,elem,1));
fedf30e1
DM
3652 }
3653 else {
3654 if (UNLIKELY(localizing)) {
3655 if (preeminent) {
3656 save_aelem(av, elem, svp);
3657 sv = *svp; /* may have changed */
3658 }
3659 else
3660 SAVEADELETE(av, elem);
3661 }
3662 }
3663 }
3664 else {
3665 sv = (svp ? *svp : &PL_sv_undef);
3666 /* see note in pp_helem() */
3667 if (SvRMAGICAL(av) && SvGMAGICAL(sv))
3668 mg_get(sv);
3669 }
3670 }
3671
3672 }
3673 finish:
3674 {
3675 dSP;
3676 XPUSHs(sv);
3677 RETURN;
3678 }
3679 /* NOTREACHED */
3680
3681
3682
3683
3684 case MDEREF_HV_padhv_helem: /* $lex{...} */
3685 sv = PAD_SVl((++items)->pad_offset);
3686 goto do_HV_helem;
3687
3688 case MDEREF_HV_gvhv_helem: /* $pkg{...} */
3689 sv = UNOP_AUX_item_sv(++items);
3690 assert(isGV_with_GP(sv));
3691 sv = (SV*)GvHVn((GV*)sv);
3692 goto do_HV_helem;
3693
3694 case MDEREF_HV_pop_rv2hv_helem: /* expr->{...} */
3695 {
3696 dSP;
3697 sv = POPs;
3698 PUTBACK;
3699 goto do_HV_rv2hv_helem;
3700 }
3701
3702 case MDEREF_HV_gvsv_vivify_rv2hv_helem: /* $pkg->{...} */
3703 sv = UNOP_AUX_item_sv(++items);
3704 assert(isGV_with_GP(sv));
3705 sv = GvSVn((GV*)sv);
3706 goto do_HV_vivify_rv2hv_helem;
3707
3708 case MDEREF_HV_padsv_vivify_rv2hv_helem: /* $lex->{...} */
3709 sv = PAD_SVl((++items)->pad_offset);
3710 /* FALLTHROUGH */
3711
3712 do_HV_vivify_rv2hv_helem:
3713 case MDEREF_HV_vivify_rv2hv_helem: /* vivify, ->{...} */
3714 /* this is the OPpDEREF action normally found at the end of
3715 * ops like aelem, helem, rv2sv */
3716 sv = vivify_ref(sv, OPpDEREF_HV);
3717 /* FALLTHROUGH */
3718
3719 do_HV_rv2hv_helem:
3720 /* this is basically a copy of pp_rv2hv when it just has the
3721 * sKR/1 flags (and pp_rv2hv is aliased to pp_rv2av) */
3722
3723 SvGETMAGIC(sv);
3724 if (LIKELY(SvROK(sv))) {
3725 if (UNLIKELY(SvAMAGIC(sv))) {
3726 sv = amagic_deref_call(sv, to_hv_amg);
3727 }
3728 sv = SvRV(sv);
3729 if (UNLIKELY(SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVHV))
3730 DIE(aTHX_ "Not a HASH reference");
3731 }
3732 else if (SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVHV) {
3733 if (!isGV_with_GP(sv))
3734 sv = (SV*)S_softref2xv_lite(aTHX_ sv, "a HASH", SVt_PVHV);
3735 sv = MUTABLE_SV(GvHVn((GV*)sv));
3736 }
3737 /* FALLTHROUGH */
3738
3739 do_HV_helem:
3740 {
3741 /* retrieve the key; this may be either a lexical / package
3742 * var or a string constant, whose index/ptr is stored as an
3743 * item
3744 */
3745 SV *keysv = NULL; /* to shut up stupid compiler warnings */
3746
3747 assert(SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVHV);
3748
3749 switch (actions & MDEREF_INDEX_MASK) {
3750 case MDEREF_INDEX_none:
3751 goto finish;
3752
3753 case MDEREF_INDEX_const:
3754 keysv = UNOP_AUX_item_sv(++items);
3755 break;
3756
3757 case MDEREF_INDEX_padsv: