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warnings.t: skip some leaky tests
[perl5.git] / pp_hot.c
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LW
1/* pp_hot.c
2 *
1129b882
NC
3 * Copyright (C) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000,
4 * 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 by Larry Wall and others
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LW
5 *
6 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
7 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
8 *
9 */
10
11/*
12 * Then he heard Merry change the note, and up went the Horn-cry of Buckland,
13 * shaking the air.
14 *
4ac71550
TC
15 * Awake! Awake! Fear, Fire, Foes! Awake!
16 * Fire, Foes! Awake!
17 *
18 * [p.1007 of _The Lord of the Rings_, VI/viii: "The Scouring of the Shire"]
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LW
19 */
20
166f8a29
DM
21/* This file contains 'hot' pp ("push/pop") functions that
22 * execute the opcodes that make up a perl program. A typical pp function
23 * expects to find its arguments on the stack, and usually pushes its
24 * results onto the stack, hence the 'pp' terminology. Each OP structure
25 * contains a pointer to the relevant pp_foo() function.
26 *
27 * By 'hot', we mean common ops whose execution speed is critical.
28 * By gathering them together into a single file, we encourage
29 * CPU cache hits on hot code. Also it could be taken as a warning not to
30 * change any code in this file unless you're sure it won't affect
31 * performance.
32 */
33
a0d0e21e 34#include "EXTERN.h"
864dbfa3 35#define PERL_IN_PP_HOT_C
a0d0e21e
LW
36#include "perl.h"
37
38/* Hot code. */
39
40PP(pp_const)
41{
39644a26 42 dSP;
996c9baa 43 XPUSHs(cSVOP_sv);
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LW
44 RETURN;
45}
46
47PP(pp_nextstate)
48{
533c011a 49 PL_curcop = (COP*)PL_op;
a0d0e21e 50 TAINT_NOT; /* Each statement is presumed innocent */
4ebe6e95 51 PL_stack_sp = PL_stack_base + CX_CUR()->blk_oldsp;
a0d0e21e 52 FREETMPS;
f410a211 53 PERL_ASYNC_CHECK();
a0d0e21e
LW
54 return NORMAL;
55}
56
57PP(pp_gvsv)
58{
39644a26 59 dSP;
924508f0 60 EXTEND(SP,1);
5d9574c1 61 if (UNLIKELY(PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO))
1d7c1841 62 PUSHs(save_scalar(cGVOP_gv));
a0d0e21e 63 else
c69033f2 64 PUSHs(GvSVn(cGVOP_gv));
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LW
65 RETURN;
66}
67
b1c05ba5
DM
68
69/* also used for: pp_lineseq() pp_regcmaybe() pp_scalar() pp_scope() */
70
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LW
71PP(pp_null)
72{
73 return NORMAL;
74}
75
3dd9d4e4
FC
76/* This is sometimes called directly by pp_coreargs, pp_grepstart and
77 amagic_call. */
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LW
78PP(pp_pushmark)
79{
3280af22 80 PUSHMARK(PL_stack_sp);
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LW
81 return NORMAL;
82}
83
84PP(pp_stringify)
85{
20b7effb 86 dSP; dTARGET;
4cc783ef
DD
87 SV * const sv = TOPs;
88 SETs(TARG);
89 sv_copypv(TARG, sv);
90 SvSETMAGIC(TARG);
91 /* no PUTBACK, SETs doesn't inc/dec SP */
92 return NORMAL;
a0d0e21e
LW
93}
94
95PP(pp_gv)
96{
20b7effb 97 dSP;
ad64d0ec 98 XPUSHs(MUTABLE_SV(cGVOP_gv));
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LW
99 RETURN;
100}
101
b1c05ba5
DM
102
103/* also used for: pp_andassign() */
104
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LW
105PP(pp_and)
106{
f410a211 107 PERL_ASYNC_CHECK();
4cc783ef
DD
108 {
109 /* SP is not used to remove a variable that is saved across the
110 sv_2bool_flags call in SvTRUE_NN, if a RISC/CISC or low/high machine
111 register or load/store vs direct mem ops macro is introduced, this
112 should be a define block between direct PL_stack_sp and dSP operations,
113 presently, using PL_stack_sp is bias towards CISC cpus */
114 SV * const sv = *PL_stack_sp;
115 if (!SvTRUE_NN(sv))
116 return NORMAL;
117 else {
118 if (PL_op->op_type == OP_AND)
119 --PL_stack_sp;
120 return cLOGOP->op_other;
121 }
a0d0e21e
LW
122 }
123}
124
125PP(pp_sassign)
126{
20b7effb 127 dSP;
3e75a3c4
RU
128 /* sassign keeps its args in the optree traditionally backwards.
129 So we pop them differently.
130 */
131 SV *left = POPs; SV *right = TOPs;
748a9306 132
354eabfa 133 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpASSIGN_BACKWARDS) { /* {or,and,dor}assign */
0bd48802
AL
134 SV * const temp = left;
135 left = right; right = temp;
a0d0e21e 136 }
d48c660d
DM
137 assert(TAINTING_get || !TAINT_get);
138 if (UNLIKELY(TAINT_get) && !SvTAINTED(right))
a0d0e21e 139 TAINT_NOT;
5d9574c1
DM
140 if (UNLIKELY(PL_op->op_private & OPpASSIGN_CV_TO_GV)) {
141 /* *foo =\&bar */
3e75a3c4 142 SV * const cv = SvRV(right);
e26df76a 143 const U32 cv_type = SvTYPE(cv);
3e75a3c4 144 const bool is_gv = isGV_with_GP(left);
6136c704 145 const bool got_coderef = cv_type == SVt_PVCV || cv_type == SVt_PVFM;
e26df76a
NC
146
147 if (!got_coderef) {
148 assert(SvROK(cv));
149 }
150
3e75a3c4
RU
151 /* Can do the optimisation if left (LVALUE) is not a typeglob,
152 right (RVALUE) is a reference to something, and we're in void
e26df76a 153 context. */
13be902c 154 if (!got_coderef && !is_gv && GIMME_V == G_VOID) {
e26df76a 155 /* Is the target symbol table currently empty? */
3e75a3c4 156 GV * const gv = gv_fetchsv_nomg(left, GV_NOINIT, SVt_PVGV);
bb112e5a 157 if (SvTYPE(gv) != SVt_PVGV && !SvOK(gv)) {
e26df76a
NC
158 /* Good. Create a new proxy constant subroutine in the target.
159 The gv becomes a(nother) reference to the constant. */
160 SV *const value = SvRV(cv);
161
ad64d0ec 162 SvUPGRADE(MUTABLE_SV(gv), SVt_IV);
1ccdb730 163 SvPCS_IMPORTED_on(gv);
e26df76a 164 SvRV_set(gv, value);
b37c2d43 165 SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void(value);
3e75a3c4 166 SETs(left);
e26df76a
NC
167 RETURN;
168 }
169 }
170
171 /* Need to fix things up. */
13be902c 172 if (!is_gv) {
e26df76a 173 /* Need to fix GV. */
3e75a3c4 174 left = MUTABLE_SV(gv_fetchsv_nomg(left,GV_ADD, SVt_PVGV));
e26df76a
NC
175 }
176
177 if (!got_coderef) {
178 /* We've been returned a constant rather than a full subroutine,
179 but they expect a subroutine reference to apply. */
53a42478 180 if (SvROK(cv)) {
d343c3ef 181 ENTER_with_name("sassign_coderef");
53a42478
NC
182 SvREFCNT_inc_void(SvRV(cv));
183 /* newCONSTSUB takes a reference count on the passed in SV
184 from us. We set the name to NULL, otherwise we get into
185 all sorts of fun as the reference to our new sub is
186 donated to the GV that we're about to assign to.
187 */
3e75a3c4 188 SvRV_set(right, MUTABLE_SV(newCONSTSUB(GvSTASH(left), NULL,
ad64d0ec 189 SvRV(cv))));
fc2b2dca 190 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(cv);
d343c3ef 191 LEAVE_with_name("sassign_coderef");
53a42478
NC
192 } else {
193 /* What can happen for the corner case *{"BONK"} = \&{"BONK"};
194 is that
195 First: ops for \&{"BONK"}; return us the constant in the
196 symbol table
197 Second: ops for *{"BONK"} cause that symbol table entry
198 (and our reference to it) to be upgraded from RV
199 to typeblob)
200 Thirdly: We get here. cv is actually PVGV now, and its
201 GvCV() is actually the subroutine we're looking for
202
203 So change the reference so that it points to the subroutine
204 of that typeglob, as that's what they were after all along.
205 */
159b6efe 206 GV *const upgraded = MUTABLE_GV(cv);
53a42478
NC
207 CV *const source = GvCV(upgraded);
208
209 assert(source);
210 assert(CvFLAGS(source) & CVf_CONST);
211
0ad694a7 212 SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN(source);
fc2b2dca 213 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(upgraded);
3e75a3c4 214 SvRV_set(right, MUTABLE_SV(source));
53a42478 215 }
e26df76a 216 }
53a42478 217
e26df76a 218 }
8fe85e3f 219 if (
5d9574c1 220 UNLIKELY(SvTEMP(left)) && !SvSMAGICAL(left) && SvREFCNT(left) == 1 &&
3e75a3c4 221 (!isGV_with_GP(left) || SvFAKE(left)) && ckWARN(WARN_MISC)
8fe85e3f
FC
222 )
223 Perl_warner(aTHX_
224 packWARN(WARN_MISC), "Useless assignment to a temporary"
225 );
3e75a3c4
RU
226 SvSetMagicSV(left, right);
227 SETs(left);
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228 RETURN;
229}
230
231PP(pp_cond_expr)
232{
20b7effb 233 dSP;
f4c975aa
DM
234 SV *sv;
235
f410a211 236 PERL_ASYNC_CHECK();
f4c975aa
DM
237 sv = POPs;
238 RETURNOP(SvTRUE_NN(sv) ? cLOGOP->op_other : cLOGOP->op_next);
a0d0e21e
LW
239}
240
241PP(pp_unstack)
242{
f5319de9 243 PERL_CONTEXT *cx;
8f3964af 244 PERL_ASYNC_CHECK();
a0d0e21e 245 TAINT_NOT; /* Each statement is presumed innocent */
4ebe6e95 246 cx = CX_CUR();
f5319de9 247 PL_stack_sp = PL_stack_base + cx->blk_oldsp;
a0d0e21e 248 FREETMPS;
eae48c89 249 if (!(PL_op->op_flags & OPf_SPECIAL)) {
93661e56 250 assert(CxTYPE(cx) == CXt_BLOCK || CxTYPE_is_LOOP(cx));
dfe0f39b 251 CX_LEAVE_SCOPE(cx);
eae48c89 252 }
a0d0e21e
LW
253 return NORMAL;
254}
255
16fe3f8a
DM
256
257/* The main body of pp_concat, not including the magic/overload and
258 * stack handling.
259 * It does targ = left . right.
260 * Moved into a separate function so that pp_multiconcat() can use it
261 * too.
262 */
263
264PERL_STATIC_INLINE void
265S_do_concat(pTHX_ SV *left, SV *right, SV *targ, U8 targmy)
a0d0e21e 266{
8d6d96c1
HS
267 bool lbyte;
268 STRLEN rlen;
d4c19fe8 269 const char *rpv = NULL;
a6b599c7 270 bool rbyte = FALSE;
a9c4fd4e 271 bool rcopied = FALSE;
8d6d96c1 272
6f1401dc
DM
273 if (TARG == right && right != left) { /* $r = $l.$r */
274 rpv = SvPV_nomg_const(right, rlen);
c75ab21a 275 rbyte = !DO_UTF8(right);
59cd0e26 276 right = newSVpvn_flags(rpv, rlen, SVs_TEMP);
349d4f2f 277 rpv = SvPV_const(right, rlen); /* no point setting UTF-8 here */
db79b45b 278 rcopied = TRUE;
8d6d96c1 279 }
7889fe52 280
89734059 281 if (TARG != left) { /* not $l .= $r */
a9c4fd4e 282 STRLEN llen;
6f1401dc 283 const char* const lpv = SvPV_nomg_const(left, llen);
90f5826e 284 lbyte = !DO_UTF8(left);
8d6d96c1
HS
285 sv_setpvn(TARG, lpv, llen);
286 if (!lbyte)
287 SvUTF8_on(TARG);
288 else
289 SvUTF8_off(TARG);
290 }
18ea7bf2
SM
291 else { /* $l .= $r and left == TARG */
292 if (!SvOK(left)) {
51f69a24 293 if ((left == right /* $l .= $l */
16fe3f8a 294 || targmy) /* $l = $l . $r */
51f69a24
AC
295 && ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED)
296 )
297 report_uninit(left);
adf14ec6 298 SvPVCLEAR(left);
c75ab21a 299 }
18ea7bf2
SM
300 else {
301 SvPV_force_nomg_nolen(left);
302 }
583a5589 303 lbyte = !DO_UTF8(left);
90f5826e 304 if (IN_BYTES)
18ea7bf2 305 SvUTF8_off(left);
8d6d96c1 306 }
a12c0f56 307
c75ab21a 308 if (!rcopied) {
6f1401dc 309 rpv = SvPV_nomg_const(right, rlen);
c75ab21a
RH
310 rbyte = !DO_UTF8(right);
311 }
8d6d96c1
HS
312 if (lbyte != rbyte) {
313 if (lbyte)
314 sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg(TARG);
315 else {
db79b45b 316 if (!rcopied)
59cd0e26 317 right = newSVpvn_flags(rpv, rlen, SVs_TEMP);
8d6d96c1 318 sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg(right);
6f1401dc 319 rpv = SvPV_nomg_const(right, rlen);
69b47968 320 }
a0d0e21e 321 }
8d6d96c1 322 sv_catpvn_nomg(TARG, rpv, rlen);
16fe3f8a
DM
323 SvSETMAGIC(TARG);
324}
325
43ebc500 326
16fe3f8a
DM
327PP(pp_concat)
328{
329 dSP; dATARGET; tryAMAGICbin_MG(concat_amg, AMGf_assign);
330 {
331 dPOPTOPssrl;
332 S_do_concat(aTHX_ left, right, targ, PL_op->op_private & OPpTARGET_MY);
333 SETs(TARG);
a0d0e21e 334 RETURN;
748a9306 335 }
a0d0e21e
LW
336}
337
e839e6ed
DM
338
339/* pp_multiconcat()
340
341Concatenate one or more args, possibly interleaved with constant string
342segments. The result may be assigned to, or appended to, a variable or
343expression.
344
345Several op_flags and/or op_private bits indicate what the target is, and
346whether it's appended to. Valid permutations are:
347
348 - (PADTMP) = (A.B.C....)
349 OPpTARGET_MY $lex = (A.B.C....)
350 OPpTARGET_MY,OPpLVAL_INTRO my $lex = (A.B.C....)
351 OPpTARGET_MY,OPpMULTICONCAT_APPEND $lex .= (A.B.C....)
352 OPf_STACKED expr = (A.B.C....)
353 OPf_STACKED,OPpMULTICONCAT_APPEND expr .= (A.B.C....)
354
355Other combinations like (A.B).(C.D) are not optimised into a multiconcat
356op, as it's too hard to get the correct ordering of ties, overload etc.
357
358In addition:
359
360 OPpMULTICONCAT_FAKE: not a real concat, instead an optimised
361 sprintf "...%s...". Don't call '.'
362 overloading: only use '""' overloading.
363
55b62dee
DM
364 OPpMULTICONCAT_STRINGIFY: the RHS was of the form
365 "...$a...$b..." rather than
e839e6ed
DM
366 "..." . $a . "..." . $b . "..."
367
368An OP_MULTICONCAT is of type UNOP_AUX. The fixed slots of the aux array are
369defined with PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_FOO constants, where:
370
371
372 FOO index description
373 -------- ----- ----------------------------------
374 NARGS 0 number of arguments
375 PLAIN_PV 1 non-utf8 constant string
376 PLAIN_LEN 2 non-utf8 constant string length
377 UTF8_PV 3 utf8 constant string
378 UTF8_LEN 4 utf8 constant string length
379 LENGTHS 5 first of nargs+1 const segment lengths
380
381The idea is that a general string concatenation will have a fixed (known
382at compile time) number of variable args, interspersed with constant
383strings, e.g. "a=$a b=$b\n"
384
385All the constant string segments "a=", " b=" and "\n" are stored as a
386single string "a= b=\n", pointed to from the PLAIN_PV/UTF8_PV slot, along
387with a series of segment lengths: e.g. 2,3,1. In the case where the
388constant string is plain but has a different utf8 representation, both
389variants are stored, and two sets of (nargs+1) segments lengths are stored
390in the slots beginning at PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_LENGTHS.
391
392A segment length of -1 indicates that there is no constant string at that
393point; this distinguishes between e.g. ($a . $b) and ($a . "" . $b), which
394have differing overloading behaviour.
395
396*/
397
398PP(pp_multiconcat)
399{
400 dSP;
401 SV *targ; /* The SV to be assigned or appended to */
057ba76a 402 char *targ_pv; /* where within SvPVX(targ) we're writing to */
e839e6ed
DM
403 STRLEN targ_len; /* SvCUR(targ) */
404 SV **toparg; /* the highest arg position on the stack */
405 UNOP_AUX_item *aux; /* PL_op->op_aux buffer */
406 UNOP_AUX_item *const_lens; /* the segment length array part of aux */
407 const char *const_pv; /* the current segment of the const string buf */
ca84e88e
DM
408 SSize_t nargs; /* how many args were expected */
409 SSize_t stack_adj; /* how much to adjust SP on return */
057ba76a 410 STRLEN grow; /* final size of destination string (targ) */
e839e6ed
DM
411 UV targ_count; /* how many times targ has appeared on the RHS */
412 bool is_append; /* OPpMULTICONCAT_APPEND flag is set */
413 bool slow_concat; /* args too complex for quick concat */
414 U32 dst_utf8; /* the result will be utf8 (indicate this with
415 SVf_UTF8 in a U32, rather than using bool,
416 for ease of testing and setting) */
417 /* for each arg, holds the result of an SvPV() call */
418 struct multiconcat_svpv {
419 char *pv;
420 SSize_t len;
421 }
422 *targ_chain, /* chain of slots where targ has appeared on RHS */
423 *svpv_p, /* ptr for looping through svpv_buf */
424 *svpv_base, /* first slot (may be greater than svpv_buf), */
425 *svpv_end, /* and slot after highest result so far, of: */
426 svpv_buf[PERL_MULTICONCAT_MAXARG]; /* buf for storing SvPV() results */
427
428 aux = cUNOP_AUXx(PL_op)->op_aux;
ca84e88e 429 stack_adj = nargs = aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_NARGS].ssize;
e839e6ed
DM
430 is_append = cBOOL(PL_op->op_private & OPpMULTICONCAT_APPEND);
431
432 /* get targ from the stack or pad */
433
434 if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_STACKED) {
435 if (is_append) {
436 /* for 'expr .= ...', expr is the bottom item on the stack */
437 targ = SP[-nargs];
438 stack_adj++;
439 }
440 else
441 /* for 'expr = ...', expr is the top item on the stack */
442 targ = POPs;
443 }
444 else {
445 SV **svp = &(PAD_SVl(PL_op->op_targ));
446 targ = *svp;
447 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO) {
448 assert(PL_op->op_private & OPpTARGET_MY);
449 save_clearsv(svp);
450 }
451 if (!nargs)
452 /* $lex .= "const" doesn't cause anything to be pushed */
453 EXTEND(SP,1);
454 }
455
456 toparg = SP;
457 SP -= (nargs - 1);
e839e6ed
DM
458 grow = 1; /* allow for '\0' at minimum */
459 targ_count = 0;
460 targ_chain = NULL;
461 targ_len = 0;
462 svpv_end = svpv_buf;
463 /* only utf8 variants of the const strings? */
464 dst_utf8 = aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_PLAIN_PV].pv ? 0 : SVf_UTF8;
465
466
467 /* --------------------------------------------------------------
468 * Phase 1:
469 *
470 * stringify (i.e. SvPV()) every arg and store the resultant pv/len/utf8
471 * triplets in svpv_buf[]. Also increment 'grow' by the args' lengths.
472 *
473 * utf8 is indicated by storing a negative length.
474 *
475 * Where an arg is actually targ, the stringification is deferred:
476 * the length is set to 0, and the slot is added to targ_chain.
477 *
af390142
DM
478 * If a magic, overloaded, or otherwise weird arg is found, which
479 * might have side effects when stringified, the loop is abandoned and
480 * we goto a code block where a more basic 'emulate calling
481 * pp_cpncat() on each arg in turn' is done.
e839e6ed
DM
482 */
483
484 for (; SP <= toparg; SP++, svpv_end++) {
e839e6ed
DM
485 U32 utf8;
486 STRLEN len;
487 SV *sv;
488
489 assert(svpv_end - svpv_buf < PERL_MULTICONCAT_MAXARG);
490
491 sv = *SP;
e839e6ed
DM
492
493 /* this if/else chain is arranged so that common/simple cases
494 * take few conditionals */
495
af390142
DM
496 if (LIKELY((SvFLAGS(sv) & (SVs_GMG|SVf_ROK|SVf_POK)) == SVf_POK)) {
497 /* common case: sv is a simple non-magical PV */
498 if (targ == sv) {
499 /* targ appears on RHS.
500 * Delay storing PV pointer; instead, add slot to targ_chain
501 * so it can be populated later, after targ has been grown and
502 * we know its final SvPVX() address.
503 */
504 targ_on_rhs:
505 svpv_end->len = 0; /* zerojng here means we can skip
506 updating later if targ_len == 0 */
507 svpv_end->pv = (char*)targ_chain;
508 targ_chain = svpv_end;
509 targ_count++;
510 continue;
511 }
512
e839e6ed 513 len = SvCUR(sv);
af390142 514 svpv_end->pv = SvPVX(sv);
e839e6ed 515 }
af390142
DM
516 else if (UNLIKELY(SvFLAGS(sv) & (SVs_GMG|SVf_ROK)))
517 /* may have side effects: tie, overload etc.
518 * Abandon 'stringify everything first' and handle
519 * args in strict order. Note that already-stringified args
520 * will be reprocessed, which is safe because the each first
521 * stringification would have been idempotent.
e839e6ed 522 */
af390142
DM
523 goto do_magical;
524 else if (SvNIOK(sv)) {
525 if (targ == sv)
526 goto targ_on_rhs;
527 /* stringify general valid scalar */
e839e6ed
DM
528 svpv_end->pv = sv_2pv_flags(sv, &len, 0);
529 }
af390142
DM
530 else if (!SvOK(sv)) {
531 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
532 /* an undef value in the presence of warnings may trigger
533 * side affects */
534 goto do_magical;
535 svpv_end->pv = (char*)"";
536 len = 0;
537 }
538 else
539 goto do_magical; /* something weird */
e839e6ed
DM
540
541 utf8 = (SvFLAGS(sv) & SVf_UTF8);
542 dst_utf8 |= utf8;
543 ASSUME(len < SSize_t_MAX);
544 svpv_end->len = utf8 ? -(SSize_t)len : (SSize_t)len;
545 grow += len;
546 }
547
548 /* --------------------------------------------------------------
549 * Phase 2:
550 *
551 * Stringify targ:
552 *
553 * if targ appears on the RHS or is appended to, force stringify it;
554 * otherwise set it to "". Then set targ_len.
555 */
556
557 if (is_append) {
af390142
DM
558 /* abandon quick route if using targ might have side effects */
559 if (UNLIKELY(SvFLAGS(targ) & (SVs_GMG|SVf_ROK)))
560 goto do_magical;
e839e6ed
DM
561
562 if (SvOK(targ)) {
563 U32 targ_utf8;
564 stringify_targ:
565 SvPV_force_nomg_nolen(targ);
566 targ_utf8 = SvFLAGS(targ) & SVf_UTF8;
567 if (UNLIKELY(dst_utf8 & ~targ_utf8)) {
568 if (LIKELY(!IN_BYTES))
569 sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg(targ);
570 }
571 else
572 dst_utf8 |= targ_utf8;
573
574 targ_len = SvCUR(targ);
575 grow += targ_len * (targ_count + is_append);
576 goto phase3;
577 }
af390142
DM
578 else if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
579 /* warning might have side effects */
580 goto do_magical;
581 /* the undef targ will be silently SvPVCLEAR()ed below */
e839e6ed
DM
582 }
583 else if (UNLIKELY(SvTYPE(targ) >= SVt_REGEXP)) {
584 /* Assigning to some weird LHS type. Don't force the LHS to be an
585 * empty string; instead, do things 'long hand' by using the
586 * overload code path, which concats to a TEMP sv and does
587 * sv_catsv() calls rather than COPY()s. This ensures that even
588 * bizarre code like this doesn't break or crash:
589 * *F = *F . *F.
590 * (which makes the 'F' typeglob an alias to the
591 * '*main::F*main::F' typeglob).
592 */
af390142 593 goto do_magical;
e839e6ed 594 }
af390142 595 else if (targ_chain)
e839e6ed 596 /* targ was found on RHS.
af390142
DM
597 * Force stringify it, using the same code as the append branch
598 * above, except that we don't need the magic/overload/undef
599 * checks as these will already have been done in the phase 1
600 * loop.
e839e6ed 601 */
e839e6ed 602 goto stringify_targ;
e839e6ed
DM
603
604 /* unrolled SvPVCLEAR() - mostly: no need to grow or set SvCUR() to 0;
605 * those will be done later. */
e839e6ed
DM
606 SV_CHECK_THINKFIRST_COW_DROP(targ);
607 SvUPGRADE(targ, SVt_PV);
608 SvFLAGS(targ) &= ~(SVf_OK|SVf_IVisUV|SVf_UTF8);
609 SvFLAGS(targ) |= (SVf_POK|SVp_POK|dst_utf8);
610
611 phase3:
612
613 /* --------------------------------------------------------------
614 * Phase 3:
615 *
057ba76a 616 * UTF-8 tweaks and grow targ:
e839e6ed
DM
617 *
618 * Now that we know the length and utf8-ness of both the targ and
057ba76a 619 * args, grow targ to the size needed to accumulate all the args, based
e839e6ed
DM
620 * on whether targ appears on the RHS, whether we're appending, and
621 * whether any non-utf8 args expand in size if converted to utf8.
622 *
623 * For the latter, if dst_utf8 we scan non-utf8 args looking for
624 * variant chars, and adjust the svpv->len value of those args to the
625 * utf8 size and negate it to flag them. At the same time we un-negate
626 * the lens of any utf8 args since after this phase we no longer care
627 * whether an arg is utf8 or not.
628 *
629 * Finally, initialise const_lens and const_pv based on utf8ness.
630 * Note that there are 3 permutations:
631 *
632 * * If the constant string is invariant whether utf8 or not (e.g. "abc"),
633 * then aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_PLAIN_PV/LEN] are the same as
634 * aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_UTF8_PV/LEN] and there is one set of
635 * segment lengths.
636 *
637 * * If the string is fully utf8, e.g. "\x{100}", then
638 * aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_PLAIN_PV/LEN] == (NULL,0) and there is
639 * one set of segment lengths.
640 *
641 * * If the string has different plain and utf8 representations
642 * (e.g. "\x80"), then then aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_PLAIN_PV/LEN]]
643 * holds the plain rep, while aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_UTF8_PV/LEN]
644 * holds the utf8 rep, and there are 2 sets of segment lengths,
645 * with the utf8 set following after the plain set.
646 *
647 * On entry to this section the (pv,len) pairs in svpv_buf have the
648 * following meanings:
649 * (pv, len) a plain string
650 * (pv, -len) a utf8 string
651 * (NULL, 0) left-most targ \ linked together R-to-L
652 * (next, 0) other targ / in targ_chain
653 */
654
655 /* turn off utf8 handling if 'use bytes' is in scope */
656 if (UNLIKELY(dst_utf8 && IN_BYTES)) {
657 dst_utf8 = 0;
057ba76a 658 SvUTF8_off(targ);
e839e6ed
DM
659 /* undo all the negative lengths which flag utf8-ness */
660 for (svpv_p = svpv_buf; svpv_p < svpv_end; svpv_p++) {
661 SSize_t len = svpv_p->len;
662 if (len < 0)
663 svpv_p->len = -len;
664 }
665 }
666
667 /* grow += total of lengths of constant string segments */
668 {
669 SSize_t len;
670 len = aux[dst_utf8 ? PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_UTF8_LEN
b5bf9f73 671 : PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_PLAIN_LEN].ssize;
e839e6ed
DM
672 slow_concat = cBOOL(len);
673 grow += len;
674 }
675
676 const_lens = aux + PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_LENGTHS;
677
678 if (dst_utf8) {
679 const_pv = aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_UTF8_PV].pv;
680 if ( aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_PLAIN_PV].pv
681 && const_pv != aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_PLAIN_PV].pv)
682 /* separate sets of lengths for plain and utf8 */
683 const_lens += nargs + 1;
684
685 /* If the result is utf8 but some of the args aren't,
686 * calculate how much extra growth is needed for all the chars
687 * which will expand to two utf8 bytes.
688 * Also, if the growth is non-zero, negate the length to indicate
689 * that this this is a variant string. Conversely, un-negate the
690 * length on utf8 args (which was only needed to flag non-utf8
691 * args in this loop */
692 for (svpv_p = svpv_buf; svpv_p < svpv_end; svpv_p++) {
7d5ed5d0 693 SSize_t len, extra;
e839e6ed
DM
694
695 len = svpv_p->len;
696 if (len <= 0) {
697 svpv_p->len = -len;
698 continue;
699 }
700
7d5ed5d0
KW
701 extra = variant_under_utf8_count((U8 *) svpv_p->pv,
702 (U8 *) svpv_p->pv + len);
e839e6ed
DM
703 if (UNLIKELY(extra)) {
704 grow += extra;
705 /* -ve len indicates special handling */
706 svpv_p->len = -(len + extra);
707 slow_concat = TRUE;
708 }
709 }
710 }
711 else
712 const_pv = aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_PLAIN_PV].pv;
713
714 /* unrolled SvGROW(), except don't check for SVf_IsCOW, which should
715 * already have been dropped */
057ba76a
DM
716 assert(!SvIsCOW(targ));
717 targ_pv = (SvLEN(targ) < (grow) ? sv_grow(targ,grow) : SvPVX(targ));
e839e6ed
DM
718
719
720 /* --------------------------------------------------------------
721 * Phase 4:
722 *
057ba76a
DM
723 * Now that targ has been grown, we know the final address of the targ
724 * PVX, if needed. Preserve / move targ contents if appending or if
725 * targ appears on RHS.
e839e6ed
DM
726 *
727 * Also update svpv_buf slots in targ_chain.
728 *
729 * Don't bother with any of this if the target length is zero:
730 * targ_len is set to zero unless we're appending or targ appears on
731 * RHS. And even if it is, we can optimise by skipping this chunk of
732 * code for zero targ_len. In the latter case, we don't need to update
733 * the slots in targ_chain with the (zero length) target string, since
734 * we set the len in such slots to 0 earlier, and since the Copy() is
735 * skipped on zero length, it doesn't matter what svpv_p->pv contains.
736 *
737 * On entry to this section the (pv,len) pairs in svpv_buf have the
738 * following meanings:
739 * (pv, len) a pure-plain or utf8 string
740 * (pv, -(len+extra)) a plain string which will expand by 'extra'
741 * bytes when converted to utf8
742 * (NULL, 0) left-most targ \ linked together R-to-L
743 * (next, 0) other targ / in targ_chain
744 *
745 * On exit, the targ contents will have been moved to the
746 * earliest place they are needed (e.g. $x = "abc$x" will shift them
747 * 3 bytes, while $x .= ... will leave them at the beginning);
057ba76a 748 * and dst_pv will point to the location within SvPVX(targ) where the
e839e6ed
DM
749 * next arg should be copied.
750 */
751
752 svpv_base = svpv_buf;
753
754 if (targ_len) {
755 struct multiconcat_svpv *tc_stop;
057ba76a 756 char *targ_buf = targ_pv; /* ptr to original targ string */
e839e6ed 757
e839e6ed
DM
758 assert(is_append || targ_count);
759
760 if (is_append) {
057ba76a 761 targ_pv += targ_len;
e839e6ed
DM
762 tc_stop = NULL;
763 }
764 else {
765 /* The targ appears on RHS, e.g. '$t = $a . $t . $t'.
766 * Move the current contents of targ to the first
767 * position where it's needed, and use that as the src buffer
768 * for any further uses (such as the second RHS $t above).
769 * In calculating the first position, we need to sum the
770 * lengths of all consts and args before that.
771 */
772
773 UNOP_AUX_item *lens = const_lens;
774 /* length of first const string segment */
b5bf9f73 775 STRLEN offset = lens->ssize > 0 ? lens->ssize : 0;
e839e6ed
DM
776
777 assert(targ_chain);
778 svpv_p = svpv_base;
779
780 for (;;) {
781 SSize_t len;
782 if (!svpv_p->pv)
783 break; /* the first targ argument */
784 /* add lengths of the next arg and const string segment */
785 len = svpv_p->len;
786 if (len < 0) /* variant args have this */
787 len = -len;
788 offset += (STRLEN)len;
b5bf9f73 789 len = (++lens)->ssize;
e839e6ed
DM
790 offset += (len >= 0) ? (STRLEN)len : 0;
791 if (!offset) {
792 /* all args and consts so far are empty; update
793 * the start position for the concat later */
794 svpv_base++;
795 const_lens++;
796 }
797 svpv_p++;
798 assert(svpv_p < svpv_end);
799 }
800
801 if (offset) {
057ba76a
DM
802 targ_buf += offset;
803 Move(targ_pv, targ_buf, targ_len, char);
e839e6ed 804 /* a negative length implies don't Copy(), but do increment */
90b21a3e 805 svpv_p->len = -((SSize_t)targ_len);
e839e6ed
DM
806 slow_concat = TRUE;
807 }
808 else {
809 /* skip the first targ copy */
810 svpv_base++;
811 const_lens++;
057ba76a 812 targ_pv += targ_len;
e839e6ed
DM
813 }
814
815 /* Don't populate the first targ slot in the loop below; it's
816 * either not used because we advanced svpv_base beyond it, or
817 * we already stored the special -targ_len value in it
818 */
819 tc_stop = svpv_p;
820 }
821
822 /* populate slots in svpv_buf representing targ on RHS */
823 while (targ_chain != tc_stop) {
824 struct multiconcat_svpv *p = targ_chain;
825 targ_chain = (struct multiconcat_svpv *)(p->pv);
057ba76a 826 p->pv = targ_buf;
e839e6ed
DM
827 p->len = (SSize_t)targ_len;
828 }
829 }
830
831
832 /* --------------------------------------------------------------
833 * Phase 5:
834 *
057ba76a 835 * Append all the args in svpv_buf, plus the const strings, to targ.
e839e6ed
DM
836 *
837 * On entry to this section the (pv,len) pairs in svpv_buf have the
838 * following meanings:
839 * (pv, len) a pure-plain or utf8 string (which may be targ)
840 * (pv, -(len+extra)) a plain string which will expand by 'extra'
841 * bytes when converted to utf8
842 * (0, -len) left-most targ, whose content has already
057ba76a 843 * been copied. Just advance targ_pv by len.
e839e6ed
DM
844 */
845
846 /* If there are no constant strings and no special case args
847 * (svpv_p->len < 0), use a simpler, more efficient concat loop
848 */
849 if (!slow_concat) {
850 for (svpv_p = svpv_base; svpv_p < svpv_end; svpv_p++) {
851 SSize_t len = svpv_p->len;
852 if (!len)
853 continue;
057ba76a
DM
854 Copy(svpv_p->pv, targ_pv, len, char);
855 targ_pv += len;
e839e6ed
DM
856 }
857 const_lens += (svpv_end - svpv_base + 1);
858 }
859 else {
860 /* Note that we iterate the loop nargs+1 times: to append nargs
861 * arguments and nargs+1 constant strings. For example, "-$a-$b-"
862 */
863 svpv_p = svpv_base - 1;
864
865 for (;;) {
b5bf9f73 866 SSize_t len = (const_lens++)->ssize;
e839e6ed
DM
867
868 /* append next const string segment */
869 if (len > 0) {
057ba76a
DM
870 Copy(const_pv, targ_pv, len, char);
871 targ_pv += len;
e839e6ed
DM
872 const_pv += len;
873 }
874
875 if (++svpv_p == svpv_end)
876 break;
877
878 /* append next arg */
879 len = svpv_p->len;
880
881 if (LIKELY(len > 0)) {
057ba76a
DM
882 Copy(svpv_p->pv, targ_pv, len, char);
883 targ_pv += len;
e839e6ed
DM
884 }
885 else if (UNLIKELY(len < 0)) {
886 /* negative length indicates two special cases */
887 const char *p = svpv_p->pv;
888 len = -len;
889 if (UNLIKELY(p)) {
890 /* copy plain-but-variant pv to a utf8 targ */
057ba76a 891 char * end_pv = targ_pv + len;
e839e6ed 892 assert(dst_utf8);
057ba76a 893 while (targ_pv < end_pv) {
e839e6ed 894 U8 c = (U8) *p++;
057ba76a 895 append_utf8_from_native_byte(c, (U8**)&targ_pv);
e839e6ed
DM
896 }
897 }
898 else
899 /* arg is already-copied targ */
057ba76a 900 targ_pv += len;
e839e6ed
DM
901 }
902
903 }
904 }
905
057ba76a
DM
906 *targ_pv = '\0';
907 SvCUR_set(targ, targ_pv - SvPVX(targ));
908 assert(grow >= SvCUR(targ) + 1);
909 assert(SvLEN(targ) >= SvCUR(targ) + 1);
e839e6ed
DM
910
911 /* --------------------------------------------------------------
912 * Phase 6:
913 *
af390142 914 * return result
e839e6ed
DM
915 */
916
af390142
DM
917 SP -= stack_adj;
918 SvTAINT(targ);
919 SETTARG;
920 RETURN;
e839e6ed 921
af390142
DM
922 /* --------------------------------------------------------------
923 * Phase 7:
924 *
925 * We only get here if any of the args (or targ too in the case of
926 * append) have something which might cause side effects, such
927 * as magic, overload, or an undef value in the presence of warnings.
928 * In that case, any earlier attempt to stringify the args will have
929 * been abandoned, and we come here instead.
930 *
931 * Here, we concat each arg in turn the old-fashioned way: essentially
932 * emulating pp_concat() in a loop. This means that all the weird edge
933 * cases will be handled correctly, if not necessarily speedily.
934 *
935 * Note that some args may already have been stringified - those are
936 * processed again, which is safe, since only args without side-effects
937 * were stringified earlier.
938 */
939
940 do_magical:
941 {
942 SSize_t i, n;
943 SV *left = NULL;
944 SV *right;
945 SV* nexttarg;
946 bool nextappend;
947 U32 utf8 = 0;
948 SV **svp;
949 const char *cpv = aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_PLAIN_PV].pv;
950 UNOP_AUX_item *lens = aux + PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_LENGTHS;
55b62dee 951 Size_t arg_count = 0; /* how many args have been processed */
af390142
DM
952
953 if (!cpv) {
954 cpv = aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_UTF8_PV].pv;
955 utf8 = SVf_UTF8;
956 }
957
958 svp = toparg - nargs + 1;
959
960 /* iterate for:
961 * nargs arguments,
962 * plus possible nargs+1 consts,
963 * plus, if appending, a final targ in an extra last iteration
964 */
965
966 n = nargs *2 + 1;
55b62dee
DM
967 for (i = 0; i <= n; i++) {
968 SSize_t len;
969
970 /* if necessary, stringify the final RHS result in
971 * something like $targ .= "$a$b$c" - simulating
972 * pp_stringify
973 */
974 if ( i == n
975 && (PL_op->op_private &OPpMULTICONCAT_STRINGIFY)
976 && !(SvPOK(left))
977 /* extra conditions for backwards compatibility:
978 * probably incorrect, but keep the existing behaviour
979 * for now. The rules are:
980 * $x = "$ov" single arg: stringify;
981 * $x = "$ov$y" multiple args: don't stringify,
982 * $lex = "$ov$y$z" except TARGMY with at least 2 concats
983 */
984 && ( arg_count == 1
985 || ( arg_count >= 3
986 && !is_append
987 && (PL_op->op_private & OPpTARGET_MY)
988 && !(PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO)
989 )
990 )
991 )
992 {
993 SV *tmp = sv_newmortal();
994 sv_copypv(tmp, left);
995 SvSETMAGIC(tmp);
996 left = tmp;
997 }
998
999 /* do one extra iteration to handle $targ in $targ .= ... */
1000 if (i == n && !is_append)
1001 break;
1002
af390142 1003 /* get the next arg SV or regen the next const SV */
55b62dee 1004 len = lens[i >> 1].ssize;
af390142
DM
1005 if (i == n) {
1006 /* handle the final targ .= (....) */
1007 right = left;
1008 left = targ;
1009 }
1010 else if (i & 1)
1011 right = svp[(i >> 1)];
1012 else if (len < 0)
1013 continue; /* no const in this position */
1014 else {
1015 right = newSVpvn_flags(cpv, len, (utf8 | SVs_TEMP));
1016 cpv += len;
1017 }
e839e6ed 1018
55b62dee
DM
1019 arg_count++;
1020
1021 if (arg_count <= 1) {
af390142
DM
1022 left = right;
1023 continue; /* need at least two SVs to concat together */
1024 }
1025
55b62dee 1026 if (arg_count == 2 && i < n) {
af390142
DM
1027 /* for the first concat, create a mortal acting like the
1028 * padtmp from OP_CONST. In later iterations this will
1029 * be appended to */
1030 nexttarg = sv_newmortal();
1031 nextappend = FALSE;
af390142
DM
1032 }
1033 else {
1034 nexttarg = left;
1035 nextappend = TRUE;
1036 }
1037
1038 /* Handle possible overloading.
1039 * This is basically an unrolled
1040 * tryAMAGICbin_MG(concat_amg, AMGf_assign);
1041 * and
1042 * Perl_try_amagic_bin()
1043 * call, but using left and right rather than SP[-1], SP[0],
1044 * and not relying on OPf_STACKED implying .=
e839e6ed 1045 */
e839e6ed 1046
af390142
DM
1047 if ((SvFLAGS(left)|SvFLAGS(right)) & (SVf_ROK|SVs_GMG)) {
1048 SvGETMAGIC(left);
1049 if (left != right)
1050 SvGETMAGIC(right);
1051
1052 if ((SvAMAGIC(left) || SvAMAGIC(right))
1053 /* sprintf doesn't do concat overloading,
1054 * but allow for $x .= sprintf(...)
1055 */
1056 && ( !(PL_op->op_private & OPpMULTICONCAT_FAKE)
1057 || i == n)
e839e6ed 1058 )
af390142
DM
1059 {
1060 SV * const tmpsv = amagic_call(left, right, concat_amg,
1061 (nextappend ? AMGf_assign: 0));
1062 if (tmpsv) {
7554d344
DM
1063 /* NB: tryAMAGICbin_MG() includes an OPpTARGET_MY test
1064 * here, which isn't needed as any implicit
1065 * assign done under OPpTARGET_MY is done after
af390142
DM
1066 * this loop */
1067 if (nextappend) {
1068 sv_setsv(left, tmpsv);
1069 SvSETMAGIC(left);
e839e6ed 1070 }
af390142
DM
1071 else
1072 left = tmpsv;
1073 continue;
1074 }
1075 }
1076
1077 /* if both args are the same magical value, make one a copy */
1078 if (left == right && SvGMAGICAL(left)) {
1079 left = sv_newmortal();
1080 /* Print the uninitialized warning now, so it includes the
1081 * variable name. */
1082 if (!SvOK(right)) {
1083 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
1084 report_uninit(right);
1085 sv_setsv_flags(left, &PL_sv_no, 0);
e839e6ed 1086 }
af390142
DM
1087 else
1088 sv_setsv_flags(left, right, 0);
1089 SvGETMAGIC(right);
e839e6ed
DM
1090 }
1091 }
e839e6ed 1092
af390142
DM
1093 /* nexttarg = left . right */
1094 S_do_concat(aTHX_ left, right, nexttarg, 0);
1095 left = nexttarg;
e839e6ed 1096 }
e839e6ed 1097
af390142 1098 SP = toparg - stack_adj + 1;
e839e6ed 1099
4e521aaf
DM
1100 /* Return the result of all RHS concats, unless this op includes
1101 * an assign ($lex = x.y.z or expr = x.y.z), in which case copy
1102 * to target (which will be $lex or expr).
af390142
DM
1103 * If we are appending, targ will already have been appended to in
1104 * the loop */
4e521aaf
DM
1105 if ( !is_append
1106 && ( (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_STACKED)
1107 || (PL_op->op_private & OPpTARGET_MY))
1108 ) {
af390142
DM
1109 sv_setsv(targ, left);
1110 SvSETMAGIC(targ);
1111 }
4e521aaf
DM
1112 else
1113 targ = left;
af390142
DM
1114 SETs(targ);
1115 RETURN;
1116 }
e839e6ed
DM
1117}
1118
1119
0b5aba47
DM
1120/* push the elements of av onto the stack.
1121 * Returns PL_op->op_next to allow tail-call optimisation of its callers */
d5524600 1122
0b5aba47 1123STATIC OP*
d5524600
DM
1124S_pushav(pTHX_ AV* const av)
1125{
1126 dSP;
c70927a6 1127 const SSize_t maxarg = AvFILL(av) + 1;
d5524600 1128 EXTEND(SP, maxarg);
5d9574c1 1129 if (UNLIKELY(SvRMAGICAL(av))) {
c70927a6
FC
1130 PADOFFSET i;
1131 for (i=0; i < (PADOFFSET)maxarg; i++) {
fd77b29b
FC
1132 SV ** const svp = av_fetch(av, i, FALSE);
1133 SP[i+1] = LIKELY(svp)
1134 ? *svp
1135 : UNLIKELY(PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD)
1f1dcfb5 1136 ? av_nonelem(av,i)
fd77b29b 1137 : &PL_sv_undef;
d5524600
DM
1138 }
1139 }
1140 else {
c70927a6
FC
1141 PADOFFSET i;
1142 for (i=0; i < (PADOFFSET)maxarg; i++) {
6661956a 1143 SV *sv = AvARRAY(av)[i];
fd77b29b
FC
1144 SP[i+1] = LIKELY(sv)
1145 ? sv
1146 : UNLIKELY(PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD)
1f1dcfb5 1147 ? av_nonelem(av,i)
fd77b29b 1148 : &PL_sv_undef;
ce0d59fd 1149 }
d5524600
DM
1150 }
1151 SP += maxarg;
1152 PUTBACK;
0b5aba47 1153 return NORMAL;
d5524600
DM
1154}
1155
1156
a7fd8ef6
DM
1157/* ($lex1,@lex2,...) or my ($lex1,@lex2,...) */
1158
1159PP(pp_padrange)
1160{
20b7effb 1161 dSP;
a7fd8ef6
DM
1162 PADOFFSET base = PL_op->op_targ;
1163 int count = (int)(PL_op->op_private) & OPpPADRANGE_COUNTMASK;
d5524600
DM
1164 if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
1165 /* fake the RHS of my ($x,$y,..) = @_ */
1166 PUSHMARK(SP);
0b5aba47 1167 (void)S_pushav(aTHX_ GvAVn(PL_defgv));
d5524600
DM
1168 SPAGAIN;
1169 }
1170
a7fd8ef6
DM
1171 /* note, this is only skipped for compile-time-known void cxt */
1172 if ((PL_op->op_flags & OPf_WANT) != OPf_WANT_VOID) {
19742f39
AL
1173 int i;
1174
a7fd8ef6
DM
1175 EXTEND(SP, count);
1176 PUSHMARK(SP);
1177 for (i = 0; i <count; i++)
1178 *++SP = PAD_SV(base+i);
1179 }
1180 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO) {
4e09461c
DM
1181 SV **svp = &(PAD_SVl(base));
1182 const UV payload = (UV)(
1183 (base << (OPpPADRANGE_COUNTSHIFT + SAVE_TIGHT_SHIFT))
1184 | (count << SAVE_TIGHT_SHIFT)
1185 | SAVEt_CLEARPADRANGE);
19742f39
AL
1186 int i;
1187
6d59e610 1188 STATIC_ASSERT_STMT(OPpPADRANGE_COUNTMASK + 1 == (1 << OPpPADRANGE_COUNTSHIFT));
d081a355
DM
1189 assert((payload >> (OPpPADRANGE_COUNTSHIFT+SAVE_TIGHT_SHIFT))
1190 == (Size_t)base);
a3444cc5
DM
1191 {
1192 dSS_ADD;
1193 SS_ADD_UV(payload);
1194 SS_ADD_END(1);
1195 }
4e09461c 1196
a7fd8ef6 1197 for (i = 0; i <count; i++)
4e09461c 1198 SvPADSTALE_off(*svp++); /* mark lexical as active */
a7fd8ef6
DM
1199 }
1200 RETURN;
1201}
1202
1203
a0d0e21e
LW
1204PP(pp_padsv)
1205{
20b7effb 1206 dSP;
6c28b496
DD
1207 EXTEND(SP, 1);
1208 {
1209 OP * const op = PL_op;
1210 /* access PL_curpad once */
1211 SV ** const padentry = &(PAD_SVl(op->op_targ));
1212 {
1213 dTARG;
1214 TARG = *padentry;
1215 PUSHs(TARG);
1216 PUTBACK; /* no pop/push after this, TOPs ok */
8ec5e241 1217 }
6c28b496
DD
1218 if (op->op_flags & OPf_MOD) {
1219 if (op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO)
1220 if (!(op->op_private & OPpPAD_STATE))
1221 save_clearsv(padentry);
1222 if (op->op_private & OPpDEREF) {
8f90a16d
FC
1223 /* TOPs is equivalent to TARG here. Using TOPs (SP) rather
1224 than TARG reduces the scope of TARG, so it does not
1225 span the call to save_clearsv, resulting in smaller
1226 machine code. */
6c28b496
DD
1227 TOPs = vivify_ref(TOPs, op->op_private & OPpDEREF);
1228 }
1229 }
1230 return op->op_next;
4633a7c4 1231 }
a0d0e21e
LW
1232}
1233
1234PP(pp_readline)
1235{
30901a8a 1236 dSP;
12dc5f94
DM
1237 /* pp_coreargs pushes a NULL to indicate no args passed to
1238 * CORE::readline() */
30901a8a
FC
1239 if (TOPs) {
1240 SvGETMAGIC(TOPs);
fc99edcf 1241 tryAMAGICunTARGETlist(iter_amg, 0);
30901a8a
FC
1242 PL_last_in_gv = MUTABLE_GV(*PL_stack_sp--);
1243 }
1244 else PL_last_in_gv = PL_argvgv, PL_stack_sp--;
6e592b3a
BM
1245 if (!isGV_with_GP(PL_last_in_gv)) {
1246 if (SvROK(PL_last_in_gv) && isGV_with_GP(SvRV(PL_last_in_gv)))
159b6efe 1247 PL_last_in_gv = MUTABLE_GV(SvRV(PL_last_in_gv));
8efb3254 1248 else {
f5284f61 1249 dSP;
ad64d0ec 1250 XPUSHs(MUTABLE_SV(PL_last_in_gv));
f5284f61 1251 PUTBACK;
897d3989 1252 Perl_pp_rv2gv(aTHX);
159b6efe 1253 PL_last_in_gv = MUTABLE_GV(*PL_stack_sp--);
745e740c 1254 assert((SV*)PL_last_in_gv == &PL_sv_undef || isGV_with_GP(PL_last_in_gv));
f5284f61
IZ
1255 }
1256 }
a0d0e21e
LW
1257 return do_readline();
1258}
1259
1260PP(pp_eq)
1261{
20b7effb 1262 dSP;
33efebe6
DM
1263 SV *left, *right;
1264
0872de45 1265 tryAMAGICbin_MG(eq_amg, AMGf_numeric);
33efebe6
DM
1266 right = POPs;
1267 left = TOPs;
1268 SETs(boolSV(
1269 (SvIOK_notUV(left) && SvIOK_notUV(right))
1270 ? (SvIVX(left) == SvIVX(right))
1271 : ( do_ncmp(left, right) == 0)
1272 ));
1273 RETURN;
a0d0e21e
LW
1274}
1275
b1c05ba5 1276
4c2c3128 1277/* also used for: pp_i_preinc() */
b1c05ba5 1278
a0d0e21e
LW
1279PP(pp_preinc)
1280{
4c2c3128
DM
1281 SV *sv = *PL_stack_sp;
1282
1283 if (LIKELY(((sv->sv_flags &
1284 (SVf_THINKFIRST|SVs_GMG|SVf_IVisUV|
1285 SVf_IOK|SVf_NOK|SVf_POK|SVp_NOK|SVp_POK|SVf_ROK))
1286 == SVf_IOK))
1287 && SvIVX(sv) != IV_MAX)
1288 {
1289 SvIV_set(sv, SvIVX(sv) + 1);
1290 }
1291 else /* Do all the PERL_PRESERVE_IVUV and hard cases in sv_inc */
1292 sv_inc(sv);
1293 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
1294 return NORMAL;
1295}
1296
1297
1298/* also used for: pp_i_predec() */
1299
1300PP(pp_predec)
1301{
1302 SV *sv = *PL_stack_sp;
1303
1304 if (LIKELY(((sv->sv_flags &
1305 (SVf_THINKFIRST|SVs_GMG|SVf_IVisUV|
1306 SVf_IOK|SVf_NOK|SVf_POK|SVp_NOK|SVp_POK|SVf_ROK))
1307 == SVf_IOK))
1308 && SvIVX(sv) != IV_MIN)
55497cff 1309 {
4c2c3128 1310 SvIV_set(sv, SvIVX(sv) - 1);
748a9306 1311 }
4c2c3128
DM
1312 else /* Do all the PERL_PRESERVE_IVUV and hard cases in sv_dec */
1313 sv_dec(sv);
1314 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
a0d0e21e
LW
1315 return NORMAL;
1316}
1317
b1c05ba5
DM
1318
1319/* also used for: pp_orassign() */
1320
a0d0e21e
LW
1321PP(pp_or)
1322{
20b7effb 1323 dSP;
f4c975aa 1324 SV *sv;
f410a211 1325 PERL_ASYNC_CHECK();
f4c975aa
DM
1326 sv = TOPs;
1327 if (SvTRUE_NN(sv))
a0d0e21e
LW
1328 RETURN;
1329 else {
c960fc3b
SP
1330 if (PL_op->op_type == OP_OR)
1331 --SP;
a0d0e21e
LW
1332 RETURNOP(cLOGOP->op_other);
1333 }
1334}
1335
b1c05ba5
DM
1336
1337/* also used for: pp_dor() pp_dorassign() */
1338
25a55bd7 1339PP(pp_defined)
c963b151 1340{
20b7effb 1341 dSP;
eb578fdb 1342 SV* sv;
6136c704 1343 bool defined;
25a55bd7 1344 const int op_type = PL_op->op_type;
ea5195b7 1345 const bool is_dor = (op_type == OP_DOR || op_type == OP_DORASSIGN);
c963b151 1346
6136c704 1347 if (is_dor) {
f410a211 1348 PERL_ASYNC_CHECK();
25a55bd7 1349 sv = TOPs;
5d9574c1 1350 if (UNLIKELY(!sv || !SvANY(sv))) {
2bd49cfc
NC
1351 if (op_type == OP_DOR)
1352 --SP;
25a55bd7
SP
1353 RETURNOP(cLOGOP->op_other);
1354 }
b7c44293
RGS
1355 }
1356 else {
1357 /* OP_DEFINED */
25a55bd7 1358 sv = POPs;
5d9574c1 1359 if (UNLIKELY(!sv || !SvANY(sv)))
25a55bd7 1360 RETPUSHNO;
b7c44293 1361 }
25a55bd7 1362
6136c704 1363 defined = FALSE;
c963b151
BD
1364 switch (SvTYPE(sv)) {
1365 case SVt_PVAV:
1366 if (AvMAX(sv) >= 0 || SvGMAGICAL(sv) || (SvRMAGICAL(sv) && mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_tied)))
25a55bd7 1367 defined = TRUE;
c963b151
BD
1368 break;
1369 case SVt_PVHV:
1370 if (HvARRAY(sv) || SvGMAGICAL(sv) || (SvRMAGICAL(sv) && mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_tied)))
25a55bd7 1371 defined = TRUE;
c963b151
BD
1372 break;
1373 case SVt_PVCV:
1374 if (CvROOT(sv) || CvXSUB(sv))
25a55bd7 1375 defined = TRUE;
c963b151
BD
1376 break;
1377 default:
5b295bef 1378 SvGETMAGIC(sv);
c963b151 1379 if (SvOK(sv))
25a55bd7 1380 defined = TRUE;
6136c704 1381 break;
c963b151 1382 }
6136c704
AL
1383
1384 if (is_dor) {
c960fc3b
SP
1385 if(defined)
1386 RETURN;
1387 if(op_type == OP_DOR)
1388 --SP;
25a55bd7 1389 RETURNOP(cLOGOP->op_other);
25a55bd7 1390 }
d9aa96a4
SP
1391 /* assuming OP_DEFINED */
1392 if(defined)
1393 RETPUSHYES;
1394 RETPUSHNO;
c963b151
BD
1395}
1396
230ee21f
DM
1397
1398
a0d0e21e
LW
1399PP(pp_add)
1400{
20b7effb 1401 dSP; dATARGET; bool useleft; SV *svl, *svr;
230ee21f 1402
6f1401dc
DM
1403 tryAMAGICbin_MG(add_amg, AMGf_assign|AMGf_numeric);
1404 svr = TOPs;
1405 svl = TOPm1s;
1406
28e5dec8 1407#ifdef PERL_PRESERVE_IVUV
230ee21f
DM
1408
1409 /* special-case some simple common cases */
1410 if (!((svl->sv_flags|svr->sv_flags) & (SVf_IVisUV|SVs_GMG))) {
1411 IV il, ir;
1412 U32 flags = (svl->sv_flags & svr->sv_flags);
1413 if (flags & SVf_IOK) {
1414 /* both args are simple IVs */
1415 UV topl, topr;
1416 il = SvIVX(svl);
1417 ir = SvIVX(svr);
1418 do_iv:
1419 topl = ((UV)il) >> (UVSIZE * 8 - 2);
1420 topr = ((UV)ir) >> (UVSIZE * 8 - 2);
1421
1422 /* if both are in a range that can't under/overflow, do a
1423 * simple integer add: if the top of both numbers
1424 * are 00 or 11, then it's safe */
1425 if (!( ((topl+1) | (topr+1)) & 2)) {
1426 SP--;
1427 TARGi(il + ir, 0); /* args not GMG, so can't be tainted */
1428 SETs(TARG);
1429 RETURN;
1430 }
1431 goto generic;
1432 }
1433 else if (flags & SVf_NOK) {
1434 /* both args are NVs */
1435 NV nl = SvNVX(svl);
1436 NV nr = SvNVX(svr);
1437
3336af0b
DD
1438 if (
1439#if defined(NAN_COMPARE_BROKEN) && defined(Perl_isnan)
1440 !Perl_isnan(nl) && nl == (NV)(il = (IV)nl)
1441 && !Perl_isnan(nr) && nr == (NV)(ir = (IV)nr)
1442#else
1443 nl == (NV)(il = (IV)nl) && nr == (NV)(ir = (IV)nr)
1444#endif
1445 )
230ee21f
DM
1446 /* nothing was lost by converting to IVs */
1447 goto do_iv;
1448 SP--;
1449 TARGn(nl + nr, 0); /* args not GMG, so can't be tainted */
1450 SETs(TARG);
1451 RETURN;
1452 }
1453 }
1454
1455 generic:
1456
1457 useleft = USE_LEFT(svl);
28e5dec8
JH
1458 /* We must see if we can perform the addition with integers if possible,
1459 as the integer code detects overflow while the NV code doesn't.
1460 If either argument hasn't had a numeric conversion yet attempt to get
1461 the IV. It's important to do this now, rather than just assuming that
1462 it's not IOK as a PV of "9223372036854775806" may not take well to NV
1463 addition, and an SV which is NOK, NV=6.0 ought to be coerced to
1464 integer in case the second argument is IV=9223372036854775806
1465 We can (now) rely on sv_2iv to do the right thing, only setting the
1466 public IOK flag if the value in the NV (or PV) slot is truly integer.
1467
1468 A side effect is that this also aggressively prefers integer maths over
7dca457a
NC
1469 fp maths for integer values.
1470
a00b5bd3 1471 How to detect overflow?
7dca457a
NC
1472
1473 C 99 section 6.2.6.1 says
1474
1475 The range of nonnegative values of a signed integer type is a subrange
1476 of the corresponding unsigned integer type, and the representation of
1477 the same value in each type is the same. A computation involving
1478 unsigned operands can never overflow, because a result that cannot be
1479 represented by the resulting unsigned integer type is reduced modulo
1480 the number that is one greater than the largest value that can be
1481 represented by the resulting type.
1482
1483 (the 9th paragraph)
1484
1485 which I read as "unsigned ints wrap."
1486
1487 signed integer overflow seems to be classed as "exception condition"
1488
1489 If an exceptional condition occurs during the evaluation of an
1490 expression (that is, if the result is not mathematically defined or not
1491 in the range of representable values for its type), the behavior is
1492 undefined.
1493
1494 (6.5, the 5th paragraph)
1495
1496 I had assumed that on 2s complement machines signed arithmetic would
1497 wrap, hence coded pp_add and pp_subtract on the assumption that
1498 everything perl builds on would be happy. After much wailing and
1499 gnashing of teeth it would seem that irix64 knows its ANSI spec well,
1500 knows that it doesn't need to, and doesn't. Bah. Anyway, the all-
1501 unsigned code below is actually shorter than the old code. :-)
1502 */
1503
01f91bf2 1504 if (SvIV_please_nomg(svr)) {
28e5dec8
JH
1505 /* Unless the left argument is integer in range we are going to have to
1506 use NV maths. Hence only attempt to coerce the right argument if
1507 we know the left is integer. */
eb578fdb 1508 UV auv = 0;
9c5ffd7c 1509 bool auvok = FALSE;
7dca457a
NC
1510 bool a_valid = 0;
1511
28e5dec8 1512 if (!useleft) {
7dca457a
NC
1513 auv = 0;
1514 a_valid = auvok = 1;
1515 /* left operand is undef, treat as zero. + 0 is identity,
1516 Could SETi or SETu right now, but space optimise by not adding
1517 lots of code to speed up what is probably a rarish case. */
1518 } else {
1519 /* Left operand is defined, so is it IV? */
01f91bf2 1520 if (SvIV_please_nomg(svl)) {
800401ee
JH
1521 if ((auvok = SvUOK(svl)))
1522 auv = SvUVX(svl);
7dca457a 1523 else {
eb578fdb 1524 const IV aiv = SvIVX(svl);
7dca457a
NC
1525 if (aiv >= 0) {
1526 auv = aiv;
1527 auvok = 1; /* Now acting as a sign flag. */
53e2bfb7 1528 } else {
ad9b9a49 1529 auv = -(UV)aiv;
7dca457a
NC
1530 }
1531 }
1532 a_valid = 1;
28e5dec8
JH
1533 }
1534 }
7dca457a
NC
1535 if (a_valid) {
1536 bool result_good = 0;
1537 UV result;
eb578fdb 1538 UV buv;
800401ee 1539 bool buvok = SvUOK(svr);
a00b5bd3 1540
7dca457a 1541 if (buvok)
800401ee 1542 buv = SvUVX(svr);
7dca457a 1543 else {
eb578fdb 1544 const IV biv = SvIVX(svr);
7dca457a
NC
1545 if (biv >= 0) {
1546 buv = biv;
1547 buvok = 1;
1548 } else
ad9b9a49 1549 buv = -(UV)biv;
7dca457a
NC
1550 }
1551 /* ?uvok if value is >= 0. basically, flagged as UV if it's +ve,
602f51c4 1552 else "IV" now, independent of how it came in.
7dca457a
NC
1553 if a, b represents positive, A, B negative, a maps to -A etc
1554 a + b => (a + b)
1555 A + b => -(a - b)
1556 a + B => (a - b)
1557 A + B => -(a + b)
1558 all UV maths. negate result if A negative.
1559 add if signs same, subtract if signs differ. */
1560
1561 if (auvok ^ buvok) {
1562 /* Signs differ. */
1563 if (auv >= buv) {
1564 result = auv - buv;
1565 /* Must get smaller */
1566 if (result <= auv)
1567 result_good = 1;
1568 } else {
1569 result = buv - auv;
1570 if (result <= buv) {
1571 /* result really should be -(auv-buv). as its negation
1572 of true value, need to swap our result flag */
1573 auvok = !auvok;
1574 result_good = 1;
28e5dec8
JH
1575 }
1576 }
7dca457a
NC
1577 } else {
1578 /* Signs same */
1579 result = auv + buv;
1580 if (result >= auv)
1581 result_good = 1;
1582 }
1583 if (result_good) {
1584 SP--;
1585 if (auvok)
28e5dec8 1586 SETu( result );
7dca457a
NC
1587 else {
1588 /* Negate result */
1589 if (result <= (UV)IV_MIN)
53e2bfb7
DM
1590 SETi(result == (UV)IV_MIN
1591 ? IV_MIN : -(IV)result);
7dca457a
NC
1592 else {
1593 /* result valid, but out of range for IV. */
1594 SETn( -(NV)result );
28e5dec8
JH
1595 }
1596 }
7dca457a
NC
1597 RETURN;
1598 } /* Overflow, drop through to NVs. */
28e5dec8
JH
1599 }
1600 }
230ee21f
DM
1601
1602#else
1603 useleft = USE_LEFT(svl);
28e5dec8 1604#endif
230ee21f 1605
a0d0e21e 1606 {
6f1401dc 1607 NV value = SvNV_nomg(svr);
4efa5a16 1608 (void)POPs;
28e5dec8
JH
1609 if (!useleft) {
1610 /* left operand is undef, treat as zero. + 0.0 is identity. */
1611 SETn(value);
1612 RETURN;
1613 }
6f1401dc 1614 SETn( value + SvNV_nomg(svl) );
28e5dec8 1615 RETURN;
a0d0e21e
LW
1616 }
1617}
1618
b1c05ba5
DM
1619
1620/* also used for: pp_aelemfast_lex() */
1621
a0d0e21e
LW
1622PP(pp_aelemfast)
1623{
20b7effb 1624 dSP;
93bad3fd 1625 AV * const av = PL_op->op_type == OP_AELEMFAST_LEX
8f878375 1626 ? MUTABLE_AV(PAD_SV(PL_op->op_targ)) : GvAVn(cGVOP_gv);
a3b680e6 1627 const U32 lval = PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD;
7e169e84
DM
1628 const I8 key = (I8)PL_op->op_private;
1629 SV** svp;
1630 SV *sv;
1631
1632 assert(SvTYPE(av) == SVt_PVAV);
1633
f4484b87
DM
1634 EXTEND(SP, 1);
1635
7e169e84
DM
1636 /* inlined av_fetch() for simple cases ... */
1637 if (!SvRMAGICAL(av) && key >= 0 && key <= AvFILLp(av)) {
1638 sv = AvARRAY(av)[key];
9fb994be 1639 if (sv) {
7e169e84
DM
1640 PUSHs(sv);
1641 RETURN;
1642 }
1643 }
1644
1645 /* ... else do it the hard way */
1646 svp = av_fetch(av, key, lval);
1647 sv = (svp ? *svp : &PL_sv_undef);
b024352e
DM
1648
1649 if (UNLIKELY(!svp && lval))
7e169e84 1650 DIE(aTHX_ PL_no_aelem, (int)key);
b024352e 1651
39cf747a 1652 if (!lval && SvRMAGICAL(av) && SvGMAGICAL(sv)) /* see note in pp_helem() */
fd69380d 1653 mg_get(sv);
be6c24e0 1654 PUSHs(sv);
a0d0e21e
LW
1655 RETURN;
1656}
1657
1658PP(pp_join)
1659{
20b7effb 1660 dSP; dMARK; dTARGET;
a0d0e21e
LW
1661 MARK++;
1662 do_join(TARG, *MARK, MARK, SP);
1663 SP = MARK;
1664 SETs(TARG);
1665 RETURN;
1666}
1667
a0d0e21e
LW
1668/* Oversized hot code. */
1669
b1c05ba5
DM
1670/* also used for: pp_say() */
1671
a0d0e21e
LW
1672PP(pp_print)
1673{
20b7effb 1674 dSP; dMARK; dORIGMARK;
eb578fdb 1675 PerlIO *fp;
236988e4 1676 MAGIC *mg;
159b6efe
NC
1677 GV * const gv
1678 = (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_STACKED) ? MUTABLE_GV(*++MARK) : PL_defoutgv;
9c9f25b8 1679 IO *io = GvIO(gv);
5b468f54 1680
9c9f25b8 1681 if (io
ad64d0ec 1682 && (mg = SvTIED_mg((const SV *)io, PERL_MAGIC_tiedscalar)))
5b468f54 1683 {
01bb7c6d 1684 had_magic:
68dc0745 1685 if (MARK == ORIGMARK) {
1c846c1f 1686 /* If using default handle then we need to make space to
a60c0954
NIS
1687 * pass object as 1st arg, so move other args up ...
1688 */
4352c267 1689 MEXTEND(SP, 1);
68dc0745
PP
1690 ++MARK;
1691 Move(MARK, MARK + 1, (SP - MARK) + 1, SV*);
1692 ++SP;
1693 }
3e0cb5de 1694 return Perl_tied_method(aTHX_ SV_CONST(PRINT), mark - 1, MUTABLE_SV(io),
94bc412f
NC
1695 mg,
1696 (G_SCALAR | TIED_METHOD_ARGUMENTS_ON_STACK
1697 | (PL_op->op_type == OP_SAY
1698 ? TIED_METHOD_SAY : 0)), sp - mark);
236988e4 1699 }
9c9f25b8 1700 if (!io) {
68b590d9 1701 if ( gv && GvEGVx(gv) && (io = GvIO(GvEGV(gv)))
ad64d0ec 1702 && (mg = SvTIED_mg((const SV *)io, PERL_MAGIC_tiedscalar)))
01bb7c6d 1703 goto had_magic;
51087808 1704 report_evil_fh(gv);
93189314 1705 SETERRNO(EBADF,RMS_IFI);
a0d0e21e
LW
1706 goto just_say_no;
1707 }
1708 else if (!(fp = IoOFP(io))) {
7716c5c5
NC
1709 if (IoIFP(io))
1710 report_wrongway_fh(gv, '<');
51087808 1711 else
7716c5c5 1712 report_evil_fh(gv);
93189314 1713 SETERRNO(EBADF,IoIFP(io)?RMS_FAC:RMS_IFI);
a0d0e21e
LW
1714 goto just_say_no;
1715 }
1716 else {
e23d9e2f 1717 SV * const ofs = GvSV(PL_ofsgv); /* $, */
a0d0e21e 1718 MARK++;
e23d9e2f 1719 if (ofs && (SvGMAGICAL(ofs) || SvOK(ofs))) {
a0d0e21e
LW
1720 while (MARK <= SP) {
1721 if (!do_print(*MARK, fp))
1722 break;
1723 MARK++;
1724 if (MARK <= SP) {
e23d9e2f
CS
1725 /* don't use 'ofs' here - it may be invalidated by magic callbacks */
1726 if (!do_print(GvSV(PL_ofsgv), fp)) {
a0d0e21e
LW
1727 MARK--;
1728 break;
1729 }
1730 }
1731 }
1732 }
1733 else {
1734 while (MARK <= SP) {
1735 if (!do_print(*MARK, fp))
1736 break;
1737 MARK++;
1738 }
1739 }
1740 if (MARK <= SP)
1741 goto just_say_no;
1742 else {
cfc4a7da
GA
1743 if (PL_op->op_type == OP_SAY) {
1744 if (PerlIO_write(fp, "\n", 1) == 0 || PerlIO_error(fp))
1745 goto just_say_no;
1746 }
1747 else if (PL_ors_sv && SvOK(PL_ors_sv))
7889fe52 1748 if (!do_print(PL_ors_sv, fp)) /* $\ */
a0d0e21e
LW
1749 goto just_say_no;
1750
1751 if (IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_FLUSH)
760ac839 1752 if (PerlIO_flush(fp) == EOF)
a0d0e21e
LW
1753 goto just_say_no;
1754 }
1755 }
1756 SP = ORIGMARK;
e52fd6f4 1757 XPUSHs(&PL_sv_yes);
a0d0e21e
LW
1758 RETURN;
1759
1760 just_say_no:
1761 SP = ORIGMARK;
e52fd6f4 1762 XPUSHs(&PL_sv_undef);
a0d0e21e
LW
1763 RETURN;
1764}
1765
b1c05ba5 1766
aa36782f
DM
1767/* do the common parts of pp_padhv() and pp_rv2hv()
1768 * It assumes the caller has done EXTEND(SP, 1) or equivalent.
af3b1cba 1769 * 'is_keys' indicates the OPpPADHV_ISKEYS/OPpRV2HV_ISKEYS flag is set.
e84e4286
DM
1770 * 'has_targ' indicates that the op has a target - this should
1771 * be a compile-time constant so that the code can constant-folded as
1772 * appropriate
aa36782f
DM
1773 * */
1774
1775PERL_STATIC_INLINE OP*
e84e4286 1776S_padhv_rv2hv_common(pTHX_ HV *hv, U8 gimme, bool is_keys, bool has_targ)
aa36782f 1777{
e80717e7
DM
1778 bool is_tied;
1779 bool is_bool;
e1ad5d4c 1780 MAGIC *mg;
aa36782f 1781 dSP;
e80717e7
DM
1782 IV i;
1783 SV *sv;
aa36782f
DM
1784
1785 assert(PL_op->op_type == OP_PADHV || PL_op->op_type == OP_RV2HV);
1786
1787 if (gimme == G_ARRAY) {
8dc9003f 1788 hv_pushkv(hv, 3);
af3b1cba 1789 return NORMAL;
aa36782f
DM
1790 }
1791
1792 if (is_keys)
1793 /* 'keys %h' masquerading as '%h': reset iterator */
1794 (void)hv_iterinit(hv);
1795
6f2dc9a6
DM
1796 if (gimme == G_VOID)
1797 return NORMAL;
1798
e80717e7
DM
1799 is_bool = ( PL_op->op_private & OPpTRUEBOOL
1800 || ( PL_op->op_private & OPpMAYBE_TRUEBOOL
1801 && block_gimme() == G_VOID));
1802 is_tied = SvRMAGICAL(hv) && (mg = mg_find(MUTABLE_SV(hv), PERL_MAGIC_tied));
1803
1804 if (UNLIKELY(is_tied)) {
1805 if (is_keys && !is_bool) {
1806 i = 0;
1807 while (hv_iternext(hv))
1808 i++;
1809 goto push_i;
1810 }
1811 else {
1812 sv = magic_scalarpack(hv, mg);
1813 goto push_sv;
1814 }
3cd2c7d4 1815 }
e80717e7
DM
1816 else {
1817 i = HvUSEDKEYS(hv);
1818 if (is_bool) {
1819 sv = i ? &PL_sv_yes : &PL_sv_zero;
1820 push_sv:
1821 PUSHs(sv);
1822 }
1823 else {
1824 push_i:
e84e4286
DM
1825 if (has_targ) {
1826 dTARGET;
1827 PUSHi(i);
1828 }
1829 else
6f2dc9a6
DM
1830 if (is_keys) {
1831 /* parent op should be an unused OP_KEYS whose targ we can
1832 * use */
1833 dTARG;
1834 OP *k;
1835
1836 assert(!OpHAS_SIBLING(PL_op));
1837 k = PL_op->op_sibparent;
1838 assert(k->op_type == OP_KEYS);
1839 TARG = PAD_SV(k->op_targ);
1840 PUSHi(i);
1841 }
1842 else
e84e4286 1843 mPUSHi(i);
aa36782f 1844 }
aa36782f
DM
1845 }
1846
1847 PUTBACK;
1848 return NORMAL;
1849}
1850
1851
e855b461
DM
1852/* This is also called directly by pp_lvavref. */
1853PP(pp_padav)
1854{
1855 dSP; dTARGET;
1856 U8 gimme;
1857 assert(SvTYPE(TARG) == SVt_PVAV);
1858 if (UNLIKELY( PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO ))
1859 if (LIKELY( !(PL_op->op_private & OPpPAD_STATE) ))
1860 SAVECLEARSV(PAD_SVl(PL_op->op_targ));
1861 EXTEND(SP, 1);
1862
1863 if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_REF) {
1864 PUSHs(TARG);
1865 RETURN;
1866 }
1867 else if (PL_op->op_private & OPpMAYBE_LVSUB) {
1868 const I32 flags = is_lvalue_sub();
1869 if (flags && !(flags & OPpENTERSUB_INARGS)) {
1870 if (GIMME_V == G_SCALAR)
1871 /* diag_listed_as: Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context */
1872 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't return array to lvalue scalar context");
1873 PUSHs(TARG);
1874 RETURN;
1875 }
1876 }
1877
1878 gimme = GIMME_V;
0b5aba47
DM
1879 if (gimme == G_ARRAY)
1880 return S_pushav(aTHX_ (AV*)TARG);
327c9b9e
DM
1881
1882 if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
e855b461
DM
1883 const SSize_t maxarg = AvFILL(MUTABLE_AV(TARG)) + 1;
1884 if (!maxarg)
1885 PUSHs(&PL_sv_zero);
1886 else if (PL_op->op_private & OPpTRUEBOOL)
1887 PUSHs(&PL_sv_yes);
1888 else
1889 mPUSHi(maxarg);
1890 }
1891 RETURN;
1892}
1893
1894
1895PP(pp_padhv)
1896{
1897 dSP; dTARGET;
1898 U8 gimme;
e855b461
DM
1899
1900 assert(SvTYPE(TARG) == SVt_PVHV);
e855b461
DM
1901 if (UNLIKELY( PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO ))
1902 if (LIKELY( !(PL_op->op_private & OPpPAD_STATE) ))
1903 SAVECLEARSV(PAD_SVl(PL_op->op_targ));
1904
aa36782f
DM
1905 EXTEND(SP, 1);
1906
1907 if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_REF) {
1908 PUSHs(TARG);
e855b461 1909 RETURN;
aa36782f 1910 }
e855b461
DM
1911 else if (PL_op->op_private & OPpMAYBE_LVSUB) {
1912 const I32 flags = is_lvalue_sub();
1913 if (flags && !(flags & OPpENTERSUB_INARGS)) {
1914 if (GIMME_V == G_SCALAR)
1915 /* diag_listed_as: Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context */
1916 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't return hash to lvalue scalar context");
aa36782f 1917 PUSHs(TARG);
e855b461
DM
1918 RETURN;
1919 }
1920 }
1921
1922 gimme = GIMME_V;
e855b461 1923
aa36782f 1924 return S_padhv_rv2hv_common(aTHX_ (HV*)TARG, gimme,
e84e4286
DM
1925 cBOOL(PL_op->op_private & OPpPADHV_ISKEYS),
1926 0 /* has_targ*/);
e855b461
DM
1927}
1928
1929
b1c05ba5 1930/* also used for: pp_rv2hv() */
bdaf10a5 1931/* also called directly by pp_lvavref */
b1c05ba5 1932
a0d0e21e
LW
1933PP(pp_rv2av)
1934{
20b7effb 1935 dSP; dTOPss;
1c23e2bd 1936 const U8 gimme = GIMME_V;
13c59d41
MH
1937 static const char an_array[] = "an ARRAY";
1938 static const char a_hash[] = "a HASH";
bdaf10a5
FC
1939 const bool is_pp_rv2av = PL_op->op_type == OP_RV2AV
1940 || PL_op->op_type == OP_LVAVREF;
d83b45b8 1941 const svtype type = is_pp_rv2av ? SVt_PVAV : SVt_PVHV;
a0d0e21e 1942
9026059d 1943 SvGETMAGIC(sv);
a0d0e21e 1944 if (SvROK(sv)) {
5d9574c1 1945 if (UNLIKELY(SvAMAGIC(sv))) {
93d7320b 1946 sv = amagic_deref_call(sv, is_pp_rv2av ? to_av_amg : to_hv_amg);
93d7320b 1947 }
17ab7946 1948 sv = SvRV(sv);
5d9574c1 1949 if (UNLIKELY(SvTYPE(sv) != type))
dcbac5bb 1950 /* diag_listed_as: Not an ARRAY reference */
13c59d41 1951 DIE(aTHX_ "Not %s reference", is_pp_rv2av ? an_array : a_hash);
5d9574c1
DM
1952 else if (UNLIKELY(PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD
1953 && PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO))
3da99855 1954 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "%s", PL_no_localize_ref);
a0d0e21e 1955 }
5d9574c1 1956 else if (UNLIKELY(SvTYPE(sv) != type)) {
67955e0c 1957 GV *gv;
1c846c1f 1958
6e592b3a 1959 if (!isGV_with_GP(sv)) {
13c59d41 1960 gv = Perl_softref2xv(aTHX_ sv, is_pp_rv2av ? an_array : a_hash,
dc3c76f8
NC
1961 type, &sp);
1962 if (!gv)
1963 RETURN;
35cd451c
GS
1964 }
1965 else {
159b6efe 1966 gv = MUTABLE_GV(sv);
a0d0e21e 1967 }
ad64d0ec 1968 sv = is_pp_rv2av ? MUTABLE_SV(GvAVn(gv)) : MUTABLE_SV(GvHVn(gv));
533c011a 1969 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO)
ad64d0ec 1970 sv = is_pp_rv2av ? MUTABLE_SV(save_ary(gv)) : MUTABLE_SV(save_hash(gv));
9f527363
FC
1971 }
1972 if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_REF) {
17ab7946 1973 SETs(sv);
a0d0e21e 1974 RETURN;
9f527363 1975 }
5d9574c1 1976 else if (UNLIKELY(PL_op->op_private & OPpMAYBE_LVSUB)) {
40c94d11
FC
1977 const I32 flags = is_lvalue_sub();
1978 if (flags && !(flags & OPpENTERSUB_INARGS)) {
cde874ca 1979 if (gimme != G_ARRAY)
042560a6 1980 goto croak_cant_return;
17ab7946 1981 SETs(sv);
78f9721b 1982 RETURN;
40c94d11 1983 }
a0d0e21e
LW
1984 }
1985
17ab7946 1986 if (is_pp_rv2av) {
502c6561 1987 AV *const av = MUTABLE_AV(sv);
0b5aba47 1988
96913b52 1989 if (gimme == G_ARRAY) {
d5524600
DM
1990 SP--;
1991 PUTBACK;
0b5aba47 1992 return S_pushav(aTHX_ av);
1c846c1f 1993 }
0b5aba47
DM
1994
1995 if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
c70927a6 1996 const SSize_t maxarg = AvFILL(av) + 1;
7be75ccf
DM
1997 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpTRUEBOOL)
1998 SETs(maxarg ? &PL_sv_yes : &PL_sv_zero);
1999 else {
2000 dTARGET;
2001 SETi(maxarg);
2002 }
93965878 2003 }
7be75ccf
DM
2004 }
2005 else {
aa36782f
DM
2006 SP--; PUTBACK;
2007 return S_padhv_rv2hv_common(aTHX_ (HV*)sv, gimme,
e84e4286
DM
2008 cBOOL(PL_op->op_private & OPpRV2HV_ISKEYS),
2009 1 /* has_targ*/);
17ab7946 2010 }
be85d344 2011 RETURN;
042560a6
NC
2012
2013 croak_cant_return:
2014 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context",
2015 is_pp_rv2av ? "array" : "hash");
77e217c6 2016 RETURN;
a0d0e21e
LW
2017}
2018
10c8fecd 2019STATIC void
fb8f4cf8 2020S_do_oddball(pTHX_ SV **oddkey, SV **firstkey)
10c8fecd 2021{
7918f24d
NC
2022 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_DO_ODDBALL;
2023
fb8f4cf8 2024 if (*oddkey) {
6d822dc4 2025 if (ckWARN(WARN_MISC)) {
a3b680e6 2026 const char *err;
fb8f4cf8
RZ
2027 if (oddkey == firstkey &&
2028 SvROK(*oddkey) &&
2029 (SvTYPE(SvRV(*oddkey)) == SVt_PVAV ||
2030 SvTYPE(SvRV(*oddkey)) == SVt_PVHV))
10c8fecd 2031 {
a3b680e6 2032 err = "Reference found where even-sized list expected";
10c8fecd
GS
2033 }
2034 else
a3b680e6 2035 err = "Odd number of elements in hash assignment";
f1f66076 2036 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_MISC), "%s", err);
10c8fecd 2037 }
6d822dc4 2038
10c8fecd
GS
2039 }
2040}
2041
a5f48505
DM
2042
2043/* Do a mark and sweep with the SVf_BREAK flag to detect elements which
2044 * are common to both the LHS and RHS of an aassign, and replace them
2045 * with copies. All these copies are made before the actual list assign is
2046 * done.
2047 *
2048 * For example in ($a,$b) = ($b,$a), assigning the value of the first RHS
2049 * element ($b) to the first LH element ($a), modifies $a; when the
2050 * second assignment is done, the second RH element now has the wrong
2051 * value. So we initially replace the RHS with ($b, mortalcopy($a)).
2052 * Note that we don't need to make a mortal copy of $b.
2053 *
2054 * The algorithm below works by, for every RHS element, mark the
2055 * corresponding LHS target element with SVf_BREAK. Then if the RHS
2056 * element is found with SVf_BREAK set, it means it would have been
2057 * modified, so make a copy.
2058 * Note that by scanning both LHS and RHS in lockstep, we avoid
2059 * unnecessary copies (like $b above) compared with a naive
2060 * "mark all LHS; copy all marked RHS; unmark all LHS".
2061 *
2062 * If the LHS element is a 'my' declaration' and has a refcount of 1, then
2063 * it can't be common and can be skipped.
ebc643ce
DM
2064 *
2065 * On DEBUGGING builds it takes an extra boolean, fake. If true, it means
2066 * that we thought we didn't need to call S_aassign_copy_common(), but we
2067 * have anyway for sanity checking. If we find we need to copy, then panic.
a5f48505
DM
2068 */
2069
2070PERL_STATIC_INLINE void
2071S_aassign_copy_common(pTHX_ SV **firstlelem, SV **lastlelem,
ebc643ce
DM
2072 SV **firstrelem, SV **lastrelem
2073#ifdef DEBUGGING
2074 , bool fake
2075#endif
2076)
a5f48505
DM
2077{
2078 dVAR;
2079 SV **relem;
2080 SV **lelem;
2081 SSize_t lcount = lastlelem - firstlelem + 1;
2082 bool marked = FALSE; /* have we marked any LHS with SVf_BREAK ? */
2083 bool const do_rc1 = cBOOL(PL_op->op_private & OPpASSIGN_COMMON_RC1);
beb08a1e 2084 bool copy_all = FALSE;
a5f48505
DM
2085
2086 assert(!PL_in_clean_all); /* SVf_BREAK not already in use */
2087 assert(firstlelem < lastlelem); /* at least 2 LH elements */
2088 assert(firstrelem < lastrelem); /* at least 2 RH elements */
2089
ebc643ce
DM
2090
2091 lelem = firstlelem;
a5f48505
DM
2092 /* we never have to copy the first RH element; it can't be corrupted
2093 * by assigning something to the corresponding first LH element.
2094 * So this scan does in a loop: mark LHS[N]; test RHS[N+1]
2095 */
ebc643ce 2096 relem = firstrelem + 1;
a5f48505
DM
2097
2098 for (; relem <= lastrelem; relem++) {
2099 SV *svr;
2100
2101 /* mark next LH element */
2102
2103 if (--lcount >= 0) {
2104 SV *svl = *lelem++;
2105
2106 if (UNLIKELY(!svl)) {/* skip AV alias marker */
2107 assert (lelem <= lastlelem);
2108 svl = *lelem++;
2109 lcount--;
2110 }
2111
2112 assert(svl);
beb08a1e
TC
2113 if (SvSMAGICAL(svl)) {
2114 copy_all = TRUE;
2115 }
a5f48505
DM
2116 if (SvTYPE(svl) == SVt_PVAV || SvTYPE(svl) == SVt_PVHV) {
2117 if (!marked)
2118 return;
2119 /* this LH element will consume all further args;
2120 * no need to mark any further LH elements (if any).
2121 * But we still need to scan any remaining RHS elements;
2122 * set lcount negative to distinguish from lcount == 0,
2123 * so the loop condition continues being true
2124 */
2125 lcount = -1;
2126 lelem--; /* no need to unmark this element */
2127 }
94a5f659 2128 else if (!(do_rc1 && SvREFCNT(svl) == 1) && !SvIMMORTAL(svl)) {
a5f48505
DM
2129 SvFLAGS(svl) |= SVf_BREAK;
2130 marked = TRUE;
2131 }
2132 else if (!marked) {
2133 /* don't check RH element if no SVf_BREAK flags set yet */
2134 if (!lcount)
2135 break;
2136 continue;
2137 }
2138 }
2139
2140 /* see if corresponding RH element needs copying */
2141
2142 assert(marked);
2143 svr = *relem;
2144 assert(svr);
2145
5c1db569 2146 if (UNLIKELY(SvFLAGS(svr) & (SVf_BREAK|SVs_GMG) || copy_all)) {
1050723f 2147 U32 brk = (SvFLAGS(svr) & SVf_BREAK);
a5f48505 2148
ebc643ce
DM
2149#ifdef DEBUGGING
2150 if (fake) {
9ae0115f 2151 /* op_dump(PL_op); */
ebc643ce
DM
2152 Perl_croak(aTHX_
2153 "panic: aassign skipped needed copy of common RH elem %"
2154 UVuf, (UV)(relem - firstrelem));
2155 }
2156#endif
2157
a5f48505
DM
2158 TAINT_NOT; /* Each item is independent */
2159
2160 /* Dear TODO test in t/op/sort.t, I love you.
2161 (It's relying on a panic, not a "semi-panic" from newSVsv()
2162 and then an assertion failure below.) */
2163 if (UNLIKELY(SvIS_FREED(svr))) {
2164 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: attempt to copy freed scalar %p",
2165 (void*)svr);
2166 }
2167 /* avoid break flag while copying; otherwise COW etc
2168 * disabled... */
2169 SvFLAGS(svr) &= ~SVf_BREAK;
2170 /* Not newSVsv(), as it does not allow copy-on-write,
8c1e192f
DM
2171 resulting in wasteful copies.
2172 Also, we use SV_NOSTEAL in case the SV is used more than
2173 once, e.g. (...) = (f())[0,0]
2174 Where the same SV appears twice on the RHS without a ref
2175 count bump. (Although I suspect that the SV won't be
2176 stealable here anyway - DAPM).
2177 */
a5f48505
DM
2178 *relem = sv_mortalcopy_flags(svr,
2179 SV_GMAGIC|SV_DO_COW_SVSETSV|SV_NOSTEAL);
2180 /* ... but restore afterwards in case it's needed again,
2181 * e.g. ($a,$b,$c) = (1,$a,$a)
2182 */
1050723f 2183 SvFLAGS(svr) |= brk;
a5f48505
DM
2184 }
2185
2186 if (!lcount)
2187 break;
2188 }
2189
2190 if (!marked)
2191 return;
2192
2193 /*unmark LHS */
2194
2195 while (lelem > firstlelem) {
2196 SV * const svl = *(--lelem);
2197 if (svl)
2198 SvFLAGS(svl) &= ~SVf_BREAK;
2199 }
2200}
2201
2202
2203
a0d0e21e
LW
2204PP(pp_aassign)
2205{
27da23d5 2206 dVAR; dSP;
3280af22
NIS
2207 SV **lastlelem = PL_stack_sp;
2208 SV **lastrelem = PL_stack_base + POPMARK;
2209 SV **firstrelem = PL_stack_base + POPMARK + 1;
a0d0e21e
LW
2210 SV **firstlelem = lastrelem + 1;
2211
eb578fdb
KW
2212 SV **relem;
2213 SV **lelem;
1c23e2bd 2214 U8 gimme;
a68090fe
DM
2215 /* PL_delaymagic is restored by JUMPENV_POP on dieing, so we
2216 * only need to save locally, not on the save stack */
2217 U16 old_delaymagic = PL_delaymagic;
ebc643ce
DM
2218#ifdef DEBUGGING
2219 bool fake = 0;
2220#endif
5637b936 2221
3280af22 2222 PL_delaymagic = DM_DELAY; /* catch simultaneous items */
a0d0e21e
LW
2223
2224 /* If there's a common identifier on both sides we have to take
2225 * special care that assigning the identifier on the left doesn't
2226 * clobber a value on the right that's used later in the list.
2227 */
acdea6f0 2228
beb08a1e
TC
2229 /* at least 2 LH and RH elements, or commonality isn't an issue */
2230 if (firstlelem < lastlelem && firstrelem < lastrelem) {
5c1db569
TC
2231 for (relem = firstrelem+1; relem <= lastrelem; relem++) {
2232 if (SvGMAGICAL(*relem))
2233 goto do_scan;
2234 }
beb08a1e
TC
2235 for (lelem = firstlelem; lelem <= lastlelem; lelem++) {
2236 if (*lelem && SvSMAGICAL(*lelem))
2237 goto do_scan;
a5f48505 2238 }
beb08a1e
TC
2239 if ( PL_op->op_private & (OPpASSIGN_COMMON_SCALAR|OPpASSIGN_COMMON_RC1) ) {
2240 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpASSIGN_COMMON_RC1) {
2241 /* skip the scan if all scalars have a ref count of 1 */
2242 for (lelem = firstlelem; lelem <= lastlelem; lelem++) {
8b0c3377 2243 SV *sv = *lelem;
beb08a1e
TC
2244 if (!sv || SvREFCNT(sv) == 1)
2245 continue;
2246 if (SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVAV && SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVAV)
2247 goto do_scan;
2248 break;
2249 }
2250 }
2251 else {
2252 do_scan:
2253 S_aassign_copy_common(aTHX_
2254 firstlelem, lastlelem, firstrelem, lastrelem
ebc643ce 2255#ifdef DEBUGGING
beb08a1e 2256 , fake
ebc643ce 2257#endif
beb08a1e
TC
2258 );
2259 }
a5f48505 2260 }
a0d0e21e 2261 }
ebc643ce
DM
2262#ifdef DEBUGGING
2263 else {
2264 /* on debugging builds, do the scan even if we've concluded we
2265 * don't need to, then panic if we find commonality. Note that the
2266 * scanner assumes at least 2 elements */
2267 if (firstlelem < lastlelem && firstrelem < lastrelem) {
2268 fake = 1;
2269 goto do_scan;
2270 }
2271 }
2272#endif
a0d0e21e 2273
a5f48505 2274 gimme = GIMME_V;
a0d0e21e
LW
2275 relem = firstrelem;
2276 lelem = firstlelem;
10c8fecd 2277
8b0c3377
DM
2278 if (relem > lastrelem)
2279 goto no_relems;
2280
2281 /* first lelem loop while there are still relems */
5d9574c1 2282 while (LIKELY(lelem <= lastlelem)) {
bdaf10a5 2283 bool alias = FALSE;
8b0c3377
DM
2284 SV *lsv = *lelem++;
2285
c73f612f
DM
2286 TAINT_NOT; /* Each item stands on its own, taintwise. */
2287
8b0c3377
DM
2288 assert(relem <= lastrelem);
2289 if (UNLIKELY(!lsv)) {
bdaf10a5 2290 alias = TRUE;
8b0c3377
DM
2291 lsv = *lelem++;
2292 ASSUME(SvTYPE(lsv) == SVt_PVAV);
bdaf10a5 2293 }
a5f48505 2294
8b0c3377
DM
2295 switch (SvTYPE(lsv)) {
2296 case SVt_PVAV: {
2297 SV **svp;
2298 SSize_t i;
2299 SSize_t tmps_base;
2300 SSize_t nelems = lastrelem - relem + 1;
b09ed995 2301 AV *ary = MUTABLE_AV(lsv);
8b0c3377
DM
2302
2303 /* Assigning to an aggregate is tricky. First there is the
2304 * issue of commonality, e.g. @a = ($a[0]). Since the
2305 * stack isn't refcounted, clearing @a prior to storing
2306 * elements will free $a[0]. Similarly with
2307 * sub FETCH { $status[$_[1]] } @status = @tied[0,1];
2308 *
2309 * The way to avoid these issues is to make the copy of each
2310 * SV (and we normally store a *copy* in the array) *before*
2311 * clearing the array. But this has a problem in that
2312 * if the code croaks during copying, the not-yet-stored copies
2313 * could leak. One way to avoid this is to make all the copies
2314 * mortal, but that's quite expensive.
2315 *
2316 * The current solution to these issues is to use a chunk
2317 * of the tmps stack as a temporary refcounted-stack. SVs
2318 * will be put on there during processing to avoid leaks,
2319 * but will be removed again before the end of this block,
2320 * so free_tmps() is never normally called. Also, the
2321 * sv_refcnt of the SVs doesn't have to be manipulated, since
2322 * the ownership of 1 reference count is transferred directly
2323 * from the tmps stack to the AV when the SV is stored.
2324 *
2325 * We disarm slots in the temps stack by storing PL_sv_undef
2326 * there: it doesn't matter if that SV's refcount is
2327 * repeatedly decremented during a croak. But usually this is
2328 * only an interim measure. By the end of this code block
2329 * we try where possible to not leave any PL_sv_undef's on the
2330 * tmps stack e.g. by shuffling newer entries down.
2331 *
2332 * There is one case where we don't copy: non-magical
2333 * SvTEMP(sv)'s with a ref count of 1. The only owner of these
2334 * is on the tmps stack, so its safe to directly steal the SV
2335 * rather than copying. This is common in things like function
2336 * returns, map etc, which all return a list of such SVs.
2337 *
2338 * Note however something like @a = (f())[0,0], where there is
2339 * a danger of the same SV being shared: this avoided because
2340 * when the SV is stored as $a[0], its ref count gets bumped,
2341 * so the RC==1 test fails and the second element is copied
2342 * instead.
2343 *
2344 * We also use one slot in the tmps stack to hold an extra
2345 * ref to the array, to ensure it doesn't get prematurely
2346 * freed. Again, this is removed before the end of this block.
2347 *
2348 * Note that OPpASSIGN_COMMON_AGG is used to flag a possible
2349 * @a = ($a[0]) case, but the current implementation uses the
2350 * same algorithm regardless, so ignores that flag. (It *is*
2351 * used in the hash branch below, however).
2352 */
2353
2354 /* Reserve slots for ary, plus the elems we're about to copy,
2355 * then protect ary and temporarily void the remaining slots
2356 * with &PL_sv_undef */
2357 EXTEND_MORTAL(nelems + 1);
2358 PL_tmps_stack[++PL_tmps_ix] = SvREFCNT_inc_simple_NN(ary);
2359 tmps_base = PL_tmps_ix + 1;
2360 for (i = 0; i < nelems; i++)
2361 PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base + i] = &PL_sv_undef;
2362 PL_tmps_ix += nelems;
2363
2364 /* Make a copy of each RHS elem and save on the tmps_stack
2365 * (or pass through where we can optimise away the copy) */
2366
2367 if (UNLIKELY(alias)) {
2368 U32 lval = (gimme == G_ARRAY)
2369 ? (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD || LVRET) : 0;
a5f48505 2370 for (svp = relem; svp <= lastrelem; svp++) {
8b0c3377
DM
2371 SV *rsv = *svp;
2372
2373 SvGETMAGIC(rsv);
2374 if (!SvROK(rsv))
2375 DIE(aTHX_ "Assigned value is not a reference");
2376 if (SvTYPE(SvRV(rsv)) > SVt_PVLV)
2377 /* diag_listed_as: Assigned value is not %s reference */
2378 DIE(aTHX_
2379 "Assigned value is not a SCALAR reference");
2380 if (lval)
2381 *svp = rsv = sv_mortalcopy(rsv);
2382 /* XXX else check for weak refs? */
2383 rsv = SvREFCNT_inc_NN(SvRV(rsv));
2384 assert(tmps_base <= PL_tmps_max);
2385 PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base++] = rsv;
a5f48505 2386 }
a5f48505 2387 }
8b0c3377
DM
2388 else {
2389 for (svp = relem; svp <= lastrelem; svp++) {
2390 SV *rsv = *svp;
a5f48505 2391
8b0c3377
DM
2392 if (SvTEMP(rsv) && !SvGMAGICAL(rsv) && SvREFCNT(rsv) == 1) {
2393 /* can skip the copy */
2394 SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN(rsv);
2395 SvTEMP_off(rsv);
2396 }
a5f48505 2397 else {
8b0c3377
DM
2398 SV *nsv;
2399 /* do get before newSV, in case it dies and leaks */
2400 SvGETMAGIC(rsv);
2401 nsv = newSV(0);
8c1e192f
DM
2402 /* see comment in S_aassign_copy_common about
2403 * SV_NOSTEAL */
8b0c3377
DM
2404 sv_setsv_flags(nsv, rsv,
2405 (SV_DO_COW_SVSETSV|SV_NOSTEAL));
2406 rsv = *svp = nsv;
a5f48505 2407 }
8b0c3377
DM
2408
2409 assert(tmps_base <= PL_tmps_max);
2410 PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base++] = rsv;
2411 }
2412 }
2413
2414 if (SvRMAGICAL(ary) || AvFILLp(ary) >= 0) /* may be non-empty */
2415 av_clear(ary);
2416
2417 /* store in the array, the SVs that are in the tmps stack */
2418
2419 tmps_base -= nelems;
2420
80c1439f 2421 if (SvMAGICAL(ary) || SvREADONLY(ary) || !AvREAL(ary)) {
8b0c3377
DM
2422 /* for arrays we can't cheat with, use the official API */
2423 av_extend(ary, nelems - 1);
2424 for (i = 0; i < nelems; i++) {
2425 SV **svp = &(PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base + i]);
2426 SV *rsv = *svp;
2427 /* A tied store won't take ownership of rsv, so keep
2428 * the 1 refcnt on the tmps stack; otherwise disarm
2429 * the tmps stack entry */
2430 if (av_store(ary, i, rsv))
2431 *svp = &PL_sv_undef;
2432 /* av_store() may have added set magic to rsv */;
2433 SvSETMAGIC(rsv);
2434 }
2435 /* disarm ary refcount: see comments below about leak */
2436 PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base - 1] = &PL_sv_undef;
2437 }
2438 else {
2439 /* directly access/set the guts of the AV */
2440 SSize_t fill = nelems - 1;
2441 if (fill > AvMAX(ary))
2442 av_extend_guts(ary, fill, &AvMAX(ary), &AvALLOC(ary),
2443 &AvARRAY(ary));
2444 AvFILLp(ary) = fill;
2445 Copy(&(PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base]), AvARRAY(ary), nelems, SV*);
2446 /* Quietly remove all the SVs from the tmps stack slots,
2447 * since ary has now taken ownership of the refcnt.
2448 * Also remove ary: which will now leak if we die before
2449 * the SvREFCNT_dec_NN(ary) below */
2450 if (UNLIKELY(PL_tmps_ix >= tmps_base + nelems))
2451 Move(&PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base + nelems],
2452 &PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base - 1],
2453 PL_tmps_ix - (tmps_base + nelems) + 1,
2454 SV*);
2455 PL_tmps_ix -= (nelems + 1);
2456 }
2457
5d9574c1 2458 if (UNLIKELY(PL_delaymagic & DM_ARRAY_ISA))
8b0c3377 2459 /* its assumed @ISA set magic can't die and leak ary */
ad64d0ec 2460 SvSETMAGIC(MUTABLE_SV(ary));
8b0c3377
DM
2461 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(ary);
2462
2463 relem = lastrelem + 1;
2464 goto no_relems;
a5f48505
DM
2465 }
2466
10c8fecd 2467 case SVt_PVHV: { /* normal hash */
8b0c3377
DM
2468
2469 SV **svp;
2470 bool dirty_tmps;
2471 SSize_t i;
2472 SSize_t tmps_base;
2473 SSize_t nelems = lastrelem - relem + 1;
b09ed995 2474 HV *hash = MUTABLE_HV(lsv);
8b0c3377
DM
2475
2476 if (UNLIKELY(nelems & 1)) {
2477 do_oddball(lastrelem, relem);
2478 /* we have firstlelem to reuse, it's not needed any more */
2479 *++lastrelem = &PL_sv_undef;
2480 nelems++;
2481 }
2482
2483 /* See the SVt_PVAV branch above for a long description of
2484 * how the following all works. The main difference for hashes
2485 * is that we treat keys and values separately (and have
2486 * separate loops for them): as for arrays, values are always
2487 * copied (except for the SvTEMP optimisation), since they
2488 * need to be stored in the hash; while keys are only
2489 * processed where they might get prematurely freed or
2490 * whatever. */
2491
2492 /* tmps stack slots:
2493 * * reserve a slot for the hash keepalive;
2494 * * reserve slots for the hash values we're about to copy;
2495 * * preallocate for the keys we'll possibly copy or refcount bump
2496 * later;
2497 * then protect hash and temporarily void the remaining
2498 * value slots with &PL_sv_undef */
2499 EXTEND_MORTAL(nelems + 1);
2500
2501 /* convert to number of key/value pairs */
2502 nelems >>= 1;
2503
2504 PL_tmps_stack[++PL_tmps_ix] = SvREFCNT_inc_simple_NN(hash);
2505 tmps_base = PL_tmps_ix + 1;
2506 for (i = 0; i < nelems; i++)
2507 PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base + i] = &PL_sv_undef;
2508 PL_tmps_ix += nelems;
2509
2510 /* Make a copy of each RHS hash value and save on the tmps_stack
2511 * (or pass through where we can optimise away the copy) */
2512
2513 for (svp = relem + 1; svp <= lastrelem; svp += 2) {
2514 SV *rsv = *svp;
2515
2516 if (SvTEMP(rsv) && !SvGMAGICAL(rsv) && SvREFCNT(rsv) == 1) {
2517 /* can skip the copy */
2518 SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN(rsv);
2519 SvTEMP_off(rsv);
2520 }
2521 else {
2522 SV *nsv;
2523 /* do get before newSV, in case it dies and leaks */
2524 SvGETMAGIC(rsv);
2525 nsv = newSV(0);
2526 /* see comment in S_aassign_copy_common about
2527 * SV_NOSTEAL */
2528 sv_setsv_flags(nsv, rsv,
2529 (SV_DO_COW_SVSETSV|SV_NOSTEAL));
2530 rsv = *svp = nsv;
1c4ea384
RZ
2531 }
2532
8b0c3377
DM
2533 assert(tmps_base <= PL_tmps_max);
2534 PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base++] = rsv;
2535 }
2536 tmps_base -= nelems;
a5f48505 2537
a5f48505 2538
8b0c3377
DM
2539 /* possibly protect keys */
2540
2541 if (UNLIKELY(gimme == G_ARRAY)) {
2542 /* handle e.g.
2543 * @a = ((%h = ($$r, 1)), $r = "x");
2544 * $_++ for %h = (1,2,3,4);
2545 */
2546 EXTEND_MORTAL(nelems);
2547 for (svp = relem; svp <= lastrelem; svp += 2)
2548 *svp = sv_mortalcopy_flags(*svp,
2549 SV_GMAGIC|SV_DO_COW_SVSETSV|SV_NOSTEAL);
2550 }
2551 else if (PL_op->op_private & OPpASSIGN_COMMON_AGG) {
2552 /* for possible commonality, e.g.
2553 * %h = ($h{a},1)
2554 * avoid premature freeing RHS keys by mortalising
2555 * them.
2556 * For a magic element, make a copy so that its magic is
2557 * called *before* the hash is emptied (which may affect
2558 * a tied value for example).
2559 * In theory we should check for magic keys in all
2560 * cases, not just under OPpASSIGN_COMMON_AGG, but in
2561 * practice, !OPpASSIGN_COMMON_AGG implies only
2562 * constants or padtmps on the RHS.
2563 */
2564 EXTEND_MORTAL(nelems);
2565 for (svp = relem; svp <= lastrelem; svp += 2) {
2566 SV *rsv = *svp;
2567 if (UNLIKELY(SvGMAGICAL(rsv))) {
2568 SSize_t n;
a5f48505
DM
2569 *svp = sv_mortalcopy_flags(*svp,
2570 SV_GMAGIC|SV_DO_COW_SVSETSV|SV_NOSTEAL);
8b0c3377
DM
2571 /* allow other branch to continue pushing
2572 * onto tmps stack without checking each time */
2573 n = (lastrelem - relem) >> 1;
2574 EXTEND_MORTAL(n);
a5f48505 2575 }
8b0c3377
DM
2576 else
2577 PL_tmps_stack[++PL_tmps_ix] =
2578 SvREFCNT_inc_simple_NN(rsv);
a5f48505 2579 }
8b0c3377 2580 }
a5f48505 2581
8b0c3377
DM
2582 if (SvRMAGICAL(hash) || HvUSEDKEYS(hash))
2583 hv_clear(hash);
a5f48505 2584
8b0c3377
DM
2585 /* now assign the keys and values to the hash */
2586
2587 dirty_tmps = FALSE;
2588
2589 if (UNLIKELY(gimme == G_ARRAY)) {
2590 /* @a = (%h = (...)) etc */
2591 SV **svp;
2592 SV **topelem = relem;
2593
2594 for (i = 0, svp = relem; svp <= lastrelem; i++, svp++) {
2595 SV *key = *svp++;
2596 SV *val = *svp;
2597 /* remove duplicates from list we return */
2598 if (!hv_exists_ent(hash, key, 0)) {
2599 /* copy key back: possibly to an earlier
2600 * stack location if we encountered dups earlier,
2601 * The values will be updated later
2602 */
2603 *topelem = key;
2604 topelem += 2;
632b9d6f 2605 }
8b0c3377
DM
2606 /* A tied store won't take ownership of val, so keep
2607 * the 1 refcnt on the tmps stack; otherwise disarm
2608 * the tmps stack entry */
2609 if (hv_store_ent(hash, key, val, 0))
2610 PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base + i] = &PL_sv_undef;
2611 else
2612 dirty_tmps = TRUE;
2613 /* hv_store_ent() may have added set magic to val */;
2614 SvSETMAGIC(val);
2615 }
2616 if (topelem < svp) {
1c4ea384
RZ
2617 /* at this point we have removed the duplicate key/value
2618 * pairs from the stack, but the remaining values may be
2619 * wrong; i.e. with (a 1 a 2 b 3) on the stack we've removed
2620 * the (a 2), but the stack now probably contains
2621 * (a <freed> b 3), because { hv_save(a,1); hv_save(a,2) }
2622 * obliterates the earlier key. So refresh all values. */
8b0c3377
DM
2623 lastrelem = topelem - 1;
2624 while (relem < lastrelem) {
1c4ea384
RZ
2625 HE *he;
2626 he = hv_fetch_ent(hash, *relem++, 0, 0);
2627 *relem++ = (he ? HeVAL(he) : &PL_sv_undef);
2628 }
2629 }
8b0c3377
DM
2630 }
2631 else {
2632 SV **svp;
2633 for (i = 0, svp = relem; svp <= lastrelem; i++, svp++) {
2634 SV *key = *svp++;
2635 SV *val = *svp;
2636 if (hv_store_ent(hash, key, val, 0))
2637 PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base + i] = &PL_sv_undef;
2638 else
2639 dirty_tmps = TRUE;
2640 /* hv_store_ent() may have added set magic to val */;
2641 SvSETMAGIC(val);
2642 }
2643 }
2644
2645 if (dirty_tmps) {
2646 /* there are still some 'live' recounts on the tmps stack
2647 * - usually caused by storing into a tied hash. So let
2648 * free_tmps() do the proper but slow job later.
2649 * Just disarm hash refcount: see comments below about leak
2650 */
2651 PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base - 1] = &PL_sv_undef;
2652 }
2653 else {
2654 /* Quietly remove all the SVs from the tmps stack slots,
2655 * since hash has now taken ownership of the refcnt.
2656 * Also remove hash: which will now leak if we die before
2657 * the SvREFCNT_dec_NN(hash) below */
2658 if (UNLIKELY(PL_tmps_ix >= tmps_base + nelems))
2659 Move(&PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base + nelems],
2660 &PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base - 1],
2661 PL_tmps_ix - (tmps_base + nelems) + 1,
2662 SV*);
2663 PL_tmps_ix -= (nelems + 1);
2664 }
2665
2666 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(hash);
2667
2668 relem = lastrelem + 1;
2669 goto no_relems;
2670 }
2671
a0d0e21e 2672 default:
8b0c3377 2673 if (!SvIMMORTAL(lsv)) {
d24e3eb1
DM
2674 SV *ref;
2675
8b0c3377
DM
2676 if (UNLIKELY(
2677 SvTEMP(lsv) && !SvSMAGICAL(lsv) && SvREFCNT(lsv) == 1 &&
2678 (!isGV_with_GP(lsv) || SvFAKE(lsv)) && ckWARN(WARN_MISC)
2679 ))
2680 Perl_warner(aTHX_
2681 packWARN(WARN_MISC),
2682 "Useless assignment to a temporary"
2683 );
d24e3eb1
DM
2684
2685 /* avoid freeing $$lsv if it might be needed for further
2686 * elements, e.g. ($ref, $foo) = (1, $$ref) */
2687 if ( SvROK(lsv)
2688 && ( ((ref = SvRV(lsv)), SvREFCNT(ref)) == 1)
2689 && lelem <= lastlelem
2690 ) {
2691 SSize_t ix;
2692 SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN(ref);
2693 /* an unrolled sv_2mortal */
2694 ix = ++PL_tmps_ix;
2695 if (UNLIKELY(ix >= PL_tmps_max))
2696 /* speculatively grow enough to cover other
2697 * possible refs */
67c3640a 2698 (void)tmps_grow_p(ix + (lastlelem - lelem));
d24e3eb1
DM
2699 PL_tmps_stack[ix] = ref;
2700 }
2701
8b0c3377
DM
2702 sv_setsv(lsv, *relem);
2703 *relem = lsv;
2704 SvSETMAGIC(lsv);
2705 }
2706 if (++relem > lastrelem)
2707 goto no_relems;
a0d0e21e 2708 break;
8b0c3377
DM
2709 } /* switch */
2710 } /* while */
2711
2712
2713 no_relems:
2714
2715 /* simplified lelem loop for when there are no relems left */
2716 while (LIKELY(lelem <= lastlelem)) {
2717 SV *lsv = *lelem++;
c73f612f
DM
2718
2719 TAINT_NOT; /* Each item stands on its own, taintwise. */
2720
8b0c3377
DM
2721 if (UNLIKELY(!lsv)) {
2722 lsv = *lelem++;
2723 ASSUME(SvTYPE(lsv) == SVt_PVAV);
a0d0e21e 2724 }
8b0c3377
DM
2725
2726 switch (SvTYPE(lsv)) {
2727 case SVt_PVAV:
b09ed995
DM
2728 if (SvRMAGICAL(lsv) || AvFILLp((SV*)lsv) >= 0) {
2729 av_clear((AV*)lsv);
8b0c3377 2730 if (UNLIKELY(PL_delaymagic & DM_ARRAY_ISA))
b09ed995 2731 SvSETMAGIC(lsv);
8b0c3377
DM
2732 }
2733 break;
2734
2735 case SVt_PVHV:
b09ed995
DM
2736 if (SvRMAGICAL(lsv) || HvUSEDKEYS((HV*)lsv))
2737 hv_clear((HV*)lsv);
8b0c3377
DM
2738 break;
2739
2740 default:
2741 if (!SvIMMORTAL(lsv)) {
e03e82a0 2742 sv_set_undef(lsv);
8b0c3377 2743 SvSETMAGIC(lsv);
b09ed995 2744 *relem++ = lsv;
8b0c3377
DM
2745 }
2746 break;
2747 } /* switch */
2748 } /* while */
2749
c73f612f
DM
2750 TAINT_NOT; /* result of list assign isn't tainted */
2751
5d9574c1 2752 if (UNLIKELY(PL_delaymagic & ~DM_DELAY)) {
985213f2 2753 /* Will be used to set PL_tainting below */
dfff4baf
BF
2754 Uid_t tmp_uid = PerlProc_getuid();
2755 Uid_t tmp_euid = PerlProc_geteuid();
2756 Gid_t tmp_gid = PerlProc_getgid();
2757 Gid_t tmp_egid = PerlProc_getegid();
985213f2 2758
b469f1e0 2759 /* XXX $> et al currently silently ignore failures */
3280af22 2760 if (PL_delaymagic & DM_UID) {
a0d0e21e 2761#ifdef HAS_SETRESUID
b469f1e0
JH
2762 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(
2763 setresuid((PL_delaymagic & DM_RUID) ? PL_delaymagic_uid : (Uid_t)-1,
2764 (PL_delaymagic & DM_EUID) ? PL_delaymagic_euid : (Uid_t)-1,
2765 (Uid_t)-1));
d1a21e44 2766#elif defined(HAS_SETREUID)
b469f1e0
JH
2767 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(
2768 setreuid((PL_delaymagic & DM_RUID) ? PL_delaymagic_uid : (Uid_t)-1,
2769 (PL_delaymagic & DM_EUID) ? PL_delaymagic_euid : (Uid_t)-1));
d1a21e44 2770#else
56febc5e 2771# ifdef HAS_SETRUID
b28d0864 2772 if ((PL_delaymagic & DM_UID) == DM_RUID) {
b469f1e0 2773 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(setruid(PL_delaymagic_uid));
b28d0864 2774 PL_delaymagic &= ~DM_RUID;
a0d0e21e 2775 }
56febc5e
AD
2776# endif /* HAS_SETRUID */
2777# ifdef HAS_SETEUID
b28d0864 2778 if ((PL_delaymagic & DM_UID) == DM_EUID) {
b469f1e0 2779 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(seteuid(PL_delaymagic_euid));
b28d0864 2780 PL_delaymagic &= ~DM_EUID;
a0d0e21e 2781 }
56febc5e 2782# endif /* HAS_SETEUID */
b28d0864 2783 if (PL_delaymagic & DM_UID) {
985213f2 2784 if (PL_delaymagic_uid != PL_delaymagic_euid)
cea2e8a9 2785 DIE(aTHX_ "No setreuid available");
b469f1e0 2786 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(PerlProc_setuid(PL_delaymagic_uid));
a0d0e21e 2787 }
56febc5e 2788#endif /* HAS_SETRESUID */
04783dc7 2789
985213f2
AB
2790 tmp_uid = PerlProc_getuid();
2791 tmp_euid = PerlProc_geteuid();
a0d0e21e 2792 }
b469f1e0 2793 /* XXX $> et al currently silently ignore failures */
3280af22 2794 if (PL_delaymagic & DM_GID) {
a0d0e21e 2795#ifdef HAS_SETRESGID
b469f1e0
JH
2796 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(
2797 setresgid((PL_delaymagic & DM_RGID) ? PL_delaymagic_gid : (Gid_t)-1,
2798 (PL_delaymagic & DM_EGID) ? PL_delaymagic_egid : (Gid_t)-1,
2799 (Gid_t)-1));
d1a21e44 2800#elif defined(HAS_SETREGID)
b469f1e0
JH
2801 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(
2802 setregid((PL_delaymagic & DM_RGID) ? PL_delaymagic_gid : (Gid_t)-1,
2803 (PL_delaymagic & DM_EGID) ? PL_delaymagic_egid : (Gid_t)-1));
d1a21e44 2804#else
56febc5e 2805# ifdef HAS_SETRGID
b28d0864 2806 if ((PL_delaymagic & DM_GID) == DM_RGID) {
b469f1e0 2807 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(setrgid(PL_delaymagic_gid));
b28d0864 2808 PL_delaymagic &= ~DM_RGID;
a0d0e21e 2809 }
56febc5e
AD
2810# endif /* HAS_SETRGID */
2811# ifdef HAS_SETEGID
b28d0864 2812 if ((PL_delaymagic & DM_GID) == DM_EGID) {
b469f1e0 2813 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(setegid(PL_delaymagic_egid));
b28d0864 2814 PL_delaymagic &= ~DM_EGID;
a0d0e21e 2815 }
56febc5e 2816# endif /* HAS_SETEGID */
b28d0864 2817 if (PL_delaymagic & DM_GID) {
985213f2 2818 if (PL_delaymagic_gid != PL_delaymagic_egid)
cea2e8a9 2819 DIE(aTHX_ "No setregid available");
b469f1e0 2820 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(PerlProc_setgid(PL_delaymagic_gid));
a0d0e21e 2821 }
56febc5e 2822#endif /* HAS_SETRESGID */
04783dc7 2823
985213f2
AB
2824 tmp_gid = PerlProc_getgid();
2825 tmp_egid = PerlProc_getegid();
a0d0e21e 2826 }
284167a5 2827 TAINTING_set( TAINTING_get | (tmp_uid && (tmp_euid != tmp_uid || tmp_egid != tmp_gid)) );
9a9b5ec9
DM
2828#ifdef NO_TAINT_SUPPORT
2829 PERL_UNUSED_VAR(tmp_uid);
2830 PERL_UNUSED_VAR(tmp_euid);
2831 PERL_UNUSED_VAR(tmp_gid);
2832 PERL_UNUSED_VAR(tmp_egid);
2833#endif
a0d0e21e 2834 }
a68090fe 2835 PL_delaymagic = old_delaymagic;
54310121 2836
54310121
PP
2837 if (gimme == G_VOID)
2838 SP = firstrelem - 1;
2839 else if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
54310121 2840 SP = firstrelem;
b09ed995 2841 EXTEND(SP,1);
7b394f12
DM
2842 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpASSIGN_TRUEBOOL)
2843 SETs((firstlelem - firstrelem) ? &PL_sv_yes : &PL_sv_zero);
2844 else {
2845 dTARGET;
2846 SETi(firstlelem - firstrelem);
2847 }
54310121 2848 }
b09ed995
DM
2849 else
2850 SP = relem - 1;
08aeb9f7 2851
54310121 2852 RETURN;
a0d0e21e
LW
2853}
2854
8782bef2
GB
2855PP(pp_qr)
2856{
20b7effb 2857 dSP;
eb578fdb 2858 PMOP * const pm = cPMOP;
fe578d7f 2859 REGEXP * rx = PM_GETRE(pm);
196a02af
DM
2860 regexp *prog = ReANY(rx);
2861 SV * const pkg = RXp_ENGINE(prog)->qr_package(aTHX_ (rx));
c4420975 2862 SV * const rv = sv_newmortal();
d63c20f2
DM
2863 CV **cvp;
2864 CV *cv;
288b8c02
NC
2865
2866 SvUPGRADE(rv, SVt_IV);
c2123ae3
NC
2867 /* For a subroutine describing itself as "This is a hacky workaround" I'm
2868 loathe to use it here, but it seems to be the right fix. Or close.
2869 The key part appears to be that it's essential for pp_qr to return a new
2870 object (SV), which implies that there needs to be an effective way to
2871 generate a new SV from the existing SV that is pre-compiled in the
2872 optree. */
2873 SvRV_set(rv, MUTABLE_SV(reg_temp_copy(NULL, rx)));
288b8c02
NC
2874 SvROK_on(rv);
2875
8d919b0a 2876 cvp = &( ReANY((REGEXP *)SvRV(rv))->qr_anoncv);
5d9574c1 2877 if (UNLIKELY((cv = *cvp) && CvCLONE(*cvp))) {
d63c20f2 2878 *cvp = cv_clone(cv);
fc2b2dca 2879 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(cv);
d63c20f2
DM
2880 }
2881
288b8c02 2882 if (pkg) {
f815daf2 2883 HV *const stash = gv_stashsv(pkg, GV_ADD);
fc2b2dca 2884 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(pkg);
288b8c02
NC
2885 (void)sv_bless(rv, stash);
2886 }
2887
196a02af 2888 if (UNLIKELY(RXp_ISTAINTED(prog))) {
e08e52cf 2889 SvTAINTED_on(rv);
9274aefd
DM
2890 SvTAINTED_on(SvRV(rv));
2891 }
c8c13c22 2892 XPUSHs(rv);
2893 RETURN;
8782bef2
GB
2894}
2895
a0d0e21e
LW
2896PP(pp_match)
2897{
20b7effb 2898 dSP; dTARG;
eb578fdb 2899 PMOP *pm = cPMOP;
d65afb4b 2900 PMOP *dynpm = pm;
eb578fdb 2901 const char *s;
5c144d81 2902 const char *strend;
99a90e59 2903 SSize_t curpos = 0; /* initial pos() or current $+[0] */
a0d0e21e 2904 I32 global;
7fadf4a7 2905 U8 r_flags = 0;
5c144d81 2906 const char *truebase; /* Start of string */
eb578fdb 2907 REGEXP *rx = PM_GETRE(pm);
196a02af 2908 regexp *prog = ReANY(rx);
b3eb6a9b 2909 bool rxtainted;
1c23e2bd 2910 const U8 gimme = GIMME_V;
a0d0e21e 2911 STRLEN len;
a3b680e6 2912 const I32 oldsave = PL_savestack_ix;
e60df1fa 2913 I32 had_zerolen = 0;
b1422d62 2914 MAGIC *mg = NULL;
a0d0e21e 2915
533c011a 2916 if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_STACKED)
a0d0e21e
LW
2917 TARG = POPs;
2918 else {
9399c607
DM
2919 if (ARGTARG)
2920 GETTARGET;
2921 else {
2922 TARG = DEFSV;
2923 }
a0d0e21e
LW
2924 EXTEND(SP,1);
2925 }
d9f424b2 2926
c277df42 2927 PUTBACK; /* EVAL blocks need stack_sp. */
69dc4b30
FC
2928 /* Skip get-magic if this is a qr// clone, because regcomp has
2929 already done it. */
196a02af 2930 truebase = prog->mother_re
69dc4b30
FC
2931 ? SvPV_nomg_const(TARG, len)
2932 : SvPV_const(TARG, len);
f1d31338 2933 if (!truebase)
2269b42e 2934 DIE(aTHX_ "panic: pp_match");
f1d31338 2935 strend = truebase + len;
196a02af 2936 rxtainted = (RXp_ISTAINTED(prog) ||
284167a5 2937 (TAINT_get && (pm->op_pmflags & PMf_RETAINT)));
9212bbba 2938 TAINT_NOT;
a0d0e21e 2939
6c864ec2 2940 /* We need to know this in case we fail out early - pos() must be reset */
de0df3c0
MH
2941 global = dynpm->op_pmflags & PMf_GLOBAL;
2942
d65afb4b 2943 /* PMdf_USED is set after a ?? matches once */
c737faaf
YO
2944 if (
2945#ifdef USE_ITHREADS
2946 SvREADONLY(PL_regex_pad[pm->op_pmoffset])
2947#else
2948 pm->op_pmflags & PMf_USED
2949#endif
2950 ) {
e5dc5375 2951 DEBUG_r(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "?? already matched once"));
de0df3c0 2952 goto nope;
a0d0e21e
LW
2953 }
2954
5585e758 2955 /* handle the empty pattern */
196a02af 2956 if (!RX_PRELEN(rx) && PL_curpm && !prog->mother_re) {
5585e758
YO
2957 if (PL_curpm == PL_reg_curpm) {
2958 if (PL_curpm_under) {
2959 if (PL_curpm_under == PL_reg_curpm) {
2960 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Infinite recursion via empty pattern");
2961 } else {
2962 pm = PL_curpm_under;
2963 }
2964 }
2965 } else {
2966 pm = PL_curpm;
2967 }
2968 rx = PM_GETRE(pm);
196a02af 2969 prog = ReANY(rx);
a0d0e21e 2970 }
d65afb4b 2971
196a02af 2972 if (RXp_MINLEN(prog) >= 0 && (STRLEN)RXp_MINLEN(prog) > len) {
75d43e96 2973 DEBUG_r(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "String shorter than min possible regex match (%"
147e3846 2974 UVuf " < %" IVdf ")\n",
196a02af 2975 (UV)len, (IV)RXp_MINLEN(prog)));
de0df3c0 2976 goto nope;
e5dc5375 2977 }
c277df42 2978
8ef97b0e 2979 /* get pos() if //g */
de0df3c0 2980 if (global) {
b1422d62 2981 mg = mg_find_mglob(TARG);
8ef97b0e 2982 if (mg && mg->mg_len >= 0) {
25fdce4a 2983 curpos = MgBYTEPOS(mg, TARG, truebase, len);
8ef97b0e
DM
2984 /* last time pos() was set, it was zero-length match */
2985 if (mg->mg_flags & MGf_MINMATCH)
2986 had_zerolen = 1;
2987 }
a0d0e21e 2988 }
8ef97b0e 2989
6e240d0b 2990#ifdef PERL_SAWAMPERSAND
196a02af 2991 if ( RXp_NPARENS(prog)
6502e081 2992 || PL_sawampersand
196a02af 2993 || (RXp_EXTFLAGS(prog) & (RXf_EVAL_SEEN|RXf_PMf_KEEPCOPY))
5b0e71e9 2994 || (dynpm->op_pmflags & PMf_KEEPCOPY)
6e240d0b
FC
2995 )
2996#endif
2997 {
6502e081
DM
2998 r_flags |= (REXEC_COPY_STR|REXEC_COPY_SKIP_PRE);
2999 /* in @a =~ /(.)/g, we iterate multiple times, but copy the buffer
3000 * only on the first iteration. Therefore we need to copy $' as well
3001 * as $&, to make the rest of the string available for captures in
3002 * subsequent iterations */
3003 if (! (global && gimme == G_ARRAY))
3004 r_flags |= REXEC_COPY_SKIP_POST;
3005 };
5b0e71e9
DM
3006#ifdef PERL_SAWAMPERSAND
3007 if (dynpm->op_pmflags & PMf_KEEPCOPY)
3008 /* handle KEEPCOPY in pmop but not rx, eg $r=qr/a/; /$r/p */
3009 r_flags &= ~(REXEC_COPY_SKIP_PRE|REXEC_COPY_SKIP_POST);
3010#endif
22e551b9 3011
f1d31338
DM
3012 s = truebase;
3013
d7be1480 3014 play_it_again:
985afbc1 3015 if (global)
03c83e26 3016 s = truebase + curpos;
f722798b 3017
77da2310 3018 if (!CALLREGEXEC(rx, (char*)s, (char *)strend, (char*)truebase,
03c83e26 3019 had_zerolen, TARG, NULL, r_flags))
03b6c93d 3020 goto nope;
77da2310
NC
3021
3022 PL_curpm = pm;
985afbc1 3023 if (dynpm->op_pmflags & PMf_ONCE)
c737faaf 3024#ifdef USE_ITHREADS
77da2310 3025 SvREADONLY_on(PL_regex_pad[dynpm->op_pmoffset]);
c737faaf 3026#else
77da2310 3027 dynpm->op_pmflags |= PMf_USED;
c737faaf 3028#endif
a0d0e21e 3029
72311751 3030 if (rxtainted)
196a02af
DM
3031 RXp_MATCH_TAINTED_on(prog);
3032 TAINT_IF(RXp_MATCH_TAINTED(prog));
35c2ccc3
DM
3033
3034 /* update pos */
3035
3036 if (global && (gimme != G_ARRAY || (dynpm->op_pmflags & PMf_CONTINUE))) {
b1422d62 3037 if (!mg)
35c2ccc3 3038 mg = sv_magicext_mglob(TARG);
196a02af
DM
3039 MgBYTEPOS_set(mg, TARG, truebase, RXp_OFFS(prog)[0].end);
3040 if (RXp_ZERO_LEN(prog))
adf51885
DM
3041 mg->mg_flags |= MGf_MINMATCH;
3042 else
3043 mg->mg_flags &= ~MGf_MINMATCH;
35c2ccc3
DM
3044 }
3045
196a02af 3046 if ((!RXp_NPARENS(prog) && !global) || gimme != G_ARRAY) {
bf9dff51
DM
3047 LEAVE_SCOPE(oldsave);
3048 RETPUSHYES;
3049 }
3050
88ab22af
DM
3051 /* push captures on stack */
3052
bf9dff51 3053 {
196a02af 3054 const I32 nparens = RXp_NPARENS(prog);
a3b680e6 3055 I32 i = (global && !nparens) ? 1 : 0;
a0d0e21e 3056
c277df42 3057 SPAGAIN; /* EVAL blocks could move the stack. */
ffc61ed2
JH
3058 EXTEND(SP, nparens + i);
3059 EXTEND_MORTAL(nparens + i);
3060 for (i = !i; i <= nparens; i++) {
a0d0e21e 3061 PUSHs(sv_newmortal());
196a02af
DM
3062 if (LIKELY((RXp_OFFS(prog)[i].start != -1)
3063 && RXp_OFFS(prog)[i].end != -1 ))
5d9574c1 3064 {
196a02af
DM
3065 const I32 len = RXp_OFFS(prog)[i].end - RXp_OFFS(prog)[i].start;
3066 const char * const s = RXp_OFFS(prog)[i].start + truebase;
3067 if (UNLIKELY( RXp_OFFS(prog)[i].end < 0
3068 || RXp_OFFS(prog)[i].start < 0
3069 || len < 0
3070 || len > strend - s)
3071 )
5637ef5b 3072 DIE(aTHX_ "panic: pp_match start/end pointers, i=%ld, "
147e3846 3073 "start=%ld, end=%ld, s=%p, strend=%p, len=%" UVuf,
196a02af
DM
3074 (long) i, (long) RXp_OFFS(prog)[i].start,
3075 (long)RXp_OFFS(prog)[i].end, s, strend, (UV) len);
a0d0e21e 3076 sv_setpvn(*SP, s, len);
cce850e4 3077 if (DO_UTF8(TARG) && is_utf8_string((U8*)s, len))
a197cbdd 3078 SvUTF8_on(*SP);
a0d0e21e
LW
3079 }
3080 }
3081 if (global) {
196a02af
DM
3082 curpos = (UV)RXp_OFFS(prog)[0].end;
3083 had_zerolen = RXp_ZERO_LEN(prog);
c277df42 3084 PUTBACK; /* EVAL blocks may use stack */
cf93c79d 3085 r_flags |= REXEC_IGNOREPOS | REXEC_NOT_FIRST;
a0d0e21e
LW
3086 goto play_it_again;
3087 }
4633a7c4 3088 LEAVE_SCOPE(oldsave);
a0d0e21e
LW
3089 RETURN;
3090 }
e5964223 3091 NOT_REACHED; /* NOTREACHED */
a0d0e21e 3092
7b52d656 3093 nope:
d65afb4b 3094 if (global && !(dynpm->op_pmflags & PMf_CONTINUE)) {
b1422d62
DM
3095 if (!mg)
3096 mg = mg_find_mglob(TARG);
3097 if (mg)
3098 mg->mg_len = -1;
a0d0e21e 3099 }
4633a7c4 3100 LEAVE_SCOPE(oldsave);
a0d0e21e
LW
3101 if (gimme == G_ARRAY)
3102 RETURN;
3103 RETPUSHNO;
3104}
3105
3106OP *
864dbfa3 3107Perl_do_readline(pTHX)
a0d0e21e 3108{
20b7effb 3109 dSP; dTARGETSTACKED;
eb578fdb 3110 SV *sv;
a0d0e21e
LW
3111 STRLEN tmplen = 0;
3112 STRLEN offset;
760ac839 3113 PerlIO *fp;
eb578fdb
KW
3114 IO * const io = GvIO(PL_last_in_gv);
3115 const I32 type = PL_op->op_type;
1c23e2bd 3116 const U8 gimme = GIMME_V;
a0d0e21e 3117
6136c704 3118 if (io) {
50db69d8 3119 const MAGIC *const mg = SvTIED_mg((const SV *)io, PERL_MAGIC_tiedscalar);
6136c704 3120 if (mg) {
3e0cb5de 3121 Perl_tied_method(aTHX_ SV_CONST(READLINE), SP, MUTABLE_SV(io), mg, gimme, 0);
6136c704 3122 if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
50db69d8
NC
3123 SPAGAIN;
3124 SvSetSV_nosteal(TARG, TOPs);
3125 SETTARG;
6136c704 3126 }
50db69d8 3127 return NORMAL;
0b7c7b4f 3128 }
e79b0511 3129 }
4608196e 3130 fp = NULL;
a0d0e21e
LW
3131 if (io) {
3132 fp = IoIFP(io);
3133 if (!fp) {
3134 if (IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_ARGV) {
3135 if (IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_START) {
a0d0e21e 3136 IoLINES(io) = 0;
b9f2b683 3137 if (av_tindex(GvAVn(PL_last_in_gv)) < 0) {
1d7c1841 3138 IoFLAGS(io) &= ~IOf_START;
d5eb9a46 3139 do_open6(PL_last_in_gv, "-", 1, NULL, NULL, 0);
4bac9ae4 3140 SvTAINTED_off(GvSVn(PL_last_in_gv)); /* previous tainting irrelevant */
76f68e9b 3141 sv_setpvs(GvSVn(PL_last_in_gv), "-");
3280af22 3142 SvSETMAGIC(GvSV(PL_last_in_gv));
a2008d6d
GS
3143 fp = IoIFP(io);
3144 goto have_fp;
a0d0e21e
LW
3145 }
3146 }
157fb5a1 3147 fp = nextargv(PL_last_in_gv, PL_op->op_flags & OPf_SPECIAL);
a0d0e21e 3148 if (!fp) { /* Note: fp != IoIFP(io) */
3280af22 3149 (void)do_close(PL_last_in_gv, FALSE); /* now it does*/
a0d0e21e
LW
3150 }
3151 }
0d44d22b
NC
3152 else if (type == OP_GLOB)
3153 fp = Perl_start_glob(aTHX_ POPs, io);
a0d0e21e
LW
3154 }
3155 else if (type == OP_GLOB)
3156 SP--;
7716c5c5 3157 else if (IoTYPE(io) == IoTYPE_WRONLY) {
a5390457 3158 report_wrongway_fh(PL_last_in_gv, '>');
a00b5bd3 3159 }
a0d0e21e
LW
3160 }
3161 if (!fp) {
041457d9 3162 if ((!io || !(IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_START))
de7dabb6
TC
3163 && ckWARN(WARN_CLOSED)
3164 && type != OP_GLOB)
041457d9 3165 {
de7dabb6 3166 report_evil_fh(PL_last_in_gv);
3f4520fe 3167 }
54310121 3168 if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
79628082 3169 /* undef TARG, and push that undefined value */
ba92458f 3170 if (type != OP_RCATLINE) {
3773545d 3171 sv_set_undef(TARG);
ba92458f 3172 }
a0d0e21e
LW
3173 PUSHTARG;
3174 }
3175 RETURN;
3176 }
a2008d6d 3177 have_fp:
54310121 3178 if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
a0d0e21e 3179 sv = TARG;
0f722b55
RGS
3180 if (type == OP_RCATLINE && SvGMAGICAL(sv))
3181 mg_get(sv);
48de12d9
RGS
3182 if (SvROK(sv)) {
3183 if (type == OP_RCATLINE)
5668452f 3184 SvPV_force_nomg_nolen(sv);
48de12d9
RGS
3185 else
3186 sv_unref(sv);
3187 }
f7877b28 3188 else if (isGV_with_GP(sv)) {
5668452f 3189 SvPV_force_nomg_nolen(sv);
f7877b28 3190 }
862a34c6 3191 SvUPGRADE(sv, SVt_PV);
a0d0e21e 3192 tmplen = SvLEN(sv); /* remember if already alloced */
e3918bb7 3193 if (!tmplen && !SvREADONLY(sv) && !SvIsCOW(sv)) {
f72e8700
JJ
3194 /* try short-buffering it. Please update t/op/readline.t
3195 * if you change the growth length.
3196 */
3197 Sv_Grow(sv, 80);
3198 }
2b5e58c4
AMS
3199 offset = 0;
3200 if (type == OP_RCATLINE && SvOK(sv)) {
3201 if (!SvPOK(sv)) {
5668452f 3202 SvPV_force_nomg_nolen(sv);
2b5e58c4 3203 }
a0d0e21e 3204 offset = SvCUR(sv);
2b5e58c4 3205 }
a0d0e21e 3206 }
54310121 3207 else {
561b68a9 3208 sv = sv_2mortal(newSV(80));
54310121
PP
3209 offset = 0;
3210 }
fbad3eb5 3211
3887d568
AP
3212 /* This should not be marked tainted if the fp is marked clean */
3213#define MAYBE_TAINT_LINE(io, sv) \
3214 if (!(IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_UNTAINT)) { \
3215 TAINT; \
3216 SvTAINTED_on(sv); \
3217 }
3218
684bef36 3219/* delay EOF state for a snarfed empty file */
fbad3eb5 3220#define SNARF_EOF(gimme,rs,io,sv) \
684bef36 3221 (gimme != G_SCALAR || SvCUR(sv) \
b9fee9ba 3222 || (IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_NOLINE) || !RsSNARF(rs))
fbad3eb5 3223
a0d0e21e 3224 for (;;) {
09e8efcc 3225 PUTBACK;
fbad3eb5 3226 if (!sv_gets(sv, fp, offset)
2d726892
TF
3227 && (type == OP_GLOB
3228 || SNARF_EOF(gimme, PL_rs, io, sv)
3229 || PerlIO_error(fp)))
fbad3eb5 3230 {
760ac839 3231 PerlIO_clearerr(fp);
a0d0e21e 3232 if (IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_ARGV) {
157fb5a1 3233 fp = nextargv(PL_last_in_gv, PL_op->op_flags & OPf_SPECIAL);
a0d0e21e
LW
3234 if (fp)
3235 continue;
3280af22 3236 (void)do_close(PL_last_in_gv, FALSE);
a0d0e21e
LW
3237 }
3238 else if (type == OP_GLOB) {
a2a5de95
NC
3239 if (!do_close(PL_last_in_gv, FALSE)) {
3240 Perl_ck_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_GLOB),
3241 "glob failed (child exited with status %d%s)",
3242 (int)(STATUS_CURRENT >> 8),
3243 (STATUS_CURRENT & 0x80) ? ", core dumped" : "");
4eb79ab5 3244 }
a0d0e21e 3245 }
54310121 3246 if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
ba92458f
AE
3247 if (type != OP_RCATLINE) {
3248 SV_CHECK_THINKFIRST_COW_DROP(TARG);
0c34ef67 3249 SvOK_off(TARG);
ba92458f 3250 }
09e8efcc 3251 SPAGAIN;
a0d0e21e
LW
3252 PUSHTARG;
3253 }
3887d568 3254 MAYBE_TAINT_LINE(io, sv);
a0d0e21e
LW
3255 RETURN;
3256 }
3887d568 3257 MAYBE_TAINT_LINE(io, sv);
a0d0e21e 3258 IoLINES(io)++;
b9fee9ba 3259 IoFLAGS(io) |= IOf_NOLINE;
71be2cbc 3260 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
09e8efcc 3261 SPAGAIN;
a0d0e21e 3262 XPUSHs(sv);
a0d0e21e 3263 if (type == OP_GLOB) {
349d4f2f 3264 const char *t1;
45a23732 3265 Stat_t statbuf;
a0d0e21e 3266
3280af22 3267 if (SvCUR(sv) > 0 && SvCUR(PL_rs) > 0) {
6136c704 3268 char * const tmps = SvEND(sv) - 1;
aa07b2f6 3269 if (*tmps == *SvPVX_const(PL_rs)) {
c07a80fd 3270 *tmps = '\0';
b162af07 3271 SvCUR_set(sv, SvCUR(sv) - 1);
c07a80fd
PP
3272 }
3273 }
349d4f2f 3274 for (t1 = SvPVX_const(sv); *t1; t1++)
b51c3e77
CB
3275#ifdef __VMS
3276 if (strchr("*%?", *t1))
3277#else
7ad1e72d 3278 if (strchr("$&*(){}[]'\";\\|?<>~`", *t1))
b51c3e77 3279#endif
a0d0e21e 3280 break;
45a23732 3281 if (*t1 && PerlLIO_lstat(SvPVX_const(sv), &statbuf) < 0) {
a0d0e21e
LW
3282 (void)POPs; /* Unmatched wildcard? Chuck it... */
3283 continue;
3284 }
2d79bf7f 3285 } else if (SvUTF8(sv)) { /* OP_READLINE, OP_RCATLINE */
d4c19fe8
AL
3286 if (ckWARN(WARN_UTF8)) {
3287 const U8 * const s = (const U8*)SvPVX_const(sv) + offset;
3288 const STRLEN len = SvCUR(sv) - offset;
3289 const U8 *f;
3290
3291 if (!is_utf8_string_loc(s, len, &f))
3292 /* Emulate :encoding(utf8) warning in the same case. */
3293 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
3294 "utf8 \"\\x%02X\" does not map to Unicode",
3295 f < (U8*)SvEND(sv) ? *f : 0);
3296 }
a0d0e21e 3297 }
54310121 3298 if (gimme == G_ARRAY) {
a0d0e21e 3299 if (SvLEN(sv) - SvCUR(sv) > 20) {
1da4ca5f 3300 SvPV_shrink_to_cur(sv);
a0d0e21e 3301 }
561b68a9 3302 sv = sv_2mortal(newSV(80));
a0d0e21e
LW
3303 continue;
3304 }
54310121 3305 else if (gimme == G_SCALAR && !tmplen && SvLEN(sv) - SvCUR(sv) > 80) {
a0d0e21e 3306 /* try to reclaim a bit of scalar space (only on 1st alloc) */
d5b5861b
NC
3307 const STRLEN new_len
3308 = SvCUR(sv) < 60 ? 80 : SvCUR(sv)+40; /* allow some slop */
1da4ca5f 3309 SvPV_renew(sv, new_len);
a0d0e21e
LW
3310 }
3311 RETURN;
3312 }
3313}
3314
a0d0e21e
LW
3315PP(pp_helem)
3316{
20b7effb 3317 dSP;
760ac839 3318 HE* he;
ae77835f 3319 SV **svp;
c445ea15 3320 SV * const keysv = POPs;
85fbaab2 3321 HV * const hv = MUTABLE_HV(POPs);
a3b680e6
AL
3322 const U32 lval = PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD || LVRET;
3323 const U32 defer = PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_DEFER;
be6c24e0 3324 SV *sv;
92970b93 3325 const bool localizing = PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO;
d30e492c 3326 bool preeminent = TRUE;
a0d0e21e 3327
6dfc73ea
SM
3328 if (SvTYPE(hv) != SVt_PVHV)
3329 RETPUSHUNDEF;
d4c19fe8 3330
92970b93 3331 if (localizing) {
d4c19fe8
AL
3332 MAGIC *mg;
3333 HV *stash;
d30e492c
VP
3334
3335 /* If we can determine whether the element exist,
3336 * Try to preserve the existenceness of a tied hash
3337 * element by using EXISTS and DELETE if possible.
3338 * Fallback to FETCH and STORE otherwise. */
2c5f48c2 3339 if (SvCANEXISTDELETE(hv))
d30e492c 3340 preeminent = hv_exists_ent(hv, keysv, 0);
d4c19fe8 3341 }
d30e492c 3342
5f9d7e2b 3343 he = hv_fetch_ent(hv, keysv, lval && !defer, 0);
d4c19fe8 3344 svp = he ? &HeVAL(he) : NULL;
a0d0e21e 3345 if (lval) {
746f6409 3346 if (!svp || !*svp || *svp == &PL_sv_undef) {
68dc0745
PP
3347 SV* lv;
3348 SV* key2;
2d8e6c8d 3349 if (!defer) {
be2597df 3350 DIE(aTHX_ PL_no_helem_sv, SVfARG(keysv));
2d8e6c8d 3351 }
68dc0745
PP
3352 lv = sv_newmortal();
3353 sv_upgrade(lv, SVt_PVLV);
3354 LvTYPE(lv) = 'y';
6136c704 3355 sv_magic(lv, key2 = newSVsv(keysv), PERL_MAGIC_defelem, NULL, 0);
fc2b2dca 3356 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(key2); /* sv_magic() increments refcount */
0ad694a7 3357 LvTARG(lv) = SvREFCNT_inc_simple_NN(hv);
68dc0745
PP
3358 LvTARGLEN(lv) = 1;
3359 PUSHs(lv);
3360 RETURN;
3361 }
92970b93 3362 if (localizing) {
6881372e 3363 if (HvNAME_get(hv) && isGV_or_RVCV(*svp))
159b6efe 3364 save_gp(MUTABLE_GV(*svp), !(PL_op->op_flags & OPf_SPECIAL));
47cfc530
VP
3365 else if (preeminent)
3366 save_helem_flags(hv, keysv, svp,
3367 (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_SPECIAL) ? 0 : SAVEf_SETMAGIC);
3368 else
3369 SAVEHDELETE(hv, keysv);
5f05dabc 3370 }
9026059d
GG
3371 else if (PL_op->op_private & OPpDEREF) {
3372 PUSHs(vivify_ref(*svp, PL_op->op_private & OPpDEREF));
3373 RETURN;
3374 }
a0d0e21e 3375 }
746f6409 3376 sv = (svp && *svp ? *svp : &PL_sv_undef);
fd69380d
DM
3377 /* Originally this did a conditional C<sv = sv_mortalcopy(sv)>; this
3378 * was to make C<local $tied{foo} = $tied{foo}> possible.
3379 * However, it seems no longer to be needed for that purpose, and
3380 * introduced a new bug: stuff like C<while ($hash{taintedval} =~ /.../g>
3381 * would loop endlessly since the pos magic is getting set on the
3382 * mortal copy and lost. However, the copy has the effect of
3383 * triggering the get magic, and losing it altogether made things like
3384 * c<$tied{foo};> in void context no longer do get magic, which some
3385 * code relied on. Also, delayed triggering of magic on @+ and friends
3386 * meant the original regex may be out of scope by now. So as a
3387 * compromise, do the get magic here. (The MGf_GSKIP flag will stop it
3388 * being called too many times). */
39cf747a 3389 if (!lval && SvRMAGICAL(hv) && SvGMAGICAL(sv))
fd69380d 3390 mg_get(sv);
be6c24e0 3391 PUSHs(sv);
a0d0e21e
LW
3392 RETURN;
3393}
3394
fedf30e1
DM
3395
3396/* a stripped-down version of Perl_softref2xv() for use by
3397 * pp_multideref(), which doesn't use PL_op->op_flags */
3398
f9db5646 3399STATIC GV *
fedf30e1
DM
3400S_softref2xv_lite(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const char *const what,
3401 const svtype type)
3402{
3403 if (PL_op->op_private & HINT_STRICT_REFS) {
3404 if (SvOK(sv))
3405 Perl_die(aTHX_ PL_no_symref_sv, sv,
3406 (SvPOKp(sv) && SvCUR(sv)>32 ? "..." : ""), what);
3407 else
3408 Perl_die(aTHX_ PL_no_usym, what);
3409 }
3410 if (!SvOK(sv))
3411 Perl_die(aTHX_ PL_no_usym, what);
3412 return gv_fetchsv_nomg(sv, GV_ADD, type);
3413}
3414
3415
79815f56
DM
3416/* Handle one or more aggregate derefs and array/hash indexings, e.g.
3417 * $h->{foo} or $a[0]{$key}[$i] or f()->[1]
fedf30e1
DM
3418 *
3419 * op_aux points to an array of unions of UV / IV / SV* / PADOFFSET.
79815f56
DM
3420 * Each of these either contains a set of actions, or an argument, such as
3421 * an IV to use as an array index, or a lexical var to retrieve.
3422 * Several actions re stored per UV; we keep shifting new actions off the
3423 * one UV, and only reload when it becomes zero.
fedf30e1
DM
3424 */
3425
3426PP(pp_multideref)
3427{
3428 SV *sv = NULL; /* init to avoid spurious 'may be used uninitialized' */
3429 UNOP_AUX_item *items = cUNOP_AUXx(PL_op)->op_aux;
3430 UV actions = items->uv;
3431
3432 assert(actions);
3433 /* this tells find_uninit_var() where we're up to */
3434 PL_multideref_pc = items;
3435
3436 while (1) {
3437 /* there are three main classes of action; the first retrieve
3438 * the initial AV or HV from a variable or the stack; the second
3439 * does the equivalent of an unrolled (/DREFAV, rv2av, aelem),
3440 * the third an unrolled (/DREFHV, rv2hv, helem).
3441 */
3442 switch (actions & MDEREF_ACTION_MASK) {
3443
3444 case MDEREF_reload:
3445 actions = (++items)->uv;
3446 continue;
3447
3448 case MDEREF_AV_padav_aelem: /* $lex[...] */
3449 sv = PAD_SVl((++items)->pad_offset);
3450 goto do_AV_aelem;
3451
3452 case MDEREF_AV_gvav_aelem: /* $pkg[...] */
3453 sv = UNOP_AUX_item_sv(++items);
3454 assert(isGV_with_GP(sv));
3455 sv = (SV*)GvAVn((GV*)sv);
3456 goto do_AV_aelem;
3457
3458 case MDEREF_AV_pop_rv2av_aelem: /* expr->[...] */
3459 {
3460 dSP;
3461 sv = POPs;
3462 PUTBACK;
3463 goto do_AV_rv2av_aelem;
3464 }
3465
3466 case MDEREF_AV_gvsv_vivify_rv2av_aelem: /* $pkg->[...] */
3467 sv = UNOP_AUX_item_sv(++items);
3468 assert(isGV_with_GP(sv));
3469 sv = GvSVn((GV*)sv);
3470 goto do_AV_vivify_rv2av_aelem;
3471
3472 case MDEREF_AV_padsv_vivify_rv2av_aelem: /* $lex->[...] */
3473 sv = PAD_SVl((++items)->pad_offset);
3474 /* FALLTHROUGH */
3475
3476 do_AV_vivify_rv2av_aelem:
3477 case MDEREF_AV_vivify_rv2av_aelem: /* vivify, ->[...] */
3478 /* this is the OPpDEREF action normally found at the end of
3479 * ops like aelem, helem, rv2sv */
3480 sv = vivify_ref(sv, OPpDEREF_AV);
3481 /* FALLTHROUGH */
3482
3483 do_AV_rv2av_aelem:
3484 /* this is basically a copy of pp_rv2av when it just has the
3485 * sKR/1 flags */
3486 SvGETMAGIC(sv);
3487 if (LIKELY(SvROK(sv))) {
3488 if (UNLIKELY(SvAMAGIC(sv))) {
3489 sv = amagic_deref_call(sv, to_av_amg);
3490 }
3491 sv = SvRV(sv);
3492 if (UNLIKELY(SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVAV))
3493 DIE(aTHX_ "Not an ARRAY reference");
3494 }
3495 else if (SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVAV) {
3496 if (!isGV_with_GP(sv))
3497 sv = (SV*)S_softref2xv_lite(aTHX_ sv, "an ARRAY", SVt_PVAV);
3498 sv = MUTABLE_SV(GvAVn((GV*)sv));
3499 }
3500 /* FALLTHROUGH */
3501
3502 do_AV_aelem:
3503 {
3504 /* retrieve the key; this may be either a lexical or package
3505 * var (whose index/ptr is stored as an item) or a signed
3506 * integer constant stored as an item.
3507 */
3508 SV *elemsv;
3509 IV elem = 0; /* to shut up stupid compiler warnings */
3510
3511
3512 assert(SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVAV);
3513
3514 switch (actions & MDEREF_INDEX_MASK) {
3515 case MDEREF_INDEX_none:
3516 goto finish;
3517 case MDEREF_INDEX_const:
3518 elem = (++items)->iv;
3519 break;
3520 case MDEREF_INDEX_padsv:
3521 elemsv = PAD_SVl((++items)->pad_offset);
3522 goto check_elem;
3523 case MDEREF_INDEX_gvsv:
3524 elemsv = UNOP_AUX_item_sv(++items);
3525 assert(isGV_with_GP(elemsv));
3526 elemsv = GvSVn((GV*)elemsv);
3527 check_elem:
3528 if (UNLIKELY(SvROK(elemsv) && !SvGAMAGIC(elemsv)
3529 && ckWARN(WARN_MISC)))
3530 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_MISC),
147e3846 3531 "Use of reference \"%" SVf "\" as array index",
fedf30e1
DM
3532 SVfARG(elemsv));
3533 /* the only time that S_find_uninit_var() needs this
3534 * is to determine which index value triggered the
3535 * undef warning. So just update it here. Note that
3536 * since we don't save and restore this var (e.g. for
3537 * tie or overload execution), its value will be
3538 * meaningless apart from just here */
3539 PL_multideref_pc = items;
3540 elem = SvIV(elemsv);
3541 break;
3542 }
3543
3544
3545 /* this is basically a copy of pp_aelem with OPpDEREF skipped */
3546
3547 if (!(actions & MDEREF_FLAG_last)) {
3548 SV** svp = av_fetch((AV*)sv, elem, 1);
3549 if (!svp || ! (sv=*svp))
3550 DIE(aTHX_ PL_no_aelem, elem);
3551 break;
3552 }
3553
3554 if (PL_op->op_private &
3555 (OPpMULTIDEREF_EXISTS|OPpMULTIDEREF_DELETE))
3556 {
3557 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpMULTIDEREF_EXISTS) {
3558 sv = av_exists((AV*)sv, elem) ? &PL_sv_yes : &PL_sv_no;
3559 }
3560 else {
3561 I32 discard = (GIMME_V == G_VOID) ? G_DISCARD : 0;
3562 sv = av_delete((AV*)sv, elem, discard);
3563 if (discard)
3564 return NORMAL;
3565 if (!sv)
3566 sv = &PL_sv_undef;
3567 }
3568 }
3569 else {
3570 const U32 lval = PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD || LVRET;
3571 const U32 defer = PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_DEFER;
3572 const bool localizing = PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO;
3573 bool preeminent = TRUE;
3574 AV *const av = (AV*)sv;
3575 SV** svp;
3576
3577 if (UNLIKELY(localizing)) {
3578 MAGIC *mg;
3579 HV *stash;
3580
3581 /* If we can determine whether the element exist,
3582 * Try to preserve the existenceness of a tied array
3583 * element by using EXISTS and DELETE if possible.
3584 * Fallback to FETCH and STORE otherwise. */
3585 if (SvCANEXISTDELETE(av))
3586 preeminent = av_exists(av, elem);
3587 }
3588
3589 svp = av_fetch(av, elem, lval && !defer);
3590
3591 if (lval) {
3592 if (!svp || !(sv = *svp)) {
3593 IV len;
3594 if (!defer)
3595 DIE(aTHX_ PL_no_aelem, elem);
3596 len = av_tindex(av);
9ef753fe
FC
3597 /* Resolve a negative index that falls within
3598 * the array. Leave it negative it if falls
3599 * outside the array. */
3600 if (elem < 0 && len + elem >= 0)
3601 elem = len + elem;
3602 if (elem >= 0 && elem <= len)
3603 /* Falls within the array. */
3604 sv = av_nonelem(av,elem);
3605 else
3606 /* Falls outside the array. If it is neg-
3607 ative, magic_setdefelem will use the
3608 index for error reporting. */
3609 sv = sv_2mortal(newSVavdefelem(av,elem,1));
fedf30e1
DM
3610 }
3611 else {
3612 if (UNLIKELY(localizing)) {
3613 if (preeminent) {
3614 save_aelem(av, elem, svp);
3615 sv = *svp; /* may have changed */
3616 }
3617 else
3618 SAVEADELETE(av, elem);
3619 }
3620 }
3621 }
3622 else {
3623 sv = (svp ? *svp : &PL_sv_undef);
3624 /* see note in pp_helem() */
3625 if (SvRMAGICAL(av) && SvGMAGICAL(sv))
3626 mg_get(sv);
3627 }
3628 }
3629
3630 }
3631 finish:
3632 {
3633 dSP;
3634 XPUSHs(sv);
3635 RETURN;
3636 }
3637 /* NOTREACHED */
3638
3639
3640
3641
3642 case MDEREF_HV_padhv_helem: /* $lex{...} */
3643 sv = PAD_SVl((++items)->pad_offset);
3644 goto do_HV_helem;
3645
3646 case MDEREF_HV_gvhv_helem: /* $pkg{...} */
3647 sv = UNOP_AUX_item_sv(++items);
3648 assert(isGV_with_GP(sv));
3649 sv = (SV*)GvHVn((GV*)sv);
3650 goto do_HV_helem;
3651
3652 case MDEREF_HV_pop_rv2hv_helem: /* expr->{...} */
3653 {
3654 dSP;
3655 sv = POPs;
3656 PUTBACK;
3657 goto do_HV_rv2hv_helem;
3658 }
3659
3660 case MDEREF_HV_gvsv_vivify_rv2hv_helem: /* $pkg->{...} */
3661 sv = UNOP_AUX_item_sv(++items);
3662 assert(isGV_with_GP(sv));
3663 sv = GvSVn((GV*)sv);
3664 goto do_HV_vivify_rv2hv_helem;
3665
3666 case MDEREF_HV_padsv_vivify_rv2hv_helem: /* $lex->{...} */
3667 sv = PAD_SVl((++items)->pad_offset);
3668 /* FALLTHROUGH */
3669
3670 do_HV_vivify_rv2hv_helem:
3671 case MDEREF_HV_vivify_rv2hv_helem: /* vivify, ->{...} */
3672 /* this is the OPpDEREF action normally found at the end of
3673 * ops like aelem, helem, rv2sv */
3674 sv = vivify_ref(sv, OPpDEREF_HV);
3675 /* FALLTHROUGH */
3676
3677 do_HV_rv2hv_helem:
3678 /* this is basically a copy of pp_rv2hv when it just has the
3679 * sKR/1 flags (and pp_rv2hv is aliased to pp_rv2av) */
3680
3681 SvGETMAGIC(sv);
3682 if (LIKELY(SvROK(sv))) {
3683 if (UNLIKELY(SvAMAGIC(sv))) {
3684 sv = amagic_deref_call(sv, to_hv_amg);
3685 }
3686 sv = SvRV(sv);
3687 if (UNLIKELY(SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVHV))
3688 DIE(aTHX_ "Not a HASH reference");
3689 }
3690 else if (SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVHV) {
3691 if (!isGV_with_GP(sv))
3692 sv = (SV*)S_softref2xv_lite(aTHX_ sv, "a HASH", SVt_PVHV);
3693 sv = MUTABLE_SV(GvHVn((GV*)sv));
3694 }
3695 /* FALLTHROUGH */
3696
3697 do_HV_helem:
3698 {
3699 /* retrieve the key; this may be either a lexical / package
3700 * var or a string constant, whose index/ptr is stored as an
3701 * item
3702 */
3703 SV *keysv = NULL; /* to shut up stupid compiler warnings */
3704
3705 assert(SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVHV);
3706
3707 switch (actions & MDEREF_INDEX_MASK) {
3708 case MDEREF_INDEX_none:
3709 goto finish;
3710
3711 case MDEREF_INDEX_const:
3712 keysv = UNOP_AUX_item_sv(++items);
3713 break;
3714
3715 case MDEREF_INDEX_padsv:
3716 keysv = PAD_SVl((++items)->pad_offset);
3717 break;
3718
3719 case MDEREF_INDEX_gvsv:
3720 keysv = UNOP_AUX_item_sv(++items);
3721 keysv = GvSVn((GV*)keysv);
3722 break;
3723 }
3724
3725 /* see comment above about setting this var */
3726 PL_multideref_pc = items;
3727
3728
3729 /* ensure that candidate CONSTs have been HEKified */
3730 assert( ((actions & MDEREF_INDEX_MASK) != MDEREF_INDEX_const)
3731 || SvTYPE(keysv) >= SVt_PVMG
3732 || !SvOK(keysv)
3733 || SvROK(keysv)
3734 || SvIsCOW_shared_hash(keysv));
3735
3736 /* this is basically a copy of pp_helem with OPpDEREF skipped */
3737
3738 if (!(actions & MDEREF_FLAG_last)) {
3739 HE *he = hv_fetch_ent((HV*)sv, keysv, 1, 0);
3740 if (!he || !(sv=HeVAL(he)) || sv == &PL_sv_undef)
3741 DIE(aTHX_ PL_no_helem_sv, SVfARG(keysv));
3742 break;
3743 }
3744
3745 if (PL_op->op_private &
3746 (OPpMULTIDEREF_EXISTS|OPpMULTIDEREF_DELETE))
3747 {
3748 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpMULTIDEREF_EXISTS) {
3749 sv = hv_exists_ent((HV*)sv, keysv, 0)
3750 ? &PL_sv_yes : &PL_sv_no;
3751 }
3752 else {
3753 I32 discard = (GIMME_V == G_VOID) ? G_DISCARD : 0;
3754 sv = hv_delete_ent((HV*)sv, keysv, discard, 0);
3755 if (discard)
3756 return NORMAL;
3757 if (!sv)
3758 sv = &PL_sv_undef;
3759 }
3760 }
3761 else {
3762 const U32 lval = PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD || LVRET;