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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
466416ed 23below. E.g. C<(W closed)> means a warning in the C<closed> category.
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24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
fa816bf3 26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
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27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
de42a5a9 53=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
1109a392
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59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
7c7af292 88(S ambiguous) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
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89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
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92=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
93
7c7af292 94(S ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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95bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
96(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
97like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
98assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
99clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
100really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 101
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102=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
103
104(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
105asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
106named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
1cecf2c0 107the variable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
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108function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
109and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
110
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111=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s[...]} resolved to %c%s[...]
112
113=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s{...}} resolved to %c%s{...}
4da60377 114
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115(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo represents
116the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for element number
1172 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write C<$foo[2]>, or you
118might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to the function named
119foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it returns. If you meant
120that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
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121
122In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
123to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
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124C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length> followed
125by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what you
126want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/> to the
127unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to something
128that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by simply turning
129off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 130
bdac9d71 131=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
397d0f13 132
7c7af292 133(S ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
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134string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
135the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
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136write C<-foo()>.
137
6df41af2 138=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 139
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140(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
141redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
142redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 143
6df41af2 144=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 145
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146(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
147redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
148into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
149though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
150which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 151
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152 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
153 while (<STDIN>) {
154 print;
155 print OUT;
156 }
157 close OUT;
c9f97d15 158
6df41af2 159=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 160
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161(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
162transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 163one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 164a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
165hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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166you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
167alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 168
6df41af2 169=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 170
6df41af2 171(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 172
b0fdf69e 173=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 174
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175(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
176subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
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177
178 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 179 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 180 &do_something
a0d0e21e 181
8ea97a1e 182=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 183
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184(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
185such as:
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186
187 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 188 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 189
8ea97a1e 190or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 191
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192 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
193 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 194
6df41af2 195=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 196
6df41af2 197(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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198name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
199error.
a0d0e21e 200
f86702cc 201=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 202
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203(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
204that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
205will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 206
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207=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
208
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209(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O
210system you forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers
211take care of transforming data between external and internal
212representations.) Perl stopped parsing the layer list at this
213point and did not attempt to push this layer. If your program
214didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be the
215result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
b4581f09 216
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217=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
218
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219(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
220spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 221
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222=item A sequence of multiple spaces in a charnames alias definition is deprecated
223
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224(D deprecated) You defined a character name which had multiple space
225characters in a row. Change them to single spaces. Usually these
226names are defined in the C<:alias> import argument to C<use charnames>, but
227they could be defined by a translator installed into C<$^H{charnames}>.
228See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
bd299e29 229
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230=item assertion botched: %s
231
21b5e840 232(X) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
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233
234=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
235
21b5e840 236(X) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
a0d0e21e 237
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238=item Assigning non-zero to $[ is no longer possible
239
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240(F) When the "array_base" feature is disabled (e.g., under C<use v5.16;>)
241the special variable C<$[>, which is deprecated, is now a fixed zero value.
82122228 242
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243=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
244
245(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
246must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
247know which context to supply to the right side.
248
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249=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
250
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251(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily
252the main thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
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253Usually it's a good idea first to collect the return values of the
254created threads by joining them, and only then to exit from the main
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255thread. See L<threads>.
256
2393f1b9 257=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 258
49293501 259(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 260the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 261
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262=item Attempt to bless into a freed package
263
264(F) You wrote C<bless $foo> with one argument after somehow causing
265the current package to be freed. Perl cannot figure out what to
266do, so it throws up in hands in despair.
267
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268=item Attempt to bless into a reference
269
270(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
57dedab9 271the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
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272supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
273
274 bless $self, $proto;
275
276when you intended
277
278 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
279
280If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
281of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
282example by:
283
284 bless $self, "$proto";
285
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286=item Attempt to clear deleted array
287
288(S debugging) An array was assigned to when it was being freed.
289Freed values are not supposed to be visible to Perl code. This
290can also happen if XS code calls C<av_clear> from a custom magic
291callback on the array.
292
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293=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
294
295(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
296which is not in its key set.
297
298=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
299
300(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
301declared readonly from a restricted hash.
302
de42a5a9 303=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 304
f84fe999 305(S internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
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306that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
307outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 308
12578ffb 309=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string '%s'%s
bbce6d69 310
f84fe999 311(S internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
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312strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
313strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
314of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 315
7d5b40b4 316=item Attempt to free temp prematurely: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 317
f84fe999 318(S debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
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319free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
320SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
321free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
322try to free it.
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323
324=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
325
f84fe999 326(S internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
a0d0e21e 327
7d5b40b4 328=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 329
8f7e4d2c 330(S internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
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331see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
332earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
333This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
334that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
335mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
336corrupted.
a0d0e21e 337
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338=item Attempt to join self
339
340(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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341impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
342to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 343
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344=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
345
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346(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
347function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
348means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
349invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
350literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
351avoid this warning.
84902520 352
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353=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
354
355(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
356compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
357unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
358L<perlvar/%INC>.
359
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360=item Attempt to set length of freed array
361
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FC
362(W misc) You tried to set the length of an array which has
363been freed. You can do this by storing a reference to the
364scalar representing the last index of an array and later
365assigning through that reference. For example
1b20cd17
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366
367 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
368 $$r = 503
369
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370=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
371
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372(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
373used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
374dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 375
c32124fe
NC
376=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
377
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378(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the
379"locked" attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is
380obsolete, has had no effect since 5005 threads were removed, and
381will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
c32124fe 382
f1a3ce43
NC
383=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
384
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FC
385(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify
386the "unique" attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference.
387The :unique attribute has had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and
388will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
f1a3ce43 389
ccce04a4
FC
390=item av_reify called on tied array
391
392(S debugging) This indicates that something went wrong and Perl got I<very>
393confused about C<@_> or C<@DB::args> being tied.
394
de42a5a9 395=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 396
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397(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
398or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 399S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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400S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
401
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402=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
403
496a33f5 404(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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405substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
406most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
407
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408=item Bad filehandle: %s
409
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410(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
411symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
412open(), or did it in another package.
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413
414=item Bad free() ignored
415
be771a83 416(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
fa816bf3 417been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 418setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 419
9ea8bc6d 420This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
6903afa2 421dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
be771a83 422which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 423
aa689395
PP
424=item Bad hash
425
426(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
427
6df41af2
GS
428=item Badly placed ()'s
429
430(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
431of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
432Perl yourself.
433
a7cb8dae 434=item Bad name after %s
a0d0e21e 435
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436(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
437didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
438of quotes, so
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439
440 $var = 'myvar';
441 $sym = mypack::$var;
442
443is not the same as
444
445 $var = 'myvar';
446 $sym = "mypack::$var";
447
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JV
448=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
449
450(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
451plugin API.
452
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453=item Bad realloc() ignored
454
6903afa2
FC
455(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that
456had never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can
457be disabled by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 458
a0d0e21e
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459=item Bad symbol for array
460
461(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
462wasn't a symbol table entry.
463
4df3f177
SP
464=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
465
466(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
467that wasn't a symbol table entry.
468
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LW
469=item Bad symbol for filehandle
470
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471(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
472that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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LW
473
474=item Bad symbol for hash
475
476(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
477wasn't a symbol table entry.
478
34d09196
GS
479=item Bareword found in conditional
480
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481(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
482conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
483of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
GS
484
485 open FOO || die;
486
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487It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
488a bareword:
34d09196
GS
489
490 use constant TYPO => 1;
491 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
492
493The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
494
6df41af2
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495=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
496
497(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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498subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
499symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
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500
501=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
502
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503(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
504compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
505you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 506
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507=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
508
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509(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
510subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
511exited.
a0d0e21e 512
68dc0745
PP
513=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
514
515(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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516implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
517occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
518be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
519depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 520
6df41af2
GS
521=item \1 better written as $1
522
be771a83
GS
523(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
524The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
525substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
526because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
527there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 528
252aa082
JH
529=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
530
e476b1b5 531(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
532(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
533L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 534
69282e91 535=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 536
be771a83
GS
537(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
538check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 539
c289d2f7
JH
540=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
541
542(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 543Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 544
d7bb0749 545=item "\b{" is deprecated; use "\b\{" or "\b[{]" instead in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
f866a7cd 546
d7bb0749 547=item "\B{" is deprecated; use "\B\{" or "\B[{]" instead in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
f866a7cd 548
3c664d1a 549(D deprecated) Use of an unescaped "{" immediately following
a38411bc
FC
550a C<\b> or C<\B> is now deprecated so as to reserve its use for Perl
551itself in a future release. You can either precede the brace
552with a backslash, or enclose it in square brackets; the latter
553is the way to go if the pattern delimiters are C<{}>.
f866a7cd 554
c5a0f51a
JH
555=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
556
e476b1b5 557(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 558
043c750c 559=item Bizarre copy of %s
4633a7c4 560
be771a83 561(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
ab830aa0 562copiable.
4633a7c4 563
5a25739d
FC
564=item Bizarre SvTYPE [%d]
565
566(P) When starting a new thread or return values from a thread, Perl
567encountered an invalid data type.
568
f675dbe5
CB
569=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
570
be771a83
GS
571(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
572iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
573which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 574
a0d0e21e
LW
575=item Callback called exit
576
4929bf7b 577(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
578exited by calling exit.
579
6df41af2 580=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 581
be771a83
GS
582(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
583parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
584that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
585early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
586subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
587checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
588function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
589the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 590
49704364 591=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
592
593(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
594compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
595attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
596See L<perlfunc/pack>.
597
49704364 598=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
599
600(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
601format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
602
5c1f4d79
NC
603=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
604
6903afa2
FC
605(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference
606in it, then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax.
607The access triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is
608no legal conversion from that type of reference to a typeglob.
5c1f4d79 609
4040665a 610=item Cannot copy to %s
ba2fdce6
NC
611
612(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 613be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 614
b5d97229
RGS
615=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
616
617(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
618either with open() or binmode().
619
7355df7e
FC
620=item Cannot set tied @DB::args
621
622(F) C<caller> tried to set C<@DB::args>, but found it tied. Tying C<@DB::args>
623is not supported. (Before this error was added, it used to crash.)
624
ce65bc73
FC
625=item Cannot tie unreifiable array
626
627(P) You somehow managed to call C<tie> on an array that does not
628keep a reference count on its arguments and cannot be made to
629do so. Such arrays are not even supposed to be accessible to
630Perl code, but are only used internally.
631
96ebfdd7
RK
632=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
633
634(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
635integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
636to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
637
a0d0e21e
LW
638=item Can't bless non-reference value
639
640(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
641encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
642
dc57907a
RGS
643=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
644
0d863452 645(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
6903afa2 646a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
0d863452
RH
647
648=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 649
0d863452
RH
650(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
651
6df41af2
GS
652=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
653
654(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
655object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
656like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
657
658 $BADREF = undef;
659 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
660 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
661
a0d0e21e
LW
662=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
663
54310121 664(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
665ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
666didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
667object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
668
669=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
670
671(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
672object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
673defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
674Something like this will reproduce the error:
675
676 $BADREF = 42;
677 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
678 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
679
a0d0e21e
LW
680=item Can't chdir to %s
681
f703fc96 682(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but F</foo/bar> is not a directory
a0d0e21e
LW
683that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
684
0545a864 685=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 686
be771a83
GS
687(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
688nosuid.
104d25b7 689
22e74366 690=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
691
692(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 693(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
694say things like:
695
696 *foo += 1;
697
698You CAN say
699
700 $foo = *foo;
701 $foo += 1;
702
703but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
704
0d863452 705=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 706
0d863452
RH
707(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
708or C<default> block.
709
a0d0e21e
LW
710=item Can't create pipe mailbox
711
be771a83
GS
712(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
713quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 714
eb64745e
GS
715=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
716
30c282f6
NC
717(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
718"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 719
fc7debfb
FC
720=item Can't "default" outside a topicalizer
721
722(F) You have used a C<default> block that is neither inside a
723C<foreach> loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is
724issued on exit from the C<default> block, so you won't get the
725error if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
726
6df41af2
GS
727=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
728
be771a83 729(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
df7075a8 730a file in /dev, a FIFO or an uneditable directory. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 731
a0d0e21e
LW
732=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
733
be771a83
GS
734(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
735reason.
a0d0e21e 736
54310121 737=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 738
be771a83
GS
739(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
740reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
741C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 742
10f9c03d 743=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 744
e476b1b5 745(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
746characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
747inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 748
a0d0e21e
LW
749=item Can't do waitpid with flags
750
be771a83
GS
751(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
752waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 753
a0d0e21e
LW
754=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
755
be771a83
GS
756(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
757point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
758line.
a0d0e21e 759
1109a392
MHM
760=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
761
762(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
763or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
764little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
765See L<perlfunc/pack>.
766
a0d0e21e
LW
767=item Can't exec "%s": %s
768
d1be9408 769(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
770named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
771permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
772C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
773architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
774can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
775#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
776
777=item Can't exec %s
778
be771a83
GS
779(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
780that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
781need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
782
783=item Can't execute %s
784
be771a83
GS
785(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
786found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 787
6df41af2 788=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 789
be771a83
GS
790(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
791is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 792
56ca2fc0
JH
793=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
794
795(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
6903afa2 796could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
e1b711da 797See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
9b73678d 798for a complete list of available official properties.
56ca2fc0 799
6df41af2
GS
800=item Can't find label %s
801
be771a83
GS
802(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
803possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
804
805=item Can't find %s on PATH
806
be771a83
GS
807(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
808found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 809
6df41af2 810=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 811
be771a83
GS
812(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
813found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
814script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
815
816=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
817
be771a83
GS
818(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
819that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
820nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 821
fb73857a
PP
822 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
823
97b3d10f 824If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
b6b8cb97
FC
825included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag or there
826may not be a linebreak after it. A good programmer's editor will have
827a way to help you find these characters (or lack of characters). See
828L<perlop> for the full details on here-documents.
a0d0e21e 829
660a4616
ST
830=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
831
5f8ad6b6
FC
832(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode
833property (for example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase
fa816bf3 834letters). If you did mean to use a Unicode property, see
e1b711da 835L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
6903afa2 836for a complete list of available properties. If you didn't
fa816bf3
FC
837mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either by
838C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, or
5f8ad6b6 839until C<\E>).
660a4616 840
b3647a36 841=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 842
be771a83
GS
843(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
844pipeline.
a0d0e21e 845
b3647a36
SR
846=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
847
c973c02e 848(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
849after five seconds.
850
748a9306
LW
851=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
852
be771a83
GS
853(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
854between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
855Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
856the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
857account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
858the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
2fe2bdfd 859the access-checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
be771a83
GS
860the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
861if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
862because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
2fe2bdfd
FC
863appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-checking routine gave up
864and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access-checking
be771a83
GS
865routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
866shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
867only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 868
a0d0e21e
LW
869=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
870
be771a83
GS
871(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
872pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
873
874=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
875
748a9306
LW
876(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
877mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 878
6df41af2 879=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 880
be771a83
GS
881(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
882loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
883
884=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
885
be771a83
GS
886(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
887a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
888you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
889See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 890
5a25739d
FC
891=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
892
893(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
894"string" or block.
895
9850bf21 896=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 897
9850bf21
RH
898(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
899comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
900as the reduce() function in List::Util).
901
6df41af2
GS
902=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
903
be771a83
GS
904(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
905subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
906cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
907routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 908
0b5b802d
GS
909=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
910
be771a83
GS
911(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
912signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
913signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
914processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
915situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
916may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 917
e2c0f81f
DG
918=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
919
920(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
921attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
922process identifier.
923
6df41af2 924=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 925
6df41af2 926(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
927except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
928block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
929block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
930usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
931inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
932L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 933
2c7d6b9c
RGS
934=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
935
936(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
937package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
938
b8170e59
JB
939=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
940
6903afa2
FC
941(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension.
942This may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one
943that is incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known
944to happen between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your
945dynamic extension was built against an older version of the library
946that is installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old
947dynamic extensions.
b8170e59 948
748a9306
LW
949=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
950
2ba9eb46 951(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
b7e4ecc1
FC
952lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you
953want to localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with
954the package name.
748a9306 955
6df41af2 956=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 957
6df41af2
GS
958(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
959handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 960pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 961that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 962
ea071790 963=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a 964
fa816bf3
FC
965(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be found.
966Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC, unless
967the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
968to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the
969extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
be771a83
GS
970to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
971L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 972
6df41af2
GS
973=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
974
be771a83
GS
975(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
976autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
977are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
978the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 979
b8170e59
JB
980=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
981
982(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
d70d8e57 983for example, F<foo.so> or F<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
b8170e59
JB
984unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
985
a0d0e21e
LW
986=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
987
988(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
989functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 990method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
991
992=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
993
be771a83
GS
994(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
995doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 996
2f7da168
RK
997=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
998
999(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
1000e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
1001
f4ad53f4 1002=item Can't make list assignment to %ENV on this system
3e3baf6d 1003
be771a83
GS
1004(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
1005VMS.
3e3baf6d 1006
cd40cd58
NC
1007=item Can't make loaded symbols global on this platform while loading %s
1008
ff9c1ae8 1009(S) A module passed the flag 0x01 to DynaLoader::dl_load_file() to request
cd40cd58
NC
1010that symbols from the stated file are made available globally within the
1011process, but that functionality is not available on this platform. Whilst
1012the module likely will still work, this may prevent the perl interpreter
1013from loading other XS-based extensions which need to link directly to
1014functions defined in the C or XS code in the stated file.
1015
a0d0e21e
LW
1016=item Can't modify %s in %s
1017
be771a83
GS
1018(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
1019to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 1020
54310121 1021=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
1022
1023(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
1024a NULL.
1025
6df41af2
GS
1026=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
1027
1028(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
2fe2bdfd 1029such. See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
6df41af2 1030
5f05dabc 1031=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 1032
5f05dabc 1033(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
1034buffer.
1035
6df41af2
GS
1036=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
1037
1038(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
1039there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
1040count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
1041grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1042though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
1043once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 1044
46fa9b26
FC
1045=item Can't open %s
1046
1047(F) You tried to run a perl built with MAD support with
1048the PERL_XMLDUMP environment variable set, but the file
1049named by that variable could not be opened.
1050
a0d0e21e
LW
1051=item Can't open %s: %s
1052
c47ff5f1 1053(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e 1054filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
46fa9b26
FC
1055switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually
1056this is because you don't have read permission for a file which
1057you named on the command line.
1058
1059(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-e> switch, but F</dev/null> (or
1060your operating system's equivalent) could not be opened.
a0d0e21e 1061
9a869a14
RGS
1062=item Can't open a reference
1063
1064(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
2fe2bdfd 1065using the 3-arg open() syntax:
9a869a14
RGS
1066
1067 open FH, '>', $ref;
1068
1069but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1070open is not supported.
1071
a0d0e21e
LW
1072=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1073
be771a83
GS
1074(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1075You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1076as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1077">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1078
748a9306
LW
1079=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1080
be771a83
GS
1081(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1082redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1083the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1084
1085=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1086
be771a83
GS
1087(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1088redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1089command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1090
1091=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1092
be771a83
GS
1093(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1094redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1095the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1096
1097=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1098
be771a83
GS
1099(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1100redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1101for stdout.
748a9306 1102
3b1cf97d 1103=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1104
1105(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1106
fa3aa65a
JC
1107If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1108shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1109you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1110
6df41af2
GS
1111=item Can't read CRTL environ
1112
1113(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1114from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1115missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1116or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1117searched.
6df41af2 1118
6df41af2
GS
1119=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1120
1121(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1122there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1123count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1124or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1125though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1126loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1127
64977eb6 1128=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1129
be771a83
GS
1130(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1131file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1132the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1133
a0d0e21e
LW
1134=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1135
e476b1b5 1136(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1137probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1138
748a9306
LW
1139=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1140
be771a83
GS
1141(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1142to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1143
4f12ec0e
FC
1144=item Can't reset %ENV on this system
1145
1146(F) You called C<reset('E')> or similar, which tried to reset
1147all variables in the current package beginning with "E". In
1148the main package, that includes %ENV. Resetting %ENV is not
1149supported on some systems, notably VMS.
1150
fe13d51d 1151=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1152
1fa582fa
FC
1153(F)(P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1154opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1155package. If the method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1156
cd06dffe
GS
1157=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1158
be771a83
GS
1159(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1160temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1161is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1162
96ebfdd7
RK
1163=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1164
1165(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1166there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1167
78f9721b
SM
1168=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1169
6903afa2
FC
1170(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue
1171subroutine, but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl
1172think you meant to return only one value. You probably meant to
1173write parentheses around the call to the subroutine, which tell
1174Perl that the call should be in list context.
78f9721b 1175
a0d0e21e
LW
1176=item Can't stat script "%s"
1177
be771a83
GS
1178(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1179open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1180
a0d0e21e
LW
1181=item Can't take log of %g
1182
fb73857a 1183(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
6903afa2 1184negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1185standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1186negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1187
1188=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1189
1190(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1191negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1192with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1193
1194=item Can't undef active subroutine
1195
1196(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1197however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1198redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1199
c81225bc 1200=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1201
be771a83
GS
1202(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1203into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1204specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1205indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1206
6651ba0b
FC
1207=item Can't use '%c' after -mname
1208
1209(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-m> switch, but you put something
1210other than "=" after the module name.
1211
1db89ea5
BS
1212=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1213
e27ad1f2 1214(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1215table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1216for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1217
96ebfdd7
RK
1218=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1219
1220(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1221be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1222
6df41af2
GS
1223=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1224
be771a83
GS
1225(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1226references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1227
90b75b61 1228=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63 1229
20561843 1230(F) The first time the C<%!> hash is used, perl automatically loads the
6903afa2 1231Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1d2dff63
GS
1232provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1233
1109a392
MHM
1234=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1235
1236(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1237byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1238allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1239
6df41af2
GS
1240=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1241
be771a83
GS
1242(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1243foreach.
6df41af2 1244
aab6a793 1245=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1246
be771a83
GS
1247(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1248is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1249(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1250have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1251weren't.
1252
6d3b25aa
RGS
1253=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1254
1255(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1256that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1257For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1258is inside a big-endian group.
1259
c07a80fd
PP
1260=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1261
1262(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1263You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1264and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1265Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1266lexical variable.
1267
a0d0e21e
LW
1268=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1269
1270(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1271reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1272test the type of the reference, if need be.
1273
748a9306 1274=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1275
b41bf23f
FC
1276(F) You've told Perl to dereference a string, something which
1277C<use strict> blocks to prevent it happening accidentally. See
1278L<perlref/"Symbolic references">. This can be triggered by an C<@> or C<$>
1279in a double-quoted string immediately before interpolating a variable,
1280for example in C<"user @$twitter_id">, which says to treat the contents
1281of C<$twitter_id> as an array reference; use a C<\> to have a literal C<@>
1282symbol followed by the contents of C<$twitter_id>: C<"user \@$twitter_id">.
a0d0e21e 1283
748a9306
LW
1284=item Can't use subscript on %s
1285
1286(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1287subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1288didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1289
6df41af2
GS
1290=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1291
75b44862
GS
1292(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1293creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1294backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1295expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1296value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1297instead.
6df41af2 1298
810b8aa5
GS
1299=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1300
1301(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1302references can be weakened.
1303
fc7debfb
FC
1304=item Can't "when" outside a topicalizer
1305
1306(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1307loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1308from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1309or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1310
5f05dabc 1311=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1312
be771a83
GS
1313(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1314with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1315Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1316
4a68bf9d 1317=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529 1318
3c664d1a 1319(F)(D deprecated, syntax) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
675fa9ff
FC
1320It is planned to make this fatal in all instances in Perl v5.20. In
1321the cases where it isn't fatal, the character this evaluates to is
17a3df4c
KW
1322derived by exclusive or'ing the code point of this character with 0x40.
1323
c9faaf04
KW
1324Note that non-alphabetic ASCII characters are discouraged here as well,
1325and using non-printable ones will be deprecated starting in v5.18.
f9d13529 1326
f337b084 1327=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1328
1329(W pack) You said
1330
1331 pack("C", $x)
1332
1333where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1334only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1335and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1336
1337 pack("C", $x & 255)
1338
1339If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1340instead.
1341
f337b084 1342=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1343
1344(W pack) You said
1345
1346 pack("c", $x)
1347
1348where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1349is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1350and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1351
1352 pack("c", $x & 255);
1353
1354If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1355instead.
1356
f337b084
TH
1357=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1358
1359(W unpack) You tried something like
1360
1361 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1362
1a147d38 1363where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
6903afa2
FC
1364below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the
1365value modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
f337b084
TH
1366
1367 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1368
5a25739d
FC
1369=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1370
1371(W pack) You said
1372
1373 pack("U0W", $x)
1374
1375where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode
1376expects all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved
1377as if you meant:
1378
1379 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1380
f337b084
TH
1381=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1382
1383(W pack) You tried something like
1384
1385 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1386
1a147d38 1387where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1388value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1389uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1390
1391 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1392
1393=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1394
1395(W unpack) You tried something like
1396
1397 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1398
1a147d38 1399where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1400value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1401uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1402
1403 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1404
f866a7cd
FC
1405=item "\c{" is deprecated and is more clearly written as ";"
1406
1407(D deprecated, syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way
1408to specify non-printable characters. You used it with a "{" which
1409evaluates to ";", which is printable. It is planned to remove the
c9faaf04 1410ability to specify a semi-colon this way in Perl 5.20. Just use a
f866a7cd
FC
1411semi-colon or a backslash-semi-colon without the "\c".
1412
1413=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
1414
1415(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
1416non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1417written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
1418characters.
1419
6651ba0b
FC
1420=item Cloning substitution context is unimplemented
1421
1422(F) Creating a new thread inside the C<s///> operator is not supported.
1423
abc7ecad
SP
1424=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1425
1426(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1427a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1428
5a25739d
FC
1429=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1430
1431(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1432
541ed3a9
FC
1433=item Closure prototype called
1434
1435(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1436handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1437This subroutine cannot be called.
1438
49704364
LW
1439=item Code missing after '/'
1440
6903afa2
FC
1441(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be
1442another template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 1443
6fbc9859
MH
1444=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, all \p{} matches fail; all \P{} matches
1445succeed
9ae3ac1a 1446
5a25739d
FC
1447=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1448
e2f4a215 1449(S utf8, non_unicode) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum
1b64326b
FC
1450of U+10FFFF.
1451
1452Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code points, up
1453to the limit of what is storable in an unsigned integer on your system,
1454but these may not be accepted by other languages/systems. At one time,
1455it was legal in some standards to have code points up to 0x7FFF_FFFF,
1456but not higher. Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require larger than a
145732 bit word.
0876b9a0 1458
9ae3ac1a
KW
1459None of the Unicode or Perl-defined properties will match a non-Unicode
1460code point. For example,
1461
1462 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\p{Any}/
1463
1464will not match, because the code point is not in Unicode. But
1465
1466 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\P{Any}/
1467
1468will match.
1469
94b42e47
KW
1470This may be counterintuitive at times, as both these fail:
1471
f9d4ccdc
FC
1472 chr(0x110000) =~ /\p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True}/ # Fails.
1473 chr(0x110000) =~ /\p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False}/ # Also fails!
94b42e47
KW
1474
1475and both these succeed:
1476
f9d4ccdc
FC
1477 chr(0x110000) =~ /\P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True}/ # Succeeds.
1478 chr(0x110000) =~ /\P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False}/ # Also succeeds!
94b42e47 1479
6df41af2
GS
1480=item %s: Command not found
1481
a892b81a
FC
1482(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> or another shell
1483shell instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
1484into Perl yourself. The #! line at the top of your file could look like
8f721816
MM
1485
1486 #!/usr/bin/perl -w
6df41af2 1487
7a2e2cd6
PP
1488=item Compilation failed in require
1489
1490(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1491Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1492encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1493
c3464db5
DD
1494=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1495
be771a83
GS
1496(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1497situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1498to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1499arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1500recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1501under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1502in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1503that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1504on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1505
38875929
DM
1506=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1507
6903afa2
FC
1508(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to
1509call cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked.
1510The cond_broadcast() function is used to wake up another thread
1511that is waiting in a cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't
1512sent before the other thread has a chance to enter the wait, it
1513is usual for the signaling thread first to wait for a lock on
1514variable. This lock attempt will only succeed after the other
1515thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the lock.
38875929 1516
38875929
DM
1517=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1518
6903afa2
FC
1519(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to
1520call cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The
1521cond_signal() function is used to wake up another thread that
1522is waiting in a cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't
1523sent before the other thread has a chance to enter the wait, it
1524is usual for the signaling thread first to wait for a lock on
1525variable. This lock attempt will only succeed after the other
1526thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the lock.
38875929 1527
69282e91 1528=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1529
be771a83
GS
1530(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1531to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1532L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1533
e21e7c6a
FC
1534=item Constant(%s): Call to &{$^H{%s}} did not return a defined value
1535
1536(F) The subroutine registered to handle constant overloading
1537(see L<overload>) or a custom charnames handler (see
1538L<charnames/CUSTOM TRANSLATORS>) returned an undefined value.
1539
1540=item Constant(%s): $^H{%s} is not defined
1541
1542(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to define an
1543overloaded constant. Perhaps you forgot to load the corresponding
1544L<overload> pragma?.
1545
779c5bc9
GS
1546=item Constant is not %s reference
1547
1548(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83 1549is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
6903afa2 1550The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
be771a83 1551usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1552See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1553
4cee8e80
CS
1554=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1555
aeb94125
FC
1556(W redefine)(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously
1557been eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions">
1558for commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1559
9607fc9c
PP
1560=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1561
be771a83
GS
1562(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1563for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1564workarounds.
9607fc9c 1565
5a25739d
FC
1566=item Constant(%s) unknown
1567
1568(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting
1569to define an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the
1570character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1571forgot to load the corresponding L<overload> pragma?.
1572
e7ea3e70
IZ
1573=item Copy method did not return a reference
1574
6903afa2 1575(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1576L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1577
4aaa4757
FC
1578=item &CORE::%s cannot be called directly
1579
1580(F) You tried to call a subroutine in the C<CORE::> namespace
8d605c0d 1581with C<&foo> syntax or through a reference. Some subroutines
4aaa4757
FC
1582in this package cannot yet be called that way, but must be
1583called as barewords. Something like this will work:
1584
1585 BEGIN { *shove = \&CORE::push; }
1586 shove @array, 1,2,3; # pushes on to @array
1587
6798c92b
GS
1588=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1589
1590(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1591
675fa9ff
FC
1592=item Corrupted regexp opcode %d > %d
1593
1594(P) This is either an error in Perl, or, if you're using
1595one, your L<custom regular expression engine|perlreapi>. If not the
1596latter, report the problem through the L<perlbug> utility.
1597
a0d0e21e
LW
1598=item corrupted regexp pointers
1599
1600(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1601expression compiler gave it.
1602
1603=item corrupted regexp program
1604
be771a83
GS
1605(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1606valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1607
de42a5a9 1608=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1609
1610(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1611
49704364
LW
1612=item Count after length/code in unpack
1613
1614(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1615you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1616L<perlfunc/pack>.
1617
6651ba0b
FC
1618=item Deep recursion on anonymous subroutine
1619
a0d0e21e
LW
1620=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1621
be771a83
GS
1622(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1623100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1624infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1625which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1626
aad1d01f
NC
1627This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1628setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1629
f10b0346 1630=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1631
be771a83
GS
1632(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1633checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1634array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1635
f10b0346 1636=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1637
f0ec9725
KR
1638(D deprecated) C<defined()> is not usually right on hashes and has been
1639discouraged since 5.004.
1640
1641Although C<defined %hash> is false on a plain not-yet-used hash, it
1642becomes true in several non-obvious circumstances, including iterators,
1643weak references, stash names, even remaining true after C<undef %hash>.
1644These things make C<defined %hash> fairly useless in practice.
1645
1646If a check for non-empty is what you wanted then just put it in boolean
1647context (see L<perldata/Scalar values>):
16546e45
KR
1648
1649 if (%hash) {
1650 # not empty
1651 }
1652
f0ec9725
KR
1653If you had C<defined %Foo::Bar::QUUX> to check whether such a package
1654variable exists then that's never really been reliable, and isn't
1655a good way to enquire about the features of a package, or whether
1656it's loaded, etc.
1657
69794302 1658
6fbc9859
MH
1659=item (?(DEFINE)....) does not allow branches in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
1660m/%s/
bcb95744 1661
6903afa2 1662(F) You used something like C<(?(DEFINE)...|..)> which is illegal. The
bcb95744
FC
1663most likely cause of this error is that you left out a parenthesis inside
1664of the C<....> part.
1665
9e3ec65c 1666The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
bcb95744
FC
1667discovered.
1668
62658f4d
PM
1669=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1670
1671(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1672there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1673
fc36a67e
PP
1674=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1675
be771a83
GS
1676(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1677long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1678that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1679
6d3b25aa
RGS
1680=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1681
fa816bf3
FC
1682(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>. There
1683has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
6d3b25aa 1684not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
6903afa2 1685conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
fa816bf3 1686static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
6903afa2 1687relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
6d3b25aa 1688declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1689
6d3b25aa
RGS
1690 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1691
1692becomes
1693
1694 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1695
fa816bf3
FC
1696Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to have
1697lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
36fb85f3
RGS
1698
1699 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1700
500ab966
RGS
1701=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1702
1703(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
6903afa2
FC
1704just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather
1705than to create a dangling reference.
500ab966 1706
3cdd684c
TP
1707=item Did not produce a valid header
1708
1709See Server error.
1710
6df41af2
GS
1711=item %s did not return a true value
1712
1713(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1714it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1715traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1716do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1717
cc507455 1718=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1719
413ff9f6
FC
1720(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1721some such.
4633a7c4 1722
cc507455 1723=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1724
be771a83
GS
1725(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1726variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1727seems superfluous.
33633739 1728
cc507455 1729=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1730
be771a83
GS
1731(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1732@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1733carried away.
748a9306 1734
7e1af8bc 1735=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1736
1737(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
075b00aa 1738you called it with no args and C<$@> was empty.
5f05dabc 1739
3cdd684c
TP
1740=item Document contains no data
1741
1742See Server error.
1743
62658f4d
PM
1744=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1745
1746(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
943fc58e 1747define a C<$VERSION>.
62658f4d 1748
49704364
LW
1749=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1750
1751(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1752See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1753
a0d0e21e
LW
1754=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1755
1756(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1757
1758=item do_study: out of memory
1759
1760(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1761
6df41af2
GS
1762=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1763
56da5a46
RGS
1764(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1765"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1766name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1767because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1768"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1769something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1770subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1771"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1772
ac206dc8
RGS
1773=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1774
1775(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1776qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1777
84d78eb7
YO
1778=item dump is not supported
1779
1780(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1781
a0d0e21e
LW
1782=item Duplicate free() ignored
1783
be771a83
GS
1784(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1785already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1786
1109a392
MHM
1787=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1788
35f0cd76
FC
1789(W unpack) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a
1790type in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1109a392 1791
4633a7c4
LW
1792=item elseif should be elsif
1793
fa816bf3
FC
1794(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks
1795it's ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1796named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1797unlikely to be what you want.
1798
c608e803 1799=item Empty \%c{} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
ab13f0c7 1800
af6f566e 1801(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
6903afa2 1802described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
af6f566e 1803a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1804
85ab1d1d 1805=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1806
85ab1d1d 1807(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1808effective uids or gids failed.
1809
c038024b
RGS
1810=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1811
1812(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1813aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
6903afa2 1814program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
c038024b 1815
748a9306
LW
1816=item Error converting file specification %s
1817
5f05dabc 1818(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1819specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1820single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1821an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1822conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1823
ff56e4f1
KW
1824=item Escape literal pattern white space under /x
1825
1826(D deprecated) You compiled a regular expression pattern with C</x> to
1827ignore white space, and you used, as a literal, one of the characters
1828that Perl plans to eventually treat as white space. The character must
1829be escaped somehow, or it will work differently on a future Perl that
1830does treat it as white space. The easiest way is to insert a backslash
1831immediately before it, or to enclose it with square brackets. This
1832change is to bring Perl into conformance with Unicode recommendations.
1833Here are the five characters that generate this warning:
1834U+0085 NEXT LINE,
1835U+200E LEFT-TO-RIGHT MARK,
1836U+200F RIGHT-TO-LEFT MARK,
1837U+2028 LINE SEPARATOR,
1838and
1839U+2029 PARAGRAPH SEPARATOR.
1840
ad19ef22 1841=item Eval-group in insecure regular expression
e4d48cc9 1842
be771a83
GS
1843(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1844expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1845is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1846
ad19ef22 1847=item Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
e4d48cc9 1848
be771a83
GS
1849(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1850C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
f11307f5
FC
1851pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk,
1852it is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by using the
1853C<re 'eval'> pragma or by explicitly building the pattern from an
1854interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval(). See
1855L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1856
ad19ef22 1857=item Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
6df41af2 1858
be771a83
GS
1859(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1860assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1861pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1862
6fbc9859
MH
1863=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
1864m/%s/
1a147d38
YO
1865
1866(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
6903afa2 1867any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1a147d38 1868
9e3ec65c 1869The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
1a147d38
YO
1870discovered.
1871
fc36a67e
PP
1872=item Excessively long <> operator
1873
1874(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1875Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1876filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1877variable and glob that.
1878
ed9aa3b7
SG
1879=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1880
af8bb25a 1881(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented on some systems, e.g., Symbian
6903afa2 1882OS. See L<perlport>.
ed9aa3b7 1883
fe13d51d 1884=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1885
1886(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1887
1888=item Exiting eval via %s
1889
be771a83
GS
1890(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1891goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1892
1893=item Exiting format via %s
1894
9a2ff54b 1895(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1896goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1897
0a753a76
PP
1898=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1899
be771a83
GS
1900(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1901sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1902loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1903
a0d0e21e
LW
1904=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1905
be771a83
GS
1906(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1907as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1908
1909=item Exiting substitution via %s
1910
be771a83
GS
1911(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1912as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1913
c608e803
KW
1914=item Expecting close bracket in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1915
675fa9ff 1916(F) You wrote something like
c608e803
KW
1917
1918 (?13
1919
1920to denote a capturing group of the form
1921L<C<(?I<PARNO>)>|perlre/(?PARNO) (?-PARNO) (?+PARNO) (?R) (?0)>,
1922but omitted the C<")">.
1923
27350048
FC
1924=item Expecting '(?flags:(?[...' in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1925
8b6fbf55
FC
1926(F) The C<(?[...])> extended character class regular expression construct
1927only allows character classes (including character class escapes like
1928C<\d>), operators, and parentheses. The one exception is C<(?flags:...)>
1929containing at least one flag and exactly one C<(?[...])> construct.
27350048
FC
1930This allows a regular expression containing just C<(?[...])> to be
1931interpolated. If you see this error message, then you probably
1932have some other C<(?...)> construct inside your character class. See
1933L<perlrecharclass/Extended Bracketed Character Classes>.
1934
e7d0b801
FC
1935=item Experimental "%s" subs not enabled
1936
1937(F) To use lexical subs, you must first enable them:
1938
f1d34ca8 1939 no warnings 'experimental::lexical_subs';
e7d0b801
FC
1940 use feature 'lexical_subs';
1941 my sub foo { ... }
1942
7b8d334a
GS
1943=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1944
be771a83
GS
1945(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1946the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1947usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1948e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1949
6df41af2
GS
1950=item %s: Expression syntax
1951
be771a83
GS
1952(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1953Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1954
1955=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1956
3c10abe3
AG
1957(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1958CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1959queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1960
7253e4e3 1961=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1962
4f2e2aa2 1963(W regexp)(F) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3 1964character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
3c6ca74a
FC
1965in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". In a C<(?[...])>
1966construct, this is an error, rather than a warning. Consider quoting
1967the "-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression
1968the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1969
1b1ee2ef 1970=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1971
be771a83
GS
1972(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1973system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1974details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1975you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1976
1977=item fcntl is not implemented
1978
1979(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1980PDP-11 or something?
1981
22846ab4
AB
1982=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1983
1984(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1985is not possible.
1986
f337b084
TH
1987=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1988
d8b5cc61 1989(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string starts with a length indicator
6903afa2
FC
1990which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1991a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
5c96f6f7 1992C<u63> as the format.
f337b084 1993
af8c498a 1994=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1995
6c8d78fb
HS
1996(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1997it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1998"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1999write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 2000
af8c498a 2001=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 2002
6c8d78fb
HS
2003(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
2004you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
89a1bda8
FC
2005with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with ">". If you intended only to
2006read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>. Another possibility
2007is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for
2008output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
2009
2010=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
2011
2012(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
6903afa2 2013as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
2014previously.
2015
2016=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
2017
2018(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
fa816bf3 2019as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
2020
2021=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
2022
2023(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
2024a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
2025happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
2026name.
a0d0e21e 2027
56e90b21
GS
2028=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
2029
be771a83 2030(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 2031some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
2032filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
2033same name?
56e90b21 2034
6df41af2
GS
2035=item Format not terminated
2036
2037(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
2038to the end of your file without finding such a line.
2039
a0d0e21e
LW
2040=item Format %s redefined
2041
e476b1b5 2042(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
2043
2044 {
271595cc 2045 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
2046 eval "format NAME =...";
2047 }
2048
a0d0e21e
LW
2049=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
2050
e476b1b5 2051(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
2052
2053 if ($foo = 123)
2054
2055when you meant
2056
2057 if ($foo == 123)
2058
2059(or something like that).
2060
6df41af2
GS
2061=item %s found where operator expected
2062
56da5a46
RGS
2063(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
2064If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
2065operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
2066operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 2067
a0d0e21e
LW
2068=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
2069
2070(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
2071
2072=item gethostent not implemented
2073
2074(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
2075because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
2076on the Internet.
2077
69282e91 2078=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2079
be771a83
GS
2080(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
2081socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 2082
748a9306
LW
2083=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
2084
2085(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
2086C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
2087
6df41af2
GS
2088=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
2089
be771a83
GS
2090(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
2091forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
2092L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
2093
0f539b13
BF
2094=item given is experimental
2095
675fa9ff
FC
2096(S experimental::smartmatch) C<given> depends on smartmatch, which
2097is experimental, so its behavior may change or even be removed
2098in any future release of perl. See the explanation under
2099L<perlsyn/Experimental Details on given and when>.
0f539b13 2100
6df41af2
GS
2101=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
2102
a4edf47d 2103(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 2104that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
2105declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
2106which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 2107
e476b1b5
GS
2108=item glob failed (%s)
2109
5ead438e 2110(S glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used
73c4e9dc
FC
2111for C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
2112pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
be771a83 2113nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
73c4e9dc
FC
2114resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell)
2115is broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables
2116in config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as
2117if it were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them
2118all empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
be771a83 2119think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 2120C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 2121
a0d0e21e
LW
2122=item Glob not terminated
2123
2124(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
2125a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
2126not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
2127earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 2128
bcd05b94 2129=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2130
e9200be3 2131(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was larger than
fc003d4b 2132it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
6903afa2 2133date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2134not-a-number value).
2135
bcd05b94 2136=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2137
e9200be3 2138(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was smaller than
e7a1a147 2139it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2140
6df41af2 2141=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 2142
6df41af2
GS
2143(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
2144version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
2145
2146=item goto must have label
2147
2148(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
2149unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2150
6651ba0b
FC
2151=item Goto undefined subroutine%s
2152
2153(F) You tried to call a subroutine with C<goto &sub> syntax, but
2154the indicated subroutine hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2155has since been undefined.
2156
6fbc9859
MH
2157=item Group name must start with a non-digit word character in regex; marked by
2158<-- HERE in m/%s/
1f4f6bf1
YO
2159
2160(F) Group names must follow the rules for perl identifiers, meaning
2161they must start with a non-digit word character. A common cause of
2162this error is using (?&0) instead of (?0). See L<perlre>.
2163
5a25739d
FC
2164=item ()-group starts with a count
2165
2166(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is supposed to follow
2167something: a template character or a ()-group. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2168
fe13d51d 2169=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
2170
2171(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
2172
a0d0e21e
LW
2173=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
2174
be771a83
GS
2175(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
2176to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
2177created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
2178
2179=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
2180
be771a83
GS
2181(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
2182spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 2183
6df41af2
GS
2184=item %s has too many errors
2185
2186(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
2187Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
2188
252aa082
JH
2189=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2190
e476b1b5 2191(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2192(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2193L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2194
8903cb82
PP
2195=item Identifier too long
2196
2197(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2198about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2199names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2200of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2201
b33c0c71 2202=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
fc8cd66c 2203
b5e3739b
FC
2204(W regexp) Named Unicode character escapes C<(\N{...})> may return a
2205zero-length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class
2206its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
2207been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
2208
6df41af2 2209=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2210
6df41af2 2211(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2212
6df41af2 2213=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2214
be771a83
GS
2215(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2216binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2217offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2218
6597eb22
FC
2219=item Illegal character after '_' in prototype for %s : %s
2220
2221(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2222Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
2223
78d0fecf 2224=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2225
d5898338 2226(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2227would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2228when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2229version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2230to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2231
d37a9538
ST
2232=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2233
197afce1 2234(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2e9cc7ef 2235Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
d37a9538 2236
904d85c5
RGS
2237=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2238
2239(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
6903afa2 2240you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
904d85c5 2241
8e742a20
MHM
2242=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2243
6903afa2 2244(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
8e742a20 2245
a0d0e21e
LW
2246=item Illegal division by zero
2247
be771a83
GS
2248(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2249your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2250meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2251
6df41af2
GS
2252=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2253
be771a83
GS
2254(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2255A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2256number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2257
a0d0e21e
LW
2258=item Illegal modulus zero
2259
be771a83
GS
2260(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2261numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2262
6df41af2 2263=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2264
6df41af2
GS
2265(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2266two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2267
2268=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2269
d1be9408 2270(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2271
399388f4 2272=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2273
d1be9408 2274(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2275Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2276
c608e803
KW
2277=item Illegal pattern in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2278
675fa9ff 2279(F) You wrote something like
c608e803
KW
2280
2281 (?+foo)
2282
2283The C<"+"> is valid only when followed by digits, indicating a
2284capturing group. See
2285L<C<(?I<PARNO>)>|perlre/(?PARNO) (?-PARNO) (?+PARNO) (?R) (?0)>.
2286
fe13d51d 2287=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2288
6df41af2 2289(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2290following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2291
6df41af2 2292=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2293
75b44862 2294(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2295internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2296delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2297
6df41af2 2298=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2299
be771a83
GS
2300(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2301name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2302didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2303ignored.
54310121 2304
6df41af2 2305=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2306
be771a83
GS
2307(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2308the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2309system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2310times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2311would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2312
be771a83
GS
2313Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2314also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2315
0d0b4b3b
KW
2316=item Incomplete expression within '(?[ ])' in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2317
675fa9ff 2318(F) There was a syntax error within the C<(?[ ])>. This can happen if the
0d0b4b3b
KW
2319expression inside the construct was completely empty, or if there are
2320too many or few operands for the number of operators. Perl is not smart
2321enough to give you a more precise indication as to what is wrong.
2322
6fbc9859
MH
2323=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on
2324parent '%s'
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2325
2326(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2327C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2328documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2329
979699d9
JH
2330=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2331
2332(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2333Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2334encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2335
1a147d38
YO
2336=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2337
2338(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
6903afa2 2339text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
1a147d38
YO
2340either consume text or fail.
2341
9e3ec65c 2342The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
1a147d38
YO
2343discovered.
2344
6dbe9451
NC
2345=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2346
6903afa2
FC
2347(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the
2348initialization of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write
2349C<state ($a) = 42> as C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar
2350context. Constructions such as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be
2351supported in a future perl release.
6dbe9451 2352
a0d0e21e
LW
2353=item Insecure dependency in %s
2354
8b1a09fc 2355(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2356The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2357setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2358tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2359from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2360such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2361L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2362
2363=item Insecure directory in %s
2364
be771a83
GS
2365(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2366setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2367the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2368See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2369
62f468fc 2370=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2371
2372(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2373setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2374C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2375supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2376the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2377
0e9be77f
DM
2378=item Insecure user-defined property %s
2379
2380(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2381expression that contains a call to a user-defined character property
2382function, i.e. C<\p{IsFoo}> or C<\p{InFoo}>.
2383See L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties> and L<perlsec>.
2384
675fa9ff
FC
2385=item In '(?...)', splitting the initial '(?' is deprecated in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2386
2387(D regexp, deprecated) The two-character sequence C<"(?"> in
2388this context in a regular expression pattern should be an
2389indivisible token, with nothing intervening between the C<"(">
2390and the C<"?">, but you separated them. Due to an accident of
2391implementation, this prohibition was not enforced, but we do
2392plan to forbid it in a future Perl version. This message
2393serves as giving you fair warning of this pending change.
2394
b9ef414d
FC
2395=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2396
2397(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2398or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2399integers for your architecture.
2400
a7ae9550
GS
2401=item Integer overflow in %s number
2402
35928bc5 2403(S overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2404either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2405your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2406On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2407representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
24080b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2409transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2410internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2411operations.
bbce6d69 2412
fc89ca81
FC
2413=item Integer overflow in srand
2414
2415(S overflow) The number you have passed to srand is too big to fit
2416in your architecture's integer representation. The number has been
2417replaced with the largest integer supported (0xFFFFFFFF on 32-bit
2418architectures). This means you may be getting less randomness than
2419you expect, because different random seeds above the maximum will
2420return the same sequence of random numbers.
2421
46314c13
JP
2422=item Integer overflow in version
2423
18da5252
FC
2424=item Integer overflow in version %d
2425
784d71ed
FC
2426(W overflow) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for
2427the size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
f084e84f 2428because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use an
784d71ed
FC
2429element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by trying
2430to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like 100/9.
46314c13 2431
7253e4e3 2432=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2433
2434(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
9e3ec65c 2435The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2436discovered.
2437
748a9306
LW
2438=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2439
be771a83
GS
2440(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2441you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2442to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2443L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2444Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2445terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2446
7253e4e3 2447=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2448
fa816bf3 2449(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
9e3ec65c 2450<-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
7253e4e3 2451discovered.
a0d0e21e 2452
6df41af2
GS
2453=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2454
75b44862 2455(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2456followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2457operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2458L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2459
09bef843
SB
2460=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2461
a4a4c9e2 2462(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2463by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2464
2465=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2466
a4a4c9e2 2467(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2468recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2469
225fb84f
KW
2470=item Invalid character in charnames alias definition; marked by <-- HERE in '%s
2471
2472(F) You tried to create a custom alias for a character name, with
2473the C<:alias> option to C<use charnames> and the specified character in
2474the indicated name isn't valid. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2475
5a25739d
FC
2476=item Invalid character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s}
2477
2478(F) Only certain characters are valid for character names. The
2479indicated one isn't. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2480
c635e13b
PP
2481=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2482
be771a83
GS
2483(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2484L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2485
6fbc9859
MH
2486=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
2487m/%s/
9e08bc66
ST
2488
2489(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2490didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2491from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2492The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
9e3ec65c 2493The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
9e08bc66
ST
2494escape was discovered.
2495
8149aa9f
FC
2496=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
2497
6fbc9859
MH
2498=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
2499m/%s/
aec0ef10 2500
8149aa9f 2501(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
74f8e9e3
FC
2502number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than
25030 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
8149aa9f 2504
6651ba0b
FC
2505=item Invalid module name %s with -%c option: contains single ':'
2506
2507(F) The module argument to perl's B<-m> and B<-M> command-line options
2508cannot contain single colons in the module name, but only in the
2509arguments after "=". In other words, B<-MFoo::Bar=:baz> is ok, but
2510B<-MFoo:Bar=baz> is not.
2511
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2512=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2513
162a3e34
FC
2514(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")> or C<use mro 'foo'>,
2515where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO). Currently,
2516the only valid ones supported are C<dfs> and C<c3>, unless you have loaded
2517a module that is a MRO plugin. See L<mro> and L<perlmroapi>.
2c7d6b9c 2518
40e4140b
FC
2519=item Invalid negative number (%s) in chr
2520
2521(W utf8) You passed a negative number to C<chr>. Negative numbers are
2522not valid characters numbers, so it return the Unicode replacement
2523character (U+FFFD).
2524
6651ba0b
FC
2525=item invalid option -D%c, use -D'' to see choices
2526
8ff21bfe
FC
2527(S debugging) Perl was called with invalid debugger flags. Call perl
2528with the B<-D> option with no flags to see the list of acceptable values.
982c4ecb 2529See also L<perlrun/-Dletters>.
6651ba0b 2530
7253e4e3 2531=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2532
2533(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2534greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2535C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
9e3ec65c 2536up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
7253e4e3 2537problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2538
d1573ac7 2539=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2540
2541(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2542character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2543
09bef843
SB
2544=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2545
0120eecf 2546(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2547elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2548parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2549See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2550
b4581f09
JH
2551=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2552
2bfc5f71
FC
2553(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other
2554than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
b4581f09
JH
2555If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2556list was terminated too soon.
2557
2c86d456
DG
2558=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2559
fa816bf3 2560(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2561A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2562decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2563v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2564The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2565See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2566
49704364 2567=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2568
49704364
LW
2569(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2570See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6728c851 2571
49704364 2572(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2573silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2574
2c86d456
DG
2575=item Invalid version format (%s)
2576
fa816bf3 2577(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2578A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2579decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
fa816bf3
FC
2580v-string. If the v-string has fewer than three components, it
2581must have a leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is
2582optional. Both decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a
2583trailing "alpha" component separated by an underscore character
2584after a fractional or dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized
2585text indicates which criteria were not met. See the L<version> module
2586for more details on allowed version formats.
46314c13 2587
798ae1b7
DG
2588=item Invalid version object
2589
fa816bf3
FC
2590(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid.
2591Perhaps the internals were modified directly in some way or
2592an arbitrary reference was blessed into the "version" class.
798ae1b7 2593
675fa9ff
FC
2594=item In '(*VERB...)', splitting the initial '(*' is deprecated in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2595
2596(D regexp, deprecated) The two-character sequence C<"(*"> in
2597this context in a regular expression pattern should be an
2598indivisible token, with nothing intervening between the C<"(">
2599and the C<"*">, but you separated them. Due to an accident of
2600implementation, this prohibition was not enforced, but we do
2601plan to forbid it in a future Perl version. This message
2602serves as giving you fair warning of this pending change.
2603
a0d0e21e
LW
2604=item ioctl is not implemented
2605
2606(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2607strange for a machine that supports C.
2608
c289d2f7
JH
2609=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2610
2611(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
34b6fd5e 2612Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 2613
fe13d51d 2614=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2615
2616(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
34b6fd5e 2617you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO, Perl must be configured
363c40c4
SB
2618with 'useperlio'.
2619
80cbd5ad
JH
2620=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2621
2622(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
34b6fd5e 2623neither as a system call nor an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
80cbd5ad 2624
4f650b80 2625=item $* is no longer supported
b4581f09 2626
4f650b80
NC
2627(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older
2628perls, has been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In
2629previous versions of perl the use of C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line
2630matching within a string.
4fd19576
B
2631
2632Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
6903afa2
FC
2633modifiers. You can enable C</m> for a lexical scope (even a whole file)
2634with C<use re '/m'>. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value
570dedd4 2635then all regular expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2636
8ae1fe26
RGS
2637=item $# is no longer supported
2638
a58ac25e 2639(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older
6903afa2 2640perls, has been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You
a58ac25e 2641should use the printf/sprintf functions instead.
8ae1fe26 2642
ccf3535a 2643=item '%s' is not a code reference
6ad11d81 2644
6903afa2
FC
2645(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of
2646overload::constant needs to be a code reference. Either
2647an anonymous subroutine, or a reference to a subroutine.
6ad11d81 2648
ccf3535a 2649=item '%s' is not an overloadable type
6ad11d81 2650
04a80ee0
RGS
2651(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2652unaware of.
6ad11d81 2653
5a25739d
FC
2654=item -i used with no filenames on the command line, reading from STDIN
2655
2656(S inplace) The C<-i> option was passed on the command line, indicating
2657that the script is intended to edit files in place, but no files were
2658given. This is usually a mistake, since editing STDIN in place doesn't
2659make sense, and can be confusing because it can make perl look like
2660it is hanging when it is really just trying to read from STDIN. You
2661should either pass a filename to edit, or remove C<-i> from the command
2662line. See L<perlrun> for more details.
2663
aec0ef10 2664=item Junk on end of regexp in regex m/%s/
a0d0e21e
LW
2665
2666(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2667
2668=item Label not found for "last %s"
2669
be771a83
GS
2670(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2671of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2672L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2673
2674=item Label not found for "next %s"
2675
2676(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2677that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2678L<perlfunc/last>.
2679
2680=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2681
2682(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2683that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2684L<perlfunc/last>.
2685
85ab1d1d 2686=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2687
85ab1d1d 2688(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2689effective uids or gids failed.
2690
49704364
LW
2691=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2692
d7f8936a 2693(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
6903afa2
FC
2694length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2695an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 2696
e508c8a4
MH
2697=item length() used on %s
2698
0d46a4e7
FC
2699(W syntax) You used length() on either an array or a hash when you
2700probably wanted a count of the items.
e508c8a4
MH
2701
2702Array size can be obtained by doing:
2703
2704 scalar(@array);
2705
2706The number of items in a hash can be obtained by doing:
2707
2708 scalar(keys %hash);
2709
f0e67a1d
Z
2710=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2711
d4fe7078
RS
2712(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
2713(using L<lex_stuff_pvn|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn> or similar), but tried to insert a character that
2714couldn't be part of the current input. This is an inherent pitfall
2715of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the reasons to avoid it. Where
6903afa2 2716it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only plain ASCII is recommended.
f0e67a1d
Z
2717
2718=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2719
2720(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2721detectable way.
2722
69282e91 2723=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2724
be771a83
GS
2725(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2726to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2727L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2728
6651ba0b
FC
2729=item List form of piped open not implemented
2730
2731(F) On some platforms, notably Windows, the three-or-more-arguments
2732form of C<open> does not support pipes, such as C<open($pipe, '|-', @args)>.
2733Use the two-argument C<open($pipe, '|prog arg1 arg2...')> form instead.
2734
bcd05b94 2735=item localtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2736
e9200be3 2737(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was larger
fc003d4b 2738than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
6903afa2 2739wrong date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2740not-a-number value).
2741
bcd05b94 2742=item localtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2743
e9200be3 2744(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was smaller
fc003d4b 2745than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
e7a1a147 2746wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2747
58e23c8d 2748=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2749
2750(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
6903afa2 2751handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2752
b88df990
NC
2753=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2754
e63e8a91
FC
2755(W imprecision) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one
2756is too large for the underlying floating point representation to store
2757accurately, hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this
2758warning because it has already switched from integers to floating point
2759when values are too large for integers, and now even floating point is
2760insufficient. You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
b88df990 2761
93fad930 2762=item lstat() on filehandle%s
2f7da168
RK
2763
2764(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2765by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2766instead on the filehandle.)
2767
345d70e3 2768=item lvalue attribute %s already-defined subroutine
bb3abb05 2769
345d70e3
FC
2770(W misc) Although L<attributes.pm|attributes> allows this, turning the lvalue
2771attribute on or off on a Perl subroutine that is already defined
2772does not always work properly. It may or may not do what you
2773want, depending on what code is inside the subroutine, with exact
2774details subject to change between Perl versions. Only do this
2775if you really know what you are doing.
bb3abb05 2776
885ef6f5
GG
2777=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2778
345d70e3
FC
2779(W misc) Using the C<:lvalue> declarative syntax to make a Perl
2780subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined is
2781not permitted. To make the subroutine an lvalue subroutine,
2782add the lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the C<sub
2783foo :lvalue;> declaration before the definition.
2784
2785See also L<attributes.pm|attributes>.
885ef6f5 2786
2db62bbc 2787=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
49704364 2788
2db62bbc 2789(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2790are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2791
2792=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2793
2db62bbc 2794(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2795are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2796
6df41af2
GS
2797=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2798
2799(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2800
2801 prefix1;prefix2
2802
2803or
6df41af2
GS
2804 prefix1 prefix2
2805
be771a83
GS
2806with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2807a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2808appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2809"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2810
2f758a16
ST
2811=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2812
d37a9538
ST
2813(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2814syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2815obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2816when the function is called.
2f758a16 2817
ba210ebe
JH
2818=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2819
4d6f11e5 2820(S utf8)(F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2575c402 2821encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2822
2575c402
JW
2823One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2824you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
6903afa2 28258-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2575c402
JW
2826
2827If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2828sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2829set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2830message.
2831
2832See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2833
107160e2
KW
2834=item Malformed UTF-8 character immediately after '%s'
2835
2836(F) You said C<use utf8>, but the program file doesn't comply with UTF-8
2837encoding rules. The message prints out the properly encoded characters
2838just before the first bad one. If C<utf8> warnings are enabled, a
2839warning is generated that gives more details about the type of
2840malformation.
2841
bde9e88d 2842=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N{%s} immediately after '%s'
ff3f963a
KW
2843
2844(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2845
4a5d3a93
FC
2846=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2847
2848(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2849rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2850
f337b084
TH
2851=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2852
2853(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2854rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2855
2856=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2857
2858(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2859rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2860
4a5d3a93 2861=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
f337b084 2862
4a5d3a93
FC
2863(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
2864doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2865
2866=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2867
2868(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
2869regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
9e3ec65c 2870shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
4a5d3a93 2871See L<perlre>.
f337b084 2872
de42a5a9 2873=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 2874
6903afa2 2875(F) Perl aborted due to too high a number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2876usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2877too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2878resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
6903afa2 2879safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2563cec5 2880
25f58aea
PN
2881=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2882
2883(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2884interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2885"use" or "my".
2886
0d2487cd 2887=item '%' may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2888
2889(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2890checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2891See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2892
a0d0e21e
LW
2893=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2894
2895(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2896doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2897
3cdd684c
TP
2898=item Method %s not permitted
2899
2900See Server error.
2901
a0d0e21e
LW
2902=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2903
2904(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2905by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2906ended earlier on the current line.
2907
2908=item Misplaced _ in number
2909
d4ced10d
JH
2910(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2911separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2912
7baa4690
HS
2913=item Missing argument in %s
2914
2915(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2916supplied.
2917
9e81e6a1
RGS
2918=item Missing argument to -%c
2919
2920(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2921immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2922
ff3f963a 2923=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2924
aec0ef10
FC
2925=item Missing braces on \N{} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2926
4a2d328f 2927(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
532cb70d
FC
2928double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space
2929(or comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2930This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately
2931follow the C<\N>.
423cee85 2932
f0a2b745
KW
2933=item Missing braces on \o{}
2934
2935(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2936
a0d0e21e
LW
2937=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2938
2939(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2940"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2941
06eaf0bc
GS
2942=item Missing command in piped open
2943
be771a83
GS
2944(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2945C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2946blank.
06eaf0bc 2947
961ce445
RGS
2948=item Missing control char name in \c
2949
2950(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2951character name.
2952
8767b1ab 2953=item Missing name in "%s sub"
6df41af2 2954
be771a83
GS
2955(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2956they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2957
2958=item Missing $ on loop variable
2959
be771a83
GS
2960(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2961are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2962can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2963
cc507455 2964=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2965
56da5a46
RGS
2966(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2967"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2968
aec0ef10 2969=item Missing right brace on \%c{} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
ab13f0c7 2970
ff3f963a
KW
2971(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
2972
4a68bf9d 2973=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 2974
d32207c9
FC
2975(F) C<\N> has two meanings.
2976
2977The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed in braces,
2978meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that
fa816bf3 2979name. Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
d32207c9
FC
2980double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns,
2981it doesn't have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
2982
2983Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only)
2984in patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short
2985for C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
2986
2987This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately
2988by a left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if the braces
2989form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes that this
2990means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
29913; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a
2992C<\N{> and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
2993
2994However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was
2995mistakenly omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and raises this error.
2996If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant the latter,
2997escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 2998
d98d5fff 2999=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 3000
be771a83
GS
3001(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
3002ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
3003were last editing.
a0d0e21e 3004
6df41af2
GS
3005=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
3006
56da5a46
RGS
3007(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
3008"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
3009the previous line just because you saw this message.
3010
a0d0e21e
LW
3011=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
3012
3013(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 3014constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
3015catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
3016
3017 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
3018 mod(2);
3019
3020Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
3021
c5674021
PDF
3022Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
3023is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
3024
b7e4ecc1
FC
3025 $x = 1;
3026 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
3027 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to
3028 } # modify the 2
c5674021 3029
7a4340ed 3030=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
3031
3032(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
3033subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
3034backwards.
3035
7a4340ed 3036=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 3037
be771a83
GS
3038(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
3039couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
3040
3041=item Module name must be constant
3042
3043(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
3044
be98fb35 3045=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 3046
be98fb35
GS
3047(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
3048you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
3049about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 3050
fe13d51d 3051=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7 3052
6903afa2 3053(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
ed9aa3b7
SG
3054can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
3055list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
3056See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
3057
a0d0e21e
LW
3058=item msg%s not implemented
3059
3060(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
3061
3062=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
3063
75b44862
GS
3064(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
3065They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 3066
49704364 3067=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 3068
49704364
LW
3069(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
3070follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
3071See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
3072
3073=item "my sub" not yet implemented
3074
be771a83
GS
3075(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
3076that yet.
6df41af2 3077
5a25739d
FC
3078=item "my %s" used in sort comparison
3079
3080(W syntax) The package variables $a and $b are used for sort comparisons.
3081You used $a or $b in as an operand to the C<< <=> >> or C<cmp> operator inside a
3082sort comparison block, and the variable had earlier been declared as a
3083lexical variable. Either qualify the sort variable with the package
3084name, or rename the lexical variable.
3085
fd1b7234 3086=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 3087
be771a83
GS
3088(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
3089sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
3090local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 3091
8149aa9f
FC
3092=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
3093
3094(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
3095If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
3096again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
3097provided for this purpose.
3098
3099NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
3100%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
3101the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
3102will not trigger this warning.
3103
0d0b4b3b
KW
3104=item Need exactly 3 octal digits in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3105
3106(F) Within S<C<(?[ ])>>, all constants interpreted as octal need to be
3107exactly 3 digits long. This helps catch some ambiguities. If your
3108constant is too short, add leading zeros, like
3109
3110 (?[ [ \078 ] ]) # Syntax error!
3111 (?[ [ \0078 ] ]) # Works
3112 (?[ [ \007 8 ] ]) # Clearer
3113
3114The maximum number this construct can express is C<\777>. If you
675fa9ff
FC
3115need a larger one, you need to use L<\o{}|perlrebackslash/Octal escapes> instead. If you meant
3116two separate things, you need to separate them:
0d0b4b3b
KW
3117
3118 (?[ [ \7776 ] ]) # Syntax error!
3119 (?[ [ \o{7776} ] ]) # One meaning
3120 (?[ [ \777 6 ] ]) # Another meaning
3121 (?[ [ \777 \006 ] ]) # Still another
3122
49704364
LW
3123=item Negative '/' count in unpack
3124
3125(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
3126negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3127
a0d0e21e
LW
3128=item Negative length
3129
be771a83
GS
3130(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
3131length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 3132
ed9aa3b7
SG
3133=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
3134
3135(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
3136greater than or equal to zero.
3137
7253e4e3 3138=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 3139
6903afa2 3140(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses.
9e3ec65c
FC
3141So things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows
3142whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 3143
7253e4e3 3144Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 3145C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3146
6df41af2 3147=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 3148
be771a83
GS
3149(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
3150scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 3151
2c7d6b9c
RGS
3152=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
3153
3154(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
3155real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
3156See L<mro>.
3157
5a25739d
FC
3158=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...} in regex;
3159marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3160
3161(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in
3162a bracketed character class, for the same reason that C<.> in
3163a character class loses its specialness: it matches almost
3164everything, which is probably not what you want.
3165
3166=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3167
3168(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or
3169sequence was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that
3170bypass the lexer, such as using single-quotish context, or an extra
3171backslash in double-quotish:
3172
3173 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
3174 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
3175 /$re/;
3176
3177Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
3178
3179 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
3180 /$re/;
3181
3182The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
3183components:
3184
3185 $re = '\N';
3186 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
3187
3188It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and
3189it doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
3190
3191Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
3192C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
3193
3194 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
3195 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
3196
a0d0e21e
LW
3197=item No %s allowed while running setuid
3198
be771a83
GS
3199(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
3200setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
3201will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
3202securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 3203
6651ba0b
FC
3204=item No code specified for -%c
3205
3206(F) Perl's B<-e> and B<-E> command-line options require an argument. If
3207you want to run an empty program, pass the empty string as a separate
3208argument or run a program consisting of a single 0 or 1:
3209
3210 perl -e ""
3211 perl -e0
3212 perl -e1
3213
a0d0e21e
LW
3214=item No comma allowed after %s
3215
6903afa2
FC
3216(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is
3217not allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
a0d0e21e
LW
3218Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
3219
6903afa2
FC
3220One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported
3221a constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
3222importing took place, it may for example be that your operating
3223system does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did
3224use an explicit import list for the constants you expect to see;
3225please see L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an
3226explicit import list would probably have caught this error earlier
3227it naturally does not remedy the fact that your operating system
3228still does not support that constant. Maybe you have a typo in
3229the constants of the symbol import list of B<use> or B<import> or in the
3230constant name at the line where this error was triggered?
0a753a76 3231
748a9306
LW
3232=item No command into which to pipe on command line
3233
be771a83
GS
3234(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3235redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
3236doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 3237
a0d0e21e
LW
3238=item No DB::DB routine defined
3239
be771a83 3240(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
f7af5ce1 3241for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
ccafdc96
RGS
3242module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
3243statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
3244
3245=item No dbm on this machine
3246
3247(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 3248supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 3249
ccafdc96 3250=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 3251
ccafdc96
RGS
3252(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
3253for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
3254module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
3255of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 3256
6651ba0b
FC
3257=item No directory specified for -I
3258
3259(F) The B<-I> command-line switch requires a directory name as part of the
3260I<same> argument. Use B<-Ilib>, for instance. B<-I lib> won't work.
3261
c47ff5f1 3262=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 3263
be771a83
GS
3264(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3265redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
3266find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 3267
49704364
LW
3268=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
3269
3270(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
6903afa2 3271matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 3272
c47ff5f1 3273=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 3274
be771a83
GS
3275(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3276redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
3277name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 3278
2c7d6b9c
RGS
3279=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
3280
3281(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
3282in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
3283it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
fa816bf3 3284or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2c7d6b9c 3285
675fa9ff
FC
3286=item Non-hex character in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3287
3288(F) In a regular expression, there was a non-hexadecimal character where
3289a hex one was expected, like
3290
3291 (?[ [ \xDG ] ])
3292 (?[ [ \x{DEKA} ] ])
3293
3294=item Non-octal character in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3295
3296(F) In a regular expression, there was a non-octal character where
3297an octal one was expected, like
3298
3299 (?[ [ \o{1278} ] ])
3300
3301=item Non-octal character '%c'. Resolved as "%s"
3302
3303(W digit) In parsing an octal numeric constant, a character was
3304unexpectedly encountered that isn't octal. The resulting value
3305is as indicated.
3306
6df41af2
GS
3307=item "no" not allowed in expression
3308
be771a83
GS
3309(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
3310returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 3311
675fa9ff
FC
3312=item Non-string passed as bitmask
3313
3314(W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().
3315Use the vec() function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for
3316select. See L<perlfunc/select>.
3317
c47ff5f1 3318=item No output file after