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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
fa816bf3 26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
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27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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JH
34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
6df41af2
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
de42a5a9 53=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
1109a392
MHM
59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
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88(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
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92=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
93
94(W ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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95bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
96(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
97like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
98assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
99clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
100really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 101
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102=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
103
104(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
105asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
106named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
1cecf2c0 107the variable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
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108function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
109and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
110
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111=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s[...]} resolved to %c%s[...]
112
113=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s{...}} resolved to %c%s{...}
4da60377 114
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115(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo represents
116the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for element number
1172 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write C<$foo[2]>, or you
118might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to the function named
119foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it returns. If you meant
120that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
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121
122In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
123to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
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124C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length> followed
125by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what you
126want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/> to the
127unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to something
128that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by simply turning
129off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 130
bdac9d71 131=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
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132
133(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
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134string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
135the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
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136write C<-foo()>.
137
79ef86ee 138=item Ambiguous use of 's//le...' resolved as 's// le...'; Rewrite as 's//el' if you meant 'use locale rules and evaluate rhs as an expression'. In Perl 5.18, it will be resolved the other way
94b03d7d 139
fa816bf3 140(W deprecated, ambiguous) You wrote a pattern match with substitution
79ef86ee 141immediately followed by "le". In Perl 5.16 and earlier, this is
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142resolved as meaning to take the result of the substitution, and see if
143it is stringwise less-than-or-equal-to what follows in the expression.
144Having the "le" immediately following a pattern is deprecated behavior,
79ef86ee 145so in Perl 5.18, this expression will be resolved as meaning to do the
94b03d7d 146pattern match using the rules of the current locale, and evaluate the
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147rhs as an expression when doing the substitution. In 5.14, and 5.16 if
148you want the latter interpretation, you can simply write "el" instead.
149But note that the C</l> modifier should not be used explicitly anyway;
150you should use C<use locale> instead. See L<perllocale>.
94b03d7d 151
6df41af2 152=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 153
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154(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
155redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
156redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 157
6df41af2 158=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 159
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160(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
161redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
162into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
163though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
164which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 165
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166 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
167 while (<STDIN>) {
168 print;
169 print OUT;
170 }
171 close OUT;
c9f97d15 172
6df41af2 173=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 174
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175(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
176transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 177one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 178a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
179hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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180you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
181alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 182
6df41af2 183=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 184
6df41af2 185(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 186
b0fdf69e 187=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 188
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189(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
190subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
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191
192 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 193 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 194 &do_something
a0d0e21e 195
8ea97a1e 196=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 197
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198(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
199such as:
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200
201 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 202 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 203
8ea97a1e 204or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 205
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206 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
207 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 208
6df41af2 209=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 210
6df41af2 211(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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212name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
213error.
a0d0e21e 214
f86702cc 215=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 216
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217(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
218that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
219will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 220
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221=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
222
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223(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O
224system you forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers
225take care of transforming data between external and internal
226representations.) Perl stopped parsing the layer list at this
227point and did not attempt to push this layer. If your program
228didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be the
229result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
b4581f09 230
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231=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
232
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233(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
234spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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235
236=item assertion botched: %s
237
21b5e840 238(X) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
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239
240=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
241
21b5e840 242(X) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
a0d0e21e 243
82122228
FC
244=item Assigning non-zero to $[ is no longer possible
245
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246(F) When the "array_base" feature is disabled (e.g., under C<use v5.16;>)
247the special variable C<$[>, which is deprecated, is now a fixed zero value.
82122228 248
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249=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
250
251(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
252must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
253know which context to supply to the right side.
254
96ebfdd7
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255=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
256
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257(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily
258the main thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
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FC
259Usually it's a good idea first to collect the return values of the
260created threads by joining them, and only then to exit from the main
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261thread. See L<threads>.
262
2393f1b9 263=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 264
49293501 265(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 266the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 267
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268=item Attempt to bless into a reference
269
270(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
57dedab9 271the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
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272supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
273
274 bless $self, $proto;
275
276when you intended
277
278 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
279
280If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
281of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
282example by:
283
284 bless $self, "$proto";
285
a730510a
FC
286=item Attempt to clear deleted array
287
288(S debugging) An array was assigned to when it was being freed.
289Freed values are not supposed to be visible to Perl code. This
290can also happen if XS code calls C<av_clear> from a custom magic
291callback on the array.
292
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293=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
294
295(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
296which is not in its key set.
297
298=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
299
300(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
301declared readonly from a restricted hash.
302
de42a5a9 303=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 304
f84fe999 305(S internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
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306that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
307outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 308
12578ffb 309=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string '%s'%s
bbce6d69 310
f84fe999 311(S internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
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312strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
313strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
314of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 315
7d5b40b4 316=item Attempt to free temp prematurely: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 317
f84fe999 318(S debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
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319free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
320SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
321free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
322try to free it.
a0d0e21e
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323
324=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
325
f84fe999 326(S internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
a0d0e21e 327
7d5b40b4 328=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 329
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330(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
331see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
332earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
333This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
334that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
335mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
336corrupted.
a0d0e21e 337
dcdda58d
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338=item Attempt to join self
339
340(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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341impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
342to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 343
84902520
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344=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
345
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346(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
347function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
348means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
349invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
350literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
351avoid this warning.
84902520 352
087b5369
RD
353=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
354
355(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
356compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
357unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
358L<perlvar/%INC>.
359
1b20cd17
NC
360=item Attempt to set length of freed array
361
362(W) You tried to set the length of an array which has been freed. You
363can do this by storing a reference to the scalar representing the last index
fa816bf3 364of an array and later assigning through that reference. For example
1b20cd17
NC
365
366 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
367 $$r = 503
368
b7a902f4
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369=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
370
be771a83
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371(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
372used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
373dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 374
c32124fe
NC
375=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
376
57dedab9
FC
377(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the
378"locked" attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is
379obsolete, has had no effect since 5005 threads were removed, and
380will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
c32124fe 381
f1a3ce43
NC
382=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
383
57dedab9
FC
384(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify
385the "unique" attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference.
386The :unique attribute has had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and
387will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
f1a3ce43 388
ccce04a4
FC
389=item av_reify called on tied array
390
391(S debugging) This indicates that something went wrong and Perl got I<very>
392confused about C<@_> or C<@DB::args> being tied.
393
de42a5a9 394=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 395
be771a83
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396(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
397or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 398S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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399S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
400
7a95317d
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401=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
402
496a33f5 403(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
7a95317d
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404substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
405most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
406
a0d0e21e
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407=item Bad filehandle: %s
408
be771a83
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409(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
410symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
411open(), or did it in another package.
a0d0e21e
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412
413=item Bad free() ignored
414
be771a83 415(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
fa816bf3 416been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 417setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 418
9ea8bc6d 419This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
6903afa2 420dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
be771a83 421which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 422
aa689395
PP
423=item Bad hash
424
425(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
426
6df41af2
GS
427=item Badly placed ()'s
428
429(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
430of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
431Perl yourself.
432
a7cb8dae 433=item Bad name after %s
a0d0e21e 434
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435(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
436didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
437of quotes, so
a0d0e21e
LW
438
439 $var = 'myvar';
440 $sym = mypack::$var;
441
442is not the same as
443
444 $var = 'myvar';
445 $sym = "mypack::$var";
446
88e1f1a2
JV
447=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
448
449(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
450plugin API.
451
4ad56ec9
IZ
452=item Bad realloc() ignored
453
6903afa2
FC
454(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that
455had never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can
456be disabled by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 457
a0d0e21e
LW
458=item Bad symbol for array
459
460(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
461wasn't a symbol table entry.
462
4df3f177
SP
463=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
464
465(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
466that wasn't a symbol table entry.
467
a0d0e21e
LW
468=item Bad symbol for filehandle
469
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470(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
471that wasn't a symbol table entry.
a0d0e21e
LW
472
473=item Bad symbol for hash
474
475(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
476wasn't a symbol table entry.
477
34d09196
GS
478=item Bareword found in conditional
479
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480(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
481conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
482of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
GS
483
484 open FOO || die;
485
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486It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
487a bareword:
34d09196
GS
488
489 use constant TYPO => 1;
490 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
491
492The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
493
6df41af2
GS
494=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
495
496(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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497subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
498symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
GS
499
500=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
501
be771a83
GS
502(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
503compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
504you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 505
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506=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
507
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508(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
509subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
510exited.
a0d0e21e 511
68dc0745
PP
512=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
513
514(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
be771a83
GS
515implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
516occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
517be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
518depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 519
6df41af2
GS
520=item \1 better written as $1
521
be771a83
GS
522(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
523The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
524substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
525because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
526there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 527
252aa082
JH
528=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
529
e476b1b5 530(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
531(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
532L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 533
69282e91 534=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 535
be771a83
GS
536(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
537check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 538
c289d2f7
JH
539=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
540
541(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 542Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 543
f866a7cd
FC
544=item "\b{" is deprecated; use "\b\{" instead
545
546=item "\B{" is deprecated; use "\B\{" instead
547
548(W deprecated, regexp) Use of an unescaped "{" immediately following a
549C<\b> or C<\B> is now deprecated so as to reserve its use for Perl
550itself in a future release.
551
c5a0f51a
JH
552=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
553
e476b1b5 554(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 555
043c750c 556=item Bizarre copy of %s
4633a7c4 557
be771a83 558(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
4dcecea4 559copiable.
4633a7c4 560
f675dbe5
CB
561=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
562
be771a83
GS
563(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
564iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
565which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 566
7fcfef4d
FC
567=item Bizarre SvTYPE [%d]
568
569(P) When starting a new thread or return values from a thread, Perl
570encountered an invalid data type.
571
a0d0e21e
LW
572=item Callback called exit
573
4929bf7b 574(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
575exited by calling exit.
576
6df41af2 577=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 578
be771a83
GS
579(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
580parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
581that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
582early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
583subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
584checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
585function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
586the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 587
49704364 588=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
589
590(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
591compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
592attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
593See L<perlfunc/pack>.
594
49704364 595=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
596
597(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
598format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
599
5c1f4d79
NC
600=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
601
6903afa2
FC
602(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference
603in it, then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax.
604The access triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is
605no legal conversion from that type of reference to a typeglob.
5c1f4d79 606
4040665a 607=item Cannot copy to %s
ba2fdce6
NC
608
609(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 610be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 611
b5d97229
RGS
612=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
613
614(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
615either with open() or binmode().
616
ce65bc73
FC
617=item Cannot tie unreifiable array
618
619(P) You somehow managed to call C<tie> on an array that does not
620keep a reference count on its arguments and cannot be made to
621do so. Such arrays are not even supposed to be accessible to
622Perl code, but are only used internally.
623
96ebfdd7
RK
624=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
625
626(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
627integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
628to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
629
a0d0e21e
LW
630=item Can't bless non-reference value
631
632(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
633encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
634
dc57907a
RGS
635=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
636
0d863452 637(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
6903afa2 638a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
0d863452
RH
639
640=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 641
0d863452
RH
642(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
643
6df41af2
GS
644=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
645
646(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
647object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
648like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
649
650 $BADREF = undef;
651 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
652 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
653
a0d0e21e
LW
654=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
655
54310121 656(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
657ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
658didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
659object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
660
661=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
662
663(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
664object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
665defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
666Something like this will reproduce the error:
667
668 $BADREF = 42;
669 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
670 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
671
a0d0e21e
LW
672=item Can't chdir to %s
673
674(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
675that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
676
0545a864 677=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 678
be771a83
GS
679(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
680nosuid.
104d25b7 681
22e74366 682=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
683
684(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 685(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
686say things like:
687
688 *foo += 1;
689
690You CAN say
691
692 $foo = *foo;
693 $foo += 1;
694
695but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
696
0d863452 697=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 698
0d863452
RH
699(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
700or C<default> block.
701
a0d0e21e
LW
702=item Can't create pipe mailbox
703
be771a83
GS
704(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
705quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 706
eb64745e
GS
707=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
708
30c282f6
NC
709(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
710"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 711
fc7debfb
FC
712=item Can't "default" outside a topicalizer
713
714(F) You have used a C<default> block that is neither inside a
715C<foreach> loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is
716issued on exit from the C<default> block, so you won't get the
717error if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
718
6df41af2
GS
719=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
720
be771a83
GS
721(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
722a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 723
a0d0e21e
LW
724=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
725
be771a83
GS
726(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
727reason.
a0d0e21e 728
54310121 729=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 730
be771a83
GS
731(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
732reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
733C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 734
10f9c03d 735=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 736
e476b1b5 737(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
738characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
739inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 740
7253e4e3 741=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 742
6903afa2
FC
743(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really
744want your regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The
745<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem
746was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 747
a0d0e21e
LW
748=item Can't do waitpid with flags
749
be771a83
GS
750(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
751waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 752
a0d0e21e
LW
753=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
754
be771a83
GS
755(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
756point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
757line.
a0d0e21e 758
1109a392
MHM
759=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
760
761(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
762or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
763little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
764See L<perlfunc/pack>.
765
a0d0e21e
LW
766=item Can't exec "%s": %s
767
d1be9408 768(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
769named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
770permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
771C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
772architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
773can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
774#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
775
776=item Can't exec %s
777
be771a83
GS
778(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
779that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
780need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
781
782=item Can't execute %s
783
be771a83
GS
784(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
785found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 786
6df41af2 787=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 788
be771a83
GS
789(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
790is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 791
56ca2fc0
JH
792=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
793
794(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
6903afa2 795could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
e1b711da
KW
796See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
797for a complete list of available properties.
56ca2fc0 798
6df41af2
GS
799=item Can't find label %s
800
be771a83
GS
801(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
802possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
803
804=item Can't find %s on PATH
805
be771a83
GS
806(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
807found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 808
6df41af2 809=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 810
be771a83
GS
811(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
812found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
813script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
814
815=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
816
be771a83
GS
817(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
818that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
819nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 820
fb73857a
PP
821 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
822
97b3d10f 823If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
b6b8cb97
FC
824included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag or there
825may not be a linebreak after it. A good programmer's editor will have
826a way to help you find these characters (or lack of characters). See
827L<perlop> for the full details on here-documents.
a0d0e21e 828
660a4616
ST
829=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
830
5f8ad6b6
FC
831(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode
832property (for example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase
fa816bf3 833letters). If you did mean to use a Unicode property, see
e1b711da 834L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
6903afa2 835for a complete list of available properties. If you didn't
fa816bf3
FC
836mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either by
837C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, or
5f8ad6b6 838until C<\E>).
660a4616 839
b3647a36 840=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 841
be771a83
GS
842(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
843pipeline.
a0d0e21e 844
b3647a36
SR
845=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
846
c973c02e 847(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
848after five seconds.
849
748a9306
LW
850=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
851
be771a83
GS
852(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
853between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
854Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
855the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
856account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
857the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
2fe2bdfd 858the access-checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
be771a83
GS
859the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
860if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
861because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
2fe2bdfd
FC
862appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-checking routine gave up
863and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access-checking
be771a83
GS
864routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
865shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
866only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 867
a0d0e21e
LW
868=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
869
be771a83
GS
870(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
871pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
872
873=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
874
748a9306
LW
875(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
876mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 877
6df41af2 878=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 879
be771a83
GS
880(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
881loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
882
883=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
884
be771a83
GS
885(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
886a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
887you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
888See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 889
9850bf21 890=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 891
9850bf21
RH
892(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
893comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
894as the reduce() function in List::Util).
895
c74ace89 896=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 897
be771a83 898(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 899"string" or block.
b150fb22 900
6df41af2
GS
901=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
902
be771a83
GS
903(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
904subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
905cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
906routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 907
0b5b802d
GS
908=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
909
be771a83
GS
910(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
911signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
912signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
913processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
914situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
915may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 916
e2c0f81f
DG
917=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
918
919(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
920attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
921process identifier.
922
6df41af2 923=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 924
6df41af2 925(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
926except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
927block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
928block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
929usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
930inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
931L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 932
2c7d6b9c
RGS
933=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
934
935(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
936package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
937
b8170e59
JB
938=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
939
6903afa2
FC
940(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension.
941This may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one
942that is incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known
943to happen between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your
944dynamic extension was built against an older version of the library
945that is installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old
946dynamic extensions.
b8170e59 947
748a9306
LW
948=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
949
2ba9eb46 950(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
b7e4ecc1
FC
951lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you
952want to localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with
953the package name.
748a9306 954
6df41af2 955=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 956
6df41af2
GS
957(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
958handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 959pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 960that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 961
ea071790 962=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a 963
fa816bf3
FC
964(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be found.
965Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC, unless
966the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
967to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the
968extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
be771a83
GS
969to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
970L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 971
6df41af2
GS
972=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
973
be771a83
GS
974(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
975autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
976are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
977the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 978
b8170e59
JB
979=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
980
981(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
d70d8e57 982for example, F<foo.so> or F<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
b8170e59
JB
983unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
984
a0d0e21e
LW
985=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
986
987(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
988functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 989method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
990
991=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
992
be771a83
GS
993(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
994doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 995
2f7da168
RK
996=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
997
998(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
999e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
1000
f4ad53f4 1001=item Can't make list assignment to %ENV on this system
3e3baf6d 1002
be771a83
GS
1003(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
1004VMS.
3e3baf6d 1005
a0d0e21e
LW
1006=item Can't modify %s in %s
1007
be771a83
GS
1008(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
1009to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 1010
54310121 1011=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
1012
1013(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
1014a NULL.
1015
6df41af2
GS
1016=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
1017
1018(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
2fe2bdfd 1019such. See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
6df41af2 1020
5f05dabc 1021=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 1022
5f05dabc 1023(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
1024buffer.
1025
6df41af2
GS
1026=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
1027
1028(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
1029there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
1030count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
1031grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1032though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
1033once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 1034
46fa9b26
FC
1035=item Can't open %s
1036
1037(F) You tried to run a perl built with MAD support with
1038the PERL_XMLDUMP environment variable set, but the file
1039named by that variable could not be opened.
1040
a0d0e21e
LW
1041=item Can't open %s: %s
1042
c47ff5f1 1043(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e 1044filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
46fa9b26
FC
1045switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually
1046this is because you don't have read permission for a file which
1047you named on the command line.
1048
1049(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-e> switch, but F</dev/null> (or
1050your operating system's equivalent) could not be opened.
a0d0e21e 1051
9a869a14
RGS
1052=item Can't open a reference
1053
1054(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
2fe2bdfd 1055using the 3-arg open() syntax:
9a869a14
RGS
1056
1057 open FH, '>', $ref;
1058
1059but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1060open is not supported.
1061
a0d0e21e
LW
1062=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1063
be771a83
GS
1064(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1065You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1066as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1067">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1068
748a9306
LW
1069=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1070
be771a83
GS
1071(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1072redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1073the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1074
1075=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1076
be771a83
GS
1077(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1078redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1079command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1080
1081=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1082
be771a83
GS
1083(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1084redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1085the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1086
1087=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1088
be771a83
GS
1089(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1090redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1091for stdout.
748a9306 1092
3b1cf97d 1093=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1094
1095(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1096
fa3aa65a
JC
1097If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1098shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1099you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1100
6df41af2
GS
1101=item Can't read CRTL environ
1102
1103(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1104from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1105missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1106or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1107searched.
6df41af2 1108
6df41af2
GS
1109=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1110
1111(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1112there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1113count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1114or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1115though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1116loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1117
64977eb6 1118=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1119
be771a83
GS
1120(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1121file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1122the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1123
a0d0e21e
LW
1124=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1125
e476b1b5 1126(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1127probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1128
748a9306
LW
1129=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1130
be771a83
GS
1131(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1132to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1133
4f12ec0e
FC
1134=item Can't reset %ENV on this system
1135
1136(F) You called C<reset('E')> or similar, which tried to reset
1137all variables in the current package beginning with "E". In
1138the main package, that includes %ENV. Resetting %ENV is not
1139supported on some systems, notably VMS.
1140
fe13d51d 1141=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1142
1fa582fa
FC
1143(F)(P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1144opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1145package. If the method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1146
cd06dffe
GS
1147=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1148
be771a83
GS
1149(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1150temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1151is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1152
96ebfdd7
RK
1153=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1154
1155(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1156there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1157
78f9721b
SM
1158=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1159
6903afa2
FC
1160(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue
1161subroutine, but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl
1162think you meant to return only one value. You probably meant to
1163write parentheses around the call to the subroutine, which tell
1164Perl that the call should be in list context.
78f9721b 1165
a0d0e21e
LW
1166=item Can't stat script "%s"
1167
be771a83
GS
1168(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1169open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1170
a0d0e21e
LW
1171=item Can't take log of %g
1172
fb73857a 1173(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
6903afa2 1174negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1175standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1176negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1177
1178=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1179
1180(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1181negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1182with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1183
1184=item Can't undef active subroutine
1185
1186(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1187however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1188redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1189
c81225bc 1190=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1191
be771a83
GS
1192(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1193into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1194specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1195indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1196
1db89ea5
BS
1197=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1198
e27ad1f2 1199(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1200table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1201for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1202
96ebfdd7
RK
1203=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1204
1205(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1206be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1207
6df41af2
GS
1208=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1209
be771a83
GS
1210(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1211references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1212
90b75b61 1213=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63 1214
20561843 1215(F) The first time the C<%!> hash is used, perl automatically loads the
6903afa2 1216Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1d2dff63
GS
1217provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1218
1109a392
MHM
1219=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1220
1221(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1222byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1223allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1224
6df41af2
GS
1225=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1226
be771a83
GS
1227(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1228foreach.
6df41af2 1229
aab6a793 1230=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1231
be771a83
GS
1232(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1233is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1234(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1235have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1236weren't.
1237
6d3b25aa
RGS
1238=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1239
1240(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1241that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1242For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1243is inside a big-endian group.
1244
c07a80fd
PP
1245=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1246
1247(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1248You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1249and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1250Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1251lexical variable.
1252
a0d0e21e
LW
1253=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1254
1255(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1256reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1257test the type of the reference, if need be.
1258
748a9306 1259=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1260
be771a83
GS
1261(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1262references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1263
748a9306
LW
1264=item Can't use subscript on %s
1265
1266(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1267subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1268didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1269
6df41af2
GS
1270=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1271
75b44862
GS
1272(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1273creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1274backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1275expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1276value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1277instead.
6df41af2 1278
810b8aa5
GS
1279=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1280
1281(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1282references can be weakened.
1283
fc7debfb
FC
1284=item Can't "when" outside a topicalizer
1285
1286(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1287loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1288from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1289or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1290
5f05dabc 1291=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1292
be771a83
GS
1293(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1294with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1295Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1296
4a68bf9d 1297=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529 1298
1fa582fa 1299(F)(W deprecated, syntax) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
79ef86ee 1300It is planned to make this fatal in all instances in Perl 5.18. In the
17a3df4c
KW
1301cases where it isn't fatal, the character this evaluates to is
1302derived by exclusive or'ing the code point of this character with 0x40.
1303
1304Note that non-alphabetic ASCII characters are discouraged here as well.
f9d13529 1305
f337b084 1306=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1307
1308(W pack) You said
1309
1310 pack("C", $x)
1311
1312where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1313only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1314and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1315
1316 pack("C", $x & 255)
1317
1318If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1319instead.
1320
f337b084
TH
1321=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1322
1323(W pack) You said
1324
1325 pack("U0W", $x)
1326
6903afa2
FC
1327where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode
1328expects all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved
1329as if you meant:
f337b084
TH
1330
1331 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1332
1333=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1334
1335(W pack) You said
1336
1337 pack("c", $x)
1338
1339where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1340is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1341and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1342
1343 pack("c", $x & 255);
1344
1345If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1346instead.
1347
f337b084
TH
1348=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1349
1350(W unpack) You tried something like
1351
1352 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1353
1a147d38 1354where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
6903afa2
FC
1355below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the
1356value modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
f337b084
TH
1357
1358 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1359
1360=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1361
1362(W pack) You tried something like
1363
1364 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1365
1a147d38 1366where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1367value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1368uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1369
1370 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1371
1372=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1373
1374(W unpack) You tried something like
1375
1376 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1377
1a147d38 1378where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1379value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1380uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1381
1382 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1383
f866a7cd
FC
1384=item "\c{" is deprecated and is more clearly written as ";"
1385
1386(D deprecated, syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way
1387to specify non-printable characters. You used it with a "{" which
1388evaluates to ";", which is printable. It is planned to remove the
79ef86ee 1389ability to specify a semi-colon this way in Perl 5.18. Just use a
f866a7cd
FC
1390semi-colon or a backslash-semi-colon without the "\c".
1391
1392=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
1393
1394(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
1395non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1396written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
1397characters.
1398
96ebfdd7
RK
1399=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1400
1401(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1402
abc7ecad
SP
1403=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1404
1405(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1406a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1407
541ed3a9
FC
1408=item Closure prototype called
1409
1410(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1411handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1412This subroutine cannot be called.
1413
49704364
LW
1414=item Code missing after '/'
1415
6903afa2
FC
1416(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be
1417another template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 1418
0876b9a0
KW
1419=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1420
c634fdd3 1421=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, all \p{} matches fail; all \P{} matches succeed
9ae3ac1a 1422
1b64326b
FC
1423(W utf8, non_unicode) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum
1424of U+10FFFF.
1425
1426Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code points, up
1427to the limit of what is storable in an unsigned integer on your system,
1428but these may not be accepted by other languages/systems. At one time,
1429it was legal in some standards to have code points up to 0x7FFF_FFFF,
1430but not higher. Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require larger than a
143132 bit word.
0876b9a0 1432
9ae3ac1a
KW
1433None of the Unicode or Perl-defined properties will match a non-Unicode
1434code point. For example,
1435
1436 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\p{Any}/
1437
1438will not match, because the code point is not in Unicode. But
1439
1440 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\P{Any}/
1441
1442will match.
1443
94b42e47
KW
1444This may be counterintuitive at times, as both these fail:
1445
1446 chr(0x110000) =~ \p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True} # Fails.
1447 chr(0x110000) =~ \p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False} # Also fails!
1448
1449and both these succeed:
1450
1451 chr(0x110000) =~ \P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True} # Succeeds.
1452 chr(0x110000) =~ \P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False} # Also succeeds!
1453
6df41af2
GS
1454=item %s: Command not found
1455
be771a83
GS
1456(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1457Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1458
7a2e2cd6
PP
1459=item Compilation failed in require
1460
1461(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1462Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1463encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1464
c3464db5
DD
1465=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1466
be771a83
GS
1467(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1468situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1469to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1470arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1471recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1472under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1473in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1474that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1475on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1476
38875929
DM
1477=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1478
6903afa2
FC
1479(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to
1480call cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked.
1481The cond_broadcast() function is used to wake up another thread
1482that is waiting in a cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't
1483sent before the other thread has a chance to enter the wait, it
1484is usual for the signaling thread first to wait for a lock on
1485variable. This lock attempt will only succeed after the other
1486thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the lock.
38875929 1487
38875929
DM
1488=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1489
6903afa2
FC
1490(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to
1491call cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The
1492cond_signal() function is used to wake up another thread that
1493is waiting in a cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't
1494sent before the other thread has a chance to enter the wait, it
1495is usual for the signaling thread first to wait for a lock on
1496variable. This lock attempt will only succeed after the other
1497thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the lock.
38875929 1498
69282e91 1499=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1500
be771a83
GS
1501(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1502to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1503L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1504
41ab332f 1505=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1506
be771a83
GS
1507(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1508an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1509specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
fbb93542 1510corresponding L<overload> pragma?.
6df41af2 1511
fc8cd66c
YO
1512=item Constant(%s)%s: %s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1513
1a147d38 1514(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to find
fbb93542 1515the character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape.
fc8cd66c 1516
779c5bc9
GS
1517=item Constant is not %s reference
1518
1519(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83 1520is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
6903afa2 1521The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
be771a83 1522usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1523See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1524
4cee8e80
CS
1525=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1526
aeb94125
FC
1527(W redefine)(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously
1528been eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions">
1529for commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1530
9607fc9c
PP
1531=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1532
be771a83
GS
1533(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1534for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1535workarounds.
9607fc9c 1536
e7ea3e70
IZ
1537=item Copy method did not return a reference
1538
6903afa2 1539(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1540L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1541
4aaa4757
FC
1542=item &CORE::%s cannot be called directly
1543
1544(F) You tried to call a subroutine in the C<CORE::> namespace
8d605c0d 1545with C<&foo> syntax or through a reference. Some subroutines
4aaa4757
FC
1546in this package cannot yet be called that way, but must be
1547called as barewords. Something like this will work:
1548
1549 BEGIN { *shove = \&CORE::push; }
1550 shove @array, 1,2,3; # pushes on to @array
1551
6798c92b
GS
1552=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1553
1554(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1555
a0d0e21e
LW
1556=item corrupted regexp pointers
1557
1558(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1559expression compiler gave it.
1560
1561=item corrupted regexp program
1562
be771a83
GS
1563(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1564valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1565
de42a5a9 1566=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1567
1568(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1569
49704364
LW
1570=item Count after length/code in unpack
1571
1572(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1573you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1574L<perlfunc/pack>.
1575
a0d0e21e
LW
1576=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1577
be771a83
GS
1578(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1579100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1580infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1581which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1582
aad1d01f
NC
1583This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1584setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1585
f10b0346 1586=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1587
be771a83
GS
1588(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1589checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1590array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1591
f10b0346 1592=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1593
f0ec9725
KR
1594(D deprecated) C<defined()> is not usually right on hashes and has been
1595discouraged since 5.004.
1596
1597Although C<defined %hash> is false on a plain not-yet-used hash, it
1598becomes true in several non-obvious circumstances, including iterators,
1599weak references, stash names, even remaining true after C<undef %hash>.
1600These things make C<defined %hash> fairly useless in practice.
1601
1602If a check for non-empty is what you wanted then just put it in boolean
1603context (see L<perldata/Scalar values>):
16546e45
KR
1604
1605 if (%hash) {
1606 # not empty
1607 }
1608
f0ec9725
KR
1609If you had C<defined %Foo::Bar::QUUX> to check whether such a package
1610variable exists then that's never really been reliable, and isn't
1611a good way to enquire about the features of a package, or whether
1612it's loaded, etc.
1613
69794302 1614
bcb95744
FC
1615=item (?(DEFINE)....) does not allow branches in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1616
6903afa2 1617(F) You used something like C<(?(DEFINE)...|..)> which is illegal. The
bcb95744
FC
1618most likely cause of this error is that you left out a parenthesis inside
1619of the C<....> part.
1620
1621The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1622discovered.
1623
62658f4d
PM
1624=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1625
1626(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1627there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1628
fc36a67e
PP
1629=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1630
be771a83
GS
1631(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1632long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1633that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1634
4a68bf9d 1635=item Deprecated character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s<-- HERE %s
cb233ae3
KW
1636
1637(D deprecated) Just about anything is legal for the C<...> in C<\N{...}>.
5fca8acb
FC
1638But starting in 5.12, non-reasonable ones that don't look like names
1639are deprecated. A reasonable name begins with an alphabetic character
1640and continues with any combination of alphanumerics, dashes, spaces,
1641parentheses or colons.
cb233ae3 1642
6d3b25aa
RGS
1643=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1644
fa816bf3
FC
1645(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>. There
1646has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
6d3b25aa 1647not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
6903afa2 1648conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
fa816bf3 1649static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
6903afa2 1650relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
6d3b25aa 1651declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1652
6d3b25aa
RGS
1653 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1654
1655becomes
1656
1657 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1658
fa816bf3
FC
1659Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to have
1660lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
36fb85f3
RGS
1661
1662 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1663
500ab966
RGS
1664=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1665
1666(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
6903afa2
FC
1667just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather
1668than to create a dangling reference.
500ab966 1669
3cdd684c
TP
1670=item Did not produce a valid header
1671
1672See Server error.
1673
6df41af2
GS
1674=item %s did not return a true value
1675
1676(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1677it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1678traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1679do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1680
cc507455 1681=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1682
413ff9f6
FC
1683(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1684some such.
4633a7c4 1685
cc507455 1686=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1687
be771a83
GS
1688(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1689variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1690seems superfluous.
33633739 1691
cc507455 1692=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1693
be771a83
GS
1694(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1695@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1696carried away.
748a9306 1697
7e1af8bc 1698=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1699
1700(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
075b00aa 1701you called it with no args and C<$@> was empty.
5f05dabc 1702
3cdd684c
TP
1703=item Document contains no data
1704
1705See Server error.
1706
62658f4d
PM
1707=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1708
1709(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1710define a C<$VERSION.>
1711
49704364
LW
1712=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1713
1714(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1715See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1716
a0d0e21e
LW
1717=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1718
1719(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1720
1721=item do_study: out of memory
1722
1723(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1724
6df41af2
GS
1725=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1726
56da5a46
RGS
1727(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1728"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1729name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1730because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1731"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1732something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1733subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1734"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1735
ac206dc8
RGS
1736=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1737
1738(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1739qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1740
84d78eb7
YO
1741=item dump is not supported
1742
1743(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1744
a0d0e21e
LW
1745=item Duplicate free() ignored
1746
be771a83
GS
1747(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1748already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1749
1109a392
MHM
1750=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1751
1752(W) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a type
1753in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1754
4633a7c4
LW
1755=item elseif should be elsif
1756
fa816bf3
FC
1757(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks
1758it's ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1759named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1760unlikely to be what you want.
1761
ab13f0c7
JH
1762=item Empty %s
1763
af6f566e 1764(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
6903afa2 1765described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
af6f566e 1766a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1767
85ab1d1d 1768=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1769
85ab1d1d 1770(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1771effective uids or gids failed.
1772
c038024b
RGS
1773=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1774
1775(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1776aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
6903afa2 1777program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
c038024b 1778
748a9306
LW
1779=item Error converting file specification %s
1780
5f05dabc 1781(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1782specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1783single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1784an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1785conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1786
e4d48cc9
GS
1787=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1788
be771a83
GS
1789(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1790expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1791is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1792
fc8f615e 1793=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval'
e4d48cc9 1794
be771a83
GS
1795(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1796C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
f11307f5
FC
1797pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk,
1798it is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by using the
1799C<re 'eval'> pragma or by explicitly building the pattern from an
1800interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval(). See
1801L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1802
6df41af2
GS
1803=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1804
be771a83
GS
1805(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1806assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1807pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1808
1a147d38
YO
1809=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1810
1811(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
6903afa2 1812any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1a147d38
YO
1813
1814The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1815discovered.
1816
fc36a67e
PP
1817=item Excessively long <> operator
1818
1819(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1820Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1821filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1822variable and glob that.
1823
ed9aa3b7
SG
1824=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1825
af8bb25a 1826(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented on some systems, e.g., Symbian
6903afa2 1827OS. See L<perlport>.
ed9aa3b7 1828
fe13d51d 1829=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1830
1831(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1832
1833=item Exiting eval via %s
1834
be771a83
GS
1835(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1836goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1837
1838=item Exiting format via %s
1839
9a2ff54b 1840(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1841goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1842
0a753a76
PP
1843=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1844
be771a83
GS
1845(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1846sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1847loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1848
a0d0e21e
LW
1849=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1850
be771a83
GS
1851(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1852as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1853
1854=item Exiting substitution via %s
1855
be771a83
GS
1856(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1857as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1858
7b8d334a
GS
1859=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1860
be771a83
GS
1861(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1862the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1863usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1864e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1865
6df41af2
GS
1866=item %s: Expression syntax
1867
be771a83
GS
1868(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1869Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1870
1871=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1872
3c10abe3
AG
1873(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1874CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1875queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1876
7253e4e3 1877=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1878
be771a83 1879(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1880character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1881in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1882"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1883problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1884
1b1ee2ef 1885=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1886
be771a83
GS
1887(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1888system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1889details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1890you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1891
1892=item fcntl is not implemented
1893
1894(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1895PDP-11 or something?
1896
22846ab4
AB
1897=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1898
1899(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1900is not possible.
1901
f337b084
TH
1902=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1903
1904(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string start with a length indicator
6903afa2
FC
1905which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1906a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
5c96f6f7 1907C<u63> as the format.
f337b084 1908
af8c498a 1909=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1910
6c8d78fb
HS
1911(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1912it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1913"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1914write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1915
af8c498a 1916=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1917
6c8d78fb
HS
1918(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1919you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
89a1bda8
FC
1920with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with ">". If you intended only to
1921read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>. Another possibility
1922is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for
1923output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1924
1925=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1926
1927(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
6903afa2 1928as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1929previously.
1930
1931=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1932
1933(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
fa816bf3 1934as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1935
1936=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1937
1938(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1939a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1940happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1941name.
a0d0e21e 1942
56e90b21
GS
1943=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1944
be771a83 1945(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1946some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1947filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1948same name?
56e90b21 1949
6df41af2
GS
1950=item Format not terminated
1951
1952(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1953to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1954
a0d0e21e
LW
1955=item Format %s redefined
1956
e476b1b5 1957(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1958
1959 {
271595cc 1960 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1961 eval "format NAME =...";
1962 }
1963
a0d0e21e
LW
1964=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1965
e476b1b5 1966(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1967
1968 if ($foo = 123)
1969
1970when you meant
1971
1972 if ($foo == 123)
1973
1974(or something like that).
1975
6df41af2
GS
1976=item %s found where operator expected
1977
56da5a46
RGS
1978(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
1979If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
1980operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1981operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1982
a0d0e21e
LW
1983=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1984
1985(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1986
1987=item gethostent not implemented
1988
1989(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1990because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1991on the Internet.
1992
69282e91 1993=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1994
be771a83
GS
1995(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1996socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1997
748a9306
LW
1998=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1999
2000(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
2001C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
2002
6df41af2
GS
2003=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
2004
be771a83
GS
2005(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
2006forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
2007L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
2008
2009=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
2010
a4edf47d 2011(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 2012that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
2013declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
2014which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 2015
e476b1b5
GS
2016=item glob failed (%s)
2017
73c4e9dc
FC
2018(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used
2019for C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
2020pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
be771a83 2021nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
73c4e9dc
FC
2022resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell)
2023is broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables
2024in config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as
2025if it were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them
2026all empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
be771a83 2027think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 2028C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 2029
a0d0e21e
LW
2030=item Glob not terminated
2031
2032(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
2033a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
2034not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
2035earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 2036
bcd05b94 2037=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2038
e9200be3 2039(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was larger than
fc003d4b 2040it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
6903afa2 2041date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2042not-a-number value).
2043
bcd05b94 2044=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2045
e9200be3 2046(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was smaller than
e7a1a147 2047it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2048
6df41af2 2049=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 2050
6df41af2
GS
2051(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
2052version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
2053
2054=item goto must have label
2055
2056(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
2057unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2058
49704364 2059=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 2060
bca4a986
FC
2061(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is supposed to follow
2062something: a template character or a ()-group. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 2063
fe13d51d 2064=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
2065
2066(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
2067
a0d0e21e
LW
2068=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
2069
be771a83
GS
2070(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
2071to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
2072created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
2073
2074=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
2075
be771a83
GS
2076(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
2077spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 2078
6df41af2
GS
2079=item %s has too many errors
2080
2081(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
2082Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
2083
e6897b1a
KW
2084=item Having no space between pattern and following word is deprecated
2085
2086(D syntax)
2087
6903afa2
FC
2088You had a word that isn't a regex modifier immediately following
2089a pattern without an intervening space. If you are trying to use
2090the C</le> flags on a substitution, use C</el> instead. Otherwise, add
2091white space between the pattern and following word to eliminate
2092the warning. As an example of the latter, the two constructs:
2093
e6897b1a
KW
2094
2095 $a =~ m/$foo/sand $bar
2096 $a =~ m/$foo/s and $bar
2097
6903afa2
FC
2098both currently mean the same thing, but it is planned to disallow
2099the first form in Perl 5.18. And,
e6897b1a
KW
2100
2101 $a =~ m/$foo/and $bar
2102
2103will be disallowed too.
2104
252aa082
JH
2105=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2106
e476b1b5 2107(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2108(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2109L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2110
8903cb82
PP
2111=item Identifier too long
2112
2113(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2114about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2115names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2116of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2117
c3c41406 2118=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class
fc8cd66c 2119
20561843 2120(W) Named Unicode character escapes C<(\N{...})> may return a zero-length
6903afa2
FC
2121sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class its
2122behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
2123been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
2124
6df41af2 2125=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2126
6df41af2 2127(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2128
6df41af2 2129=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2130
be771a83
GS
2131(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2132binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2133offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2134
6597eb22
FC
2135=item Illegal character after '_' in prototype for %s : %s
2136
2137(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2138Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
2139
78d0fecf 2140=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2141
d5898338 2142(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2143would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2144when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2145version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2146to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2147
d37a9538
ST
2148=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2149
197afce1 2150(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2e9cc7ef 2151Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
d37a9538 2152
904d85c5
RGS
2153=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2154
2155(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
6903afa2 2156you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
904d85c5 2157
8e742a20
MHM
2158=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2159
6903afa2 2160(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
8e742a20 2161
a0d0e21e
LW
2162=item Illegal division by zero
2163
be771a83
GS
2164(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2165your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2166meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2167
6df41af2
GS
2168=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2169
be771a83
GS
2170(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2171A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2172number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2173
a0d0e21e
LW
2174=item Illegal modulus zero
2175
be771a83
GS
2176(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2177numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2178
6df41af2 2179=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2180
6df41af2
GS
2181(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2182two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2183
2184=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2185
d1be9408 2186(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2187
399388f4 2188=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2189
d1be9408 2190(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2191Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2192
fe13d51d 2193=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2194
6df41af2 2195(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2196following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2197
6df41af2 2198=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2199
75b44862 2200(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2201internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2202delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2203
6df41af2 2204=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2205
be771a83
GS
2206(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2207name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2208didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2209ignored.
54310121 2210
6df41af2 2211=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2212
be771a83
GS
2213(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2214the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2215system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2216times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2217would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2218
be771a83
GS
2219Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2220also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2221
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2222=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on parent '%s'
2223
2224(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2225C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2226documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2227
979699d9
JH
2228=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2229
2230(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2231Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2232encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2233
1a147d38
YO
2234=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2235
2236(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
6903afa2 2237text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
1a147d38
YO
2238either consume text or fail.
2239
2240The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2241discovered.
2242
6dbe9451
NC
2243=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2244
6903afa2
FC
2245(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the
2246initialization of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write
2247C<state ($a) = 42> as C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar
2248context. Constructions such as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be
2249supported in a future perl release.
6dbe9451 2250
a0d0e21e
LW
2251=item Insecure dependency in %s
2252
8b1a09fc 2253(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2254The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2255setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2256tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2257from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2258such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2259L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2260
2261=item Insecure directory in %s
2262
be771a83
GS
2263(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2264setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2265the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2266See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2267
62f468fc 2268=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2269
2270(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2271setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2272C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2273supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2274the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2275
0e9be77f
DM
2276=item Insecure user-defined property %s
2277
2278(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2279expression that contains a call to a user-defined character property
2280function, i.e. C<\p{IsFoo}> or C<\p{InFoo}>.
2281See L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties> and L<perlsec>.
2282
b9ef414d
FC
2283=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2284
2285(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2286or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2287integers for your architecture.
2288
a7ae9550
GS
2289=item Integer overflow in %s number
2290
75b44862 2291(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2292either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2293your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2294On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2295representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
22960b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2297transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2298internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2299operations.
bbce6d69 2300
46314c13
JP
2301=item Integer overflow in version
2302
2303(F) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the
2304size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
2305because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use a
2306element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by
2307trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
2308100/9.
2309
7253e4e3 2310=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2311
2312(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 2313The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2314discovered.
2315
748a9306
LW
2316=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2317
be771a83
GS
2318(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2319you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2320to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2321L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2322Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2323terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2324
7253e4e3 2325=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2326
fa816bf3 2327(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
7253e4e3
RK
2328<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2329discovered.
a0d0e21e 2330
6df41af2
GS
2331=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2332
75b44862 2333(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2334followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2335operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2336L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2337
09bef843
SB
2338=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2339
a4a4c9e2 2340(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2341by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2342
2343=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2344
a4a4c9e2 2345(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2346recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2347
c635e13b
PP
2348=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2349
be771a83
GS
2350(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2351L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2352
9e08bc66
ST
2353=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2354
2355(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2356didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2357from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2358The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
2359The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2360escape was discovered.
2361
8149aa9f
FC
2362=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
2363
2364(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
74f8e9e3
FC
2365number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than
23660 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
8149aa9f 2367
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2368=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2369
162a3e34
FC
2370(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")> or C<use mro 'foo'>,
2371where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO). Currently,
2372the only valid ones supported are C<dfs> and C<c3>, unless you have loaded
2373a module that is a MRO plugin. See L<mro> and L<perlmroapi>.
2c7d6b9c 2374
7253e4e3 2375=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2376
2377(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2378greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2379C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
2380up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2381problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2382
d1573ac7 2383=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2384
2385(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2386character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2387
09bef843
SB
2388=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2389
0120eecf 2390(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2391elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2392parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2393See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2394
b4581f09
JH
2395=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2396
2bfc5f71
FC
2397(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other
2398than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
b4581f09
JH
2399If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2400list was terminated too soon.
2401
2c86d456
DG
2402=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2403
fa816bf3 2404(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2405A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2406decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2407v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2408The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2409See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2410
49704364 2411=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2412
49704364
LW
2413(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2414See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6728c851 2415
49704364 2416(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2417silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2418
2c86d456
DG
2419=item Invalid version format (%s)
2420
fa816bf3 2421(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2422A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2423decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
fa816bf3
FC
2424v-string. If the v-string has fewer than three components, it
2425must have a leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is
2426optional. Both decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a
2427trailing "alpha" component separated by an underscore character
2428after a fractional or dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized
2429text indicates which criteria were not met. See the L<version> module
2430for more details on allowed version formats.
46314c13 2431
798ae1b7
DG
2432=item Invalid version object
2433
fa816bf3
FC
2434(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid.
2435Perhaps the internals were modified directly in some way or
2436an arbitrary reference was blessed into the "version" class.
798ae1b7 2437
a0d0e21e
LW
2438=item ioctl is not implemented
2439
2440(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2441strange for a machine that supports C.
2442
c289d2f7
JH
2443=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2444
2445(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
34b6fd5e 2446Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 2447
fe13d51d 2448=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2449
2450(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
34b6fd5e 2451you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO, Perl must be configured
363c40c4
SB
2452with 'useperlio'.
2453
80cbd5ad
JH
2454=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2455
2456(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
34b6fd5e 2457neither as a system call nor an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
80cbd5ad 2458
b4581f09
JH
2459=item $* is no longer supported
2460
a58ac25e 2461(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older
6903afa2 2462perls, has been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In
a58ac25e
FC
2463previous versions of perl the use of C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line
2464matching within a string.
4fd19576
B
2465
2466Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
6903afa2
FC
2467modifiers. You can enable C</m> for a lexical scope (even a whole file)
2468with C<use re '/m'>. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value
570dedd4 2469then all regular expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2470
8ae1fe26
RGS
2471=item $# is no longer supported
2472
a58ac25e 2473(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older
6903afa2 2474perls, has been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You
a58ac25e 2475should use the printf/sprintf functions instead.
8ae1fe26 2476
ccf3535a 2477=item '%s' is not a code reference
6ad11d81 2478
6903afa2
FC
2479(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of
2480overload::constant needs to be a code reference. Either
2481an anonymous subroutine, or a reference to a subroutine.
6ad11d81 2482
ccf3535a 2483=item '%s' is not an overloadable type
6ad11d81 2484
04a80ee0
RGS
2485(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2486unaware of.
6ad11d81 2487
a0d0e21e
LW
2488=item junk on end of regexp
2489
2490(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2491
2492=item Label not found for "last %s"
2493
be771a83
GS
2494(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2495of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2496L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2497
2498=item Label not found for "next %s"
2499
2500(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2501that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2502L<perlfunc/last>.
2503
2504=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2505
2506(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2507that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2508L<perlfunc/last>.
2509
85ab1d1d 2510=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2511
85ab1d1d 2512(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2513effective uids or gids failed.
2514
49704364
LW
2515=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2516
d7f8936a 2517(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
6903afa2
FC
2518length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2519an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 2520
e508c8a4
MH
2521=item length() used on %s
2522
0d46a4e7
FC
2523(W syntax) You used length() on either an array or a hash when you
2524probably wanted a count of the items.
e508c8a4
MH
2525
2526Array size can be obtained by doing:
2527
2528 scalar(@array);
2529
2530The number of items in a hash can be obtained by doing:
2531
2532 scalar(keys %hash);
2533
f0e67a1d
Z
2534=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2535
2536(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
6903afa2
FC
2537(using L<lex_stuff_pvn|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn> or similar), but tried to insert a character that
2538couldn't be part of the current input. This is an inherent pitfall
2539of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the reasons to avoid it. Where
2540it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only plain ASCII is recommended.
f0e67a1d
Z
2541
2542=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2543
2544(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2545detectable way.
2546
69282e91 2547=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2548
be771a83
GS
2549(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2550to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2551L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2552
bcd05b94 2553=item localtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2554
e9200be3 2555(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was larger
fc003d4b 2556than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
6903afa2 2557wrong date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2558not-a-number value).
2559
bcd05b94 2560=item localtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2561
e9200be3 2562(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was smaller
fc003d4b 2563than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
e7a1a147 2564wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2565
58e23c8d 2566=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2567
2568(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
6903afa2 2569handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2570
b88df990
NC
2571=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2572
2573(W) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one is too large
2574for the underlying floating point representation to store accurately,
6903afa2 2575hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this warning
b88df990
NC
2576because it has already switched from integers to floating point when values
2577are too large for integers, and now even floating point is insufficient.
2578You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
2579
2f7da168
RK
2580=item lstat() on filehandle %s
2581
2582(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2583by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2584instead on the filehandle.)
2585
bb3abb05
FC
2586=item lvalue attribute cannot be removed after the subroutine has been defined
2587
2588(W misc) The lvalue attribute on a Perl subroutine cannot be turned off
2589once the subroutine is defined.
2590
885ef6f5
GG
2591=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2592
bb3abb05
FC
2593(W misc) Making a Perl subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been
2594defined, whether by declaring the subroutine with an lvalue attribute
2595or by using L<attributes.pm|attributes>, is not possible. To make the subroutine an
2596lvalue subroutine, add the lvalue attribute to the definition, or put
2597the declaration before the definition.
885ef6f5 2598
2db62bbc 2599=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
49704364 2600
2db62bbc 2601(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2602are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2603
2604=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2605
2db62bbc 2606(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2607are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2608
6df41af2
GS
2609=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2610
2611(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2612
2613 prefix1;prefix2
2614
2615or
6df41af2
GS
2616 prefix1 prefix2
2617
be771a83
GS
2618with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2619a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2620appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2621"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2622
2f758a16
ST
2623=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2624
d37a9538
ST
2625(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2626syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2627obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2628when the function is called.
2f758a16 2629
ba210ebe
JH
2630=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2631
4d6f11e5 2632(S utf8)(F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2575c402 2633encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2634
2575c402
JW
2635One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2636you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
6903afa2 26378-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2575c402
JW
2638
2639If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2640sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2641set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2642message.
2643
2644See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2645
ff3f963a
KW
2646=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N
2647
2648(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2649
4a5d3a93
FC
2650=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2651
2652(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2653rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2654
f337b084
TH
2655=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2656
2657(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2658rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2659
2660=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2661
2662(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2663rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2664
4a5d3a93 2665=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
f337b084 2666
4a5d3a93
FC
2667(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
2668doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2669
2670=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2671
2672(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
2673regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
2674shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2675See L<perlre>.
f337b084 2676
de42a5a9 2677=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 2678
6903afa2 2679(F) Perl aborted due to too high a number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2680usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2681too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2682resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
6903afa2 2683safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2563cec5 2684
25f58aea
PN
2685=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2686
2687(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2688interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2689"use" or "my".
2690
0d2487cd 2691=item '%' may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2692
2693(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2694checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2695See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2696
a0d0e21e
LW
2697=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2698
2699(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2700doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2701
3cdd684c
TP
2702=item Method %s not permitted
2703
2704See Server error.
2705
a0d0e21e
LW
2706=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2707
2708(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2709by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2710ended earlier on the current line.
2711
2712=item Misplaced _ in number
2713
d4ced10d
JH
2714(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2715separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2716
7baa4690
HS
2717=item Missing argument in %s
2718
2719(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2720supplied.
2721
9e81e6a1
RGS
2722=item Missing argument to -%c
2723
2724(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2725immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2726
ff3f963a 2727=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2728
4a2d328f 2729(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
532cb70d
FC
2730double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space
2731(or comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2732This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately
2733follow the C<\N>.
423cee85 2734
f0a2b745
KW
2735=item Missing braces on \o{}
2736
2737(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2738
a0d0e21e
LW
2739=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2740
2741(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2742"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2743
06eaf0bc
GS
2744=item Missing command in piped open
2745
be771a83
GS
2746(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2747C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2748blank.
06eaf0bc 2749
961ce445
RGS
2750=item Missing control char name in \c
2751
2752(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2753character name.
2754
6df41af2
GS
2755=item Missing name in "my sub"
2756
be771a83
GS
2757(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2758they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2759
2760=item Missing $ on loop variable
2761
be771a83
GS
2762(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2763are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2764can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2765
cc507455 2766=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2767
56da5a46
RGS
2768(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2769"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2770
ab13f0c7
JH
2771=item Missing right brace on %s
2772
ff3f963a
KW
2773(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
2774
4a68bf9d 2775=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 2776
d32207c9
FC
2777(F) C<\N> has two meanings.
2778
2779The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed in braces,
2780meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that
fa816bf3 2781name. Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
d32207c9
FC
2782double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns,
2783it doesn't have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
2784
2785Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only)
2786in patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short
2787for C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
2788
2789This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately
2790by a left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if the braces
2791form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes that this
2792means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
27933; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a
2794C<\N{> and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
2795
2796However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was
2797mistakenly omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and raises this error.
2798If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant the latter,
2799escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 2800
d98d5fff 2801=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2802
be771a83
GS
2803(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2804ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2805were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2806
6df41af2
GS
2807=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2808
56da5a46
RGS
2809(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2810"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2811the previous line just because you saw this message.
2812
a0d0e21e
LW
2813=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2814
2815(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2816constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2817catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2818
2819 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2820 mod(2);
2821
2822Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2823
c5674021
PDF
2824Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2825is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2826
b7e4ecc1
FC
2827 $x = 1;
2828 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2829 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to
2830 } # modify the 2
c5674021 2831
7a4340ed 2832=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2833
2834(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2835subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2836backwards.
2837
7a4340ed 2838=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2839
be771a83
GS
2840(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2841couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2842
2843=item Module name must be constant
2844
2845(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2846
be98fb35 2847=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2848
be98fb35
GS
2849(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2850you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2851about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2852
fe13d51d 2853=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7 2854
6903afa2 2855(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
ed9aa3b7
SG
2856can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2857list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2858See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2859
a0d0e21e
LW
2860=item msg%s not implemented
2861
2862(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2863
2864=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2865
75b44862
GS
2866(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2867They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2868
49704364 2869=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2870
49704364
LW
2871(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2872follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2873See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2874
2875=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2876
be771a83
GS
2877(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2878that yet.
6df41af2 2879
fd1b7234 2880=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 2881
be771a83
GS
2882(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2883sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2884local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2885
8149aa9f
FC
2886=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2887
2888(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
2889If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2890again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
2891provided for this purpose.
2892
2893NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2894%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2895the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2896will not trigger this warning.
2897
4a68bf9d 2898=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...}
ff3f963a 2899
c3c41406 2900(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in a bracketed
f4e361c7
FC
2901character class, for the same reason that C<.> in a character class loses
2902its specialness: it matches almost everything, which is probably not
2903what you want.
c3c41406 2904
4a68bf9d 2905=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer
c3c41406 2906
f4e361c7
FC
2907(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or
2908sequence was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that
2909bypass the lexer, such as using single-quotish context, or an extra
7fae04b9 2910backslash in double-quotish:
c3c41406
KW
2911
2912 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
b09c05e6 2913 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
c3c41406
KW
2914 /$re/;
2915
b09c05e6 2916Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
c3c41406
KW
2917
2918 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
2919 /$re/;
2920
2921The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
2922components:
2923
2924 $re = '\N';
2925 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
2926
2927It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and it
2928doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
2929
2930Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
2931C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
2932
2933 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
2934 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
ff3f963a 2935
49704364
LW
2936=item Negative '/' count in unpack
2937
2938(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
2939negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2940
a0d0e21e
LW
2941=item Negative length
2942
be771a83
GS
2943(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2944length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2945
ed9aa3b7
SG
2946=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
2947
2948(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
2949greater than or equal to zero.
2950
7253e4e3 2951=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2952
6903afa2
FC
2953(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses.
2954So things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the
2955regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2956
7253e4e3 2957Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2958C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2959
6df41af2 2960=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2961
be771a83
GS
2962(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2963scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 2964
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2965=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
2966
2967(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
2968real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
2969See L<mro>.
2970
a0d0e21e
LW
2971=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2972
be771a83
GS
2973(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2974setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2975will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2976securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2977
a0d0e21e
LW
2978=item No comma allowed after %s
2979
6903afa2
FC
2980(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is
2981not allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
a0d0e21e
LW
2982Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2983
6903afa2
FC
2984One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported
2985a constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2986importing took place, it may for example be that your operating
2987system does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did
2988use an explicit import list for the constants you expect to see;
2989please see L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an
2990explicit import list would probably have caught this error earlier
2991it naturally does not remedy the fact that your operating system
2992still does not support that constant. Maybe you have a typo in
2993the constants of the symbol import list of B<use> or B<import> or in the
2994constant name at the line where this error was triggered?
0a753a76 2995
748a9306
LW
2996=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2997
be771a83
GS
2998(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2999redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
3000doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 3001
a0d0e21e
LW
3002=item No DB::DB routine defined
3003
be771a83 3004(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
f7af5ce1 3005for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
ccafdc96
RGS
3006module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
3007statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
3008
3009=item No dbm on this machine
3010
3011(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 3012supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 3013
ccafdc96 3014=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 3015
ccafdc96
RGS
3016(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
3017for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
3018module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
3019of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 3020
c47ff5f1 3021=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 3022
be771a83
GS
3023(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3024redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
3025find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 3026
49704364
LW
3027=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
3028
3029(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
6903afa2 3030matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 3031
c47ff5f1 3032=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 3033
be771a83
GS
3034(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3035redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
3036name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 3037
2c7d6b9c
RGS
3038=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
3039
3040(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
3041in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
3042it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
fa816bf3 3043or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2c7d6b9c 3044
6df41af2
GS
3045=item "no" not allowed in expression
3046
be771a83
GS
3047(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
3048returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 3049
c47ff5f1 3050=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 3051
be771a83
GS
3052(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3053redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
3054doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 3055
c47ff5f1 3056=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 3057
be771a83
GS
3058(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3059redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
3060find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 3061
1ec3e8de
GS
3062=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
3063
be771a83
GS
3064(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
3065declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
3066semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 3067
a0d0e21e
LW
3068=item No Perl script found in input
3069
3070(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
3071with #! and containing the word "perl".
3072
3073=item No setregid available
3074
3075(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
3076your system.
3077
3078=item No setreuid available
3079
3080(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
3081your system.
3082
6df41af2
GS
3083=item No %s specified for -%c
3084
3085(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
3086you haven't specified one.
f7af5ce1 3087
e75d1f10
RD
3088=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
3089
b7e4ecc1
FC
3090(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed
3091variable but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type.
3092The indicated package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the
3093L<fields> pragma.
e75d1f10 3094
2c692339
RGS
3095=item No such class %s
3096
dc7e5945
FC
3097(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state"
3098declaration, but this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2c692339 3099
3c20a832
SP
3100=item No such hook: %s
3101
dc7e5945
FC
3102(F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl.
3103Currently, Perl accepts C<__DIE__> and C<__WARN__> as valid signal hooks.
3c20a832 3104
6df41af2
GS
3105=item No such pipe open
3106
3107(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
3108close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
3109earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 3110
a0d0e21e
LW
3111=item No such signal: SIG%s
3112
be771a83
GS
3113(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
3114not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
3115names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
3116
3117=item Not a CODE reference
3118
3119(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3120subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3121use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3122also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3123
3124=item Not a format reference
3125
3126(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
3127format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
3128
3129=item Not a GLOB reference
3130
be771a83
GS
3131(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
3132symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
3133something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
3134kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3135
3136=item Not a HASH reference
3137
be771a83
GS
3138(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
3139reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
3140find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3141
6df41af2
GS
3142=item Not an ARRAY reference
3143
be771a83
GS
3144(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
3145a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3146to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 3147
d4fc4415
FC
3148=item Not an unblessed ARRAY reference
3149
3150(F) You passed a reference to a blessed array to C<push>, C<shift> or
3151another array function. These only accept unblessed array references
3152or arrays beginning explicitly with C<@>.
3153
a0d0e21e
LW
3154=item Not a SCALAR reference
3155
be771a83
GS
3156(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
3157a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3158to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3159
3160=item Not a subroutine reference
3161
3162(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3163subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3164use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3165also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3166
e7ea3e70 3167=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
3168
3169(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 3170doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 3171
a0d0e21e
LW
3172=item Not enough arguments for %s
3173
3174(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
3175
6df41af2
GS
3176=item Not enough format arguments
3177
be771a83
GS
3178(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
3179supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
3180
3181=item %s: not found
3182
be771a83
GS
3183(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
3184of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
3185yourself.
6df41af2
GS
3186
3187=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 3188
6df41af2
GS
3189(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
3190timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
3191to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
3192F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
3193need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e 3194
f0a2b745
KW
3195=item Non-octal character '%c'. Resolved as "%s"
3196
fa816bf3
FC
3197(W digit) In parsing an octal numeric constant, a character was
3198unexpectedly encountered that isn't octal. The resulting value
3199is as indicated.
f0a2b745 3200
4ef2275c
GA
3201=item Non-string passed as bitmask
3202
3203(W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().
3204Use the vec() function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for
6903afa2 3205select. See L<perlfunc/select>.
4ef2275c 3206
a0d0e21e
LW
3207=item Null filename used
3208
be771a83
GS
3209(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
3210machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 3211
6df41af2
GS
3212=item NULL OP IN RUN
3213
f84fe999 3214(S debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
be771a83 3215pointer.
6df41af2 3216
55497cff
PP
3217=item Null picture in formline
3218
3219(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
3220specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
3221supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
3222
a0d0e21e
LW
3223=item Null realloc
3224
3225(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
3226
3227=item NULL regexp argument
3228
5f05dabc 3229(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
3230
3231=item NULL regexp parameter
3232
3233(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
3234
fc36a67e
PP
3235=item Number too long
3236
be771a83 3237(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 3238about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
3239versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
3240the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
3241"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 3242
f0a2b745
KW
3243=item Number with no digits
3244
1043934d 3245(F) Perl was looking for a number but found nothing that looked like
6903afa2 3246a number. This happens, for example with C<\o{}>, with no number between
1043934d 3247the braces.
f0a2b745 3248
252aa082
JH
3249=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
3250
75b44862 3251(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
3252(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
3253L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 3254
6ad11d81
JH
3255=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
3256
04a80ee0 3257(W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of
6903afa2 3258arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.
6ad11d81 3259
b21befc1
MG
3260=item Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
3261
3262(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3263which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
3264
1930e939 3265=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 3266
be771a83
GS
3267(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3268which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 3269
bbce6d69
PP
3270=item Offset outside string
3271
1fa582fa 3272(F)(W layer) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv/seek operation
42bc49da 3273with an offset pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to
f5a7294f
JH
3274imagine. The sole exceptions to this are that zero padding will
3275take place when going past the end of the string when either
3276C<sysread()>ing a file, or when seeking past the end of a scalar opened
1a7a2554
MB
3277for I/O (in anticipation of future reads and to imitate the behaviour
3278with real files).
bbce6d69 3279
c289d2f7 3280=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
3281
3282(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
3283never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
3284call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
3285
96ebfdd7
RK
3286=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
3287
3288(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
3289that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
3290
a0d0e21e
LW
3291=item oops: oopsAV
3292
e476b1b5 3293(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
3294
3295=item oops: oopsHV
3296
e476b1b5 3297(S internal) An internal warning that the gra