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a0d0e21e 1/* sv.c
79072805 2 *
1129b882 3 * Copyright (C) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000,
83706693
RGS
4 * 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 by Larry Wall
5 * and others
79072805
LW
6 *
7 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
8 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
9 *
4ac71550
TC
10 */
11
12/*
13 * 'I wonder what the Entish is for "yes" and "no",' he thought.
14 * --Pippin
15 *
16 * [p.480 of _The Lord of the Rings_, III/iv: "Treebeard"]
17 */
18
19/*
645c22ef
DM
20 *
21 *
5e045b90
AMS
22 * This file contains the code that creates, manipulates and destroys
23 * scalar values (SVs). The other types (AV, HV, GV, etc.) reuse the
24 * structure of an SV, so their creation and destruction is handled
25 * here; higher-level functions are in av.c, hv.c, and so on. Opcode
26 * level functions (eg. substr, split, join) for each of the types are
27 * in the pp*.c files.
79072805
LW
28 */
29
30#include "EXTERN.h"
864dbfa3 31#define PERL_IN_SV_C
79072805 32#include "perl.h"
d2f185dc 33#include "regcomp.h"
79072805 34
07208e09 35#ifndef HAS_C99
4b2d6671 36# if __STDC_VERSION__ >= 199901L && !defined(VMS)
07208e09
CS
37# define HAS_C99 1
38# endif
39#endif
40#if HAS_C99
41# include <stdint.h>
42#endif
43
51371543 44#define FCALL *f
2c5424a7 45
2f8ed50e
OS
46#ifdef __Lynx__
47/* Missing proto on LynxOS */
48 char *gconvert(double, int, int, char *);
49#endif
50
e23c8137 51#ifdef PERL_UTF8_CACHE_ASSERT
ab455f60 52/* if adding more checks watch out for the following tests:
e23c8137
JH
53 * t/op/index.t t/op/length.t t/op/pat.t t/op/substr.t
54 * lib/utf8.t lib/Unicode/Collate/t/index.t
55 * --jhi
56 */
6f207bd3 57# define ASSERT_UTF8_CACHE(cache) \
ab455f60
NC
58 STMT_START { if (cache) { assert((cache)[0] <= (cache)[1]); \
59 assert((cache)[2] <= (cache)[3]); \
60 assert((cache)[3] <= (cache)[1]);} \
61 } STMT_END
e23c8137 62#else
6f207bd3 63# define ASSERT_UTF8_CACHE(cache) NOOP
e23c8137
JH
64#endif
65
f8c7b90f 66#ifdef PERL_OLD_COPY_ON_WRITE
765f542d 67#define SV_COW_NEXT_SV(sv) INT2PTR(SV *,SvUVX(sv))
607fa7f2 68#define SV_COW_NEXT_SV_SET(current,next) SvUV_set(current, PTR2UV(next))
b5ccf5f2 69/* This is a pessimistic view. Scalar must be purely a read-write PV to copy-
765f542d 70 on-write. */
765f542d 71#endif
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72
73/* ============================================================================
74
75=head1 Allocation and deallocation of SVs.
76
d2a0f284
JC
77An SV (or AV, HV, etc.) is allocated in two parts: the head (struct
78sv, av, hv...) contains type and reference count information, and for
79many types, a pointer to the body (struct xrv, xpv, xpviv...), which
80contains fields specific to each type. Some types store all they need
81in the head, so don't have a body.
82
486ec47a 83In all but the most memory-paranoid configurations (ex: PURIFY), heads
d2a0f284
JC
84and bodies are allocated out of arenas, which by default are
85approximately 4K chunks of memory parcelled up into N heads or bodies.
93e68bfb
JC
86Sv-bodies are allocated by their sv-type, guaranteeing size
87consistency needed to allocate safely from arrays.
88
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JC
89For SV-heads, the first slot in each arena is reserved, and holds a
90link to the next arena, some flags, and a note of the number of slots.
91Snaked through each arena chain is a linked list of free items; when
92this becomes empty, an extra arena is allocated and divided up into N
93items which are threaded into the free list.
94
95SV-bodies are similar, but they use arena-sets by default, which
96separate the link and info from the arena itself, and reclaim the 1st
97slot in the arena. SV-bodies are further described later.
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98
99The following global variables are associated with arenas:
100
101 PL_sv_arenaroot pointer to list of SV arenas
102 PL_sv_root pointer to list of free SV structures
103
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JC
104 PL_body_arenas head of linked-list of body arenas
105 PL_body_roots[] array of pointers to list of free bodies of svtype
106 arrays are indexed by the svtype needed
93e68bfb 107
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JC
108A few special SV heads are not allocated from an arena, but are
109instead directly created in the interpreter structure, eg PL_sv_undef.
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110The size of arenas can be changed from the default by setting
111PERL_ARENA_SIZE appropriately at compile time.
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112
113The SV arena serves the secondary purpose of allowing still-live SVs
114to be located and destroyed during final cleanup.
115
116At the lowest level, the macros new_SV() and del_SV() grab and free
117an SV head. (If debugging with -DD, del_SV() calls the function S_del_sv()
118to return the SV to the free list with error checking.) new_SV() calls
119more_sv() / sv_add_arena() to add an extra arena if the free list is empty.
120SVs in the free list have their SvTYPE field set to all ones.
121
ff276b08 122At the time of very final cleanup, sv_free_arenas() is called from
645c22ef 123perl_destruct() to physically free all the arenas allocated since the
6a93a7e5 124start of the interpreter.
645c22ef 125
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126The function visit() scans the SV arenas list, and calls a specified
127function for each SV it finds which is still live - ie which has an SvTYPE
128other than all 1's, and a non-zero SvREFCNT. visit() is used by the
129following functions (specified as [function that calls visit()] / [function
130called by visit() for each SV]):
131
132 sv_report_used() / do_report_used()
f2524eef 133 dump all remaining SVs (debugging aid)
645c22ef 134
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DM
135 sv_clean_objs() / do_clean_objs(),do_clean_named_objs(),
136 do_clean_named_io_objs()
645c22ef 137 Attempt to free all objects pointed to by RVs,
c3b19b5c 138 and try to do the same for all objects indirectly
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139 referenced by typeglobs too. Called once from
140 perl_destruct(), prior to calling sv_clean_all()
141 below.
142
143 sv_clean_all() / do_clean_all()
144 SvREFCNT_dec(sv) each remaining SV, possibly
145 triggering an sv_free(). It also sets the
146 SVf_BREAK flag on the SV to indicate that the
147 refcnt has been artificially lowered, and thus
148 stopping sv_free() from giving spurious warnings
149 about SVs which unexpectedly have a refcnt
150 of zero. called repeatedly from perl_destruct()
151 until there are no SVs left.
152
93e68bfb 153=head2 Arena allocator API Summary
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154
155Private API to rest of sv.c
156
157 new_SV(), del_SV(),
158
df0f0429 159 new_XPVNV(), del_XPVGV(),
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160 etc
161
162Public API:
163
8cf8f3d1 164 sv_report_used(), sv_clean_objs(), sv_clean_all(), sv_free_arenas()
645c22ef 165
645c22ef
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166=cut
167
3e8320cc 168 * ========================================================================= */
645c22ef 169
4561caa4
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170/*
171 * "A time to plant, and a time to uproot what was planted..."
172 */
173
d7a2c63c
MHM
174#ifdef PERL_MEM_LOG
175# define MEM_LOG_NEW_SV(sv, file, line, func) \
176 Perl_mem_log_new_sv(sv, file, line, func)
177# define MEM_LOG_DEL_SV(sv, file, line, func) \
178 Perl_mem_log_del_sv(sv, file, line, func)
179#else
180# define MEM_LOG_NEW_SV(sv, file, line, func) NOOP
181# define MEM_LOG_DEL_SV(sv, file, line, func) NOOP
182#endif
183
fd0854ff 184#ifdef DEBUG_LEAKING_SCALARS
22162ca8 185# define FREE_SV_DEBUG_FILE(sv) Safefree((sv)->sv_debug_file)
d7a2c63c
MHM
186# define DEBUG_SV_SERIAL(sv) \
187 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf": (%05ld) del_SV\n", \
188 PTR2UV(sv), (long)(sv)->sv_debug_serial))
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189#else
190# define FREE_SV_DEBUG_FILE(sv)
d7a2c63c 191# define DEBUG_SV_SERIAL(sv) NOOP
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DM
192#endif
193
48614a46
NC
194#ifdef PERL_POISON
195# define SvARENA_CHAIN(sv) ((sv)->sv_u.svu_rv)
daba3364 196# define SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(sv,val) (sv)->sv_u.svu_rv = MUTABLE_SV((val))
48614a46
NC
197/* Whilst I'd love to do this, it seems that things like to check on
198 unreferenced scalars
7e337ee0 199# define POSION_SV_HEAD(sv) PoisonNew(sv, 1, struct STRUCT_SV)
48614a46 200*/
7e337ee0
JH
201# define POSION_SV_HEAD(sv) PoisonNew(&SvANY(sv), 1, void *), \
202 PoisonNew(&SvREFCNT(sv), 1, U32)
48614a46
NC
203#else
204# define SvARENA_CHAIN(sv) SvANY(sv)
3eef1deb 205# define SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(sv,val) SvANY(sv) = (void *)(val)
48614a46
NC
206# define POSION_SV_HEAD(sv)
207#endif
208
990198f0
DM
209/* Mark an SV head as unused, and add to free list.
210 *
211 * If SVf_BREAK is set, skip adding it to the free list, as this SV had
212 * its refcount artificially decremented during global destruction, so
213 * there may be dangling pointers to it. The last thing we want in that
214 * case is for it to be reused. */
215
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GS
216#define plant_SV(p) \
217 STMT_START { \
990198f0 218 const U32 old_flags = SvFLAGS(p); \
d7a2c63c
MHM
219 MEM_LOG_DEL_SV(p, __FILE__, __LINE__, FUNCTION__); \
220 DEBUG_SV_SERIAL(p); \
fd0854ff 221 FREE_SV_DEBUG_FILE(p); \
48614a46 222 POSION_SV_HEAD(p); \
053fc874 223 SvFLAGS(p) = SVTYPEMASK; \
990198f0 224 if (!(old_flags & SVf_BREAK)) { \
3eef1deb 225 SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(p, PL_sv_root); \
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DM
226 PL_sv_root = (p); \
227 } \
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GS
228 --PL_sv_count; \
229 } STMT_END
a0d0e21e 230
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GS
231#define uproot_SV(p) \
232 STMT_START { \
233 (p) = PL_sv_root; \
daba3364 234 PL_sv_root = MUTABLE_SV(SvARENA_CHAIN(p)); \
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GS
235 ++PL_sv_count; \
236 } STMT_END
237
645c22ef 238
cac9b346
NC
239/* make some more SVs by adding another arena */
240
cac9b346
NC
241STATIC SV*
242S_more_sv(pTHX)
243{
97aff369 244 dVAR;
cac9b346 245 SV* sv;
9a87bd09
NC
246 char *chunk; /* must use New here to match call to */
247 Newx(chunk,PERL_ARENA_SIZE,char); /* Safefree() in sv_free_arenas() */
248 sv_add_arena(chunk, PERL_ARENA_SIZE, 0);
cac9b346
NC
249 uproot_SV(sv);
250 return sv;
251}
252
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253/* new_SV(): return a new, empty SV head */
254
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DM
255#ifdef DEBUG_LEAKING_SCALARS
256/* provide a real function for a debugger to play with */
257STATIC SV*
d7a2c63c 258S_new_SV(pTHX_ const char *file, int line, const char *func)
eba0f806
DM
259{
260 SV* sv;
261
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DM
262 if (PL_sv_root)
263 uproot_SV(sv);
264 else
cac9b346 265 sv = S_more_sv(aTHX);
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DM
266 SvANY(sv) = 0;
267 SvREFCNT(sv) = 1;
268 SvFLAGS(sv) = 0;
fd0854ff 269 sv->sv_debug_optype = PL_op ? PL_op->op_type : 0;
e385c3bf
DM
270 sv->sv_debug_line = (U16) (PL_parser && PL_parser->copline != NOLINE
271 ? PL_parser->copline
272 : PL_curcop
f24aceb1
DM
273 ? CopLINE(PL_curcop)
274 : 0
e385c3bf 275 );
fd0854ff 276 sv->sv_debug_inpad = 0;
cd676548 277 sv->sv_debug_parent = NULL;
fd0854ff 278 sv->sv_debug_file = PL_curcop ? savepv(CopFILE(PL_curcop)): NULL;
d7a2c63c
MHM
279
280 sv->sv_debug_serial = PL_sv_serial++;
281
282 MEM_LOG_NEW_SV(sv, file, line, func);
283 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf": (%05ld) new_SV (from %s:%d [%s])\n",
284 PTR2UV(sv), (long)sv->sv_debug_serial, file, line, func));
285
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286 return sv;
287}
d7a2c63c 288# define new_SV(p) (p)=S_new_SV(aTHX_ __FILE__, __LINE__, FUNCTION__)
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DM
289
290#else
291# define new_SV(p) \
053fc874 292 STMT_START { \
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GS
293 if (PL_sv_root) \
294 uproot_SV(p); \
295 else \
cac9b346 296 (p) = S_more_sv(aTHX); \
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297 SvANY(p) = 0; \
298 SvREFCNT(p) = 1; \
299 SvFLAGS(p) = 0; \
d7a2c63c 300 MEM_LOG_NEW_SV(p, __FILE__, __LINE__, FUNCTION__); \
053fc874 301 } STMT_END
eba0f806 302#endif
463ee0b2 303
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DM
304
305/* del_SV(): return an empty SV head to the free list */
306
a0d0e21e 307#ifdef DEBUGGING
4561caa4 308
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309#define del_SV(p) \
310 STMT_START { \
aea4f609 311 if (DEBUG_D_TEST) \
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312 del_sv(p); \
313 else \
314 plant_SV(p); \
053fc874 315 } STMT_END
a0d0e21e 316
76e3520e 317STATIC void
cea2e8a9 318S_del_sv(pTHX_ SV *p)
463ee0b2 319{
97aff369 320 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
321
322 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_DEL_SV;
323
aea4f609 324 if (DEBUG_D_TEST) {
4633a7c4 325 SV* sva;
a3b680e6 326 bool ok = 0;
daba3364 327 for (sva = PL_sv_arenaroot; sva; sva = MUTABLE_SV(SvANY(sva))) {
53c1dcc0
AL
328 const SV * const sv = sva + 1;
329 const SV * const svend = &sva[SvREFCNT(sva)];
c0ff570e 330 if (p >= sv && p < svend) {
a0d0e21e 331 ok = 1;
c0ff570e
NC
332 break;
333 }
a0d0e21e
LW
334 }
335 if (!ok) {
9b387841
NC
336 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_INTERNAL),
337 "Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%"UVxf
338 pTHX__FORMAT, PTR2UV(p) pTHX__VALUE);
a0d0e21e
LW
339 return;
340 }
341 }
4561caa4 342 plant_SV(p);
463ee0b2 343}
a0d0e21e 344
4561caa4
CS
345#else /* ! DEBUGGING */
346
347#define del_SV(p) plant_SV(p)
348
349#endif /* DEBUGGING */
463ee0b2 350
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351
352/*
ccfc67b7
JH
353=head1 SV Manipulation Functions
354
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355=for apidoc sv_add_arena
356
357Given a chunk of memory, link it to the head of the list of arenas,
358and split it into a list of free SVs.
359
360=cut
361*/
362
d2bd4e7f
NC
363static void
364S_sv_add_arena(pTHX_ char *const ptr, const U32 size, const U32 flags)
463ee0b2 365{
97aff369 366 dVAR;
daba3364 367 SV *const sva = MUTABLE_SV(ptr);
eb578fdb
KW
368 SV* sv;
369 SV* svend;
4633a7c4 370
7918f24d
NC
371 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_ADD_ARENA;
372
4633a7c4 373 /* The first SV in an arena isn't an SV. */
3280af22 374 SvANY(sva) = (void *) PL_sv_arenaroot; /* ptr to next arena */
4633a7c4
LW
375 SvREFCNT(sva) = size / sizeof(SV); /* number of SV slots */
376 SvFLAGS(sva) = flags; /* FAKE if not to be freed */
377
3280af22
NIS
378 PL_sv_arenaroot = sva;
379 PL_sv_root = sva + 1;
4633a7c4
LW
380
381 svend = &sva[SvREFCNT(sva) - 1];
382 sv = sva + 1;
463ee0b2 383 while (sv < svend) {
3eef1deb 384 SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(sv, (sv + 1));
03e36789 385#ifdef DEBUGGING
978b032e 386 SvREFCNT(sv) = 0;
03e36789 387#endif
4b69cbe3 388 /* Must always set typemask because it's always checked in on cleanup
03e36789 389 when the arenas are walked looking for objects. */
8990e307 390 SvFLAGS(sv) = SVTYPEMASK;
463ee0b2
LW
391 sv++;
392 }
3eef1deb 393 SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(sv, 0);
03e36789
NC
394#ifdef DEBUGGING
395 SvREFCNT(sv) = 0;
396#endif
4633a7c4
LW
397 SvFLAGS(sv) = SVTYPEMASK;
398}
399
055972dc
DM
400/* visit(): call the named function for each non-free SV in the arenas
401 * whose flags field matches the flags/mask args. */
645c22ef 402
5226ed68 403STATIC I32
de37a194 404S_visit(pTHX_ SVFUNC_t f, const U32 flags, const U32 mask)
8990e307 405{
97aff369 406 dVAR;
4633a7c4 407 SV* sva;
5226ed68 408 I32 visited = 0;
8990e307 409
7918f24d
NC
410 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_VISIT;
411
daba3364 412 for (sva = PL_sv_arenaroot; sva; sva = MUTABLE_SV(SvANY(sva))) {
eb578fdb
KW
413 const SV * const svend = &sva[SvREFCNT(sva)];
414 SV* sv;
4561caa4 415 for (sv = sva + 1; sv < svend; ++sv) {
e4787c0c 416 if (SvTYPE(sv) != (svtype)SVTYPEMASK
055972dc
DM
417 && (sv->sv_flags & mask) == flags
418 && SvREFCNT(sv))
419 {
acfe0abc 420 (FCALL)(aTHX_ sv);
5226ed68
JH
421 ++visited;
422 }
8990e307
LW
423 }
424 }
5226ed68 425 return visited;
8990e307
LW
426}
427
758a08c3
JH
428#ifdef DEBUGGING
429
645c22ef
DM
430/* called by sv_report_used() for each live SV */
431
432static void
5fa45a31 433do_report_used(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
645c22ef 434{
e4787c0c 435 if (SvTYPE(sv) != (svtype)SVTYPEMASK) {
645c22ef
DM
436 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "****\n");
437 sv_dump(sv);
438 }
439}
758a08c3 440#endif
645c22ef
DM
441
442/*
443=for apidoc sv_report_used
444
fde67290 445Dump the contents of all SVs not yet freed (debugging aid).
645c22ef
DM
446
447=cut
448*/
449
8990e307 450void
864dbfa3 451Perl_sv_report_used(pTHX)
4561caa4 452{
ff270d3a 453#ifdef DEBUGGING
055972dc 454 visit(do_report_used, 0, 0);
96a5add6
AL
455#else
456 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
ff270d3a 457#endif
4561caa4
CS
458}
459
645c22ef
DM
460/* called by sv_clean_objs() for each live SV */
461
462static void
de37a194 463do_clean_objs(pTHX_ SV *const ref)
645c22ef 464{
97aff369 465 dVAR;
ea724faa
NC
466 assert (SvROK(ref));
467 {
823a54a3
AL
468 SV * const target = SvRV(ref);
469 if (SvOBJECT(target)) {
470 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Cleaning object ref:\n "), sv_dump(ref)));
471 if (SvWEAKREF(ref)) {
472 sv_del_backref(target, ref);
473 SvWEAKREF_off(ref);
474 SvRV_set(ref, NULL);
475 } else {
476 SvROK_off(ref);
477 SvRV_set(ref, NULL);
478 SvREFCNT_dec(target);
479 }
645c22ef
DM
480 }
481 }
482
483 /* XXX Might want to check arrays, etc. */
484}
485
645c22ef 486
e4487e9b
DM
487/* clear any slots in a GV which hold objects - except IO;
488 * called by sv_clean_objs() for each live GV */
489
645c22ef 490static void
f30de749 491do_clean_named_objs(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
645c22ef 492{
97aff369 493 dVAR;
57ef47cc 494 SV *obj;
ea724faa 495 assert(SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVGV);
d011219a 496 assert(isGV_with_GP(sv));
57ef47cc
DM
497 if (!GvGP(sv))
498 return;
499
500 /* freeing GP entries may indirectly free the current GV;
501 * hold onto it while we mess with the GP slots */
502 SvREFCNT_inc(sv);
503
504 if ( ((obj = GvSV(sv) )) && SvOBJECT(obj)) {
505 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
506 "Cleaning named glob SV object:\n "), sv_dump(obj)));
507 GvSV(sv) = NULL;
508 SvREFCNT_dec(obj);
509 }
510 if ( ((obj = MUTABLE_SV(GvAV(sv)) )) && SvOBJECT(obj)) {
511 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
512 "Cleaning named glob AV object:\n "), sv_dump(obj)));
513 GvAV(sv) = NULL;
514 SvREFCNT_dec(obj);
515 }
516 if ( ((obj = MUTABLE_SV(GvHV(sv)) )) && SvOBJECT(obj)) {
517 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
518 "Cleaning named glob HV object:\n "), sv_dump(obj)));
519 GvHV(sv) = NULL;
520 SvREFCNT_dec(obj);
521 }
522 if ( ((obj = MUTABLE_SV(GvCV(sv)) )) && SvOBJECT(obj)) {
523 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
524 "Cleaning named glob CV object:\n "), sv_dump(obj)));
c43ae56f 525 GvCV_set(sv, NULL);
57ef47cc
DM
526 SvREFCNT_dec(obj);
527 }
e4487e9b
DM
528 SvREFCNT_dec(sv); /* undo the inc above */
529}
530
68b590d9 531/* clear any IO slots in a GV which hold objects (except stderr, defout);
e4487e9b
DM
532 * called by sv_clean_objs() for each live GV */
533
534static void
535do_clean_named_io_objs(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
536{
537 dVAR;
538 SV *obj;
539 assert(SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVGV);
540 assert(isGV_with_GP(sv));
68b590d9 541 if (!GvGP(sv) || sv == (SV*)PL_stderrgv || sv == (SV*)PL_defoutgv)
e4487e9b
DM
542 return;
543
544 SvREFCNT_inc(sv);
57ef47cc
DM
545 if ( ((obj = MUTABLE_SV(GvIO(sv)) )) && SvOBJECT(obj)) {
546 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
547 "Cleaning named glob IO object:\n "), sv_dump(obj)));
548 GvIOp(sv) = NULL;
549 SvREFCNT_dec(obj);
645c22ef 550 }
57ef47cc 551 SvREFCNT_dec(sv); /* undo the inc above */
645c22ef 552}
645c22ef 553
4155e4fe
FC
554/* Void wrapper to pass to visit() */
555static void
556do_curse(pTHX_ SV * const sv) {
c2910e6c
FC
557 if ((PL_stderrgv && GvGP(PL_stderrgv) && (SV*)GvIO(PL_stderrgv) == sv)
558 || (PL_defoutgv && GvGP(PL_defoutgv) && (SV*)GvIO(PL_defoutgv) == sv))
4155e4fe
FC
559 return;
560 (void)curse(sv, 0);
561}
562
645c22ef
DM
563/*
564=for apidoc sv_clean_objs
565
fde67290 566Attempt to destroy all objects not yet freed.
645c22ef
DM
567
568=cut
569*/
570
4561caa4 571void
864dbfa3 572Perl_sv_clean_objs(pTHX)
4561caa4 573{
97aff369 574 dVAR;
68b590d9 575 GV *olddef, *olderr;
3280af22 576 PL_in_clean_objs = TRUE;
055972dc 577 visit(do_clean_objs, SVf_ROK, SVf_ROK);
e4487e9b
DM
578 /* Some barnacles may yet remain, clinging to typeglobs.
579 * Run the non-IO destructors first: they may want to output
580 * error messages, close files etc */
d011219a 581 visit(do_clean_named_objs, SVt_PVGV|SVpgv_GP, SVTYPEMASK|SVp_POK|SVpgv_GP);
e4487e9b 582 visit(do_clean_named_io_objs, SVt_PVGV|SVpgv_GP, SVTYPEMASK|SVp_POK|SVpgv_GP);
4155e4fe
FC
583 /* And if there are some very tenacious barnacles clinging to arrays,
584 closures, or what have you.... */
585 visit(do_curse, SVs_OBJECT, SVs_OBJECT);
68b590d9
DM
586 olddef = PL_defoutgv;
587 PL_defoutgv = NULL; /* disable skip of PL_defoutgv */
588 if (olddef && isGV_with_GP(olddef))
589 do_clean_named_io_objs(aTHX_ MUTABLE_SV(olddef));
590 olderr = PL_stderrgv;
591 PL_stderrgv = NULL; /* disable skip of PL_stderrgv */
592 if (olderr && isGV_with_GP(olderr))
593 do_clean_named_io_objs(aTHX_ MUTABLE_SV(olderr));
594 SvREFCNT_dec(olddef);
3280af22 595 PL_in_clean_objs = FALSE;
4561caa4
CS
596}
597
645c22ef
DM
598/* called by sv_clean_all() for each live SV */
599
600static void
de37a194 601do_clean_all(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
645c22ef 602{
97aff369 603 dVAR;
daba3364 604 if (sv == (const SV *) PL_fdpid || sv == (const SV *)PL_strtab) {
cddfcddc 605 /* don't clean pid table and strtab */
d17ea597 606 return;
cddfcddc 607 }
645c22ef
DM
608 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Cleaning loops: SV at 0x%"UVxf"\n", PTR2UV(sv)) ));
609 SvFLAGS(sv) |= SVf_BREAK;
610 SvREFCNT_dec(sv);
611}
612
613/*
614=for apidoc sv_clean_all
615
616Decrement the refcnt of each remaining SV, possibly triggering a
fde67290 617cleanup. This function may have to be called multiple times to free
ff276b08 618SVs which are in complex self-referential hierarchies.
645c22ef
DM
619
620=cut
621*/
622
5226ed68 623I32
864dbfa3 624Perl_sv_clean_all(pTHX)
8990e307 625{
97aff369 626 dVAR;
5226ed68 627 I32 cleaned;
3280af22 628 PL_in_clean_all = TRUE;
055972dc 629 cleaned = visit(do_clean_all, 0,0);
5226ed68 630 return cleaned;
8990e307 631}
463ee0b2 632
5e258f8c
JC
633/*
634 ARENASETS: a meta-arena implementation which separates arena-info
635 into struct arena_set, which contains an array of struct
636 arena_descs, each holding info for a single arena. By separating
637 the meta-info from the arena, we recover the 1st slot, formerly
638 borrowed for list management. The arena_set is about the size of an
39244528 639 arena, avoiding the needless malloc overhead of a naive linked-list.
5e258f8c
JC
640
641 The cost is 1 arena-set malloc per ~320 arena-mallocs, + the unused
642 memory in the last arena-set (1/2 on average). In trade, we get
643 back the 1st slot in each arena (ie 1.7% of a CV-arena, less for
d2a0f284 644 smaller types). The recovery of the wasted space allows use of
e15dad31
JC
645 small arenas for large, rare body types, by changing array* fields
646 in body_details_by_type[] below.
5e258f8c 647*/
5e258f8c 648struct arena_desc {
398c677b
NC
649 char *arena; /* the raw storage, allocated aligned */
650 size_t size; /* its size ~4k typ */
e5973ed5 651 svtype utype; /* bodytype stored in arena */
5e258f8c
JC
652};
653
e6148039
NC
654struct arena_set;
655
656/* Get the maximum number of elements in set[] such that struct arena_set
e15dad31 657 will fit within PERL_ARENA_SIZE, which is probably just under 4K, and
e6148039
NC
658 therefore likely to be 1 aligned memory page. */
659
660#define ARENAS_PER_SET ((PERL_ARENA_SIZE - sizeof(struct arena_set*) \
661 - 2 * sizeof(int)) / sizeof (struct arena_desc))
5e258f8c
JC
662
663struct arena_set {
664 struct arena_set* next;
0a848332
NC
665 unsigned int set_size; /* ie ARENAS_PER_SET */
666 unsigned int curr; /* index of next available arena-desc */
5e258f8c
JC
667 struct arena_desc set[ARENAS_PER_SET];
668};
669
645c22ef
DM
670/*
671=for apidoc sv_free_arenas
672
fde67290 673Deallocate the memory used by all arenas. Note that all the individual SV
645c22ef
DM
674heads and bodies within the arenas must already have been freed.
675
676=cut
677*/
4633a7c4 678void
864dbfa3 679Perl_sv_free_arenas(pTHX)
4633a7c4 680{
97aff369 681 dVAR;
4633a7c4
LW
682 SV* sva;
683 SV* svanext;
0a848332 684 unsigned int i;
4633a7c4
LW
685
686 /* Free arenas here, but be careful about fake ones. (We assume
687 contiguity of the fake ones with the corresponding real ones.) */
688
3280af22 689 for (sva = PL_sv_arenaroot; sva; sva = svanext) {
daba3364 690 svanext = MUTABLE_SV(SvANY(sva));
4633a7c4 691 while (svanext && SvFAKE(svanext))
daba3364 692 svanext = MUTABLE_SV(SvANY(svanext));
4633a7c4
LW
693
694 if (!SvFAKE(sva))
1df70142 695 Safefree(sva);
4633a7c4 696 }
93e68bfb 697
5e258f8c 698 {
0a848332
NC
699 struct arena_set *aroot = (struct arena_set*) PL_body_arenas;
700
701 while (aroot) {
702 struct arena_set *current = aroot;
703 i = aroot->curr;
704 while (i--) {
5e258f8c
JC
705 assert(aroot->set[i].arena);
706 Safefree(aroot->set[i].arena);
707 }
0a848332
NC
708 aroot = aroot->next;
709 Safefree(current);
5e258f8c
JC
710 }
711 }
dc8220bf 712 PL_body_arenas = 0;
fdda85ca 713
0a848332
NC
714 i = PERL_ARENA_ROOTS_SIZE;
715 while (i--)
93e68bfb 716 PL_body_roots[i] = 0;
93e68bfb 717
3280af22
NIS
718 PL_sv_arenaroot = 0;
719 PL_sv_root = 0;
4633a7c4
LW
720}
721
bd81e77b
NC
722/*
723 Here are mid-level routines that manage the allocation of bodies out
724 of the various arenas. There are 5 kinds of arenas:
29489e7c 725
bd81e77b
NC
726 1. SV-head arenas, which are discussed and handled above
727 2. regular body arenas
728 3. arenas for reduced-size bodies
729 4. Hash-Entry arenas
29489e7c 730
bd81e77b
NC
731 Arena types 2 & 3 are chained by body-type off an array of
732 arena-root pointers, which is indexed by svtype. Some of the
733 larger/less used body types are malloced singly, since a large
734 unused block of them is wasteful. Also, several svtypes dont have
735 bodies; the data fits into the sv-head itself. The arena-root
736 pointer thus has a few unused root-pointers (which may be hijacked
737 later for arena types 4,5)
29489e7c 738
bd81e77b
NC
739 3 differs from 2 as an optimization; some body types have several
740 unused fields in the front of the structure (which are kept in-place
741 for consistency). These bodies can be allocated in smaller chunks,
742 because the leading fields arent accessed. Pointers to such bodies
743 are decremented to point at the unused 'ghost' memory, knowing that
744 the pointers are used with offsets to the real memory.
29489e7c 745
d2a0f284
JC
746
747=head1 SV-Body Allocation
748
749Allocation of SV-bodies is similar to SV-heads, differing as follows;
750the allocation mechanism is used for many body types, so is somewhat
751more complicated, it uses arena-sets, and has no need for still-live
752SV detection.
753
754At the outermost level, (new|del)_X*V macros return bodies of the
755appropriate type. These macros call either (new|del)_body_type or
756(new|del)_body_allocated macro pairs, depending on specifics of the
757type. Most body types use the former pair, the latter pair is used to
758allocate body types with "ghost fields".
759
760"ghost fields" are fields that are unused in certain types, and
69ba284b 761consequently don't need to actually exist. They are declared because
d2a0f284
JC
762they're part of a "base type", which allows use of functions as
763methods. The simplest examples are AVs and HVs, 2 aggregate types
764which don't use the fields which support SCALAR semantics.
765
69ba284b 766For these types, the arenas are carved up into appropriately sized
d2a0f284
JC
767chunks, we thus avoid wasted memory for those unaccessed members.
768When bodies are allocated, we adjust the pointer back in memory by the
69ba284b 769size of the part not allocated, so it's as if we allocated the full
d2a0f284
JC
770structure. (But things will all go boom if you write to the part that
771is "not there", because you'll be overwriting the last members of the
772preceding structure in memory.)
773
69ba284b
NC
774We calculate the correction using the STRUCT_OFFSET macro on the first
775member present. If the allocated structure is smaller (no initial NV
776actually allocated) then the net effect is to subtract the size of the NV
777from the pointer, to return a new pointer as if an initial NV were actually
778allocated. (We were using structures named *_allocated for this, but
779this turned out to be a subtle bug, because a structure without an NV
780could have a lower alignment constraint, but the compiler is allowed to
781optimised accesses based on the alignment constraint of the actual pointer
782to the full structure, for example, using a single 64 bit load instruction
783because it "knows" that two adjacent 32 bit members will be 8-byte aligned.)
d2a0f284
JC
784
785This is the same trick as was used for NV and IV bodies. Ironically it
786doesn't need to be used for NV bodies any more, because NV is now at
787the start of the structure. IV bodies don't need it either, because
788they are no longer allocated.
789
790In turn, the new_body_* allocators call S_new_body(), which invokes
791new_body_inline macro, which takes a lock, and takes a body off the
1e30fcd5 792linked list at PL_body_roots[sv_type], calling Perl_more_bodies() if
d2a0f284
JC
793necessary to refresh an empty list. Then the lock is released, and
794the body is returned.
795
99816f8d 796Perl_more_bodies allocates a new arena, and carves it up into an array of N
d2a0f284
JC
797bodies, which it strings into a linked list. It looks up arena-size
798and body-size from the body_details table described below, thus
799supporting the multiple body-types.
800
801If PURIFY is defined, or PERL_ARENA_SIZE=0, arenas are not used, and
802the (new|del)_X*V macros are mapped directly to malloc/free.
803
d2a0f284
JC
804For each sv-type, struct body_details bodies_by_type[] carries
805parameters which control these aspects of SV handling:
806
807Arena_size determines whether arenas are used for this body type, and if
808so, how big they are. PURIFY or PERL_ARENA_SIZE=0 set this field to
809zero, forcing individual mallocs and frees.
810
811Body_size determines how big a body is, and therefore how many fit into
812each arena. Offset carries the body-pointer adjustment needed for
69ba284b 813"ghost fields", and is used in *_allocated macros.
d2a0f284
JC
814
815But its main purpose is to parameterize info needed in
816Perl_sv_upgrade(). The info here dramatically simplifies the function
69ba284b 817vs the implementation in 5.8.8, making it table-driven. All fields
d2a0f284
JC
818are used for this, except for arena_size.
819
820For the sv-types that have no bodies, arenas are not used, so those
821PL_body_roots[sv_type] are unused, and can be overloaded. In
822something of a special case, SVt_NULL is borrowed for HE arenas;
c6f8b1d0 823PL_body_roots[HE_SVSLOT=SVt_NULL] is filled by S_more_he, but the
d2a0f284 824bodies_by_type[SVt_NULL] slot is not used, as the table is not
c6f8b1d0 825available in hv.c.
d2a0f284 826
29489e7c
DM
827*/
828
bd81e77b 829struct body_details {
0fb58b32 830 U8 body_size; /* Size to allocate */
10666ae3 831 U8 copy; /* Size of structure to copy (may be shorter) */
0fb58b32 832 U8 offset;
10666ae3
NC
833 unsigned int type : 4; /* We have space for a sanity check. */
834 unsigned int cant_upgrade : 1; /* Cannot upgrade this type */
835 unsigned int zero_nv : 1; /* zero the NV when upgrading from this */
836 unsigned int arena : 1; /* Allocated from an arena */
837 size_t arena_size; /* Size of arena to allocate */
bd81e77b 838};
29489e7c 839
bd81e77b
NC
840#define HADNV FALSE
841#define NONV TRUE
29489e7c 842
d2a0f284 843
bd81e77b
NC
844#ifdef PURIFY
845/* With -DPURFIY we allocate everything directly, and don't use arenas.
846 This seems a rather elegant way to simplify some of the code below. */
847#define HASARENA FALSE
848#else
849#define HASARENA TRUE
850#endif
851#define NOARENA FALSE
29489e7c 852
d2a0f284
JC
853/* Size the arenas to exactly fit a given number of bodies. A count
854 of 0 fits the max number bodies into a PERL_ARENA_SIZE.block,
855 simplifying the default. If count > 0, the arena is sized to fit
856 only that many bodies, allowing arenas to be used for large, rare
857 bodies (XPVFM, XPVIO) without undue waste. The arena size is
858 limited by PERL_ARENA_SIZE, so we can safely oversize the
859 declarations.
860 */
95db5f15
MB
861#define FIT_ARENA0(body_size) \
862 ((size_t)(PERL_ARENA_SIZE / body_size) * body_size)
863#define FIT_ARENAn(count,body_size) \
864 ( count * body_size <= PERL_ARENA_SIZE) \
865 ? count * body_size \
866 : FIT_ARENA0 (body_size)
867#define FIT_ARENA(count,body_size) \
868 count \
869 ? FIT_ARENAn (count, body_size) \
870 : FIT_ARENA0 (body_size)
d2a0f284 871
bd81e77b
NC
872/* Calculate the length to copy. Specifically work out the length less any
873 final padding the compiler needed to add. See the comment in sv_upgrade
874 for why copying the padding proved to be a bug. */
29489e7c 875
bd81e77b
NC
876#define copy_length(type, last_member) \
877 STRUCT_OFFSET(type, last_member) \
daba3364 878 + sizeof (((type*)SvANY((const SV *)0))->last_member)
29489e7c 879
bd81e77b 880static const struct body_details bodies_by_type[] = {
829cd18a
NC
881 /* HEs use this offset for their arena. */
882 { 0, 0, 0, SVt_NULL, FALSE, NONV, NOARENA, 0 },
d2a0f284 883
1cb9cd50 884 /* The bind placeholder pretends to be an RV for now.
c6f8b1d0 885 Also it's marked as "can't upgrade" to stop anyone using it before it's
1cb9cd50
NC
886 implemented. */
887 { 0, 0, 0, SVt_BIND, TRUE, NONV, NOARENA, 0 },
888
db93c0c4
NC
889 /* IVs are in the head, so the allocation size is 0. */
890 { 0,
d2a0f284 891 sizeof(IV), /* This is used to copy out the IV body. */
10666ae3 892 STRUCT_OFFSET(XPVIV, xiv_iv), SVt_IV, FALSE, NONV,
db93c0c4 893 NOARENA /* IVS don't need an arena */, 0
d2a0f284
JC
894 },
895
6e128786
NC
896 { sizeof(NV), sizeof(NV),
897 STRUCT_OFFSET(XPVNV, xnv_u),
898 SVt_NV, FALSE, HADNV, HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(NV)) },
d2a0f284 899
bc337e5c 900 { sizeof(XPV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
889d28b2
NC
901 copy_length(XPV, xpv_len) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
902 + STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
69ba284b 903 SVt_PV, FALSE, NONV, HASARENA,
889d28b2 904 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur)) },
d2a0f284 905
bc337e5c 906 { sizeof(XPVIV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
889d28b2
NC
907 copy_length(XPVIV, xiv_u) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
908 + STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
909 SVt_PVIV, FALSE, NONV, HASARENA,
910 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVIV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur)) },
d2a0f284 911
bc337e5c 912 { sizeof(XPVNV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
889d28b2
NC
913 copy_length(XPVNV, xnv_u) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
914 + STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
915 SVt_PVNV, FALSE, HADNV, HASARENA,
916 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVNV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur)) },
d2a0f284 917
6e128786 918 { sizeof(XPVMG), copy_length(XPVMG, xnv_u), 0, SVt_PVMG, FALSE, HADNV,
d2a0f284 919 HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVMG)) },
4df7f6af 920
601dfd0a
NC
921 { sizeof(regexp),
922 sizeof(regexp),
923 0,
08e44740 924 SVt_REGEXP, FALSE, NONV, HASARENA,
eaeb1e7f 925 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(regexp))
5c35adbb 926 },
4df7f6af 927
10666ae3 928 { sizeof(XPVGV), sizeof(XPVGV), 0, SVt_PVGV, TRUE, HADNV,
d2a0f284
JC
929 HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVGV)) },
930
10666ae3 931 { sizeof(XPVLV), sizeof(XPVLV), 0, SVt_PVLV, TRUE, HADNV,
d2a0f284
JC
932 HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVLV)) },
933
601dfd0a 934 { sizeof(XPVAV),
4f7003f5 935 copy_length(XPVAV, xav_alloc),
601dfd0a 936 0,
69ba284b 937 SVt_PVAV, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
601dfd0a 938 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVAV)) },
d2a0f284 939
601dfd0a 940 { sizeof(XPVHV),
359164a0 941 copy_length(XPVHV, xhv_max),
601dfd0a 942 0,
69ba284b 943 SVt_PVHV, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
601dfd0a 944 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVHV)) },
d2a0f284 945
601dfd0a
NC
946 { sizeof(XPVCV),
947 sizeof(XPVCV),
948 0,
69ba284b 949 SVt_PVCV, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
601dfd0a 950 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVCV)) },
69ba284b 951
601dfd0a
NC
952 { sizeof(XPVFM),
953 sizeof(XPVFM),
954 0,
69ba284b 955 SVt_PVFM, TRUE, NONV, NOARENA,
601dfd0a 956 FIT_ARENA(20, sizeof(XPVFM)) },
d2a0f284 957
601dfd0a
NC
958 { sizeof(XPVIO),
959 sizeof(XPVIO),
960 0,
b6f60916 961 SVt_PVIO, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
601dfd0a 962 FIT_ARENA(24, sizeof(XPVIO)) },
bd81e77b 963};
29489e7c 964
bd81e77b 965#define new_body_allocated(sv_type) \
d2a0f284 966 (void *)((char *)S_new_body(aTHX_ sv_type) \
bd81e77b 967 - bodies_by_type[sv_type].offset)
29489e7c 968
26359cfa
NC
969/* return a thing to the free list */
970
971#define del_body(thing, root) \
972 STMT_START { \
973 void ** const thing_copy = (void **)thing; \
974 *thing_copy = *root; \
975 *root = (void*)thing_copy; \
976 } STMT_END
29489e7c 977
bd81e77b 978#ifdef PURIFY
29489e7c 979
beeec492
NC
980#define new_XNV() safemalloc(sizeof(XPVNV))
981#define new_XPVNV() safemalloc(sizeof(XPVNV))
982#define new_XPVMG() safemalloc(sizeof(XPVMG))
29489e7c 983
beeec492 984#define del_XPVGV(p) safefree(p)
29489e7c 985
bd81e77b 986#else /* !PURIFY */
29489e7c 987
65ac1738 988#define new_XNV() new_body_allocated(SVt_NV)
65ac1738 989#define new_XPVNV() new_body_allocated(SVt_PVNV)
65ac1738 990#define new_XPVMG() new_body_allocated(SVt_PVMG)
645c22ef 991
26359cfa
NC
992#define del_XPVGV(p) del_body(p + bodies_by_type[SVt_PVGV].offset, \
993 &PL_body_roots[SVt_PVGV])
1d7c1841 994
bd81e77b 995#endif /* PURIFY */
93e68bfb 996
bd81e77b 997/* no arena for you! */
93e68bfb 998
bd81e77b 999#define new_NOARENA(details) \
beeec492 1000 safemalloc((details)->body_size + (details)->offset)
bd81e77b 1001#define new_NOARENAZ(details) \
beeec492 1002 safecalloc((details)->body_size + (details)->offset, 1)
d2a0f284 1003
1e30fcd5
NC
1004void *
1005Perl_more_bodies (pTHX_ const svtype sv_type, const size_t body_size,
1006 const size_t arena_size)
d2a0f284
JC
1007{
1008 dVAR;
1009 void ** const root = &PL_body_roots[sv_type];
99816f8d
NC
1010 struct arena_desc *adesc;
1011 struct arena_set *aroot = (struct arena_set *) PL_body_arenas;
1012 unsigned int curr;
d2a0f284
JC
1013 char *start;
1014 const char *end;
02982131 1015 const size_t good_arena_size = Perl_malloc_good_size(arena_size);
0b2d3faa 1016#if defined(DEBUGGING) && !defined(PERL_GLOBAL_STRUCT_PRIVATE)
23e9d66c
NC
1017 static bool done_sanity_check;
1018
0b2d3faa
JH
1019 /* PERL_GLOBAL_STRUCT_PRIVATE cannot coexist with global
1020 * variables like done_sanity_check. */
10666ae3 1021 if (!done_sanity_check) {
ea471437 1022 unsigned int i = SVt_LAST;
10666ae3
NC
1023
1024 done_sanity_check = TRUE;
1025
1026 while (i--)
1027 assert (bodies_by_type[i].type == i);
1028 }
1029#endif
1030
02982131 1031 assert(arena_size);
23e9d66c 1032
99816f8d
NC
1033 /* may need new arena-set to hold new arena */
1034 if (!aroot || aroot->curr >= aroot->set_size) {
1035 struct arena_set *newroot;
1036 Newxz(newroot, 1, struct arena_set);
1037 newroot->set_size = ARENAS_PER_SET;
1038 newroot->next = aroot;
1039 aroot = newroot;
1040 PL_body_arenas = (void *) newroot;
1041 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "new arenaset %p\n", (void*)aroot));
1042 }
1043
1044 /* ok, now have arena-set with at least 1 empty/available arena-desc */
1045 curr = aroot->curr++;
1046 adesc = &(aroot->set[curr]);
1047 assert(!adesc->arena);
1048
1049 Newx(adesc->arena, good_arena_size, char);
1050 adesc->size = good_arena_size;
1051 adesc->utype = sv_type;
1052 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "arena %d added: %p size %"UVuf"\n",
1053 curr, (void*)adesc->arena, (UV)good_arena_size));
1054
1055 start = (char *) adesc->arena;
d2a0f284 1056
29657bb6
NC
1057 /* Get the address of the byte after the end of the last body we can fit.
1058 Remember, this is integer division: */
02982131 1059 end = start + good_arena_size / body_size * body_size;
d2a0f284 1060
486ec47a 1061 /* computed count doesn't reflect the 1st slot reservation */
d8fca402
NC
1062#if defined(MYMALLOC) || defined(HAS_MALLOC_GOOD_SIZE)
1063 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1064 "arena %p end %p arena-size %d (from %d) type %d "
1065 "size %d ct %d\n",
02982131
NC
1066 (void*)start, (void*)end, (int)good_arena_size,
1067 (int)arena_size, sv_type, (int)body_size,
1068 (int)good_arena_size / (int)body_size));
d8fca402 1069#else
d2a0f284
JC
1070 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1071 "arena %p end %p arena-size %d type %d size %d ct %d\n",
6c9570dc 1072 (void*)start, (void*)end,
02982131
NC
1073 (int)arena_size, sv_type, (int)body_size,
1074 (int)good_arena_size / (int)body_size));
d8fca402 1075#endif
d2a0f284
JC
1076 *root = (void *)start;
1077
29657bb6
NC
1078 while (1) {
1079 /* Where the next body would start: */
d2a0f284 1080 char * const next = start + body_size;
29657bb6
NC
1081
1082 if (next >= end) {
1083 /* This is the last body: */
1084 assert(next == end);
1085
1086 *(void **)start = 0;
1087 return *root;
1088 }
1089
d2a0f284
JC
1090 *(void**) start = (void *)next;
1091 start = next;
1092 }
d2a0f284
JC
1093}
1094
1095/* grab a new thing from the free list, allocating more if necessary.
1096 The inline version is used for speed in hot routines, and the
1097 function using it serves the rest (unless PURIFY).
1098*/
1099#define new_body_inline(xpv, sv_type) \
1100 STMT_START { \
1101 void ** const r3wt = &PL_body_roots[sv_type]; \
11b79775 1102 xpv = (PTR_TBL_ENT_t*) (*((void **)(r3wt)) \
1e30fcd5 1103 ? *((void **)(r3wt)) : Perl_more_bodies(aTHX_ sv_type, \
02982131
NC
1104 bodies_by_type[sv_type].body_size,\
1105 bodies_by_type[sv_type].arena_size)); \
d2a0f284 1106 *(r3wt) = *(void**)(xpv); \
d2a0f284
JC
1107 } STMT_END
1108
1109#ifndef PURIFY
1110
1111STATIC void *
de37a194 1112S_new_body(pTHX_ const svtype sv_type)
d2a0f284
JC
1113{
1114 dVAR;
1115 void *xpv;
1116 new_body_inline(xpv, sv_type);
1117 return xpv;
1118}
1119
1120#endif
93e68bfb 1121
238b27b3
NC
1122static const struct body_details fake_rv =
1123 { 0, 0, 0, SVt_IV, FALSE, NONV, NOARENA, 0 };
1124
bd81e77b
NC
1125/*
1126=for apidoc sv_upgrade
93e68bfb 1127
bd81e77b
NC
1128Upgrade an SV to a more complex form. Generally adds a new body type to the
1129SV, then copies across as much information as possible from the old body.
9521ca61
FC
1130It croaks if the SV is already in a more complex form than requested. You
1131generally want to use the C<SvUPGRADE> macro wrapper, which checks the type
1132before calling C<sv_upgrade>, and hence does not croak. See also
1133C<svtype>.
93e68bfb 1134
bd81e77b 1135=cut
93e68bfb 1136*/
93e68bfb 1137
bd81e77b 1138void
aad570aa 1139Perl_sv_upgrade(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, svtype new_type)
cac9b346 1140{
97aff369 1141 dVAR;
bd81e77b
NC
1142 void* old_body;
1143 void* new_body;
42d0e0b7 1144 const svtype old_type = SvTYPE(sv);
d2a0f284 1145 const struct body_details *new_type_details;
238b27b3 1146 const struct body_details *old_type_details
bd81e77b 1147 = bodies_by_type + old_type;
4df7f6af 1148 SV *referant = NULL;
cac9b346 1149
7918f24d
NC
1150 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UPGRADE;
1151
1776cbe8
NC
1152 if (old_type == new_type)
1153 return;
1154
1155 /* This clause was purposefully added ahead of the early return above to
1156 the shared string hackery for (sort {$a <=> $b} keys %hash), with the
1157 inference by Nick I-S that it would fix other troublesome cases. See
1158 changes 7162, 7163 (f130fd4589cf5fbb24149cd4db4137c8326f49c1 and parent)
1159
1160 Given that shared hash key scalars are no longer PVIV, but PV, there is
1161 no longer need to unshare so as to free up the IVX slot for its proper
1162 purpose. So it's safe to move the early return earlier. */
1163
bd81e77b
NC
1164 if (new_type != SVt_PV && SvIsCOW(sv)) {
1165 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
1166 }
cac9b346 1167
bd81e77b 1168 old_body = SvANY(sv);
de042e1d 1169
bd81e77b
NC
1170 /* Copying structures onto other structures that have been neatly zeroed
1171 has a subtle gotcha. Consider XPVMG
cac9b346 1172
bd81e77b
NC
1173 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+
1174 | NV | CUR | LEN | IV | MAGIC | STASH |
1175 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+
1176 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28
645c22ef 1177
bd81e77b
NC
1178 where NVs are aligned to 8 bytes, so that sizeof that structure is
1179 actually 32 bytes long, with 4 bytes of padding at the end:
08742458 1180
bd81e77b
NC
1181 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+
1182 | NV | CUR | LEN | IV | MAGIC | STASH | ??? |
1183 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+
1184 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32
08742458 1185
bd81e77b 1186 so what happens if you allocate memory for this structure:
30f9da9e 1187
bd81e77b
NC
1188 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+------+...
1189 | NV | CUR | LEN | IV | MAGIC | STASH | GP | NAME |
1190 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+------+...
1191 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36
bfc44f79 1192
bd81e77b
NC
1193 zero it, then copy sizeof(XPVMG) bytes on top of it? Not quite what you
1194 expect, because you copy the area marked ??? onto GP. Now, ??? may have
1195 started out as zero once, but it's quite possible that it isn't. So now,
1196 rather than a nicely zeroed GP, you have it pointing somewhere random.
1197 Bugs ensue.
bfc44f79 1198
bd81e77b
NC
1199 (In fact, GP ends up pointing at a previous GP structure, because the
1200 principle cause of the padding in XPVMG getting garbage is a copy of
6c9e42f7
NC
1201 sizeof(XPVMG) bytes from a XPVGV structure in sv_unglob. Right now
1202 this happens to be moot because XPVGV has been re-ordered, with GP
1203 no longer after STASH)
30f9da9e 1204
bd81e77b
NC
1205 So we are careful and work out the size of used parts of all the
1206 structures. */
bfc44f79 1207
bd81e77b
NC
1208 switch (old_type) {
1209 case SVt_NULL:
1210 break;
1211 case SVt_IV:
4df7f6af
NC
1212 if (SvROK(sv)) {
1213 referant = SvRV(sv);
238b27b3
NC
1214 old_type_details = &fake_rv;
1215 if (new_type == SVt_NV)
1216 new_type = SVt_PVNV;
4df7f6af
NC
1217 } else {
1218 if (new_type < SVt_PVIV) {
1219 new_type = (new_type == SVt_NV)
1220 ? SVt_PVNV : SVt_PVIV;
1221 }
bd81e77b
NC
1222 }
1223 break;
1224 case SVt_NV:
1225 if (new_type < SVt_PVNV) {
1226 new_type = SVt_PVNV;
bd81e77b
NC
1227 }
1228 break;
bd81e77b
NC
1229 case SVt_PV:
1230 assert(new_type > SVt_PV);
1231 assert(SVt_IV < SVt_PV);
1232 assert(SVt_NV < SVt_PV);
1233 break;
1234 case SVt_PVIV:
1235 break;
1236 case SVt_PVNV:
1237 break;
1238 case SVt_PVMG:
1239 /* Because the XPVMG of PL_mess_sv isn't allocated from the arena,
1240 there's no way that it can be safely upgraded, because perl.c
1241 expects to Safefree(SvANY(PL_mess_sv)) */
1242 assert(sv != PL_mess_sv);
1243 /* This flag bit is used to mean other things in other scalar types.
1244 Given that it only has meaning inside the pad, it shouldn't be set
1245 on anything that can get upgraded. */
00b1698f 1246 assert(!SvPAD_TYPED(sv));
bd81e77b
NC
1247 break;
1248 default:
1249 if (old_type_details->cant_upgrade)
c81225bc
NC
1250 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't upgrade %s (%" UVuf ") to %" UVuf,
1251 sv_reftype(sv, 0), (UV) old_type, (UV) new_type);
bd81e77b 1252 }
3376de98
NC
1253
1254 if (old_type > new_type)
1255 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "sv_upgrade from type %d down to type %d",
1256 (int)old_type, (int)new_type);
1257
2fa1109b 1258 new_type_details = bodies_by_type + new_type;
645c22ef 1259
bd81e77b
NC
1260 SvFLAGS(sv) &= ~SVTYPEMASK;
1261 SvFLAGS(sv) |= new_type;
932e9ff9 1262
ab4416c0
NC
1263 /* This can't happen, as SVt_NULL is <= all values of new_type, so one of
1264 the return statements above will have triggered. */
1265 assert (new_type != SVt_NULL);
bd81e77b 1266 switch (new_type) {
bd81e77b
NC
1267 case SVt_IV:
1268 assert(old_type == SVt_NULL);
1269 SvANY(sv) = (XPVIV*)((char*)&(sv->sv_u.svu_iv) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPVIV, xiv_iv));
1270 SvIV_set(sv, 0);
1271 return;
1272 case SVt_NV:
1273 assert(old_type == SVt_NULL);
1274 SvANY(sv) = new_XNV();
1275 SvNV_set(sv, 0);
1276 return;
bd81e77b 1277 case SVt_PVHV:
bd81e77b 1278 case SVt_PVAV:
d2a0f284 1279 assert(new_type_details->body_size);
c1ae03ae
NC
1280
1281#ifndef PURIFY
1282 assert(new_type_details->arena);
d2a0f284 1283 assert(new_type_details->arena_size);
c1ae03ae 1284 /* This points to the start of the allocated area. */
d2a0f284
JC
1285 new_body_inline(new_body, new_type);
1286 Zero(new_body, new_type_details->body_size, char);
c1ae03ae
NC
1287 new_body = ((char *)new_body) - new_type_details->offset;
1288#else
1289 /* We always allocated the full length item with PURIFY. To do this
1290 we fake things so that arena is false for all 16 types.. */
1291 new_body = new_NOARENAZ(new_type_details);
1292#endif
1293 SvANY(sv) = new_body;
1294 if (new_type == SVt_PVAV) {
1295 AvMAX(sv) = -1;
1296 AvFILLp(sv) = -1;
1297 AvREAL_only(sv);
64484faa 1298 if (old_type_details->body_size) {
ac572bf4
NC
1299 AvALLOC(sv) = 0;
1300 } else {
1301 /* It will have been zeroed when the new body was allocated.
1302 Lets not write to it, in case it confuses a write-back
1303 cache. */
1304 }
78ac7dd9
NC
1305 } else {
1306 assert(!SvOK(sv));
1307 SvOK_off(sv);
1308#ifndef NODEFAULT_SHAREKEYS
1309 HvSHAREKEYS_on(sv); /* key-sharing on by default */
1310#endif
1311 HvMAX(sv) = 7; /* (start with 8 buckets) */
c1ae03ae 1312 }
aeb18a1e 1313
bd81e77b
NC
1314 /* SVt_NULL isn't the only thing upgraded to AV or HV.
1315 The target created by newSVrv also is, and it can have magic.
1316 However, it never has SvPVX set.
1317 */
4df7f6af
NC
1318 if (old_type == SVt_IV) {
1319 assert(!SvROK(sv));
1320 } else if (old_type >= SVt_PV) {
bd81e77b
NC
1321 assert(SvPVX_const(sv) == 0);
1322 }
aeb18a1e 1323
bd81e77b 1324 if (old_type >= SVt_PVMG) {
e736a858 1325 SvMAGIC_set(sv, ((XPVMG*)old_body)->xmg_u.xmg_magic);
bd81e77b 1326 SvSTASH_set(sv, ((XPVMG*)old_body)->xmg_stash);
797c7171
NC
1327 } else {
1328 sv->sv_u.svu_array = NULL; /* or svu_hash */
bd81e77b
NC
1329 }
1330 break;
93e68bfb 1331
93e68bfb 1332
b9ad13ac
NC
1333 case SVt_REGEXP:
1334 /* This ensures that SvTHINKFIRST(sv) is true, and hence that
1335 sv_force_normal_flags(sv) is called. */
1336 SvFAKE_on(sv);
bd81e77b
NC
1337 case SVt_PVIV:
1338 /* XXX Is this still needed? Was it ever needed? Surely as there is
1339 no route from NV to PVIV, NOK can never be true */
1340 assert(!SvNOKp(sv));
1341 assert(!SvNOK(sv));
1342 case SVt_PVIO:
1343 case SVt_PVFM:
bd81e77b
NC
1344 case SVt_PVGV:
1345 case SVt_PVCV:
1346 case SVt_PVLV:
1347 case SVt_PVMG:
1348 case SVt_PVNV:
1349 case SVt_PV:
93e68bfb 1350
d2a0f284 1351 assert(new_type_details->body_size);
bd81e77b
NC
1352 /* We always allocated the full length item with PURIFY. To do this
1353 we fake things so that arena is false for all 16 types.. */
1354 if(new_type_details->arena) {
1355 /* This points to the start of the allocated area. */
d2a0f284
JC
1356 new_body_inline(new_body, new_type);
1357 Zero(new_body, new_type_details->body_size, char);
bd81e77b
NC
1358 new_body = ((char *)new_body) - new_type_details->offset;
1359 } else {
1360 new_body = new_NOARENAZ(new_type_details);
1361 }
1362 SvANY(sv) = new_body;
5e2fc214 1363
bd81e77b 1364 if (old_type_details->copy) {
f9ba3d20
NC
1365 /* There is now the potential for an upgrade from something without
1366 an offset (PVNV or PVMG) to something with one (PVCV, PVFM) */
1367 int offset = old_type_details->offset;
1368 int length = old_type_details->copy;
1369
1370 if (new_type_details->offset > old_type_details->offset) {
d4c19fe8 1371 const int difference
f9ba3d20
NC
1372 = new_type_details->offset - old_type_details->offset;
1373 offset += difference;
1374 length -= difference;
1375 }
1376 assert (length >= 0);
1377
1378 Copy((char *)old_body + offset, (char *)new_body + offset, length,
1379 char);
bd81e77b
NC
1380 }
1381
1382#ifndef NV_ZERO_IS_ALLBITS_ZERO
f2524eef 1383 /* If NV 0.0 is stores as all bits 0 then Zero() already creates a
e5ce394c
NC
1384 * correct 0.0 for us. Otherwise, if the old body didn't have an
1385 * NV slot, but the new one does, then we need to initialise the
1386 * freshly created NV slot with whatever the correct bit pattern is
1387 * for 0.0 */
e22a937e
NC
1388 if (old_type_details->zero_nv && !new_type_details->zero_nv
1389 && !isGV_with_GP(sv))
bd81e77b 1390 SvNV_set(sv, 0);
82048762 1391#endif
5e2fc214 1392
85dca89a
NC
1393 if (new_type == SVt_PVIO) {
1394 IO * const io = MUTABLE_IO(sv);
d963bf01 1395 GV *iogv = gv_fetchpvs("IO::File::", GV_ADD, SVt_PVHV);
85dca89a
NC
1396
1397 SvOBJECT_on(io);
1398 /* Clear the stashcache because a new IO could overrule a package
1399 name */
103f5a36 1400 DEBUG_o(Perl_deb(aTHX_ "sv_upgrade clearing PL_stashcache\n"));
85dca89a
NC
1401 hv_clear(PL_stashcache);
1402
85dca89a 1403 SvSTASH_set(io, MUTABLE_HV(SvREFCNT_inc(GvHV(iogv))));
f2524eef 1404 IoPAGE_LEN(sv) = 60;
85dca89a 1405 }
4df7f6af
NC
1406 if (old_type < SVt_PV) {
1407 /* referant will be NULL unless the old type was SVt_IV emulating
1408 SVt_RV */
1409 sv->sv_u.svu_rv = referant;
1410 }
bd81e77b
NC
1411 break;
1412 default:
afd78fd5
JH
1413 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: sv_upgrade to unknown type %lu",
1414 (unsigned long)new_type);
bd81e77b 1415 }
73171d91 1416
db93c0c4 1417 if (old_type > SVt_IV) {
bd81e77b 1418#ifdef PURIFY
beeec492 1419 safefree(old_body);
bd81e77b 1420#else
bc786448
GG
1421 /* Note that there is an assumption that all bodies of types that
1422 can be upgraded came from arenas. Only the more complex non-
1423 upgradable types are allowed to be directly malloc()ed. */
1424 assert(old_type_details->arena);
bd81e77b
NC
1425 del_body((void*)((char*)old_body + old_type_details->offset),
1426 &PL_body_roots[old_type]);
1427#endif
1428 }
1429}
73171d91 1430
bd81e77b
NC
1431/*
1432=for apidoc sv_backoff
73171d91 1433
fde67290 1434Remove any string offset. You should normally use the C<SvOOK_off> macro
bd81e77b 1435wrapper instead.
73171d91 1436
bd81e77b 1437=cut
73171d91
NC
1438*/
1439
bd81e77b 1440int
aad570aa 1441Perl_sv_backoff(pTHX_ register SV *const sv)
bd81e77b 1442{
69240efd 1443 STRLEN delta;
7a4bba22 1444 const char * const s = SvPVX_const(sv);
7918f24d
NC
1445
1446 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_BACKOFF;
96a5add6 1447 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
7918f24d 1448
bd81e77b
NC
1449 assert(SvOOK(sv));
1450 assert(SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVHV);
1451 assert(SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVAV);
7a4bba22 1452
69240efd
NC
1453 SvOOK_offset(sv, delta);
1454
7a4bba22
NC
1455 SvLEN_set(sv, SvLEN(sv) + delta);
1456 SvPV_set(sv, SvPVX(sv) - delta);
1457 Move(s, SvPVX(sv), SvCUR(sv)+1, char);
bd81e77b
NC
1458 SvFLAGS(sv) &= ~SVf_OOK;
1459 return 0;
1460}
73171d91 1461
bd81e77b
NC
1462/*
1463=for apidoc sv_grow
73171d91 1464
bd81e77b
NC
1465Expands the character buffer in the SV. If necessary, uses C<sv_unref> and
1466upgrades the SV to C<SVt_PV>. Returns a pointer to the character buffer.
1467Use the C<SvGROW> wrapper instead.
93e68bfb 1468
bd81e77b
NC
1469=cut
1470*/
93e68bfb 1471
bd81e77b 1472char *
aad570aa 1473Perl_sv_grow(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, register STRLEN newlen)
bd81e77b 1474{
eb578fdb 1475 char *s;
93e68bfb 1476
7918f24d
NC
1477 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_GROW;
1478
5db06880
NC
1479 if (PL_madskills && newlen >= 0x100000) {
1480 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1481 "Allocation too large: %"UVxf"\n", (UV)newlen);
1482 }
bd81e77b
NC
1483#ifdef HAS_64K_LIMIT
1484 if (newlen >= 0x10000) {
1485 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1486 "Allocation too large: %"UVxf"\n", (UV)newlen);
1487 my_exit(1);
1488 }
1489#endif /* HAS_64K_LIMIT */
1490 if (SvROK(sv))
1491 sv_unref(sv);
1492 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PV) {
1493 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PV);
1494 s = SvPVX_mutable(sv);
1495 }
1496 else if (SvOOK(sv)) { /* pv is offset? */
1497 sv_backoff(sv);
1498 s = SvPVX_mutable(sv);
1499 if (newlen > SvLEN(sv))
1500 newlen += 10 * (newlen - SvCUR(sv)); /* avoid copy each time */
1501#ifdef HAS_64K_LIMIT
1502 if (newlen >= 0x10000)
1503 newlen = 0xFFFF;
1504#endif
1505 }
1506 else
1507 s = SvPVX_mutable(sv);
aeb18a1e 1508
bd81e77b 1509 if (newlen > SvLEN(sv)) { /* need more room? */
f1200559
WH
1510 STRLEN minlen = SvCUR(sv);
1511 minlen += (minlen >> PERL_STRLEN_EXPAND_SHIFT) + 10;
1512 if (newlen < minlen)
1513 newlen = minlen;
aedff202 1514#ifndef Perl_safesysmalloc_size
bd81e77b 1515 newlen = PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP(newlen);
bd81e77b 1516#endif
98653f18 1517 if (SvLEN(sv) && s) {
10edeb5d 1518 s = (char*)saferealloc(s, newlen);
bd81e77b
NC
1519 }
1520 else {
10edeb5d 1521 s = (char*)safemalloc(newlen);
bd81e77b
NC
1522 if (SvPVX_const(sv) && SvCUR(sv)) {
1523 Move(SvPVX_const(sv), s, (newlen < SvCUR(sv)) ? newlen : SvCUR(sv), char);
1524 }
1525 }
1526 SvPV_set(sv, s);
ca7c1a29 1527#ifdef Perl_safesysmalloc_size
98653f18
NC
1528 /* Do this here, do it once, do it right, and then we will never get
1529 called back into sv_grow() unless there really is some growing
1530 needed. */
ca7c1a29 1531 SvLEN_set(sv, Perl_safesysmalloc_size(s));
98653f18 1532#else
bd81e77b 1533 SvLEN_set(sv, newlen);
98653f18 1534#endif
bd81e77b
NC
1535 }
1536 return s;
1537}
aeb18a1e 1538
bd81e77b
NC
1539/*
1540=for apidoc sv_setiv
932e9ff9 1541
bd81e77b
NC
1542Copies an integer into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary.
1543Does not handle 'set' magic. See also C<sv_setiv_mg>.
463ee0b2 1544
bd81e77b
NC
1545=cut
1546*/
463ee0b2 1547
bd81e77b 1548void
aad570aa 1549Perl_sv_setiv(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const IV i)
bd81e77b 1550{
97aff369 1551 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1552
1553 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETIV;
1554
bd81e77b
NC
1555 SV_CHECK_THINKFIRST_COW_DROP(sv);
1556 switch (SvTYPE(sv)) {
1557 case SVt_NULL:
bd81e77b 1558 case SVt_NV:
3376de98 1559 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_IV);
bd81e77b 1560 break;
bd81e77b
NC
1561 case SVt_PV:
1562 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVIV);
1563 break;
463ee0b2 1564
bd81e77b 1565 case SVt_PVGV:
6e592b3a
BM
1566 if (!isGV_with_GP(sv))
1567 break;
bd81e77b
NC
1568 case SVt_PVAV:
1569 case SVt_PVHV:
1570 case SVt_PVCV:
1571 case SVt_PVFM:
1572 case SVt_PVIO:
22e74366 1573 /* diag_listed_as: Can't coerce %s to %s in %s */
bd81e77b
NC
1574 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't coerce %s to integer in %s", sv_reftype(sv,0),
1575 OP_DESC(PL_op));
42d0e0b7 1576 default: NOOP;
bd81e77b
NC
1577 }
1578 (void)SvIOK_only(sv); /* validate number */
1579 SvIV_set(sv, i);
1580 SvTAINT(sv);
1581}
932e9ff9 1582
bd81e77b
NC
1583/*
1584=for apidoc sv_setiv_mg
d33b2eba 1585
bd81e77b 1586Like C<sv_setiv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
1c846c1f 1587
bd81e77b
NC
1588=cut
1589*/
d33b2eba 1590
bd81e77b 1591void
aad570aa 1592Perl_sv_setiv_mg(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const IV i)
bd81e77b 1593{
7918f24d
NC
1594 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETIV_MG;
1595
bd81e77b
NC
1596 sv_setiv(sv,i);
1597 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
1598}
727879eb 1599
bd81e77b
NC
1600/*
1601=for apidoc sv_setuv
d33b2eba 1602
bd81e77b
NC
1603Copies an unsigned integer into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary.
1604Does not handle 'set' magic. See also C<sv_setuv_mg>.
9b94d1dd 1605
bd81e77b
NC
1606=cut
1607*/
d33b2eba 1608
bd81e77b 1609void
aad570aa 1610Perl_sv_setuv(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const UV u)
bd81e77b 1611{
7918f24d
NC
1612 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETUV;
1613
013abb9b
NC
1614 /* With the if statement to ensure that integers are stored as IVs whenever
1615 possible:
bd81e77b 1616 u=1.49 s=0.52 cu=72.49 cs=10.64 scripts=270 tests=20865
d33b2eba 1617
bd81e77b
NC
1618 without
1619 u=1.35 s=0.47 cu=73.45 cs=11.43 scripts=270 tests=20865
1c846c1f 1620
013abb9b
NC
1621 If you wish to remove the following if statement, so that this routine
1622 (and its callers) always return UVs, please benchmark to see what the
1623 effect is. Modern CPUs may be different. Or may not :-)
bd81e77b
NC
1624 */
1625 if (u <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
1626 sv_setiv(sv, (IV)u);
1627 return;
1628 }
1629 sv_setiv(sv, 0);
1630 SvIsUV_on(sv);
1631 SvUV_set(sv, u);
1632}
d33b2eba 1633
bd81e77b
NC
1634/*
1635=for apidoc sv_setuv_mg
727879eb 1636
bd81e77b 1637Like C<sv_setuv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
9b94d1dd 1638
bd81e77b
NC
1639=cut
1640*/
5e2fc214 1641
bd81e77b 1642void
aad570aa 1643Perl_sv_setuv_mg(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const UV u)
bd81e77b 1644{
7918f24d
NC
1645 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETUV_MG;
1646
bd81e77b
NC
1647 sv_setuv(sv,u);
1648 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
1649}
5e2fc214 1650
954c1994 1651/*
bd81e77b 1652=for apidoc sv_setnv
954c1994 1653
bd81e77b
NC
1654Copies a double into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary.
1655Does not handle 'set' magic. See also C<sv_setnv_mg>.
954c1994
GS
1656
1657=cut
1658*/
1659
63f97190 1660void
aad570aa 1661Perl_sv_setnv(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const NV num)
79072805 1662{
97aff369 1663 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1664
1665 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETNV;
1666
bd81e77b
NC
1667 SV_CHECK_THINKFIRST_COW_DROP(sv);
1668 switch (SvTYPE(sv)) {
79072805 1669 case SVt_NULL:
79072805 1670 case SVt_IV:
bd81e77b 1671 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_NV);
79072805
LW
1672 break;
1673 case SVt_PV:
79072805 1674 case SVt_PVIV:
bd81e77b 1675 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
79072805 1676 break;
bd4b1eb5 1677
bd4b1eb5 1678 case SVt_PVGV:
6e592b3a
BM
1679 if (!isGV_with_GP(sv))
1680 break;
bd81e77b
NC
1681 case SVt_PVAV:
1682 case SVt_PVHV:
79072805 1683 case SVt_PVCV:
bd81e77b
NC
1684 case SVt_PVFM:
1685 case SVt_PVIO:
22e74366 1686 /* diag_listed_as: Can't coerce %s to %s in %s */
bd81e77b 1687 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't coerce %s to number in %s", sv_reftype(sv,0),
94bbb3f4 1688 OP_DESC(PL_op));
42d0e0b7 1689 default: NOOP;
2068cd4d 1690 }
bd81e77b
NC
1691 SvNV_set(sv, num);
1692 (void)SvNOK_only(sv); /* validate number */
1693 SvTAINT(sv);
79072805
LW
1694}
1695
645c22ef 1696/*
bd81e77b 1697=for apidoc sv_setnv_mg
645c22ef 1698
bd81e77b 1699Like C<sv_setnv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
645c22ef
DM
1700
1701=cut
1702*/
1703
bd81e77b 1704void
aad570aa 1705Perl_sv_setnv_mg(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const NV num)
79072805 1706{
7918f24d
NC
1707 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETNV_MG;
1708
bd81e77b
NC
1709 sv_setnv(sv,num);
1710 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
79072805
LW
1711}
1712
bd81e77b
NC
1713/* Print an "isn't numeric" warning, using a cleaned-up,
1714 * printable version of the offending string
1715 */
954c1994 1716
bd81e77b 1717STATIC void
aad570aa 1718S_not_a_number(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
79072805 1719{
97aff369 1720 dVAR;
bd81e77b
NC
1721 SV *dsv;
1722 char tmpbuf[64];
1723 const char *pv;
94463019 1724
7918f24d
NC
1725 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_NOT_A_NUMBER;
1726
94463019 1727 if (DO_UTF8(sv)) {
84bafc02 1728 dsv = newSVpvs_flags("", SVs_TEMP);
472394e4 1729 pv = sv_uni_display(dsv, sv, 10, UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT);
94463019
JH
1730 } else {
1731 char *d = tmpbuf;
551405c4 1732 const char * const limit = tmpbuf + sizeof(tmpbuf) - 8;
94463019
JH
1733 /* each *s can expand to 4 chars + "...\0",
1734 i.e. need room for 8 chars */
ecdeb87c 1735
00b6aa41
AL
1736 const char *s = SvPVX_const(sv);
1737 const char * const end = s + SvCUR(sv);
1738 for ( ; s < end && d < limit; s++ ) {
94463019
JH
1739 int ch = *s & 0xFF;
1740 if (ch & 128 && !isPRINT_LC(ch)) {
1741 *d++ = 'M';
1742 *d++ = '-';
1743 ch &= 127;
1744 }
1745 if (ch == '\n') {
1746 *d++ = '\\';
1747 *d++ = 'n';
1748 }
1749 else if (ch == '\r') {
1750 *d++ = '\\';
1751 *d++ = 'r';
1752 }
1753 else if (ch == '\f') {
1754 *d++ = '\\';
1755 *d++ = 'f';
1756 }
1757 else if (ch == '\\') {
1758 *d++ = '\\';
1759 *d++ = '\\';
1760 }
1761 else if (ch == '\0') {
1762 *d++ = '\\';
1763 *d++ = '0';
1764 }
1765 else if (isPRINT_LC(ch))
1766 *d++ = ch;
1767 else {
1768 *d++ = '^';
1769 *d++ = toCTRL(ch);
1770 }
1771 }
1772 if (s < end) {
1773 *d++ = '.';
1774 *d++ = '.';
1775 *d++ = '.';
1776 }
1777 *d = '\0';
1778 pv = tmpbuf;
a0d0e21e 1779 }
a0d0e21e 1780
533c011a 1781 if (PL_op)
9014280d 1782 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NUMERIC),
734856a2 1783 /* diag_listed_as: Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s */
94463019
JH
1784 "Argument \"%s\" isn't numeric in %s", pv,
1785 OP_DESC(PL_op));
a0d0e21e 1786 else
9014280d 1787 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NUMERIC),
734856a2 1788 /* diag_listed_as: Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s */
94463019 1789 "Argument \"%s\" isn't numeric", pv);
a0d0e21e
LW
1790}
1791
c2988b20
NC
1792/*
1793=for apidoc looks_like_number
1794
645c22ef
DM
1795Test if the content of an SV looks like a number (or is a number).
1796C<Inf> and C<Infinity> are treated as numbers (so will not issue a
f52e41ad
FC
1797non-numeric warning), even if your atof() doesn't grok them. Get-magic is
1798ignored.
c2988b20
NC
1799
1800=cut
1801*/
1802
1803I32
aad570aa 1804Perl_looks_like_number(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
c2988b20 1805{
eb578fdb 1806 const char *sbegin;
c2988b20
NC
1807 STRLEN len;
1808
7918f24d
NC
1809 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_LOOKS_LIKE_NUMBER;
1810
f52e41ad
FC
1811 if (SvPOK(sv) || SvPOKp(sv)) {
1812 sbegin = SvPV_nomg_const(sv, len);
c2988b20 1813 }
c2988b20 1814 else
e0ab1c0e 1815 return SvFLAGS(sv) & (SVf_NOK|SVp_NOK|SVf_IOK|SVp_IOK);
c2988b20
NC
1816 return grok_number(sbegin, len, NULL);
1817}
25da4f38 1818
19f6321d
NC
1819STATIC bool
1820S_glob_2number(pTHX_ GV * const gv)
180488f8 1821{
7918f24d
NC
1822 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_GLOB_2NUMBER;
1823
675c862f
AL
1824 /* We know that all GVs stringify to something that is not-a-number,
1825 so no need to test that. */
1826 if (ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
8e629ff4
FC
1827 {
1828 SV *const buffer = sv_newmortal();
1829 gv_efullname3(buffer, gv, "*");
675c862f 1830 not_a_number(buffer);
8e629ff4 1831 }
675c862f
AL
1832 /* We just want something true to return, so that S_sv_2iuv_common
1833 can tail call us and return true. */
19f6321d 1834 return TRUE;
675c862f
AL
1835}
1836
25da4f38
IZ
1837/* Actually, ISO C leaves conversion of UV to IV undefined, but
1838 until proven guilty, assume that things are not that bad... */
1839
645c22ef
DM
1840/*
1841 NV_PRESERVES_UV:
1842
1843 As 64 bit platforms often have an NV that doesn't preserve all bits of
28e5dec8
JH
1844 an IV (an assumption perl has been based on to date) it becomes necessary
1845 to remove the assumption that the NV always carries enough precision to
1846 recreate the IV whenever needed, and that the NV is the canonical form.
1847 Instead, IV/UV and NV need to be given equal rights. So as to not lose
645c22ef 1848 precision as a side effect of conversion (which would lead to insanity
28e5dec8
JH
1849 and the dragon(s) in t/op/numconvert.t getting very angry) the intent is
1850 1) to distinguish between IV/UV/NV slots that have cached a valid
1851 conversion where precision was lost and IV/UV/NV slots that have a
1852 valid conversion which has lost no precision
645c22ef 1853 2) to ensure that if a numeric conversion to one form is requested that
28e5dec8
JH
1854 would lose precision, the precise conversion (or differently
1855 imprecise conversion) is also performed and cached, to prevent
1856 requests for different numeric formats on the same SV causing
1857 lossy conversion chains. (lossless conversion chains are perfectly
1858 acceptable (still))
1859
1860
1861 flags are used:
1862 SvIOKp is true if the IV slot contains a valid value
1863 SvIOK is true only if the IV value is accurate (UV if SvIOK_UV true)
1864 SvNOKp is true if the NV slot contains a valid value
1865 SvNOK is true only if the NV value is accurate
1866
1867 so
645c22ef 1868 while converting from PV to NV, check to see if converting that NV to an
28e5dec8
JH
1869 IV(or UV) would lose accuracy over a direct conversion from PV to
1870 IV(or UV). If it would, cache both conversions, return NV, but mark
1871 SV as IOK NOKp (ie not NOK).
1872
645c22ef 1873 While converting from PV to IV, check to see if converting that IV to an
28e5dec8
JH
1874 NV would lose accuracy over a direct conversion from PV to NV. If it
1875 would, cache both conversions, flag similarly.
1876
1877 Before, the SV value "3.2" could become NV=3.2 IV=3 NOK, IOK quite
1878 correctly because if IV & NV were set NV *always* overruled.
645c22ef
DM
1879 Now, "3.2" will become NV=3.2 IV=3 NOK, IOKp, because the flag's meaning
1880 changes - now IV and NV together means that the two are interchangeable:
28e5dec8 1881 SvIVX == (IV) SvNVX && SvNVX == (NV) SvIVX;
d460ef45 1882
645c22ef
DM
1883 The benefit of this is that operations such as pp_add know that if
1884 SvIOK is true for both left and right operands, then integer addition
1885 can be used instead of floating point (for cases where the result won't
1886 overflow). Before, floating point was always used, which could lead to
28e5dec8
JH
1887 loss of precision compared with integer addition.
1888
1889 * making IV and NV equal status should make maths accurate on 64 bit
1890 platforms
1891 * may speed up maths somewhat if pp_add and friends start to use
645c22ef 1892 integers when possible instead of fp. (Hopefully the overhead in
28e5dec8
JH
1893 looking for SvIOK and checking for overflow will not outweigh the
1894 fp to integer speedup)
1895 * will slow down integer operations (callers of SvIV) on "inaccurate"
1896 values, as the change from SvIOK to SvIOKp will cause a call into
1897 sv_2iv each time rather than a macro access direct to the IV slot
1898 * should speed up number->string conversion on integers as IV is
645c22ef 1899 favoured when IV and NV are equally accurate
28e5dec8
JH
1900
1901 ####################################################################
645c22ef
DM
1902 You had better be using SvIOK_notUV if you want an IV for arithmetic:
1903 SvIOK is true if (IV or UV), so you might be getting (IV)SvUV.
1904 On the other hand, SvUOK is true iff UV.
28e5dec8
JH
1905 ####################################################################
1906
645c22ef 1907 Your mileage will vary depending your CPU's relative fp to integer
28e5dec8
JH
1908 performance ratio.
1909*/
1910
1911#ifndef NV_PRESERVES_UV
645c22ef
DM
1912# define IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_IV 1
1913# define IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_UV 2
1914# define IS_NUMBER_IV_AND_UV 2
1915# define IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_IV 4
1916# define IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_UV 5
1917
1918/* sv_2iuv_non_preserve(): private routine for use by sv_2iv() and sv_2uv() */
28e5dec8
JH
1919
1920/* For sv_2nv these three cases are "SvNOK and don't bother casting" */
1921STATIC int
5de3775c 1922S_sv_2iuv_non_preserve(pTHX_ register SV *const sv
47031da6
NC
1923# ifdef DEBUGGING
1924 , I32 numtype
1925# endif
1926 )
28e5dec8 1927{
97aff369 1928 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1929
1930 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2IUV_NON_PRESERVE;
1931
3f7c398e 1932 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,"sv_2iuv_non '%s', IV=0x%"UVxf" NV=%"NVgf" inttype=%"UVXf"\n", SvPVX_const(sv), SvIVX(sv), SvNVX(sv), (UV)numtype));
28e5dec8
JH
1933 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MIN) {
1934 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
1935 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
45977657 1936 SvIV_set(sv, IV_MIN);
28e5dec8
JH
1937 return IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_IV;
1938 }
1939 if (SvNVX(sv) > (NV)UV_MAX) {
1940 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
1941 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
1942 SvIsUV_on(sv);
607fa7f2 1943 SvUV_set(sv, UV_MAX);
28e5dec8
JH
1944 return IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_UV;
1945 }
c2988b20
NC
1946 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
1947 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
1948 /* Can't use strtol etc to convert this string. (See truth table in
1949 sv_2iv */
1950 if (SvNVX(sv) <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
45977657 1951 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
c2988b20
NC
1952 if ((NV)(SvIVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
1953 SvIOK_on(sv); /* Integer is precise. NOK, IOK */
1954 } else {
1955 /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp */
1956 }
1957 return SvNVX(sv) < 0 ? IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_UV : IS_NUMBER_IV_AND_UV;
1958 }
1959 SvIsUV_on(sv);
607fa7f2 1960 SvUV_set(sv, U_V(SvNVX(sv)));
c2988b20
NC
1961 if ((NV)(SvUVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
1962 if (SvUVX(sv) == UV_MAX) {
1963 /* As we know that NVs don't preserve UVs, UV_MAX cannot
1964 possibly be preserved by NV. Hence, it must be overflow.
1965 NOK, IOKp */
1966 return IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_UV;
1967 }
1968 SvIOK_on(sv); /* Integer is precise. NOK, UOK */
1969 } else {
1970 /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp */
28e5dec8 1971 }
c2988b20 1972 return IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_IV;
28e5dec8 1973}
645c22ef
DM
1974#endif /* !NV_PRESERVES_UV*/
1975
af359546 1976STATIC bool
7918f24d
NC
1977S_sv_2iuv_common(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
1978{
97aff369 1979 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1980
1981 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2IUV_COMMON;
1982
af359546 1983 if (SvNOKp(sv)) {
28e5dec8
JH
1984 /* erm. not sure. *should* never get NOKp (without NOK) from sv_2nv
1985 * without also getting a cached IV/UV from it at the same time
1986 * (ie PV->NV conversion should detect loss of accuracy and cache
af359546
NC
1987 * IV or UV at same time to avoid this. */
1988 /* IV-over-UV optimisation - choose to cache IV if possible */
25da4f38
IZ
1989
1990 if (SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_NV)
1991 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
1992
28e5dec8
JH
1993 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv); /* Must do this first, to clear any SvOOK */
1994 /* < not <= as for NV doesn't preserve UV, ((NV)IV_MAX+1) will almost
1995 certainly cast into the IV range at IV_MAX, whereas the correct
1996 answer is the UV IV_MAX +1. Hence < ensures that dodgy boundary
1997 cases go to UV */
cab190d4
JD
1998#if defined(NAN_COMPARE_BROKEN) && defined(Perl_isnan)
1999 if (Perl_isnan(SvNVX(sv))) {
2000 SvUV_set(sv, 0);
2001 SvIsUV_on(sv);
fdbe6d7c 2002 return FALSE;
cab190d4 2003 }
cab190d4 2004#endif
28e5dec8 2005 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MAX + 0.5) {
45977657 2006 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
28e5dec8
JH
2007 if (SvNVX(sv) == (NV) SvIVX(sv)
2008#ifndef NV_PRESERVES_UV
2009 && (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) >
2010 (UV)(SvIVX(sv) > 0 ? SvIVX(sv) : -SvIVX(sv)))
2011 /* Don't flag it as "accurately an integer" if the number
2012 came from a (by definition imprecise) NV operation, and
2013 we're outside the range of NV integer precision */
2014#endif
2015 ) {
a43d94f2
NC
2016 if (SvNOK(sv))
2017 SvIOK_on(sv); /* Can this go wrong with rounding? NWC */
2018 else {
2019 /* scalar has trailing garbage, eg "42a" */
2020 }
28e5dec8 2021 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
7234c960 2022 "0x%"UVxf" iv(%"NVgf" => %"IVdf") (precise)\n",
28e5dec8
JH
2023 PTR2UV(sv),
2024 SvNVX(sv),
2025 SvIVX(sv)));
2026
2027 } else {
2028 /* IV not precise. No need to convert from PV, as NV
2029 conversion would already have cached IV if it detected
2030 that PV->IV would be better than PV->NV->IV
2031 flags already correct - don't set public IOK. */
2032 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
7234c960 2033 "0x%"UVxf" iv(%"NVgf" => %"IVdf") (imprecise)\n",
28e5dec8
JH
2034 PTR2UV(sv),
2035 SvNVX(sv),
2036 SvIVX(sv)));
2037 }
2038 /* Can the above go wrong if SvIVX == IV_MIN and SvNVX < IV_MIN,
2039 but the cast (NV)IV_MIN rounds to a the value less (more
2040 negative) than IV_MIN which happens to be equal to SvNVX ??
2041 Analogous to 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF rounding up to NV (2**64) and
2042 NV rounding back to 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF, so UVX == UV(NVX) and
2043 (NV)UVX == NVX are both true, but the values differ. :-(
2044 Hopefully for 2s complement IV_MIN is something like
2045 0x8000000000000000 which will be exact. NWC */
d460ef45 2046 }
25da4f38 2047 else {
607fa7f2 2048 SvUV_set(sv, U_V(SvNVX(sv)));
28e5dec8
JH
2049 if (
2050 (SvNVX(sv) == (NV) SvUVX(sv))
2051#ifndef NV_PRESERVES_UV
2052 /* Make sure it's not 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF */
2053 /*&& (SvUVX(sv) != UV_MAX) irrelevant with code below */
2054 && (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) > SvUVX(sv))
2055 /* Don't flag it as "accurately an integer" if the number
2056 came from a (by definition imprecise) NV operation, and
2057 we're outside the range of NV integer precision */
2058#endif
a43d94f2 2059 && SvNOK(sv)
28e5dec8
JH
2060 )
2061 SvIOK_on(sv);
25da4f38 2062 SvIsUV_on(sv);
1c846c1f 2063 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
57def98f 2064 "0x%"UVxf" 2iv(%"UVuf" => %"IVdf") (as unsigned)\n",
56431972 2065 PTR2UV(sv),
57def98f
JH
2066 SvUVX(sv),
2067 SvUVX(sv)));
25da4f38 2068 }
748a9306
LW
2069 }
2070 else if (SvPOKp(sv) && SvLEN(sv)) {
c2988b20 2071 UV value;
504618e9 2072 const int numtype = grok_number(SvPVX_const(sv), SvCUR(sv), &value);
af359546 2073 /* We want to avoid a possible problem when we cache an IV/ a UV which
25da4f38 2074 may be later translated to an NV, and the resulting NV is not
c2988b20
NC
2075 the same as the direct translation of the initial string
2076 (eg 123.456 can shortcut to the IV 123 with atol(), but we must
2077 be careful to ensure that the value with the .456 is around if the
2078 NV value is requested in the future).
1c846c1f 2079
af359546 2080 This means that if we cache such an IV/a UV, we need to cache the
25da4f38 2081 NV as well. Moreover, we trade speed for space, and do not
28e5dec8 2082 cache the NV if we are sure it's not needed.
25da4f38 2083 */
16b7a9a4 2084
c2988b20
NC
2085 /* SVt_PVNV is one higher than SVt_PVIV, hence this order */
2086 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2087 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
5e045b90 2088 /* It's definitely an integer, only upgrade to PVIV */
28e5dec8
JH
2089 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVIV)
2090 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVIV);
f7bbb42a 2091 (void)SvIOK_on(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2092 } else if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
2093 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
28e5dec8 2094
f2524eef 2095 /* If NVs preserve UVs then we only use the UV value if we know that
c2988b20
NC
2096 we aren't going to call atof() below. If NVs don't preserve UVs
2097 then the value returned may have more precision than atof() will
2098 return, even though value isn't perfectly accurate. */
2099 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV
2100#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
2101 | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT
2102#endif
2103 )) == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2104 /* This won't turn off the public IOK flag if it was set above */
2105 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
2106
2107 if (!(numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG)) {
2108 /* positive */;
2109 if (value <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
45977657 2110 SvIV_set(sv, (IV)value);
c2988b20 2111 } else {
af359546 2112 /* it didn't overflow, and it was positive. */
607fa7f2 2113 SvUV_set(sv, value);
c2988b20
NC
2114 SvIsUV_on(sv);
2115 }
2116 } else {
2117 /* 2s complement assumption */
2118 if (value <= (UV)IV_MIN) {
45977657 2119 SvIV_set(sv, -(IV)value);
c2988b20
NC
2120 } else {
2121 /* Too negative for an IV. This is a double upgrade, but
d1be9408 2122 I'm assuming it will be rare. */
c2988b20
NC
2123 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
2124 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
2125 SvNOK_on(sv);
2126 SvIOK_off(sv);
2127 SvIOKp_on(sv);
9d6ce603 2128 SvNV_set(sv, -(NV)value);
45977657 2129 SvIV_set(sv, IV_MIN);
c2988b20
NC
2130 }
2131 }
2132 }
2133 /* For !NV_PRESERVES_UV and IS_NUMBER_IN_UV and IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT we
2134 will be in the previous block to set the IV slot, and the next
2135 block to set the NV slot. So no else here. */
2136
2137 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2138 != IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2139 /* It wasn't an (integer that doesn't overflow the UV). */
3f7c398e 2140 SvNV_set(sv, Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
28e5dec8 2141
c2988b20
NC
2142 if (! numtype && ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
2143 not_a_number(sv);
28e5dec8 2144
65202027 2145#if defined(USE_LONG_DOUBLE)
c2988b20
NC
2146 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2iv(%" PERL_PRIgldbl ")\n",
2147 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv)));
65202027 2148#else
1779d84d 2149 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2iv(%"NVgf")\n",
c2988b20 2150 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv)));
65202027 2151#endif
28e5dec8 2152
28e5dec8 2153#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
af359546
NC
2154 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
2155 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
2156 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MAX + 0.5) {
2157 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
2158 if ((NV)(SvIVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
2159 SvIOK_on(sv);
2160 } else {
6f207bd3 2161 NOOP; /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp */
af359546
NC
2162 }
2163 /* UV will not work better than IV */
2164 } else {
2165 if (SvNVX(sv) > (NV)UV_MAX) {
2166 SvIsUV_on(sv);
2167 /* Integer is inaccurate. NOK, IOKp, is UV */
2168 SvUV_set(sv, UV_MAX);
af359546
NC
2169 } else {
2170 SvUV_set(sv, U_V(SvNVX(sv)));
2171 /* 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF not an issue in here, NVs
2172 NV preservse UV so can do correct comparison. */
2173 if ((NV)(SvUVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
2174 SvIOK_on(sv);
af359546 2175 } else {
6f207bd3 2176 NOOP; /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp, is UV */
af359546
NC
2177 }
2178 }
4b0c9573 2179 SvIsUV_on(sv);
af359546 2180 }
28e5dec8 2181#else /* NV_PRESERVES_UV */
c2988b20
NC
2182 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2183 == (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT)) {
af359546 2184 /* The IV/UV slot will have been set from value returned by
c2988b20
NC
2185 grok_number above. The NV slot has just been set using
2186 Atof. */
560b0c46 2187 SvNOK_on(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2188 assert (SvIOKp(sv));
2189 } else {
2190 if (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) >
2191 U_V(SvNVX(sv) > 0 ? SvNVX(sv) : -SvNVX(sv))) {
2192 /* Small enough to preserve all bits. */
2193 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
2194 SvNOK_on(sv);
45977657 2195 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
c2988b20
NC
2196 if ((NV)(SvIVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv))
2197 SvIOK_on(sv);
2198 /* Assumption: first non-preserved integer is < IV_MAX,
2199 this NV is in the preserved range, therefore: */
2200 if (!(U_V(SvNVX(sv) > 0 ? SvNVX(sv) : -SvNVX(sv))
2201 < (UV)IV_MAX)) {
32fdb065 2202 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "sv_2iv assumed (U_V(fabs((double)SvNVX(sv))) < (UV)IV_MAX) but SvNVX(sv)=%"NVgf" U_V is 0x%"UVxf", IV_MAX is 0x%"UVxf"\n", SvNVX(sv), U_V(SvNVX(sv)), (UV)IV_MAX);
c2988b20
NC
2203 }
2204 } else {
2205 /* IN_UV NOT_INT
2206 0 0 already failed to read UV.
2207 0 1 already failed to read UV.
2208 1 0 you won't get here in this case. IV/UV
2209 slot set, public IOK, Atof() unneeded.
2210 1 1 already read UV.
2211 so there's no point in sv_2iuv_non_preserve() attempting
2212 to use atol, strtol, strtoul etc. */
47031da6 2213# ifdef DEBUGGING
40a17c4c 2214 sv_2iuv_non_preserve (sv, numtype);
47031da6
NC
2215# else
2216 sv_2iuv_non_preserve (sv);
2217# endif
c2988b20
NC
2218 }
2219 }
28e5dec8 2220#endif /* NV_PRESERVES_UV */
a43d94f2
NC
2221 /* It might be more code efficient to go through the entire logic above
2222 and conditionally set with SvIOKp_on() rather than SvIOK(), but it
2223 gets complex and potentially buggy, so more programmer efficient
2224 to do it this way, by turning off the public flags: */
2225 if (!numtype)
2226 SvFLAGS(sv) &= ~(SVf_IOK|SVf_NOK);
25da4f38 2227 }
af359546
NC
2228 }
2229 else {
675c862f 2230 if (isGV_with_GP(sv))
159b6efe 2231 return glob_2number(MUTABLE_GV(sv));
180488f8 2232
9a214eec 2233 if (!SvPADTMP(sv)) {
af359546
NC
2234 if (!PL_localizing && ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
2235 report_uninit(sv);
2236 }
25da4f38
IZ
2237 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_IV)
2238 /* Typically the caller expects that sv_any is not NULL now. */
2239 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_IV);
af359546
NC
2240 /* Return 0 from the caller. */
2241 return TRUE;
2242 }
2243 return FALSE;
2244}
2245
2246/*
2247=for apidoc sv_2iv_flags
2248
2249Return the integer value of an SV, doing any necessary string
2250conversion. If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first.
2251Normally used via the C<SvIV(sv)> and C<SvIVx(sv)> macros.
2252
2253=cut
2254*/
2255
2256IV
5de3775c 2257Perl_sv_2iv_flags(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const I32 flags)
af359546 2258{
97aff369 2259 dVAR;
4bac9ae4 2260
af359546 2261 if (!sv)
a0d0e21e 2262 return 0;
4bac9ae4
CS
2263
2264 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv) && (flags & SV_GMAGIC))
2265 mg_get(sv);
2266
2267 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2268 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
2269 SV * tmpstr;
2270 if (flags & SV_SKIP_OVERLOAD)
2271 return 0;
2272 tmpstr = AMG_CALLunary(sv, numer_amg);
2273 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2274 return SvIV(tmpstr);
2275 }
2276 }
2277 return PTR2IV(SvRV(sv));
2278 }
2279
2280 if (SvVALID(sv)) {
2b2b6d6d
NC
2281 /* FBMs use the space for SvIVX and SvNVX for other purposes, and use
2282 the same flag bit as SVf_IVisUV, so must not let them cache IVs.
2283 In practice they are extremely unlikely to actually get anywhere
2284 accessible by user Perl code - the only way that I'm aware of is when
2285 a constant subroutine which is used as the second argument to index.
2286 */
af359546
NC
2287 if (SvIOKp(sv))
2288 return SvIVX(sv);
4bac9ae4 2289 if (SvNOKp(sv))
af359546 2290 return I_V(SvNVX(sv));
71c558c3
NC
2291 if (SvPOKp(sv) && SvLEN(sv)) {
2292 UV value;
2293 const int numtype
2294 = grok_number(SvPVX_const(sv), SvCUR(sv), &value);
2295
2296 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2297 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2298 /* It's definitely an integer */
2299 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) {
2300 if (value < (UV)IV_MIN)
2301 return -(IV)value;
2302 } else {
2303 if (value < (UV)IV_MAX)
2304 return (IV)value;
2305 }
2306 }
2307 if (!numtype) {
2308 if (ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
2309 not_a_number(sv);
2310 }
2311 return I_V(Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
2312 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2313 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
2314 report_uninit(sv);
2315 return 0;
2316 }
2317
2318 if (SvTHINKFIRST(sv)) {
af359546
NC
2319 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
2320 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
2321 }
2322 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && !SvOK(sv)) {
2323 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
2324 report_uninit(sv);
2325 return 0;
2326 }
2327 }
4bac9ae4 2328
af359546
NC
2329 if (!SvIOKp(sv)) {
2330 if (S_sv_2iuv_common(aTHX_ sv))
2331 return 0;
79072805 2332 }
4bac9ae4 2333
1d7c1841
GS
2334 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2iv(%"IVdf")\n",
2335 PTR2UV(sv),SvIVX(sv)));
25da4f38 2336 return SvIsUV(sv) ? (IV)SvUVX(sv) : SvIVX(sv);
79072805
LW
2337}
2338
645c22ef 2339/*
891f9566 2340=for apidoc sv_2uv_flags
645c22ef
DM
2341
2342Return the unsigned integer value of an SV, doing any necessary string
891f9566
YST
2343conversion. If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first.
2344Normally used via the C<SvUV(sv)> and C<SvUVx(sv)> macros.
645c22ef
DM
2345
2346=cut
2347*/
2348
ff68c719 2349UV
5de3775c 2350Perl_sv_2uv_flags(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const I32 flags)
ff68c719 2351{
97aff369 2352 dVAR;
4bac9ae4 2353
ff68c719
PP
2354 if (!sv)
2355 return 0;
4bac9ae4
CS
2356
2357 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv) && (flags & SV_GMAGIC))
2358 mg_get(sv);
2359
2360 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2361 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
2362 SV *tmpstr;
2363 if (flags & SV_SKIP_OVERLOAD)
2364 return 0;
2365 tmpstr = AMG_CALLunary(sv, numer_amg);
2366 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2367 return SvUV(tmpstr);
2368 }
2369 }
2370 return PTR2UV(SvRV(sv));
2371 }
2372
2373 if (SvVALID(sv)) {
2b2b6d6d
NC
2374 /* FBMs use the space for SvIVX and SvNVX for other purposes, and use
2375 the same flag bit as SVf_IVisUV, so must not let them cache IVs. */
ff68c719
PP
2376 if (SvIOKp(sv))
2377 return SvUVX(sv);
2378 if (SvNOKp(sv))
2379 return U_V(SvNVX(sv));
71c558c3
NC
2380 if (SvPOKp(sv) && SvLEN(sv)) {
2381 UV value;
2382 const int numtype
2383 = grok_number(SvPVX_const(sv), SvCUR(sv), &value);
2384
2385 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2386 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2387 /* It's definitely an integer */
2388 if (!(numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG))
2389 return value;
2390 }
2391 if (!numtype) {
2392 if (ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
2393 not_a_number(sv);
2394 }
2395 return U_V(Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
2396 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2397 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
2398 report_uninit(sv);
2399 return 0;
2400 }
2401
2402 if (SvTHINKFIRST(sv)) {
765f542d
NC
2403 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
2404 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
8a818333 2405 }
0336b60e 2406 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && !SvOK(sv)) {
0336b60e 2407 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
29489e7c 2408 report_uninit(sv);
ff68c719
PP
2409 return 0;
2410 }
2411 }
4bac9ae4 2412
af359546
NC
2413 if (!SvIOKp(sv)) {
2414 if (S_sv_2iuv_common(aTHX_ sv))
2415 return 0;
ff68c719 2416 }
25da4f38 2417
1d7c1841
GS
2418 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2uv(%"UVuf")\n",
2419 PTR2UV(sv),SvUVX(sv)));
25da4f38 2420 return SvIsUV(sv) ? SvUVX(sv) : (UV)SvIVX(sv);
ff68c719
PP
2421}
2422
645c22ef 2423/*
196007d1 2424=for apidoc sv_2nv_flags
645c22ef
DM
2425
2426Return the num value of an SV, doing any necessary string or integer
fde67290 2427conversion. If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first.
39d5de13 2428Normally used via the C<SvNV(sv)> and C<SvNVx(sv)> macros.
645c22ef
DM
2429
2430=cut
2431*/
2432
65202027 2433NV
39d5de13 2434Perl_sv_2nv_flags(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const I32 flags)
79072805 2435{
97aff369 2436 dVAR;
79072805
LW
2437 if (!sv)
2438 return 0.0;
a672f009 2439 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv) || SvVALID(sv)) {
2b2b6d6d
NC
2440 /* FBMs use the space for SvIVX and SvNVX for other purposes, and use
2441 the same flag bit as SVf_IVisUV, so must not let them cache NVs. */
39d5de13
DM
2442 if (flags & SV_GMAGIC)
2443 mg_get(sv);
463ee0b2
LW
2444 if (SvNOKp(sv))
2445 return SvNVX(sv);
0aa395f8 2446 if ((SvPOKp(sv) && SvLEN(sv)) && !SvIOKp(sv)) {
041457d9 2447 if (!SvIOKp(sv) && ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC) &&
504618e9 2448 !grok_number(SvPVX_const(sv), SvCUR(sv), NULL))
a0d0e21e 2449 not_a_number(sv);
3f7c398e 2450 return Atof(SvPVX_const(sv));
a0d0e21e 2451 }
25da4f38 2452 if (SvIOKp(sv)) {
1c846c1f 2453 if (SvIsUV(sv))
65202027 2454 return (NV)SvUVX(sv);
25da4f38 2455 else
65202027 2456 return (NV)SvIVX(sv);
47a72cb8
NC
2457 }
2458 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2459 goto return_rok;
2460 }
2461 assert(SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG);
2462 /* This falls through to the report_uninit near the end of the
2463 function. */
2464 } else if (SvTHINKFIRST(sv)) {
a0d0e21e 2465 if (SvROK(sv)) {
47a72cb8 2466 return_rok:
deb46114 2467 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
aee036bb
DM
2468 SV *tmpstr;
2469 if (flags & SV_SKIP_OVERLOAD)
2470 return 0;
31d632c3 2471 tmpstr = AMG_CALLunary(sv, numer_amg);
deb46114
NC
2472 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2473 return SvNV(tmpstr);
2474 }
2475 }
2476 return PTR2NV(SvRV(sv));
a0d0e21e 2477 }
765f542d
NC
2478 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
2479 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
8a818333 2480 }
0336b60e 2481 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && !SvOK(sv)) {
599cee73 2482 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
29489e7c 2483 report_uninit(sv);
ed6116ce
LW
2484 return 0.0;
2485 }
79072805
LW
2486 }
2487 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_NV) {
7e25a7e9
NC
2488 /* The logic to use SVt_PVNV if necessary is in sv_upgrade. */
2489 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_NV);
906f284f 2490#ifdef USE_LONG_DOUBLE
097ee67d 2491 DEBUG_c({
f93f4e46 2492 STORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL_SET_STANDARD();
1d7c1841
GS
2493 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
2494 "0x%"UVxf" num(%" PERL_PRIgldbl ")\n",
2495 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv));
572bbb43
GS
2496 RESTORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL();
2497 });
65202027 2498#else
572bbb43 2499 DEBUG_c({
f93f4e46 2500 STORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL_SET_STANDARD();
1779d84d 2501 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" num(%"NVgf")\n",
1d7c1841 2502 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv));
097ee67d
JH
2503 RESTORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL();
2504 });
572bbb43 2505#endif
79072805
LW
2506 }
2507 else if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
2508 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
59d8ce62
NC
2509 if (SvNOKp(sv)) {
2510 return SvNVX(sv);
61604483 2511 }
59d8ce62 2512 if (SvIOKp(sv)) {
9d6ce603 2513 SvNV_set(sv, SvIsUV(sv) ? (NV)SvUVX(sv) : (NV)SvIVX(sv));
28e5dec8 2514#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
a43d94f2
NC
2515 if (SvIOK(sv))
2516 SvNOK_on(sv);
2517 else
2518 SvNOKp_on(sv);
28e5dec8
JH
2519#else
2520 /* Only set the public NV OK flag if this NV preserves the IV */
2521 /* Check it's not 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF */
a43d94f2
NC
2522 if (SvIOK(sv) &&
2523 SvIsUV(sv) ? ((SvUVX(sv) != UV_MAX)&&(SvUVX(sv) == U_V(SvNVX(sv))))
28e5dec8
JH
2524 : (SvIVX(sv) == I_V(SvNVX(sv))))
2525 SvNOK_on(sv);
2526 else
2527 SvNOKp_on(sv);
2528#endif
93a17b20 2529 }
748a9306 2530 else if (SvPOKp(sv) && SvLEN(sv)) {
c2988b20 2531 UV value;
3f7c398e 2532 const int numtype = grok_number(SvPVX_const(sv), SvCUR(sv), &value);
041457d9 2533 if (!SvIOKp(sv) && !numtype && ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
a0d0e21e 2534 not_a_number(sv);
28e5dec8 2535#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
c2988b20
NC
2536 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2537 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
5e045b90 2538 /* It's definitely an integer */
9d6ce603 2539 SvNV_set(sv, (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) ? -(NV)value : (NV)value);
c2988b20 2540 } else
3f7c398e 2541 SvNV_set(sv, Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
a43d94f2
NC
2542 if (numtype)
2543 SvNOK_on(sv);
2544 else
2545 SvNOKp_on(sv);
28e5dec8 2546#else
3f7c398e 2547 SvNV_set(sv, Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
28e5dec8
JH
2548 /* Only set the public NV OK flag if this NV preserves the value in
2549 the PV at least as well as an IV/UV would.
2550 Not sure how to do this 100% reliably. */
2551 /* if that shift count is out of range then Configure's test is
2552 wonky. We shouldn't be in here with NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS ==
2553 UV_BITS */
2554 if (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) >
c2988b20 2555 U_V(SvNVX(sv) > 0 ? SvNVX(sv) : -SvNVX(sv))) {
28e5dec8 2556 SvNOK_on(sv); /* Definitely small enough to preserve all bits */
c2988b20
NC
2557 } else if (!(numtype & IS_NUMBER_IN_UV)) {
2558 /* Can't use strtol etc to convert this string, so don't try.
2559 sv_2iv and sv_2uv will use the NV to convert, not the PV. */
2560 SvNOK_on(sv);
2561 } else {
2562 /* value has been set. It may not be precise. */
2563 if ((numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) && (value > (UV)IV_MIN)) {
2564 /* 2s complement assumption for (UV)IV_MIN */
2565 SvNOK_on(sv); /* Integer is too negative. */
2566 } else {
2567 SvNOKp_on(sv);
2568 SvIOKp_on(sv);
6fa402ec 2569
c2988b20 2570 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) {
45977657 2571 SvIV_set(sv, -(IV)value);
c2988b20 2572 } else if (value <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
45977657 2573 SvIV_set(sv, (IV)value);
c2988b20 2574 } else {
607fa7f2 2575 SvUV_set(sv, value);
c2988b20
NC
2576 SvIsUV_on(sv);
2577 }
2578
2579 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT) {
2580 /* I believe that even if the original PV had decimals,
2581 they are lost beyond the limit of the FP precision.
2582 However, neither is canonical, so both only get p
2583 flags. NWC, 2000/11/25 */
2584 /* Both already have p flags, so do nothing */
2585 } else {
66a1b24b 2586 const NV nv = SvNVX(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2587 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MAX + 0.5) {
2588 if (SvIVX(sv) == I_V(nv)) {
2589 SvNOK_on(sv);
c2988b20 2590 } else {
c2988b20
NC
2591 /* It had no "." so it must be integer. */
2592 }
00b6aa41 2593 SvIOK_on(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2594 } else {
2595 /* between IV_MAX and NV(UV_MAX).
2596 Could be slightly > UV_MAX */
6fa402ec 2597
c2988b20
NC
2598 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT) {
2599 /* UV and NV both imprecise. */
2600 } else {
66a1b24b 2601 const UV nv_as_uv = U_V(nv);
c2988b20
NC
2602
2603 if (value == nv_as_uv && SvUVX(sv) != UV_MAX) {
2604 SvNOK_on(sv);
c2988b20 2605 }
00b6aa41 2606 SvIOK_on(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2607 }
2608 }
2609 }
2610 }
2611 }
a43d94f2
NC
2612 /* It might be more code efficient to go through the entire logic above
2613 and conditionally set with SvNOKp_on() rather than SvNOK(), but it
2614 gets complex and potentially buggy, so more programmer efficient
2615 to do it this way, by turning off the public flags: */
2616 if (!numtype)
2617 SvFLAGS(sv) &= ~(SVf_IOK|SVf_NOK);
28e5dec8 2618#endif /* NV_PRESERVES_UV */
93a17b20 2619 }
79072805 2620 else {
f7877b28 2621 if (isGV_with_GP(sv)) {
159b6efe 2622 glob_2number(MUTABLE_GV(sv));
180488f8
NC
2623 return 0.0;
2624 }
2625
9a214eec 2626 if (!PL_localizing && !SvPADTMP(sv) && ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
29489e7c 2627 report_uninit(sv);
7e25a7e9
NC
2628 assert (SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_NV);
2629 /* Typically the caller expects that sv_any is not NULL now. */
2630 /* XXX Ilya implies that this is a bug in callers that assume this
2631 and ideally should be fixed. */
a0d0e21e 2632 return 0.0;
79072805 2633 }
572bbb43 2634#if defined(USE_LONG_DOUBLE)
097ee67d 2635 DEBUG_c({
f93f4e46 2636 STORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL_SET_STANDARD();
1d7c1841
GS
2637 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2nv(%" PERL_PRIgldbl ")\n",
2638 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv));
572bbb43
GS
2639 RESTORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL();
2640 });
65202027 2641#else
572bbb43 2642 DEBUG_c({
f93f4e46 2643 STORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL_SET_STANDARD();
1779d84d 2644 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 1nv(%"NVgf")\n",
1d7c1841 2645 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv));
097ee67d
JH
2646 RESTORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL();
2647 });
572bbb43 2648#endif
463ee0b2 2649 return SvNVX(sv);
79072805
LW
2650}
2651
800401ee
JH
2652/*
2653=for apidoc sv_2num
2654
2655Return an SV with the numeric value of the source SV, doing any necessary
a196a5fa
JH
2656reference or overload conversion. You must use the C<SvNUM(sv)> macro to
2657access this function.
800401ee
JH
2658
2659=cut
2660*/
2661
2662SV *
5de3775c 2663Perl_sv_2num(pTHX_ register SV *const sv)
800401ee 2664{
7918f24d
NC
2665 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2NUM;
2666
b9ee0594
RGS
2667 if (!SvROK(sv))
2668 return sv;
800401ee 2669 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
31d632c3 2670 SV * const tmpsv = AMG_CALLunary(sv, numer_amg);
a02ec77a 2671 TAINT_IF(tmpsv && SvTAINTED(tmpsv));
800401ee
JH
2672 if (tmpsv && (!SvROK(tmpsv) || (SvRV(tmpsv) != SvRV(sv))))
2673 return sv_2num(tmpsv);
2674 }
2675 return sv_2mortal(newSVuv(PTR2UV(SvRV(sv))));
2676}
2677
645c22ef
DM
2678/* uiv_2buf(): private routine for use by sv_2pv_flags(): print an IV or
2679 * UV as a string towards the end of buf, and return pointers to start and
2680 * end of it.
2681 *
2682 * We assume that buf is at least TYPE_CHARS(UV) long.
2683 */
2684
864dbfa3 2685static char *
5de3775c 2686S_uiv_2buf(char *const buf, const IV iv, UV uv, const int is_uv, char **const peob)
25da4f38 2687{
25da4f38 2688 char *ptr = buf + TYPE_CHARS(UV);
823a54a3 2689 char * const ebuf = ptr;
25da4f38 2690 int sign;
25da4f38 2691
7918f24d
NC
2692 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UIV_2BUF;
2693
25da4f38
IZ
2694 if (is_uv)
2695 sign = 0;
2696 else if (iv >= 0) {
2697 uv = iv;
2698 sign = 0;
2699 } else {
2700 uv = -iv;
2701 sign = 1;
2702 }
2703 do {
eb160463 2704 *--ptr = '0' + (char)(uv % 10);
25da4f38
IZ
2705 } while (uv /= 10);
2706 if (sign)
2707 *--ptr = '-';
2708 *peob = ebuf;
2709 return ptr;
2710}
2711
645c22ef
DM
2712/*
2713=for apidoc sv_2pv_flags
2714
ff276b08 2715Returns a pointer to the string value of an SV, and sets *lp to its length.
fde67290
FC
2716If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first. Coerces sv to a
2717string if necessary. Normally invoked via the C<SvPV_flags> macro.
2718C<sv_2pv()> and C<sv_2pv_nomg> usually end up here too.
645c22ef
DM
2719
2720=cut
2721*/
2722
8d6d96c1 2723char *
5de3775c 2724Perl_sv_2pv_flags(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, STRLEN *const lp, const I32 flags)
8d6d96c1 2725{
97aff369 2726 dVAR;
eb578fdb 2727 char *s;
79072805 2728
463ee0b2 2729 if (!sv) {
cdb061a3
NC
2730 if (lp)
2731 *lp = 0;
73d840c0 2732 return (char *)"";
463ee0b2 2733 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2734 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv) && (flags & SV_GMAGIC))
2735 mg_get(sv);
2736 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2737 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
2738 SV *tmpstr;
2739 if (flags & SV_SKIP_OVERLOAD)
2740 return NULL;
2741 tmpstr = AMG_CALLunary(sv, string_amg);
2742 TAINT_IF(tmpstr && SvTAINTED(tmpstr));
2743 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2744 /* Unwrap this: */
2745 /* char *pv = lp ? SvPV(tmpstr, *lp) : SvPV_nolen(tmpstr);
2746 */
75dfc8ec 2747
4bac9ae4
CS
2748 char *pv;
2749 if ((SvFLAGS(tmpstr) & (SVf_POK)) == SVf_POK) {
2750 if (flags & SV_CONST_RETURN) {
2751 pv = (char *) SvPVX_const(tmpstr);
50adf7d2 2752 } else {
4bac9ae4
CS
2753 pv = (flags & SV_MUTABLE_RETURN)
2754 ? SvPVX_mutable(tmpstr) : SvPVX(tmpstr);
50adf7d2 2755 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2756 if (lp)
2757 *lp = SvCUR(tmpstr);
2758 } else {
2759 pv = sv_2pv_flags(tmpstr, lp, flags);
50adf7d2 2760 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2761 if (SvUTF8(tmpstr))
2762 SvUTF8_on(sv);
2763 else
2764 SvUTF8_off(sv);
2765 return pv;
deb46114 2766 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2767 }
2768 {
2769 STRLEN len;
2770 char *retval;
2771 char *buffer;
2772 SV *const referent = SvRV(sv);
2773
2774 if (!referent) {
2775 len = 7;
2776 retval = buffer = savepvn("NULLREF", len);
2777 } else if (SvTYPE(referent) == SVt_REGEXP &&
2778 (!(PL_curcop->cop_hints & HINT_NO_AMAGIC) ||
2779 amagic_is_enabled(string_amg))) {
2780 REGEXP * const re = (REGEXP *)MUTABLE_PTR(referent);
2781
2782 assert(re);
67d2d14d 2783
4bac9ae4
CS
2784 /* If the regex is UTF-8 we want the containing scalar to
2785 have an UTF-8 flag too */
2786 if (RX_UTF8(re))
2787 SvUTF8_on(sv);
2788 else
2789 SvUTF8_off(sv);
67d2d14d 2790
4bac9ae4
CS
2791 if (lp)
2792 *lp = RX_WRAPLEN(re);
67d2d14d 2793
4bac9ae4
CS
2794 return RX_WRAPPED(re);
2795 } else {
2796 const char *const typestr = sv_reftype(referent, 0);
2797 const STRLEN typelen = strlen(typestr);
2798 UV addr = PTR2UV(referent);
2799 const char *stashname = NULL;
2800 STRLEN stashnamelen = 0; /* hush, gcc */
2801 const char *buffer_end;
2802
2803 if (SvOBJECT(referent)) {
2804 const HEK *const name = HvNAME_HEK(SvSTASH(referent));
2805
2806 if (name) {
2807 stashname = HEK_KEY(name);
2808 stashnamelen = HEK_LEN(name);
2809
2810 if (HEK_UTF8(name)) {
2811 SvUTF8_on(sv);
fafee734 2812 } else {
4bac9ae4 2813 SvUTF8_off(sv);
fafee734 2814 }
fafee734 2815 } else {
4bac9ae4
CS
2816 stashname = "__ANON__";
2817 stashnamelen = 8;
fafee734 2818 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2819 len = stashnamelen + 1 /* = */ + typelen + 3 /* (0x */
2820 + 2 * sizeof(UV) + 2 /* )\0 */;
2821 } else {
2822 len = typelen + 3 /* (0x */
2823 + 2 * sizeof(UV) + 2 /* )\0 */;
2824 }
fafee734 2825
4bac9ae4
CS
2826 Newx(buffer, len, char);
2827 buffer_end = retval = buffer + len;
2828
2829 /* Working backwards */
2830 *--retval = '\0';
2831 *--retval = ')';
2832 do {
2833 *--retval = PL_hexdigit[addr & 15];
2834 } while (addr >>= 4);
2835 *--retval = 'x';
2836 *--retval = '0';
2837 *--retval = '(';
2838
2839 retval -= typelen;
2840 memcpy(retval, typestr, typelen);
2841
2842 if (stashname) {
2843 *--retval = '=';
2844 retval -= stashnamelen;
2845 memcpy(retval, stashname, stashnamelen);
c080367d 2846 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2847 /* retval may not necessarily have reached the start of the
2848 buffer here. */
2849 assert (retval >= buffer);
2850
2851 len = buffer_end - retval - 1; /* -1 for that \0 */
463ee0b2 2852 }
cdb061a3 2853 if (lp)
4bac9ae4
CS
2854 *lp = len;
2855 SAVEFREEPV(buffer);
2856 return retval;
79072805 2857 }
79072805 2858 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2859
2860 if (SvPOKp(sv)) {
2861 if (lp)
2862 *lp = SvCUR(sv);
2863 if (flags & SV_MUTABLE_RETURN)
2864 return SvPVX_mutable(sv);
2865 if (flags & SV_CONST_RETURN)
2866 return (char *)SvPVX_const(sv);
2867 return SvPVX(sv);
2868 }
2869
2870 if (SvIOK(sv)) {
28e5dec8
JH
2871 /* I'm assuming that if both IV and NV are equally valid then
2872 converting the IV is going to be more efficient */
e1ec3a88 2873 const U32 isUIOK = SvIsUV(sv);
28e5dec8
JH
2874 char buf[TYPE_CHARS(UV)];
2875 char *ebuf, *ptr;
97a130b8 2876 STRLEN len;
28e5dec8
JH
2877
2878 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVIV)
2879 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVIV);
4ea1d550 2880 ptr = uiv_2buf(buf, SvIVX(sv), SvUVX(sv), isUIOK, &ebuf);
97a130b8 2881 len = ebuf - ptr;
5902b6a9 2882 /* inlined from sv_setpvn */
97a130b8
NC
2883 s = SvGROW_mutable(sv, len + 1);
2884 Move(ptr, s, len, char);
2885 s += len;
28e5dec8 2886 *s = '\0';
28e5dec8 2887 }
4bac9ae4 2888 else if (SvNOK(sv)) {
79072805
LW
2889 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
2890 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
29912d93
NC
2891 if (SvNVX(sv) == 0.0) {
2892 s = SvGROW_mutable(sv, 2);
2893 *s++ = '0';
2894 *s = '\0';
2895 } else {
2896 dSAVE_ERRNO;
2897 /* The +20 is pure guesswork. Configure test needed. --jhi */
2898 s = SvGROW_mutable(sv, NV_DIG + 20);
2899 /* some Xenix systems wipe out errno here */
2d4389e4 2900 Gconvert(SvNVX(sv), NV_DIG, 0, s);
29912d93
NC
2901 RESTORE_ERRNO;
2902 while (*s) s++;
bbce6d69 2903 }
79072805
LW
2904#ifdef hcx
2905 if (s[-1] == '.')
46fc3d4c 2906 *--s = '\0';
79072805
LW
2907#endif
2908 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2909 else if (isGV_with_GP(sv)) {
2910 GV *const gv = MUTABLE_GV(sv);
2911 SV *const buffer = sv_newmortal();
8d1c3e26 2912
4bac9ae4 2913 gv_efullname3(buffer, gv, "*");
180488f8 2914
4bac9ae4
CS
2915 assert(SvPOK(buffer));
2916 if (SvUTF8(buffer))
2917 SvUTF8_on(sv);
2918 if (lp)
2919 *lp = SvCUR(buffer);
2920 return SvPVX(buffer);
2921 }
2922 else {
cdb061a3 2923 if (lp)
00b6aa41 2924 *lp = 0;
9f621bb0
NC
2925 if (flags & SV_UNDEF_RETURNS_NULL)
2926 return NULL;
9a214eec 2927 if (!PL_localizing && !SvPADTMP(sv) && ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
9f621bb0 2928 report_uninit(sv);
4bac9ae4
CS
2929 /* Typically the caller expects that sv_any is not NULL now. */
2930 if (!SvREADONLY(sv) && SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PV)
25da4f38 2931 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PV);
73d840c0 2932 return (char *)"";
79072805 2933 }
4bac9ae4 2934
cdb061a3 2935 {
823a54a3 2936 const STRLEN len = s - SvPVX_const(sv);
cdb061a3
NC
2937 if (lp)
2938 *lp = len;
2939 SvCUR_set(sv, len);
2940 }
79072805 2941 SvPOK_on(sv);
1d7c1841 2942 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2pv(%s)\n",
3f7c398e 2943 PTR2UV(sv),SvPVX_const(sv)));
4d84ee25
NC
2944 if (flags & SV_CONST_RETURN)
2945 return (char *)SvPVX_const(sv);
10516c54
NC
2946 if (flags & SV_MUTABLE_RETURN)
2947 return SvPVX_mutable(sv);
463ee0b2
LW
2948 return SvPVX(sv);
2949}
2950
645c22ef 2951/*
6050d10e
JP
2952=for apidoc sv_copypv
2953
2954Copies a stringified representation of the source SV into the
2955destination SV. Automatically performs any necessary mg_get and
54f0641b 2956coercion of numeric values into strings. Guaranteed to preserve
2575c402 2957UTF8 flag even from overloaded objects. Similar in nature to
54f0641b
NIS
2958sv_2pv[_flags] but operates directly on an SV instead of just the
2959string. Mostly uses sv_2pv_flags to do its work, except when that
6050d10e
JP
2960would lose the UTF-8'ness of the PV.
2961
4bac9ae4
CS
2962=for apidoc sv_copypv_nomg
2963
2964Like sv_copypv, but doesn't invoke get magic first.
2965
2966=for apidoc sv_copypv_flags
2967
2968Implementation of sv_copypv and sv_copypv_nomg. Calls get magic iff flags
2969include SV_GMAGIC.
2970
6050d10e
JP
2971=cut
2972*/
2973
2974void
5de3775c 2975Perl_sv_copypv(pTHX_ SV *const dsv, register SV *const ssv)
6050d10e 2976{
4bac9ae4
CS
2977 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_COPYPV;
2978
2979 sv_copypv_flags(dsv, ssv, 0);
2980}
2981
2982void
2983Perl_sv_copypv_flags(pTHX_ SV *const dsv, register SV *const ssv, const I32 flags)
2984{
446eaa42 2985 STRLEN len;
4bac9ae4 2986 const char *s;
7918f24d 2987
4bac9ae4 2988 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_COPYPV_FLAGS;
7918f24d 2989
4bac9ae4
CS
2990 if ((flags & SV_GMAGIC) && SvGMAGICAL(ssv))
2991 mg_get(ssv);
2992 s = SvPV_nomg_const(ssv,len);
cb50f42d 2993 sv_setpvn(dsv,s,len);
446eaa42 2994 if (SvUTF8(ssv))
cb50f42d 2995 SvUTF8_on(dsv);
446eaa42 2996 else
cb50f42d 2997 SvUTF8_off(dsv);
6050d10e
JP
2998}
2999
3000/*
645c22ef
DM
3001=for apidoc sv_2pvbyte
3002
3003Return a pointer to the byte-encoded representation of the SV, and set *lp
1e54db1a 3004to its length. May cause the SV to be downgraded from UTF-8 as a
645c22ef
DM
3005side-effect.
3006
3007Usually accessed via the C<SvPVbyte> macro.
3008
3009=cut
3010*/
3011
7340a771 3012char *
a901b181 3013Perl_sv_2pvbyte(pTHX_ register SV *sv, STRLEN *const lp)
7340a771 3014{
7918f24d
NC
3015 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2PVBYTE;
3016
4499db73
FC
3017 if (((SvREADONLY(sv) || SvFAKE(sv)) && !SvIsCOW(sv))
3018 || isGV_with_GP(sv) || SvROK(sv)) {
a901b181
FC
3019 SV *sv2 = sv_newmortal();
3020 sv_copypv(sv2,sv);
3021 sv = sv2;
3022 }
3023 else SvGETMAGIC(sv);
0875d2fe 3024 sv_utf8_downgrade(sv,0);
71eb6d8c 3025 return lp ? SvPV_nomg(sv,*lp) : SvPV_nomg_nolen(sv);
7340a771
GS
3026}
3027
645c22ef 3028/*
035cbb0e
RGS
3029=for apidoc sv_2pvutf8
3030
3031Return a pointer to the UTF-8-encoded representation of the SV, and set *lp
3032to its length. May cause the SV to be upgraded to UTF-8 as a side-effect.
3033
3034Usually accessed via the C<SvPVutf8> macro.
3035
3036=cut
3037*/
645c22ef 3038
7340a771 3039char *
fe46cbda 3040Perl_sv_2pvutf8(pTHX_ register SV *sv, STRLEN *const lp)
7340a771 3041{
7918f24d
NC
3042 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2PVUTF8;
3043
4499db73
FC
3044 if (((SvREADONLY(sv) || SvFAKE(sv)) && !SvIsCOW(sv))
3045 || isGV_with_GP(sv) || SvROK(sv))
fe46cbda 3046 sv = sv_mortalcopy(sv);
4bac9ae4
CS
3047 else
3048 SvGETMAGIC(sv);
3049 sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg(sv);
c3ec315f 3050 return lp ? SvPV_nomg(sv,*lp) : SvPV_nomg_nolen(sv);
7340a771 3051}
1c846c1f 3052
7ee2227d 3053
645c22ef
DM
3054/*
3055=for apidoc sv_2bool
3056
06c841cf
FC
3057This macro is only used by sv_true() or its macro equivalent, and only if
3058the latter's argument is neither SvPOK, SvIOK nor SvNOK.
3059It calls sv_2bool_flags with the SV_GMAGIC flag.
3060
3061=for apidoc sv_2bool_flags
3062
3063This function is only used by sv_true() and friends, and only if
fde67290 3064the latter's argument is neither SvPOK, SvIOK nor SvNOK. If the flags
06c841cf
FC
3065contain SV_GMAGIC, then it does an mg_get() first.
3066
645c22ef
DM
3067
3068=cut
3069*/
3070
463ee0b2 3071bool
06c841cf 3072Perl_sv_2bool_flags(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const I32 flags)
463ee0b2 3073{
97aff369 3074 dVAR;
7918f24d 3075
06c841cf 3076 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2BOOL_FLAGS;
7918f24d 3077
06c841cf 3078 if(flags & SV_GMAGIC) SvGETMAGIC(sv);
463ee0b2 3079
a0d0e21e
LW
3080 if (!SvOK(sv))
3081 return 0;
3082 if (SvROK(sv)) {
fabdb6c0 3083 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
31d632c3 3084 SV * const tmpsv = AMG_CALLunary(sv, bool__amg);
fabdb6c0 3085 if (tmpsv && (!SvROK(tmpsv) || (SvRV(tmpsv) != SvRV(sv))))
f2338a2e 3086 return cBOOL(SvTRUE(tmpsv));
fabdb6c0
AL
3087 }
3088 return SvRV(sv) != 0;
a0d0e21e 3089 }
4bac9ae4 3090 return SvTRUE_common(sv, isGV_with_GP(sv) ? 1 : 0);
79072805
LW
3091}
3092
c461cf8f
JH
3093/*
3094=for apidoc sv_utf8_upgrade
3095
78ea37eb 3096Converts the PV of an SV to its UTF-8-encoded form.
645c22ef 3097Forces the SV to string form if it is not already.
2bbc8d55 3098Will C<mg_get> on C<sv> if appropriate.
4411f3b6 3099Always sets the SvUTF8 flag to avoid future validity checks even
2bbc8d55
SP
3100if the whole string is the same in UTF-8 as not.
3101Returns the number of bytes in the converted string
c461cf8f 3102
13a6c0e0
JH
3103This is not as a general purpose byte encoding to Unicode interface:
3104use the Encode extension for that.
3105
fe749c9a
KW
3106=for apidoc sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg
3107
fde67290 3108Like sv_utf8_upgrade, but doesn't do magic on C<sv>.
fe749c9a 3109
8d6d96c1
HS
3110=for apidoc sv_utf8_upgrade_flags
3111
78ea37eb 3112Converts the PV of an SV to its UTF-8-encoded form.
645c22ef 3113Forces the SV to string form if it is not already.
8d6d96c1 3114Always sets the SvUTF8 flag to avoid future validity checks even
960b0271
FC
3115if all the bytes are invariant in UTF-8.
3116If C<flags> has C<SV_GMAGIC> bit set,
2bbc8d55
SP
3117will C<mg_get> on C<sv> if appropriate, else not.
3118Returns the number of bytes in the converted string
3119C<sv_utf8_upgrade> and
8d6d96c1
HS
3120C<sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg> are implemented in terms of this function.
3121
13a6c0e0
JH
3122This is not as a general purpose byte encoding to Unicode interface:
3123use the Encode extension for that.
3124
8d6d96c1 3125=cut
b3ab6785
KW
3126
3127The grow version is currently not externally documented. It adds a parameter,
3128extra, which is the number of unused bytes the string of 'sv' is guaranteed to
3129have free after it upon return. This allows the caller to reserve extra space
3130that it intends to fill, to avoid extra grows.
3131
3132Also externally undocumented for the moment is the flag SV_FORCE_UTF8_UPGRADE,
3133which can be used to tell this function to not first check to see if there are
3134any characters that are different in UTF-8 (variant characters) which would
3135force it to allocate a new string to sv, but to assume there are. Typically
3136this flag is used by a routine that has already parsed the string to find that
3137there are such characters, and passes this information on so that the work
3138doesn't have to be repeated.
3139
3140(One might think that the calling routine could pass in the position of the
3141first such variant, so it wouldn't have to be found again. But that is not the
3142case, because typically when the caller is likely to use this flag, it won't be
3143calling this routine unless it finds something that won't fit into a byte.
3144Otherwise it tries to not upgrade and just use bytes. But some things that
3145do fit into a byte are variants in utf8, and the caller may not have been
3146keeping track of these.)
3147
3148If the routine itself changes the string, it adds a trailing NUL. Such a NUL
3149isn't guaranteed due to having other routines do the work in some input cases,
3150or if the input is already flagged as being in utf8.
3151
3152The speed of this could perhaps be improved for many cases if someone wanted to
3153write a fast function that counts the number of variant characters in a string,
3154especially if it could return the position of the first one.
3155
8d6d96c1
HS
3156*/
3157
3158STRLEN
b3ab6785 3159Perl_sv_utf8_upgrade_flags_grow(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const I32 flags, STRLEN extra)
8d6d96c1 3160{
97aff369 3161 dVAR;
7918f24d 3162
b3ab6785 3163 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UTF8_UPGRADE_FLAGS_GROW;
7918f24d 3164
808c356f
RGS
3165 if (sv == &PL_sv_undef)
3166 return 0;
e0e62c2a
NIS
3167 if (!SvPOK(sv)) {
3168 STRLEN len = 0;
d52b7888
NC
3169 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && (SvPOKp(sv) || SvIOKp(sv) || SvNOKp(sv))) {
3170 (void) sv_2pv_flags(sv,&len, flags);
b3ab6785
KW
3171 if (SvUTF8(sv)) {
3172 if (extra) SvGROW(sv, SvCUR(sv) + extra);
d52b7888 3173 return len;
b3ab6785 3174 }
d52b7888 3175 } else {
33fb6f35 3176 (void) SvPV_force_flags(sv,len,flags & SV_GMAGIC);
d52b7888 3177 }
e0e62c2a 3178 }
4411f3b6 3179
f5cee72b 3180 if (SvUTF8(sv)) {
b3ab6785 3181 if (extra) SvGROW(sv, SvCUR(sv) + extra);
5fec3b1d 3182 return SvCUR(sv);
f5cee72b 3183 }
5fec3b1d 3184
765f542d
NC
3185 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
3186 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
db42d148
NIS
3187 }
3188
b3ab6785 3189 if (PL_encoding && !(flags & SV_UTF8_NO_ENCODING)) {
799ef3cb 3190 sv_recode_to_utf8(sv, PL_encoding);
b3ab6785
KW
3191 if (extra) SvGROW(sv, SvCUR(sv) + extra);
3192 return SvCUR(sv);
3193 }
3194
4e93345f
KW
3195 if (SvCUR(sv) == 0) {
3196 if (extra) SvGROW(sv, extra);
3197 } else { /* Assume Latin-1/EBCDIC */
c4e7c712 3198 /* This function could be much more efficient if we
2bbc8d55 3199 * had a FLAG in SVs to signal if there are any variant
c4e7c712 3200 * chars in the PV. Given that there isn't such a flag
b3ab6785
KW
3201 * make the loop as fast as possible (although there are certainly ways
3202 * to speed this up, eg. through vectorization) */
3203 U8 * s = (U8 *) SvPVX_const(sv);
3204 U8 * e = (U8 *) SvEND(sv);
3205 U8 *t = s;
3206 STRLEN two_byte_count = 0;
c4e7c712 3207
b3ab6785
KW
3208 if (flags & SV_FORCE_UTF8_UPGRADE) goto must_be_utf8;
3209
3210 /* See if really will need to convert to utf8. We mustn't rely on our
3211 * incoming SV being well formed and having a trailing '\0', as certain
3212 * code in pp_formline can send us partially built SVs. */
3213
c4e7c712 3214 while (t < e) {
53c1dcc0 3215 const U8 ch = *t++;
b3ab6785
KW
3216 if (NATIVE_IS_INVARIANT(ch)) continue;
3217
3218 t--; /* t already incremented; re-point to first variant */
3219 two_byte_count = 1;
3220 goto must_be_utf8;
c4e7c712 3221 }
b3ab6785
KW
3222
3223 /* utf8 conversion not needed because all are invariants. Mark as
3224 * UTF-8 even if no variant - saves scanning loop */
c4e7c712 3225 SvUTF8_on(sv);
7f0bfbea 3226 if (extra) SvGROW(sv, SvCUR(sv) + extra);
b3ab6785
KW
3227 return SvCUR(sv);
3228
3229must_be_utf8:
3230
3231 /* Here, the string should be converted to utf8, either because of an
3232 * input flag (two_byte_count = 0), or because a character that
3233 * requires 2 bytes was found (two_byte_count = 1). t points either to
3234 * the beginning of the string (if we didn't examine anything), or to
3235 * the first variant. In either case, everything from s to t - 1 will
3236 * occupy only 1 byte each on output.
3237 *
3238 * There are two main ways to convert. One is to create a new string
3239 * and go through the input starting from the beginning, appending each
3240 * converted value onto the new string as we go along. It's probably
3241 * best to allocate enough space in the string for the worst possible
3242 * case rather than possibly running out of space and having to
3243 * reallocate and then copy what we've done so far. Since everything
3244 * from s to t - 1 is invariant, the destination can be initialized
3245 * with these using a fast memory copy
3246 *
3247 * The other way is to figure out exactly how big the string should be
3248 * by parsing the entire input. Then you don't have to make it big
3249 * enough to handle the worst possible case, and more importantly, if
3250 * the string you already have is large enough, you don't have to
3251 * allocate a new string, you can copy the last character in the input
3252 * string to the final position(s) that will be occupied by the
3253 * converted string and go backwards, stopping at t, since everything
3254 * before that is invariant.
3255 *
3256 * There are advantages and disadvantages to each method.
3257 *
3258 * In the first method, we can allocate a new string, do the memory
3259 * copy from the s to t - 1, and then proceed through the rest of the
3260 * string byte-by-byte.
3261 *
3262 * In the second method, we proceed through the rest of the input
3263 * string just calculating how big the converted string will be. Then
3264 * there are two cases:
3265 * 1) if the string has enough extra space to handle the converted
3266 * value. We go backwards through the string, converting until we
3267 * get to the position we are at now, and then stop. If this
3268 * position is far enough along in the string, this method is
3269 * faster than the other method. If the memory copy were the same
3270 * speed as the byte-by-byte loop, that position would be about
3271 * half-way, as at the half-way mark, parsing to the end and back
3272 * is one complete string's parse, the same amount as starting
3273 * over and going all the way through. Actually, it would be
3274 * somewhat less than half-way, as it's faster to just count bytes
3275 * than to also copy, and we don't have the overhead of allocating
3276 * a new string, changing the scalar to use it, and freeing the
3277 * existing one. But if the memory copy is fast, the break-even
3278 * point is somewhere after half way. The counting loop could be
3279 * sped up by vectorization, etc, to move the break-even point
3280 * further towards the beginning.
3281 * 2) if the string doesn't have enough space to handle the converted
3282 * value. A new string will have to be allocated, and one might
3283 * as well, given that, start from the beginning doing the first
3284 * method. We've spent extra time parsing the string and in
3285 * exchange all we've gotten is that we know precisely how big to
3286 * make the new one. Perl is more optimized for time than space,
3287 * so this case is a loser.
3288 * So what I've decided to do is not use the 2nd method unless it is
3289 * guaranteed that a new string won't have to be allocated, assuming
3290 * the worst case. I also decided not to put any more conditions on it
3291 * than this, for now. It seems likely that, since the worst case is
3292 * twice as big as the unknown portion of the string (plus 1), we won't
3293 * be guaranteed enough space, causing us to go to the first method,
3294 * unless the string is short, or the first variant character is near
3295 * the end of it. In either of these cases, it seems best to use the
3296 * 2nd method. The only circumstance I can think of where this would
3297 * be really slower is if the string had once had much more data in it
3298 * than it does now, but there is still a substantial amount in it */
3299
3300 {
3301 STRLEN invariant_head = t - s;
3302 STRLEN size = invariant_head + (e - t) * 2 + 1 + extra;
3303 if (SvLEN(sv) < size) {
3304
3305 /* Here, have decided to allocate a new string */
3306
3307 U8 *dst;
3308 U8 *d;
3309
3310 Newx(dst, size, U8);
3311
3312 /* If no known invariants at the beginning of the input string,
3313 * set so starts from there. Otherwise, can use memory copy to
3314 * get up to where we are now, and then start from here */
3315
3316 if (invariant_head <= 0) {
3317 d = dst;
3318 } else {
3319 Copy(s, dst, invariant_head, char);
3320 d = dst + invariant_head;
3321 }
3322
3323 while (t < e) {
3324 const UV uv = NATIVE8_TO_UNI(*t++);
3325 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(uv))
3326 *d++ = (U8)UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv);
3327 else {
3328 *d++ = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(uv);
3329 *d++ = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(uv);
3330 }
3331 }
3332 *d = '\0';
3333 SvPV_free(sv); /* No longer using pre-existing string */
3334 SvPV_set(sv, (char*)dst);
3335 SvCUR_set(sv, d - dst);
3336 SvLEN_set(sv, size);
3337 } else {
3338
3339 /* Here, have decided to get the exact size of the string.
3340 * Currently this happens only when we know that there is
3341 * guaranteed enough space to fit the converted string, so
3342 * don't have to worry about growing. If two_byte_count is 0,
3343 * then t points to the first byte of the string which hasn't
3344 * been examined yet. Otherwise two_byte_count is 1, and t
3345 * points to the first byte in the string that will expand to
3346 * two. Depending on this, start examining at t or 1 after t.
3347 * */
3348
3349 U8 *d = t + two_byte_count;
3350
3351
3352 /* Count up the remaining bytes that expand to two */
3353
3354 while (d < e) {
3355 const U8 chr = *d++;
3356 if (! NATIVE_IS_INVARIANT(chr)) two_byte_count++;
3357 }
3358
3359 /* The string will expand by just the number of bytes that
3360 * occupy two positions. But we are one afterwards because of
3361 * the increment just above. This is the place to put the
3362 * trailing NUL, and to set the length before we decrement */
3363
3364 d += two_byte_count;
3365 SvCUR_set(sv, d - s);
3366 *d-- = '\0';
3367
3368
3369 /* Having decremented d, it points to the position to put the
3370 * very last byte of the expanded string. Go backwards through
3371 * the string, copying and expanding as we go, stopping when we
3372 * get to the part that is invariant the rest of the way down */
3373
3374 e--;
3375 while (e >= t) {
3376 const U8 ch = NATIVE8_TO_UNI(*e--);
3377 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(ch)) {
3378 *d-- = UNI_TO_NATIVE(ch);
3379 } else {
3380 *d-- = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(ch);
3381 *d-- = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(ch);
3382 }
3383 }
3384 }
75da9d4c
DM
3385
3386 if (SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG && SvMAGIC(sv)) {
3387 /* Update pos. We do it at the end rather than during
3388 * the upgrade, to avoid slowing down the common case
3389 * (upgrade without pos) */
3390 MAGIC * mg = mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_regex_global);
3391 if (mg) {
3392 I32 pos = mg->mg_len;
3393 if (pos > 0 && (U32)pos > invariant_head) {
3394 U8 *d = (U8*) SvPVX(sv) + invariant_head;
3395 STRLEN n = (U32)pos - invariant_head;
3396 while (n > 0) {
3397 if (UTF8_IS_START(*d))
3398 d++;
3399 d++;
3400 n--;
3401 }
3402 mg->mg_len = d - (U8*)SvPVX(sv);
3403 }
3404 }
3405 if ((mg = mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_utf8)))
3406 magic_setutf8(sv,mg); /* clear UTF8 cache */
3407 }
b3ab6785 3408 }
560a288e 3409 }
b3ab6785
KW
3410
3411 /* Mark as UTF-8 even if no variant - saves scanning loop */
3412 SvUTF8_on(sv);
4411f3b6 3413 return SvCUR(sv);
560a288e
GS
3414}
3415
c461cf8f
JH
3416/*
3417=for apidoc sv_utf8_downgrade
3418
78ea37eb 3419Attempts to convert the PV of an SV from characters to bytes.
2bbc8d55
SP
3420If the PV contains a character that cannot fit
3421in a byte, this conversion will fail;
78ea37eb 3422in this case, either returns false or, if C<fail_ok> is not
c461cf8f
JH
3423true, croaks.
3424
13a6c0e0
JH
3425This is not as a general purpose Unicode to byte encoding interface:
3426use the Encode extension for that.
3427
c461cf8f
JH
3428=cut
3429*/
3430
560a288e 3431bool
7bc54cea 3432Perl_sv_utf8_downgrade(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const bool fail_ok)
560a288e 3433{
97aff369 3434 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
3435
3436 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UTF8_DOWNGRADE;
3437
78ea37eb 3438 if (SvPOKp(sv) && SvUTF8(sv)) {
fa301091 3439 if (SvCUR(sv)) {
03cfe0ae 3440 U8 *s;
652088fc 3441 STRLEN len;
75da9d4c 3442 int mg_flags = SV_GMAGIC;
fa301091 3443
765f542d
NC
3444 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
3445 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
3446 }
75da9d4c
DM
3447 if (SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG && SvMAGIC(sv)) {
3448 /* update pos */
3449 MAGIC * mg = mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_regex_global);
3450 if (mg) {
3451 I32 pos = mg->mg_len;
3452 if (pos > 0) {
3453 sv_pos_b2u(sv, &pos);
3454 mg_flags = 0; /* sv_pos_b2u does get magic */
3455 mg->mg_len = pos;
3456 }
3457 }
3458 if ((mg = mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_utf8)))
3459 magic_setutf8(sv,mg); /* clear UTF8 cache */
3460
3461 }
3462 s = (U8 *) SvPV_flags(sv, len, mg_flags);
3463
03cfe0ae 3464 if (!utf8_to_bytes(s, &len)) {
fa301091
JH
3465 if (fail_ok)
3466 return FALSE;
3467 else {
3468 if (PL_op)
3469 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Wide character in %s",
53e06cf0 3470 OP_DESC(PL_op));
fa301091
JH
3471 else
3472 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Wide character");
3473 }
4b3603a4 3474 }
b162af07 3475 SvCUR_set(sv, len);
67e989fb 3476 }
560a288e 3477 }
ffebcc3e 3478 SvUTF8_off(sv);
560a288e
GS
3479 return TRUE;
3480}
3481
c461cf8f
JH
3482/*
3483=for apidoc sv_utf8_encode
3484
78ea37eb
ST
3485Converts the PV of an SV to UTF-8, but then turns the C<SvUTF8>
3486flag off so that it looks like octets again.
c461cf8f
JH
3487
3488=cut
3489*/
3490
560a288e 3491void
7bc54cea 3492Perl_sv_utf8_encode(pTHX_ register SV *const sv)
560a288e 3493{
7918f24d
NC
3494 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UTF8_ENCODE;
3495
4c94c214 3496 if (SvREADONLY(sv)) {
654c723f 3497 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
4c94c214 3498 }
a5f5288a 3499 (void) sv_utf8_upgrade(sv);
560a288e
GS
3500 SvUTF8_off(sv);
3501}
3502
4411f3b6
NIS
3503/*
3504=for apidoc sv_utf8_decode
3505
78ea37eb
ST
3506If the PV of the SV is an octet sequence in UTF-8
3507and contains a multiple-byte character, the C<SvUTF8> flag is turned on
fde67290 3508so that it looks like a character. If the PV contains only single-byte
694cf0d2 3509characters, the C<SvUTF8> flag stays off.
78ea37eb 3510Scans PV for validity and returns false if the PV is invalid UTF-8.
4411f3b6
NIS
3511
3512=cut
3513*/
3514
560a288e 3515bool
7bc54cea 3516Perl_sv_utf8_decode(pTHX_ register SV *const sv)
560a288e 3517{
7918f24d
NC
3518 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UTF8_DECODE;
3519
78ea37eb 3520 if (SvPOKp(sv)) {
75da9d4c 3521 const U8 *start, *c;
93524f2b 3522 const U8 *e;
9cbac4c7 3523
645c22ef
DM
3524 /* The octets may have got themselves encoded - get them back as
3525 * bytes
3526 */
3527 if (!sv_utf8_downgrade(sv, TRUE))
560a288e
GS
3528 return FALSE;
3529
3530 /* it is actually just a matter of turning the utf8 flag on, but
3531 * we want to make sure everything inside is valid utf8 first.
3532 */
75da9d4c 3533 c = start = (const U8 *) SvPVX_const(sv);
f9cf141a 3534 if (!is_utf8_string(c, SvCUR(sv)))
67e989fb 3535 return FALSE;
93524f2b 3536 e = (const U8 *) SvEND(sv);
511c2ff0 3537 while (c < e) {
b64e5050 3538 const U8 ch = *c++;
c4d5f83a 3539 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(ch)) {
67e989fb
JH
3540 SvUTF8_on(sv);
3541 break;
3542 }
560a288e 3543 }
75da9d4c
DM
3544 if (SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG && SvMAGIC(sv)) {
3545 /* adjust pos to the start of a UTF8 char sequence */
3546 MAGIC * mg = mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_regex_global);
3547 if (mg) {
3548 I32 pos = mg->mg_len;
3549 if (pos > 0) {
3550 for (c = start + pos; c > start; c--) {
3551 if (UTF8_IS_START(*c))
3552 break;
3553 }
3554 mg->mg_len = c - start;
3555 }
3556 }
3557 if ((mg = mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_utf8)))
3558 magic_setutf8(sv,mg); /* clear UTF8 cache */
3559 }
560a288e
GS
3560 }
3561 return TRUE;
3562}
3563
954c1994
GS
3564/*
3565=for apidoc sv_setsv
3566
645c22ef
DM
3567Copies the contents of the source SV C<ssv> into the destination SV
3568C<dsv>. The source SV may be destroyed if it is mortal, so don't use this
fde67290 3569function if the source SV needs to be reused. Does not handle 'set' magic.
645c22ef
DM
3570Loosely speaking, it performs a copy-by-value, obliterating any previous
3571content of the destination.
3572
3573You probably want to use one of the assortment of wrappers, such as
3574C<SvSetSV>, C<SvSetSV_nosteal>, C<SvSetMagicSV> and
3575C<SvSetMagicSV_nosteal>.
3576
8d6d96c1
HS
3577=for apidoc sv_setsv_flags
3578
645c22ef
DM
3579Copies the contents of the source SV C<ssv> into the destination SV
3580C<dsv>. The source SV may be destroyed if it is mortal, so don't use this
fde67290 3581function if the source SV needs to be reused. Does not handle 'set' magic.
645c22ef
DM
3582Loosely speaking, it performs a copy-by-value, obliterating any previous
3583content of the destination.
3584If the C<flags> parameter has the C<SV_GMAGIC> bit set, will C<mg_get> on
fde67290
FC
3585C<ssv> if appropriate, else not. If the C<flags>
3586parameter has the C<NOSTEAL> bit set then the
3587buffers of temps will not be stolen. <sv_setsv>
5fcdf167 3588and C<sv_setsv_nomg> are implemented in terms of this function.
645c22ef
DM
3589
3590You probably want to use one of the assortment of wrappers, such as
3591C<SvSetSV>, C<SvSetSV_nosteal>, C<SvSetMagicSV> and
3592C<SvSetMagicSV_nosteal>.
3593
3594This is the primary function for copying scalars, and most other
3595copy-ish functions and macros use this underneath.
8d6d96c1
HS
3596
3597=cut
3598*/
3599
5d0301b7 3600static void
7bc54cea 3601S_glob_assign_glob(pTHX_ SV *const dstr, SV *const sstr, const int dtype)
5d0301b7 3602{
c8bbf675 3603 I32 mro_changes = 0; /* 1 = method, 2 = isa, 3 = recursive isa */
3e6edce2 3604 HV *old_stash = NULL;
dd69841b 3605
7918f24d
NC
3606 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_GLOB_ASSIGN_GLOB;
3607
bec4f4b4 3608 if (dtype != SVt_PVGV && !isGV_with_GP(dstr)) {
5d0301b7
NC
3609 const char * const name = GvNAME(sstr);
3610 const STRLEN len = GvNAMELEN(sstr);
0d092c36 3611 {
f7877b28
NC
3612 if (dtype >= SVt_PV) {
3613 SvPV_free(dstr);
3614 SvPV_set(dstr, 0);
3615 SvLEN_set(dstr, 0);
3616 SvCUR_set(dstr, 0);
3617 }
0d092c36 3618 SvUPGRADE(dstr, SVt_PVGV);
dedf8e73 3619 (void)SvOK_off(dstr);
83504ee4 3620 /* We have to turn this on here, even though we turn it off
ce2077b1 3621 below, as GvSTASH will fail an assertion otherwise. */
2e5b91de 3622 isGV_with_GP_on(dstr);
f7877b28 3623 }
5d0301b7
NC
3624 GvSTASH(dstr) = GvSTASH(sstr);
3625 if (GvSTASH(dstr))
daba3364 3626 Perl_sv_add_backref(aTHX_ MUTABLE_SV(GvSTASH(dstr)), dstr);
d8fdd025
BF
3627 gv_name_set(MUTABLE_GV(dstr), name, len,
3628 GV_ADD | (GvNAMEUTF8(sstr) ? SVf_UTF8 : 0 ));
5d0301b7
NC
3629 SvFAKE_on(dstr); /* can coerce to non-glob */
3630 }
3631
159b6efe 3632 if(GvGP(MUTABLE_GV(sstr))) {
dd69841b
BB
3633 /* If source has method cache entry, clear it */
3634 if(GvCVGEN(sstr)) {
3635 SvREFCNT_dec(GvCV(sstr));
c43ae56f 3636 GvCV_set(sstr, NULL);
dd69841b
BB
3637 GvCVGEN(sstr) = 0;
3638 }
3639 /* If source has a real method, then a method is
3640 going to change */
00169e2c
FC
3641 else if(
3642 GvCV((const GV *)sstr) && GvSTASH(dstr) && HvENAME(GvSTASH(dstr))
3643 ) {
70cd14a1 3644 mro_changes = 1;
dd69841b
BB
3645 }
3646 }
3647
3648 /* If dest already had a real method, that's a change as well */
00169e2c
FC
3649 if(
3650 !mro_changes && GvGP(MUTABLE_GV(dstr)) && GvCVu((const GV *)dstr)
3651 && GvSTASH(dstr) && HvENAME(GvSTASH(dstr))
3652 ) {