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a0d0e21e 1/* handy.h
a687059c 2 *
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3 * Copyright (C) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000,
4 * 2001, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 by Larry Wall and others
a687059c 5 *
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6 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
7 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
8d063cd8 8 *
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9 */
10
85e6fe83 11#if !defined(__STDC__)
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12#ifdef NULL
13#undef NULL
14#endif
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15#ifndef I286
16# define NULL 0
17#else
18# define NULL 0L
19#endif
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20#endif
21
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22#ifndef PERL_CORE
23# define Null(type) ((type)NULL)
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24
25/*
ccfc67b7 26=head1 Handy Values
954c1994 27
3609ea0d 28=for apidoc AmU||Nullch
24792b8d 29Null character pointer. (No longer available when C<PERL_CORE> is defined.)
2307c6d0 30
954c1994 31=for apidoc AmU||Nullsv
24792b8d 32Null SV pointer. (No longer available when C<PERL_CORE> is defined.)
954c1994
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33
34=cut
35*/
36
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37# define Nullch Null(char*)
38# define Nullfp Null(PerlIO*)
39# define Nullsv Null(SV*)
40#endif
8d063cd8 41
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42#ifdef TRUE
43#undef TRUE
44#endif
45#ifdef FALSE
46#undef FALSE
47#endif
48#define TRUE (1)
49#define FALSE (0)
50
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51
52/* XXX Configure ought to have a test for a boolean type, if I can
53 just figure out all the headers such a test needs.
54 Andy Dougherty August 1996
55*/
8e84507e 56/* bool is built-in for g++-2.6.3 and later, which might be used
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57 for extensions. <_G_config.h> defines _G_HAVE_BOOL, but we can't
58 be sure _G_config.h will be included before this file. _G_config.h
8e84507e 59 also defines _G_HAVE_BOOL for both gcc and g++, but only g++
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60 actually has bool. Hence, _G_HAVE_BOOL is pretty useless for us.
61 g++ can be identified by __GNUG__.
62 Andy Dougherty February 2000
5d94fbed 63*/
3609ea0d 64#ifdef __GNUG__ /* GNU g++ has bool built-in */
5d94fbed 65# ifndef HAS_BOOL
c1d22f6b 66# define HAS_BOOL 1
5d94fbed 67# endif
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68#endif
69
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70/* The NeXT dynamic loader headers will not build with the bool macro
71 So declare them now to clear confusion.
72*/
8f1f23e8 73#if defined(NeXT) || defined(__NeXT__)
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74# undef FALSE
75# undef TRUE
76 typedef enum bool { FALSE = 0, TRUE = 1 } bool;
77# define ENUM_BOOL 1
78# ifndef HAS_BOOL
79# define HAS_BOOL 1
80# endif /* !HAS_BOOL */
8f1f23e8 81#endif /* NeXT || __NeXT__ */
641d3f0b 82
5d94fbed 83#ifndef HAS_BOOL
61bb5906 84# if defined(UTS) || defined(VMS)
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85# define bool int
86# else
87# define bool char
88# endif
c1d22f6b 89# define HAS_BOOL 1
a687059c 90#endif
0d3e774c 91
46c6c7e2 92/* Try to figure out __func__ or __FUNCTION__ equivalent, if any.
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93 * XXX Should really be a Configure probe, with HAS__FUNCTION__
94 * and FUNCTION__ as results.
95 * XXX Similarly, a Configure probe for __FILE__ and __LINE__ is needed. */
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96#if (defined(__STDC_VERSION__) && __STDC_VERSION__ >= 199901L) || (defined(__SUNPRO_C)) /* C99 or close enough. */
97# define FUNCTION__ __func__
98#else
99# if (defined(_MSC_VER) && _MSC_VER < 1300) || /* Pre-MSVC 7.0 has neither __func__ nor __FUNCTION and no good workarounds, either. */ \
be73ebb0 100 (defined(__DECC_VER)) /* Tru64 or VMS, and strict C89 being used, but not modern enough cc (in Tur64, -c99 not known, only -std1). */
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101# define FUNCTION__ ""
102# else
103# define FUNCTION__ __FUNCTION__ /* Common extension. */
104# endif
105#endif
106
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107/* XXX A note on the perl source internal type system. The
108 original intent was that I32 be *exactly* 32 bits.
109
110 Currently, we only guarantee that I32 is *at least* 32 bits.
111 Specifically, if int is 64 bits, then so is I32. (This is the case
112 for the Cray.) This has the advantage of meshing nicely with
113 standard library calls (where we pass an I32 and the library is
114 expecting an int), but the disadvantage that an I32 is not 32 bits.
115 Andy Dougherty August 1996
24fef2a7 116
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117 There is no guarantee that there is *any* integral type with
118 exactly 32 bits. It is perfectly legal for a system to have
119 sizeof(short) == sizeof(int) == sizeof(long) == 8.
693762b4 120
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121 Similarly, there is no guarantee that I16 and U16 have exactly 16
122 bits.
693762b4 123
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124 For dealing with issues that may arise from various 32/64-bit
125 systems, we will ask Configure to check out
8175356b 126
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127 SHORTSIZE == sizeof(short)
128 INTSIZE == sizeof(int)
129 LONGSIZE == sizeof(long)
dc45a647 130 LONGLONGSIZE == sizeof(long long) (if HAS_LONG_LONG)
3609ea0d 131 PTRSIZE == sizeof(void *)
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132 DOUBLESIZE == sizeof(double)
133 LONG_DOUBLESIZE == sizeof(long double) (if HAS_LONG_DOUBLE).
8175356b 134
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135*/
136
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137#ifdef I_INTTYPES /* e.g. Linux has int64_t without <inttypes.h> */
138# include <inttypes.h>
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139# ifdef INT32_MIN_BROKEN
140# undef INT32_MIN
141# define INT32_MIN (-2147483647-1)
142# endif
143# ifdef INT64_MIN_BROKEN
144# undef INT64_MIN
145# define INT64_MIN (-9223372036854775807LL-1)
146# endif
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147#endif
148
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149typedef I8TYPE I8;
150typedef U8TYPE U8;
151typedef I16TYPE I16;
152typedef U16TYPE U16;
153typedef I32TYPE I32;
154typedef U32TYPE U32;
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155#ifdef PERL_CORE
156# ifdef HAS_QUAD
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157typedef I64TYPE I64;
158typedef U64TYPE U64;
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159# endif
160#endif /* PERL_CORE */
8175356b 161
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162#if defined(HAS_QUAD) && defined(USE_64_BIT_INT)
163# ifndef UINT64_C /* usually from <inttypes.h> */
164# if defined(HAS_LONG_LONG) && QUADKIND == QUAD_IS_LONG_LONG
165# define INT64_C(c) CAT2(c,LL)
166# define UINT64_C(c) CAT2(c,ULL)
167# else
168# if LONGSIZE == 8 && QUADKIND == QUAD_IS_LONG
169# define INT64_C(c) CAT2(c,L)
170# define UINT64_C(c) CAT2(c,UL)
171# else
172# define INT64_C(c) ((I64TYPE)(c))
173# define UINT64_C(c) ((U64TYPE)(c))
174# endif
175# endif
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176# endif
177#endif
dc750f2e 178
cae3d67c 179/* HMB H.Merijn Brand - a placeholder for preparing Configure patches */
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180#if defined(HAS_PSEUDOFORK) && defined(USE_DTRACE)
181#if defined(LOCALTIME_R_NEEDS_TZSET) && defined(HAS_TIMEGM)
182#if defined(GMTIME_MAX) && defined(GMTIME_MIN) && defined(LOCALTIME_MAX) && defined(LOCALTIME_MIN)
183#if defined(HAS_CTIME64) && defined(HAS_LOCALTIME64) && defined(HAS_GMTIME64)
184#if defined(HAS_MKTIME64) && defined(HAS_DIFFTIME64) && defined(HAS_ASCTIME64)
cae3d67c 185/* Not (yet) used at top level, but mention them for metaconfig */
dc750f2e 186#endif
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187#endif
188#endif
189#endif
190#endif
e8c95190 191
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192/* Mention I8SIZE, U8SIZE, I16SIZE, U16SIZE, I32SIZE, U32SIZE,
193 I64SIZE, and U64SIZE here so that metaconfig pulls them in. */
194
d8668976 195#if defined(UINT8_MAX) && defined(INT16_MAX) && defined(INT32_MAX)
5ff3f7a4 196
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197/* I8_MAX and I8_MIN constants are not defined, as I8 is an ambiguous type.
198 Please search CHAR_MAX in perl.h for further details. */
199#define U8_MAX UINT8_MAX
200#define U8_MIN UINT8_MIN
201
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202#define I16_MAX INT16_MAX
203#define I16_MIN INT16_MIN
204#define U16_MAX UINT16_MAX
205#define U16_MIN UINT16_MIN
206
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207#define I32_MAX INT32_MAX
208#define I32_MIN INT32_MIN
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209#ifndef UINT32_MAX_BROKEN /* e.g. HP-UX with gcc messes this up */
210# define U32_MAX UINT32_MAX
211#else
212# define U32_MAX 4294967295U
213#endif
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214#define U32_MIN UINT32_MIN
215
216#else
217
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218/* I8_MAX and I8_MIN constants are not defined, as I8 is an ambiguous type.
219 Please search CHAR_MAX in perl.h for further details. */
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220#define U8_MAX PERL_UCHAR_MAX
221#define U8_MIN PERL_UCHAR_MIN
79072805 222
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223#define I16_MAX PERL_SHORT_MAX
224#define I16_MIN PERL_SHORT_MIN
225#define U16_MAX PERL_USHORT_MAX
226#define U16_MIN PERL_USHORT_MIN
79072805 227
c4f23d77 228#if LONGSIZE > 4
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229# define I32_MAX PERL_INT_MAX
230# define I32_MIN PERL_INT_MIN
231# define U32_MAX PERL_UINT_MAX
232# define U32_MIN PERL_UINT_MIN
79072805 233#else
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234# define I32_MAX PERL_LONG_MAX
235# define I32_MIN PERL_LONG_MIN
236# define U32_MAX PERL_ULONG_MAX
237# define U32_MIN PERL_ULONG_MIN
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238#endif
239
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240#endif
241
58a9a5d5 242/* log(2) is pretty close to 0.30103, just in case anyone is grepping for it */
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PP
243#define BIT_DIGITS(N) (((N)*146)/485 + 1) /* log2(10) =~ 146/485 */
244#define TYPE_DIGITS(T) BIT_DIGITS(sizeof(T) * 8)
245#define TYPE_CHARS(T) (TYPE_DIGITS(T) + 2) /* sign, NUL */
246
ff68c719 247#define Ctl(ch) ((ch) & 037)
8d063cd8 248
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249/*
250=head1 SV-Body Allocation
251
252=for apidoc Ama|SV*|newSVpvs|const char* s
253Like C<newSVpvn>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.
254
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255=for apidoc Ama|SV*|newSVpvs_flags|const char* s|U32 flags
256Like C<newSVpvn_flags>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length
257pair.
258
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259=for apidoc Ama|SV*|newSVpvs_share|const char* s
260Like C<newSVpvn_share>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length
261pair and omits the hash parameter.
262
7b4e7469 263=for apidoc Am|void|sv_catpvs|SV* sv|const char* s
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264Like C<sv_catpvn>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.
265
7b4e7469 266=for apidoc Am|void|sv_setpvs|SV* sv|const char* s
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267Like C<sv_setpvn>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.
268
269=head1 Memory Management
270
271=for apidoc Ama|char*|savepvs|const char* s
272Like C<savepvn>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.
273
274=head1 GV Functions
275
276=for apidoc Am|HV*|gv_stashpvs|const char* name|I32 create
277Like C<gv_stashpvn>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.
278
279=head1 Hash Manipulation Functions
280
281=for apidoc Am|SV**|hv_fetchs|HV* tb|const char* key|I32 lval
282Like C<hv_fetch>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.
283
284=for apidoc Am|SV**|hv_stores|HV* tb|const char* key|NULLOK SV* val
285Like C<hv_store>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair
286and omits the hash parameter.
287
288=cut
289*/
290
65177ae0 291/* concatenating with "" ensures that only literal strings are accepted as argument */
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292#define STR_WITH_LEN(s) (s ""), (sizeof(s)-1)
293
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294/* note that STR_WITH_LEN() can't be used as argument to macros or functions that
295 * under some configurations might be macros, which means that it requires the full
296 * Perl_xxx(aTHX_ ...) form for any API calls where it's used.
297 */
298
299/* STR_WITH_LEN() shortcuts */
300#define newSVpvs(str) Perl_newSVpvn(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str))
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301#define newSVpvs_flags(str,flags) \
302 Perl_newSVpvn_flags(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str), flags)
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303#define newSVpvs_share(str) Perl_newSVpvn_share(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str), 0)
304#define sv_catpvs(sv, str) Perl_sv_catpvn_flags(aTHX_ sv, STR_WITH_LEN(str), SV_GMAGIC)
3fe05580 305#define sv_setpvs(sv, str) Perl_sv_setpvn(aTHX_ sv, STR_WITH_LEN(str))
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306#define savepvs(str) Perl_savepvn(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str))
307#define gv_stashpvs(str, create) Perl_gv_stashpvn(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str), create)
5c1737d1 308#define gv_fetchpvs(namebeg, add, sv_type) Perl_gv_fetchpvn_flags(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(namebeg), add, sv_type)
a038e571
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309#define hv_fetchs(hv,key,lval) \
310 ((SV **)Perl_hv_common(aTHX_ (hv), NULL, STR_WITH_LEN(key), 0, \
311 (lval) ? (HV_FETCH_JUST_SV | HV_FETCH_LVALUE) \
312 : HV_FETCH_JUST_SV, NULL, 0))
313
314#define hv_stores(hv,key,val) \
315 ((SV **)Perl_hv_common(aTHX_ (hv), NULL, STR_WITH_LEN(key), 0, \
316 (HV_FETCH_ISSTORE|HV_FETCH_JUST_SV), (val), 0))
ba3a79e7 317
5c1737d1 318
954c1994 319/*
ccfc67b7
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320=head1 Miscellaneous Functions
321
954c1994
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322=for apidoc Am|bool|strNE|char* s1|char* s2
323Test two strings to see if they are different. Returns true or
324false.
325
326=for apidoc Am|bool|strEQ|char* s1|char* s2
327Test two strings to see if they are equal. Returns true or false.
328
329=for apidoc Am|bool|strLT|char* s1|char* s2
330Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is less than the second,
331C<s2>. Returns true or false.
332
333=for apidoc Am|bool|strLE|char* s1|char* s2
334Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is less than or equal to the
335second, C<s2>. Returns true or false.
336
337=for apidoc Am|bool|strGT|char* s1|char* s2
338Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is greater than the second,
339C<s2>. Returns true or false.
340
341=for apidoc Am|bool|strGE|char* s1|char* s2
342Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is greater than or equal to
343the second, C<s2>. Returns true or false.
344
345=for apidoc Am|bool|strnNE|char* s1|char* s2|STRLEN len
346Test two strings to see if they are different. The C<len> parameter
347indicates the number of bytes to compare. Returns true or false. (A
348wrapper for C<strncmp>).
349
350=for apidoc Am|bool|strnEQ|char* s1|char* s2|STRLEN len
351Test two strings to see if they are equal. The C<len> parameter indicates
352the number of bytes to compare. Returns true or false. (A wrapper for
353C<strncmp>).
354
355=cut
356*/
357
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358#define strNE(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2))
359#define strEQ(s1,s2) (!strcmp(s1,s2))
360#define strLT(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2) < 0)
361#define strLE(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2) <= 0)
362#define strGT(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2) > 0)
363#define strGE(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2) >= 0)
364#define strnNE(s1,s2,l) (strncmp(s1,s2,l))
365#define strnEQ(s1,s2,l) (!strncmp(s1,s2,l))
378cc40b 366
36477c24
PP
367#ifdef HAS_MEMCMP
368# define memNE(s1,s2,l) (memcmp(s1,s2,l))
369# define memEQ(s1,s2,l) (!memcmp(s1,s2,l))
370#else
371# define memNE(s1,s2,l) (bcmp(s1,s2,l))
372# define memEQ(s1,s2,l) (!bcmp(s1,s2,l))
373#endif
374
568a785a
NC
375#define memEQs(s1, l, s2) \
376 (sizeof(s2)-1 == l && memEQ(s1, (s2 ""), (sizeof(s2)-1)))
377#define memNEs(s1, l, s2) !memEQs(s1, l, s2)
378
bbce6d69
PP
379/*
380 * Character classes.
381 *
382 * Unfortunately, the introduction of locales means that we
383 * can't trust isupper(), etc. to tell the truth. And when
384 * it comes to /\w+/ with tainting enabled, we *must* be able
385 * to trust our character classes.
386 *
387 * Therefore, the default tests in the text of Perl will be
388 * independent of locale. Any code that wants to depend on
389 * the current locale will use the tests that begin with "lc".
390 */
391
2304df62
AD
392#ifdef HAS_SETLOCALE /* XXX Is there a better test for this? */
393# ifndef CTYPE256
394# define CTYPE256
395# endif
396#endif
397
954c1994 398/*
ccfc67b7
JH
399
400=head1 Character classes
401
954c1994 402=for apidoc Am|bool|isALNUM|char ch
4375e838 403Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is an ASCII alphanumeric
f1cbbd6e 404character (including underscore) or digit.
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405
406=for apidoc Am|bool|isALPHA|char ch
4375e838 407Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is an ASCII alphabetic
954c1994
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408character.
409
410=for apidoc Am|bool|isSPACE|char ch
411Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is whitespace.
412
413=for apidoc Am|bool|isDIGIT|char ch
4375e838 414Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is an ASCII
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415digit.
416
417=for apidoc Am|bool|isUPPER|char ch
418Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is an uppercase
419character.
420
421=for apidoc Am|bool|isLOWER|char ch
422Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is a lowercase
423character.
424
425=for apidoc Am|char|toUPPER|char ch
426Converts the specified character to uppercase.
427
428=for apidoc Am|char|toLOWER|char ch
429Converts the specified character to lowercase.
430
431=cut
432*/
433
bbce6d69
PP
434#define isALNUM(c) (isALPHA(c) || isDIGIT(c) || (c) == '_')
435#define isIDFIRST(c) (isALPHA(c) || (c) == '_')
436#define isALPHA(c) (isUPPER(c) || isLOWER(c))
437#define isSPACE(c) \
438 ((c) == ' ' || (c) == '\t' || (c) == '\n' || (c) =='\r' || (c) == '\f')
aaa51d5e
JF
439#define isPSXSPC(c) (isSPACE(c) || (c) == '\v')
440#define isBLANK(c) ((c) == ' ' || (c) == '\t')
bbce6d69 441#define isDIGIT(c) ((c) >= '0' && (c) <= '9')
9d116dd7
JH
442#ifdef EBCDIC
443 /* In EBCDIC we do not do locales: therefore() isupper() is fine. */
444# define isUPPER(c) isupper(c)
445# define isLOWER(c) islower(c)
b8c5462f
JH
446# define isALNUMC(c) isalnum(c)
447# define isASCII(c) isascii(c)
448# define isCNTRL(c) iscntrl(c)
449# define isGRAPH(c) isgraph(c)
9d116dd7 450# define isPRINT(c) isprint(c)
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JH
451# define isPUNCT(c) ispunct(c)
452# define isXDIGIT(c) isxdigit(c)
9d116dd7
JH
453# define toUPPER(c) toupper(c)
454# define toLOWER(c) tolower(c)
455#else
456# define isUPPER(c) ((c) >= 'A' && (c) <= 'Z')
457# define isLOWER(c) ((c) >= 'a' && (c) <= 'z')
b8c5462f
JH
458# define isALNUMC(c) (isALPHA(c) || isDIGIT(c))
459# define isASCII(c) ((c) <= 127)
7be5a6cf 460# define isCNTRL(c) ((c) < ' ' || (c) == 127)
b8c5462f 461# define isGRAPH(c) (isALNUM(c) || isPUNCT(c))
dc7a1c02 462# define isPRINT(c) (((c) >= 32 && (c) < 127))
b8c5462f 463# define isPUNCT(c) (((c) >= 33 && (c) <= 47) || ((c) >= 58 && (c) <= 64) || ((c) >= 91 && (c) <= 96) || ((c) >= 123 && (c) <= 126))
c302d089 464# define isXDIGIT(c) (isDIGIT(c) || ((c) >= 'a' && (c) <= 'f') || ((c) >= 'A' && (c) <= 'F'))
9d116dd7
JH
465# define toUPPER(c) (isLOWER(c) ? (c) - ('a' - 'A') : (c))
466# define toLOWER(c) (isUPPER(c) ? (c) + ('a' - 'A') : (c))
467#endif
bbce6d69
PP
468
469#ifdef USE_NEXT_CTYPE
470
471# define isALNUM_LC(c) \
37bd1396 472 (NXIsAlNum((unsigned int)(c)) || (char)(c) == '_')
ff68c719
PP
473# define isIDFIRST_LC(c) \
474 (NXIsAlpha((unsigned int)(c)) || (char)(c) == '_')
475# define isALPHA_LC(c) NXIsAlpha((unsigned int)(c))
476# define isSPACE_LC(c) NXIsSpace((unsigned int)(c))
477# define isDIGIT_LC(c) NXIsDigit((unsigned int)(c))
478# define isUPPER_LC(c) NXIsUpper((unsigned int)(c))
479# define isLOWER_LC(c) NXIsLower((unsigned int)(c))
37bd1396 480# define isALNUMC_LC(c) NXIsAlNum((unsigned int)(c))
b8c5462f
JH
481# define isCNTRL_LC(c) NXIsCntrl((unsigned int)(c))
482# define isGRAPH_LC(c) NXIsGraph((unsigned int)(c))
ff68c719 483# define isPRINT_LC(c) NXIsPrint((unsigned int)(c))
b8c5462f 484# define isPUNCT_LC(c) NXIsPunct((unsigned int)(c))
ff68c719
PP
485# define toUPPER_LC(c) NXToUpper((unsigned int)(c))
486# define toLOWER_LC(c) NXToLower((unsigned int)(c))
bbce6d69
PP
487
488#else /* !USE_NEXT_CTYPE */
b8c5462f 489
bbce6d69
PP
490# if defined(CTYPE256) || (!defined(isascii) && !defined(HAS_ISASCII))
491
b8c5462f 492# define isALNUM_LC(c) (isalnum((unsigned char)(c)) || (char)(c) == '_')
ff68c719 493# define isIDFIRST_LC(c) (isalpha((unsigned char)(c)) || (char)(c) == '_')
bbce6d69
PP
494# define isALPHA_LC(c) isalpha((unsigned char)(c))
495# define isSPACE_LC(c) isspace((unsigned char)(c))
496# define isDIGIT_LC(c) isdigit((unsigned char)(c))
497# define isUPPER_LC(c) isupper((unsigned char)(c))
498# define isLOWER_LC(c) islower((unsigned char)(c))
b8c5462f
JH
499# define isALNUMC_LC(c) isalnum((unsigned char)(c))
500# define isCNTRL_LC(c) iscntrl((unsigned char)(c))
501# define isGRAPH_LC(c) isgraph((unsigned char)(c))
bbce6d69 502# define isPRINT_LC(c) isprint((unsigned char)(c))
b8c5462f 503# define isPUNCT_LC(c) ispunct((unsigned char)(c))
bbce6d69
PP
504# define toUPPER_LC(c) toupper((unsigned char)(c))
505# define toLOWER_LC(c) tolower((unsigned char)(c))
506
507# else
508
3609ea0d 509# define isALNUM_LC(c) (isascii(c) && (isalnum(c) || (c) == '_'))
bbce6d69
PP
510# define isIDFIRST_LC(c) (isascii(c) && (isalpha(c) || (c) == '_'))
511# define isALPHA_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isalpha(c))
512# define isSPACE_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isspace(c))
513# define isDIGIT_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isdigit(c))
514# define isUPPER_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isupper(c))
515# define isLOWER_LC(c) (isascii(c) && islower(c))
b8c5462f
JH
516# define isALNUMC_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isalnum(c))
517# define isCNTRL_LC(c) (isascii(c) && iscntrl(c))
518# define isGRAPH_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isgraph(c))
bbce6d69 519# define isPRINT_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isprint(c))
b8c5462f 520# define isPUNCT_LC(c) (isascii(c) && ispunct(c))
bbce6d69
PP
521# define toUPPER_LC(c) toupper(c)
522# define toLOWER_LC(c) tolower(c)
523
524# endif
a0d0e21e 525#endif /* USE_NEXT_CTYPE */
55204971 526
aaa51d5e
JF
527#define isPSXSPC_LC(c) (isSPACE_LC(c) || (c) == '\v')
528#define isBLANK_LC(c) isBLANK(c) /* could be wrong */
529
a0ed51b3
LW
530#define isALNUM_uni(c) is_uni_alnum(c)
531#define isIDFIRST_uni(c) is_uni_idfirst(c)
532#define isALPHA_uni(c) is_uni_alpha(c)
533#define isSPACE_uni(c) is_uni_space(c)
534#define isDIGIT_uni(c) is_uni_digit(c)
535#define isUPPER_uni(c) is_uni_upper(c)
536#define isLOWER_uni(c) is_uni_lower(c)
b8c5462f
JH
537#define isALNUMC_uni(c) is_uni_alnumc(c)
538#define isASCII_uni(c) is_uni_ascii(c)
539#define isCNTRL_uni(c) is_uni_cntrl(c)
540#define isGRAPH_uni(c) is_uni_graph(c)
a0ed51b3 541#define isPRINT_uni(c) is_uni_print(c)
b8c5462f
JH
542#define isPUNCT_uni(c) is_uni_punct(c)
543#define isXDIGIT_uni(c) is_uni_xdigit(c)
a2a2844f
JH
544#define toUPPER_uni(c,s,l) to_uni_upper(c,s,l)
545#define toTITLE_uni(c,s,l) to_uni_title(c,s,l)
546#define toLOWER_uni(c,s,l) to_uni_lower(c,s,l)
b8d68ded 547#define toFOLD_uni(c,s,l) to_uni_fold(c,s,l)
a0ed51b3 548
aaa51d5e
JF
549#define isPSXSPC_uni(c) (isSPACE_uni(c) ||(c) == '\f')
550#define isBLANK_uni(c) isBLANK(c) /* could be wrong */
551
9041c2e3
NIS
552#define isALNUM_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isALNUM_LC(c) : is_uni_alnum_lc(c))
553#define isIDFIRST_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isIDFIRST_LC(c) : is_uni_idfirst_lc(c))
554#define isALPHA_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isALPHA_LC(c) : is_uni_alpha_lc(c))
555#define isSPACE_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isSPACE_LC(c) : is_uni_space_lc(c))
556#define isDIGIT_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isDIGIT_LC(c) : is_uni_digit_lc(c))
557#define isUPPER_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isUPPER_LC(c) : is_uni_upper_lc(c))
558#define isLOWER_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isLOWER_LC(c) : is_uni_lower_lc(c))
559#define isALNUMC_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isALNUMC_LC(c) : is_uni_alnumc_lc(c))
560#define isCNTRL_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isCNTRL_LC(c) : is_uni_cntrl_lc(c))
561#define isGRAPH_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isGRAPH_LC(c) : is_uni_graph_lc(c))
562#define isPRINT_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isPRINT_LC(c) : is_uni_print_lc(c))
563#define isPUNCT_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isPUNCT_LC(c) : is_uni_punct_lc(c))
a0ed51b3 564
aaa51d5e
JF
565#define isPSXSPC_LC_uni(c) (isSPACE_LC_uni(c) ||(c) == '\f')
566#define isBLANK_LC_uni(c) isBLANK(c) /* could be wrong */
567
a0ed51b3 568#define isALNUM_utf8(p) is_utf8_alnum(p)
82686b01
JH
569/* The ID_Start of Unicode is quite limiting: it assumes a L-class
570 * character (meaning that you cannot have, say, a CJK character).
571 * Instead, let's allow ID_Continue but not digits. */
572#define isIDFIRST_utf8(p) (is_utf8_idcont(p) && !is_utf8_digit(p))
a0ed51b3
LW
573#define isALPHA_utf8(p) is_utf8_alpha(p)
574#define isSPACE_utf8(p) is_utf8_space(p)
575#define isDIGIT_utf8(p) is_utf8_digit(p)
576#define isUPPER_utf8(p) is_utf8_upper(p)
577#define isLOWER_utf8(p) is_utf8_lower(p)
b8c5462f
JH
578#define isALNUMC_utf8(p) is_utf8_alnumc(p)
579#define isASCII_utf8(p) is_utf8_ascii(p)
580#define isCNTRL_utf8(p) is_utf8_cntrl(p)
581#define isGRAPH_utf8(p) is_utf8_graph(p)
a0ed51b3 582#define isPRINT_utf8(p) is_utf8_print(p)
b8c5462f
JH
583#define isPUNCT_utf8(p) is_utf8_punct(p)
584#define isXDIGIT_utf8(p) is_utf8_xdigit(p)
a2a2844f
JH
585#define toUPPER_utf8(p,s,l) to_utf8_upper(p,s,l)
586#define toTITLE_utf8(p,s,l) to_utf8_title(p,s,l)
587#define toLOWER_utf8(p,s,l) to_utf8_lower(p,s,l)
a0ed51b3 588
aaa51d5e
JF
589#define isPSXSPC_utf8(c) (isSPACE_utf8(c) ||(c) == '\f')
590#define isBLANK_utf8(c) isBLANK(c) /* could be wrong */
591
9041c2e3
NIS
592#define isALNUM_LC_utf8(p) isALNUM_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
593#define isIDFIRST_LC_utf8(p) isIDFIRST_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
594#define isALPHA_LC_utf8(p) isALPHA_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
595#define isSPACE_LC_utf8(p) isSPACE_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
596#define isDIGIT_LC_utf8(p) isDIGIT_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
597#define isUPPER_LC_utf8(p) isUPPER_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
598#define isLOWER_LC_utf8(p) isLOWER_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
599#define isALNUMC_LC_utf8(p) isALNUMC_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
600#define isCNTRL_LC_utf8(p) isCNTRL_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
601#define isGRAPH_LC_utf8(p) isGRAPH_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
602#define isPRINT_LC_utf8(p) isPRINT_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
603#define isPUNCT_LC_utf8(p) isPUNCT_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
a0ed51b3 604
aaa51d5e
JF
605#define isPSXSPC_LC_utf8(c) (isSPACE_LC_utf8(c) ||(c) == '\f')
606#define isBLANK_LC_utf8(c) isBLANK(c) /* could be wrong */
607
9d116dd7 608#ifdef EBCDIC
20b634c2
JH
609# ifdef PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT
610# define toCTRL(c) Perl_ebcdic_control(aTHX_ c)
611# else
612# define toCTRL Perl_ebcdic_control
613# endif
9d116dd7
JH
614#else
615 /* This conversion works both ways, strangely enough. */
616# define toCTRL(c) (toUPPER(c) ^ 64)
617#endif
bbce6d69 618
dea28490
JJ
619/* Line numbers are unsigned, 32 bits. */
620typedef U32 line_t;
dea28490 621#define NOLINE ((line_t) 4294967295UL)
378cc40b 622
8c52afec 623
8e84507e 624/*
ccfc67b7
JH
625=head1 Memory Management
626
a02a5408 627=for apidoc Am|void|Newx|void* ptr|int nitems|type
954c1994
GS
628The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<malloc> function.
629
c5008215
JC
630In 5.9.3, Newx() and friends replace the older New() API, and drops
631the first parameter, I<x>, a debug aid which allowed callers to identify
37b8b4c9 632themselves. This aid has been superseded by a new build option,
c5008215
JC
633PERL_MEM_LOG (see L<perlhack/PERL_MEM_LOG>). The older API is still
634there for use in XS modules supporting older perls.
635
a02a5408 636=for apidoc Am|void|Newxc|void* ptr|int nitems|type|cast
954c1994 637The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<malloc> function, with
c5008215 638cast. See also C<Newx>.
954c1994 639
a02a5408 640=for apidoc Am|void|Newxz|void* ptr|int nitems|type
954c1994 641The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<malloc> function. The allocated
c5008215 642memory is zeroed with C<memzero>. See also C<Newx>.
a02a5408 643
954c1994
GS
644=for apidoc Am|void|Renew|void* ptr|int nitems|type
645The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<realloc> function.
646
647=for apidoc Am|void|Renewc|void* ptr|int nitems|type|cast
648The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<realloc> function, with
649cast.
650
49b8b560 651=for apidoc Am|void|Safefree|void* ptr
954c1994
GS
652The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<free> function.
653
654=for apidoc Am|void|Move|void* src|void* dest|int nitems|type
655The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<memmove> function. The C<src> is the
656source, C<dest> is the destination, C<nitems> is the number of items, and C<type> is
657the type. Can do overlapping moves. See also C<Copy>.
658
e90e2364
NC
659=for apidoc Am|void *|MoveD|void* src|void* dest|int nitems|type
660Like C<Move> but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers to tail-call
661optimise.
662
954c1994
GS
663=for apidoc Am|void|Copy|void* src|void* dest|int nitems|type
664The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<memcpy> function. The C<src> is the
665source, C<dest> is the destination, C<nitems> is the number of items, and C<type> is
666the type. May fail on overlapping copies. See also C<Move>.
667
e90e2364
NC
668=for apidoc Am|void *|CopyD|void* src|void* dest|int nitems|type
669
670Like C<Copy> but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers to tail-call
671optimise.
672
954c1994
GS
673=for apidoc Am|void|Zero|void* dest|int nitems|type
674
675The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<memzero> function. The C<dest> is the
676destination, C<nitems> is the number of items, and C<type> is the type.
677
e90e2364
NC
678=for apidoc Am|void *|ZeroD|void* dest|int nitems|type
679
680Like C<Zero> but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers to tail-call
681optimise.
682
954c1994 683=for apidoc Am|void|StructCopy|type src|type dest|type
4375e838 684This is an architecture-independent macro to copy one structure to another.
954c1994 685
7e337ee0
JH
686=for apidoc Am|void|PoisonWith|void* dest|int nitems|type|U8 byte
687
688Fill up memory with a byte pattern (a byte repeated over and over
689again) that hopefully catches attempts to access uninitialized memory.
690
691=for apidoc Am|void|PoisonNew|void* dest|int nitems|type
692
693PoisonWith(0xAB) for catching access to allocated but uninitialized memory.
694
1c12ffb4 695=for apidoc Am|void|PoisonFree|void* dest|int nitems|type
7e337ee0
JH
696
697PoisonWith(0xEF) for catching access to freed memory.
698
9965345d
JH
699=for apidoc Am|void|Poison|void* dest|int nitems|type
700
7e337ee0 701PoisonWith(0xEF) for catching access to freed memory.
9965345d
JH
702
703=cut */
954c1994 704
561b68a9
SH
705/* Maintained for backwards-compatibility only. Use newSV() instead. */
706#ifndef PERL_CORE
ff06c60c 707#define NEWSV(x,len) newSV(len)
561b68a9 708#endif
ff06c60c 709
19a94d75
JH
710#define MEM_SIZE_MAX ((MEM_SIZE)~0)
711
2720f793
JH
712/* The +0.0 in MEM_WRAP_CHECK_ is an attempt to foil
713 * overly eager compilers that will bleat about e.g.
714 * (U16)n > (size_t)~0/sizeof(U16) always being false. */
27d5b266 715#ifdef PERL_MALLOC_WRAP
fabdb6c0 716#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK(n,t) MEM_WRAP_CHECK_1(n,t,PL_memory_wrap)
27d5b266 717#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_1(n,t,a) \
19a94d75 718 (void)(sizeof(t) > 1 && ((MEM_SIZE)(n)+0.0) > MEM_SIZE_MAX/sizeof(t) && (Perl_croak_nocontext(a),0))
8b44ba4c 719#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) MEM_WRAP_CHECK(n,t),
27d5b266 720
19a94d75 721#define PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP(n) ((void)(((n) > MEM_SIZE_MAX - 2 * PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM) ? (Perl_croak_nocontext(PL_memory_wrap),0):0),((n-1+PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM)&~((MEM_SIZE)PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM-1)))
1936d2a7 722
27d5b266
JH
723#else
724
410319be
NC
725#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK(n,t)
726#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_1(n,t,a)
727#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_2(n,t,a,b)
8b44ba4c
NC
728#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t)
729
6fff79ce 730#define PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP(n) (((n-1+PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM)&~((MEM_SIZE)PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM-1)))
27d5b266 731
1936d2a7 732#endif
8b44ba4c 733
fe4f188c 734#ifdef PERL_MEM_LOG
46c6c7e2 735/*
9f653bb5 736 * If PERL_MEM_LOG is defined, all Newx()s, Renew()s, and Safefree()s
46c6c7e2
JH
737 * go through functions, which are handy for debugging breakpoints, but
738 * which more importantly get the immediate calling environment (file and
e352bcff
JH
739 * line number, and C function name if available) passed in. This info can
740 * then be used for logging the calls, for which one gets a sample
741 * implementation if PERL_MEM_LOG_STDERR is defined.
3609ea0d 742 *
46c6c7e2
JH
743 * Known problems:
744 * - all memory allocs do not get logged, only those
745 * that go through Newx() and derivatives (while all
746 * Safefrees do get logged)
747 * - __FILE__ and __LINE__ do not work everywhere
748 * - __func__ or __FUNCTION__ even less so
749 * - I think more goes on after the perlio frees but
750 * the thing is that STDERR gets closed (as do all
751 * the file descriptors)
752 * - no deeper calling stack than the caller of the Newx()
753 * or the kind, but do I look like a C reflection/introspection
754 * utility to you?
755 * - the function prototypes for the logging functions
756 * probably should maybe be somewhere else than handy.h
757 * - one could consider inlining (macrofying) the logging
758 * for speed, but I am too lazy
759 * - one could imagine recording the allocations in a hash,
760 * (keyed by the allocation address?), and maintain that
761 * through reallocs and frees, but how to do that without
762 * any News() happening...?
763 */
764
bef8a128 765Malloc_t Perl_mem_log_alloc(const UV n, const UV typesize, const char *type_name, Malloc_t newalloc, const char *filename, const int linenumber, const char *funcname);
46c6c7e2 766
bef8a128 767Malloc_t Perl_mem_log_realloc(const UV n, const UV typesize, const char *type_name, Malloc_t oldalloc, Malloc_t newalloc, const char *filename, const int linenumber, const char *funcname);
46c6c7e2
JH
768
769Malloc_t Perl_mem_log_free(Malloc_t oldalloc, const char *filename, const int linenumber, const char *funcname);
770
0b0ab801
MHM
771# ifdef PERL_CORE
772# ifdef PERL_MEM_LOG_STDERR
773enum mem_log_type {
774 MLT_ALLOC,
775 MLT_REALLOC,
d7a2c63c
MHM
776 MLT_FREE,
777 MLT_NEW_SV,
778 MLT_DEL_SV
0b0ab801
MHM
779};
780# endif
d7a2c63c
MHM
781/* those are only used in sv.c */
782void Perl_mem_log_new_sv(const SV *sv, const char *filename, const int linenumber, const char *funcname);
783void Perl_mem_log_del_sv(const SV *sv, const char *filename, const int linenumber, const char *funcname);
0b0ab801
MHM
784# endif
785
fe4f188c
JH
786#endif
787
788#ifdef PERL_MEM_LOG
d1401ee9
MHM
789#define MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,a) Perl_mem_log_alloc(n,sizeof(t),STRINGIFY(t),a,__FILE__,__LINE__,FUNCTION__)
790#define MEM_LOG_REALLOC(n,t,v,a) Perl_mem_log_realloc(n,sizeof(t),STRINGIFY(t),v,a,__FILE__,__LINE__,FUNCTION__)
46c6c7e2 791#define MEM_LOG_FREE(a) Perl_mem_log_free(a,__FILE__,__LINE__,FUNCTION__)
fe4f188c
JH
792#endif
793
794#ifndef MEM_LOG_ALLOC
795#define MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,a) (a)
796#endif
797#ifndef MEM_LOG_REALLOC
798#define MEM_LOG_REALLOC(n,t,v,a) (a)
799#endif
800#ifndef MEM_LOG_FREE
801#define MEM_LOG_FREE(a) (a)
802#endif
803
d1401ee9
MHM
804#define Newx(v,n,t) (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (t*)MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,safemalloc((MEM_SIZE)((n)*sizeof(t))))))
805#define Newxc(v,n,t,c) (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (c*)MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,safemalloc((MEM_SIZE)((n)*sizeof(t))))))
806#define Newxz(v,n,t) (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (t*)MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,safecalloc((n),sizeof(t)))))
a6f6820f
NC
807
808#ifndef PERL_CORE
a02a5408
JC
809/* pre 5.9.x compatibility */
810#define New(x,v,n,t) Newx(v,n,t)
811#define Newc(x,v,n,t,c) Newxc(v,n,t,c)
4541904d 812#define Newz(x,v,n,t) Newxz(v,n,t)
a6f6820f 813#endif
a02a5408 814
ff68c719 815#define Renew(v,n,t) \
d1401ee9 816 (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (t*)MEM_LOG_REALLOC(n,t,v,saferealloc((Malloc_t)(v),(MEM_SIZE)((n)*sizeof(t))))))
ff68c719 817#define Renewc(v,n,t,c) \
d1401ee9 818 (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (c*)MEM_LOG_REALLOC(n,t,v,saferealloc((Malloc_t)(v),(MEM_SIZE)((n)*sizeof(t))))))
94010e71
NC
819
820#ifdef PERL_POISON
821#define Safefree(d) \
06c0cc96 822 ((d) ? (void)(safefree(MEM_LOG_FREE((Malloc_t)(d))), Poison(&(d), 1, Malloc_t)) : (void) 0)
94010e71 823#else
fe4f188c 824#define Safefree(d) safefree(MEM_LOG_FREE((Malloc_t)(d)))
94010e71 825#endif
55497cff 826
8b44ba4c
NC
827#define Move(s,d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (void)memmove((char*)(d),(const char*)(s), (n) * sizeof(t)))
828#define Copy(s,d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (void)memcpy((char*)(d),(const char*)(s), (n) * sizeof(t)))
829#define Zero(d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (void)memzero((char*)(d), (n) * sizeof(t)))
55497cff 830
8b44ba4c
NC
831#define MoveD(s,d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) memmove((char*)(d),(const char*)(s), (n) * sizeof(t)))
832#define CopyD(s,d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) memcpy((char*)(d),(const char*)(s), (n) * sizeof(t)))
e90e2364 833#ifdef HAS_MEMSET
8b44ba4c 834#define ZeroD(d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) memzero((char*)(d), (n) * sizeof(t)))
e90e2364 835#else
8b44ba4c
NC
836/* Using bzero(), which returns void. */
837#define ZeroD(d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) memzero((char*)(d), (n) * sizeof(t)),d)
e90e2364
NC
838#endif
839
7e337ee0
JH
840#define PoisonWith(d,n,t,b) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (void)memset((char*)(d), (U8)(b), (n) * sizeof(t)))
841#define PoisonNew(d,n,t) PoisonWith(d,n,t,0xAB)
842#define PoisonFree(d,n,t) PoisonWith(d,n,t,0xEF)
843#define Poison(d,n,t) PoisonFree(d,n,t)
27d5b266 844
2304df62 845#ifdef USE_STRUCT_COPY
ff68c719 846#define StructCopy(s,d,t) (*((t*)(d)) = *((t*)(s)))
bee1dbe2
LW
847#else
848#define StructCopy(s,d,t) Copy(s,d,1,t)
849#endif
2cc61e15 850
622913ab
IZ
851#define C_ARRAY_LENGTH(a) (sizeof(a)/sizeof((a)[0]))
852
2cc61e15
DD
853#ifdef NEED_VA_COPY
854# ifdef va_copy
855# define Perl_va_copy(s, d) va_copy(d, s)
2cc61e15 856# else
a1866d1b
JH
857# if defined(__va_copy)
858# define Perl_va_copy(s, d) __va_copy(d, s)
859# else
860# define Perl_va_copy(s, d) Copy(s, d, 1, va_list)
861# endif
2cc61e15
DD
862# endif
863#endif
864
472d47bc
SB
865/* convenience debug macros */
866#ifdef USE_ITHREADS
867#define pTHX_FORMAT "Perl interpreter: 0x%p"
868#define pTHX__FORMAT ", Perl interpreter: 0x%p"
f54cb97a
AL
869#define pTHX_VALUE_ (void *)my_perl,
870#define pTHX_VALUE (void *)my_perl
871#define pTHX__VALUE_ ,(void *)my_perl,
872#define pTHX__VALUE ,(void *)my_perl
472d47bc 873#else
3609ea0d 874#define pTHX_FORMAT
472d47bc 875#define pTHX__FORMAT
3609ea0d 876#define pTHX_VALUE_
472d47bc 877#define pTHX_VALUE
3609ea0d 878#define pTHX__VALUE_
472d47bc
SB
879#define pTHX__VALUE
880#endif /* USE_ITHREADS */
3609ea0d 881
e9a8c099
MHM
882/*
883 * Local variables:
884 * c-indentation-style: bsd
885 * c-basic-offset: 4
886 * indent-tabs-mode: t
887 * End:
888 *
889 * ex: set ts=8 sts=4 sw=4 noet:
890 */