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Specifying when the trimmed down Win64 compiler works.
[perl5.git] / README.win32
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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you
2see. It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is
3specially designed to be readable as is.
4
5=head1 NAME
6
7perlwin32 - Perl under Windows
8
9=head1 SYNOPSIS
10
11These are instructions for building Perl under Windows 9x/NT/2000/XP
12on the Intel x86 and Itanium architectures.
13
14=head1 DESCRIPTION
15
16Before you start, you should glance through the README file
17found in the top-level directory to which the Perl distribution
18was extracted. Make sure you read and understand the terms under
19which this software is being distributed.
20
21Also make sure you read L<BUGS AND CAVEATS> below for the
22known limitations of this port.
23
24The INSTALL file in the perl top-level has much information that is
25only relevant to people building Perl on Unix-like systems. In
26particular, you can safely ignore any information that talks about
27"Configure".
28
29You may also want to look at two other options for building
30a perl that will work on Windows NT: the README.cygwin and
31README.os2 files, each of which give a different set of rules to
32build a Perl that will work on Win32 platforms. Those two methods
33will probably enable you to build a more Unix-compatible perl, but
34you will also need to download and use various other build-time and
35run-time support software described in those files.
36
37This set of instructions is meant to describe a so-called "native"
38port of Perl to Win32 platforms. This includes both 32-bit and
3964-bit Windows operating systems. The resulting Perl requires no
40additional software to run (other than what came with your operating
41system). Currently, this port is capable of using one of the
42following compilers on the Intel x86 architecture:
43
7241fd28 44 Borland C++ version 5.02 or later
a7d225ec 45 Microsoft Visual C++ version 2.0 or later
7241fd28 46 MinGW with gcc gcc version 2.95.2 or later
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47 Gcc by mingw.org gcc version 2.95.2 or later
48 Gcc by mingw-w64.sf.net gcc version 4.4.3 or later
49
50Note that the last two of these are actually competing projects both
51delivering complete gcc toolchain for MS Windows:
52- http://mingw.org - delivers gcc toolchain targeting 32-bit Windows
53 platform.
54 Use version 3.2.x or later for the best results with this compiler.
55- http://mingw-w64.sf.net - delivers gcc toolchain targeting both 64-bit
56 Windows and 32-bit Windows platforms (despite the project name "mingw-w64"
57 they are not only 64-bit oriented). They deliver the native gcc compilers
58 + cross-compilers that are also supported by perl's makefile.
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60The Borland C++ and Microsoft Visual C++ compilers are also now being given
61away free. The Borland compiler is available as "Borland C++ Compiler Free
62Command Line Tools" and is the same compiler that ships with the full
63"Borland C++ Builder" product. The Microsoft compiler is available as
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64"Visual C++ Toolkit 2003" or "Visual C++ 2005/2008 Express Edition" (and also
65as part of the ".NET Framework SDK") and is the same compiler that ships with
66"Visual C++ .NET 2003 Professional" or "Visual C++ 2005/2008 Professional"
a7d225ec 67respectively.
7241fd28 68
fa58a56f 69This port can also be built on IA64/AMD64 using:
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70
71 Microsoft Platform SDK Nov 2001 (64-bit compiler and tools)
fa58a56f 72 MinGW64 compiler (gcc version 4.4.3 or later)
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73
74The MS Platform SDK can be downloaded from http://www.microsoft.com/.
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75The MinGW64 compiler is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/mingw-w64.
76The latter is actually a cross-compiler targeting Win64. There's also a trimmed
77down compiler (no java, or gfortran) suitable for building perl available at:
e5418c81 78http://strawberryperl.com/package/kmx/64_gcctoolchain/mingw64-w64-20100123-kmx-v2.zip
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79
80NOTE: If you're using a 32-bit compiler to build perl on a 64-bit Windows
81operating system, then you should set the WIN64 environment variable to "undef".
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82Also, the trimmed down compiler only passes tests when USE_ITHREADS *= define
83(as opposed to undef) and when the CFG *= Debug line is commented out.
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84
85This port fully supports MakeMaker (the set of modules that
86is used to build extensions to perl). Therefore, you should be
87able to build and install most extensions found in the CPAN sites.
88See L<Usage Hints for Perl on Win32> below for general hints about this.
89
90=head2 Setting Up Perl on Win32
91
92=over 4
93
94=item Make
95
96You need a "make" program to build the sources. If you are using
97Visual C++ or the Platform SDK tools under Windows NT/2000/XP, nmake
98will work. All other builds need dmake.
99
100dmake is a freely available make that has very nice macro features
101and parallelability.
102
103A port of dmake for Windows is available from:
104
13e18e90 105 http://search.cpan.org/dist/dmake/
9baed986 106
13e18e90 107Fetch and install dmake somewhere on your path.
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108
109There exists a minor coexistence problem with dmake and Borland C++
110compilers. Namely, if a distribution has C files named with mixed
111case letters, they will be compiled into appropriate .obj-files named
112with all lowercase letters, and every time dmake is invoked
113to bring files up to date, it will try to recompile such files again.
114For example, Tk distribution has a lot of such files, resulting in
115needless recompiles every time dmake is invoked. To avoid this, you
116may use the script "sync_ext.pl" after a successful build. It is
117available in the win32 subdirectory of the Perl source distribution.
118
119=item Command Shell
120
121Use the default "cmd" shell that comes with NT. Some versions of the
122popular 4DOS/NT shell have incompatibilities that may cause you trouble.
123If the build fails under that shell, try building again with the cmd
124shell.
125
126The nmake Makefile also has known incompatibilities with the
127"command.com" shell that comes with Windows 9x. You will need to
128use dmake and makefile.mk to build under Windows 9x.
129
130The surest way to build it is on Windows NT/2000/XP, using the cmd shell.
131
132Make sure the path to the build directory does not contain spaces. The
133build usually works in this circumstance, but some tests will fail.
134
135=item Borland C++
136
137If you are using the Borland compiler, you will need dmake.
138(The make that Borland supplies is seriously crippled and will not
139work for MakeMaker builds.)
140
141See L</"Make"> above.
142
143=item Microsoft Visual C++
144
145The nmake that comes with Visual C++ will suffice for building.
146You will need to run the VCVARS32.BAT file, usually found somewhere
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147like C:\MSDEV4.2\BIN or C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio\VC98\Bin.
148This will set your build environment.
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149
150You can also use dmake to build using Visual C++; provided, however,
151you set OSRELEASE to "microsft" (or whatever the directory name
152under which the Visual C dmake configuration lives) in your environment
153and edit win32/config.vc to change "make=nmake" into "make=dmake". The
154latter step is only essential if you want to use dmake as your default
155make for building extensions using MakeMaker.
156
cb644b64 157=item Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 Express Edition
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158
159This free version of Visual C++ 2008 Professional contains the same compiler
160and linker that ship with the full version, and also contains everything
161necessary to build Perl, rather than requiring a separate download of the
162Platform SDK like previous versions did.
163
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164This package can be downloaded by searching for "Visual Studio 2008 Express
165Edition" in the Download Center at
166http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/search.aspx?displaylang=en. (Providing exact
167links to these packages has proven a pointless task because the links keep on
168changing so often.)
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169
170Install Visual C++ 2008, then setup your environment using
171
172 C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 9.0\Common7\Tools\vsvars32.bat
173
174(assuming the default installation location was chosen).
175
176Perl should now build using the win32/Makefile. You will need to edit that
177file to set
178
179 CCTYPE = MSVC90FREE
180
181first.
182
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183=item Microsoft Visual C++ 2005 Express Edition
184
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185This free version of Visual C++ 2005 Professional contains the same compiler
186and linker that ship with the full version, but doesn't contain everything
187necessary to build Perl.
188
189You will also need to download the "Platform SDK" (the "Core SDK" and "MDAC
190SDK" components are required) for more header files and libraries.
191
192These packages can both be downloaded by searching in the Download Center at
193http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/search.aspx?displaylang=en. (Providing exact
194links to these packages has proven a pointless task because the links keep on
195changing so often.)
196
197Try to obtain the latest version of the Platform SDK. Sometimes these packages
198contain a particular Windows OS version in their name, but actually work on
199other OS versions too. For example, the "Windows Server 2003 R2 Platform SDK"
200also runs on Windows XP SP2 and Windows 2000.
201
202According to the download pages these packages are only supported on Windows
2032000/XP/2003, so trying to use these tools on Windows 95/98/ME and even Windows
204NT probably won't work.
205
206Install Visual C++ 2005 first, then the Platform SDK. Setup your environment
207as follows (assuming default installation locations were chosen):
208
4246aec1 209 SET PlatformSDKDir=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Platform SDK
1c847d4b 210
4246aec1 211 SET PATH=%SystemRoot%\system32;%SystemRoot%;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\Common7\IDE;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\VC\BIN;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\Common7\Tools;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\SDK\v2.0\bin;C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v2.0.50727;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\VC\VCPackages;%PlatformSDKDir%\Bin
1c847d4b 212
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213 SET INCLUDE=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\VC\INCLUDE;%PlatformSDKDir%\include
214
215 SET LIB=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\VC\LIB;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\SDK\v2.0\lib;%PlatformSDKDir%\lib
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216
217 SET LIBPATH=C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v2.0.50727
218
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219(The PlatformSDKDir might need to be set differently depending on which version
220you are using. Earlier versions installed into "C:\Program Files\Microsoft SDK",
221while the latest versions install into version-specific locations such as
222"C:\Program Files\Microsoft Platform SDK for Windows Server 2003 R2".)
223
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224Perl should now build using the win32/Makefile. You will need to edit that
225file to set
226
227 CCTYPE = MSVC80FREE
228
229and to set CCHOME, CCINCDIR and CCLIBDIR as per the environment setup above.
230
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231=item Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003
232
233This free toolkit contains the same compiler and linker that ship with
1c847d4b 234Visual C++ .NET 2003 Professional, but doesn't contain everything
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235necessary to build Perl.
236
237You will also need to download the "Platform SDK" (the "Core SDK" and "MDAC
238SDK" components are required) for header files, libraries and rc.exe, and
239".NET Framework SDK" for more libraries and nmake.exe. Note that the latter
240(which also includes the free compiler and linker) requires the ".NET
241Framework Redistributable" to be installed first. This can be downloaded and
242installed separately, but is included in the "Visual C++ Toolkit 2003" anyway.
243
244These packages can all be downloaded by searching in the Download Center at
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245http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/search.aspx?displaylang=en. (Providing exact
246links to these packages has proven a pointless task because the links keep on
247changing so often.)
248
249Try to obtain the latest version of the Platform SDK. Sometimes these packages
250contain a particular Windows OS version in their name, but actually work on
1c847d4b 251other OS versions too. For example, the "Windows Server 2003 R2 Platform SDK"
1b4f0359 252also runs on Windows XP SP2 and Windows 2000.
7241fd28 253
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254According to the download pages these packages are only supported on Windows
2552000/XP/2003, so trying to use these tools on Windows 95/98/ME and even Windows
256NT probably won't work.
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257
258Install the Toolkit first, then the Platform SDK, then the .NET Framework SDK.
259Setup your environment as follows (assuming default installation locations
260were chosen):
261
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262 SET PlatformSDKDir=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Platform SDK
263
264 SET PATH=%SystemRoot%\system32;%SystemRoot%;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003\bin;%PlatformSDKDir%\Bin;C:\Program Files\Microsoft.NET\SDK\v1.1\Bin
265
266 SET INCLUDE=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003\include;%PlatformSDKDir%\include;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003\Vc7\include
1c847d4b 267
4246aec1 268 SET LIB=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003\lib;%PlatformSDKDir%\lib;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003\Vc7\lib
1c847d4b 269
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270(The PlatformSDKDir might need to be set differently depending on which version
271you are using. Earlier versions installed into "C:\Program Files\Microsoft SDK",
272while the latest versions install into version-specific locations such as
273"C:\Program Files\Microsoft Platform SDK for Windows Server 2003 R2".)
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274
275Several required files will still be missing:
276
277=over 4
278
279=item *
280
281cvtres.exe is required by link.exe when using a .res file. It is actually
282installed by the .NET Framework SDK, but into a location such as the
283following:
284
285 C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v1.1.4322
286
4246aec1 287Copy it from there to %PlatformSDKDir%\Bin
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288
289=item *
290
291lib.exe is normally used to build libraries, but link.exe with the /lib
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292option also works, so change win32/config.vc to use it instead:
293
294Change the line reading:
295
296 ar='lib'
297
298to:
299
300 ar='link /lib'
301
302It may also be useful to create a batch file called lib.bat in
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303C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003\bin containing:
304
305 @echo off
306 link /lib %*
307
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308for the benefit of any naughty C extension modules that you might want to build
309later which explicitly reference "lib" rather than taking their value from
310$Config{ar}.
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311
312=item *
313
314setargv.obj is required to build perlglob.exe (and perl.exe if the USE_SETARGV
315option is enabled). The Platform SDK supplies this object file in source form
4246aec1 316in %PlatformSDKDir%\src\crt. Copy setargv.c, cruntime.h and
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317internal.h from there to some temporary location and build setargv.obj using
318
319 cl.exe /c /I. /D_CRTBLD setargv.c
320
4246aec1 321Then copy setargv.obj to %PlatformSDKDir%\lib
7241fd28 322
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323Alternatively, if you don't need perlglob.exe and don't need to enable the
324USE_SETARGV option then you can safely just remove all mention of $(GLOBEXE)
325from win32/Makefile and setargv.obj won't be required anyway.
326
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327=back
328
329Perl should now build using the win32/Makefile. You will need to edit that
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330file to set
331
332 CCTYPE = MSVC70FREE
333
334and to set CCHOME, CCINCDIR and CCLIBDIR as per the environment setup above.
7241fd28 335
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336=item Microsoft Platform SDK 64-bit Compiler
337
338The nmake that comes with the Platform SDK will suffice for building
339Perl. Make sure you are building within one of the "Build Environment"
340shells available after you install the Platform SDK from the Start Menu.
341
e2736246 342=item MinGW release 3 with gcc
9baed986 343
dbd54a9f 344The latest release of MinGW at the time of writing is 3.1.0, which contains
7241fd28 345gcc-3.2.3. It can be downloaded here:
9baed986 346
e2736246 347 http://www.mingw.org/
7c5b6093 348
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349Perl also compiles with earlier releases of gcc (2.95.2 and up). See below
350for notes about using earlier versions of MinGW/gcc.
9baed986 351
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352And perl also compiles with gcc-4.3.0 and up, and perhaps even some of the
353earlier 4.x.x versions.
354
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355You also need dmake. See L</"Make"> above on how to get it.
356
e2736246 357=item MinGW release 1 with gcc
7c5b6093 358
4a7adf4c 359The MinGW-1.1 bundle contains gcc-2.95.3.
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360
361Make sure you install the binaries that work with MSVCRT.DLL as indicated
362in the README for the GCC bundle. You may need to set up a few environment
363variables (usually ran from a batch file).
364
365There are a couple of problems with the version of gcc-2.95.2-msvcrt.exe
366released 7 November 1999:
367
368=over
369
370=item *
371
372It left out a fix for certain command line quotes. To fix this, be sure
373to download and install the file fixes/quote-fix-msvcrt.exe from the above
374ftp location.
375
376=item *
377
378The definition of the fpos_t type in stdio.h may be wrong. If your
379stdio.h has this problem, you will see an exception when running the
380test t/lib/io_xs.t. To fix this, change the typedef for fpos_t from
381"long" to "long long" in the file i386-mingw32msvc/include/stdio.h,
382and rebuild.
383
384=back
385
386A potentially simpler to install (but probably soon-to-be-outdated) bundle
387of the above package with the mentioned fixes already applied is available
388here:
389
390 http://downloads.ActiveState.com/pub/staff/gsar/gcc-2.95.2-msvcrt.zip
391 ftp://ftp.ActiveState.com/pub/staff/gsar/gcc-2.95.2-msvcrt.zip
392
393=back
394
395=head2 Building
396
397=over 4
398
399=item *
400
401Make sure you are in the "win32" subdirectory under the perl toplevel.
402This directory contains a "Makefile" that will work with
403versions of nmake that come with Visual C++ or the Platform SDK, and
404a dmake "makefile.mk" that will work for all supported compilers. The
00808b83 405defaults in the dmake makefile are setup to build using MinGW/gcc.
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406
407=item *
408
dbd54a9f 409Edit the makefile.mk (or Makefile, if you're using nmake) and change
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410the values of INST_DRV and INST_TOP. You can also enable various
411build flags. These are explained in the makefiles.
412
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413Note that it is generally not a good idea to try to build a perl with
414INST_DRV and INST_TOP set to a path that already exists from a previous
415build. In particular, this may cause problems with the
416lib/ExtUtils/t/Embed.t test, which attempts to build a test program and
417may end up building against the installed perl's lib/CORE directory rather
418than the one being tested.
419
dbd54a9f 420You will have to make sure that CCTYPE is set correctly and that
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421CCHOME points to wherever you installed your compiler. If building with
422gcc-4.x.x, you'll also need to uncomment the assignment to GCC_4XX and
423uncomment the assignment to the appropriate GCCHELPERDLL in the makefile.mk.
424
425If building with the cross-compiler provided by
426mingw-w64.sourceforge.net you'll need to uncomment the line that sets
427GCCCROSS in the makefile.mk. Do this only if it's the cross-compiler - ie
428only if the bin folder doesn't contain a gcc.exe. (The cross-compiler
429does not provide a gcc.exe, g++.exe, ar.exe, etc. Instead, all of these
430executables are prefixed with 'x86_64-w64-mingw32-'.)
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431
432The default value for CCHOME in the makefiles for Visual C++
433may not be correct for some versions. Make sure the default exists
434and is valid.
435
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436You may also need to comment out the C<DELAYLOAD = ...> line in the
437Makefile if you're using VC++ 6.0 without the latest service pack and
438the linker reports an internal error.
dbd54a9f 439
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440If you are using VC++ 4.2 or earlier then you'll have to change the /EHsc
441option in the CXX_FLAG macro to the equivalent /GX option.
442
9baed986 443If you have either the source or a library that contains des_fcrypt(),
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444enable the appropriate option in the makefile. A ready-to-use version
445of fcrypt.c, based on the version originally written by Eric Young at
446ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/crypt/mirrors/dsi/libdes/, is bundled with the
00808b83 447distribution and CRYPT_SRC is set to use it.
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448Alternatively, if you have built a library that contains des_fcrypt(),
449you can set CRYPT_LIB to point to the library name.
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450Perl will also build without des_fcrypt(), but the crypt() builtin will
451fail at run time.
452
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453If you want build some core extensions statically into perl's dll, specify
454them in the STATIC_EXT macro.
455
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456Be sure to read the instructions near the top of the makefiles carefully.
457
458=item *
459
460Type "dmake" (or "nmake" if you are using that make).
461
462This should build everything. Specifically, it will create perl.exe,
9c3c380d 463perl512.dll at the perl toplevel, and various other extension dll's
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464under the lib\auto directory. If the build fails for any reason, make
465sure you have done the previous steps correctly.
466
467=back
468
469=head2 Testing Perl on Win32
470
471Type "dmake test" (or "nmake test"). This will run most of the tests from
472the testsuite (many tests will be skipped).
473
474There should be no test failures when running under Windows NT/2000/XP.
475Many tests I<will> fail under Windows 9x due to the inferior command shell.
476
477Some test failures may occur if you use a command shell other than the
478native "cmd.exe", or if you are building from a path that contains
479spaces. So don't do that.
480
481If you are running the tests from a emacs shell window, you may see
482failures in op/stat.t. Run "dmake test-notty" in that case.
483
484If you're using the Borland compiler, you may see a failure in op/taint.t
485arising from the inability to find the Borland Runtime DLLs on the system
486default path. You will need to copy the DLLs reported by the messages
487from where Borland chose to install it, into the Windows system directory
488(usually somewhere like C:\WINNT\SYSTEM32) and rerun the test.
489
490If you're using Borland compiler versions 5.2 and below, you may run into
491problems finding the correct header files when building extensions. For
492example, building the "Tk" extension may fail because both perl and Tk
493contain a header file called "patchlevel.h". The latest Borland compiler
494(v5.5) is free of this misbehaviour, and it even supports an
495option -VI- for backward (bugward) compatibility for using the old Borland
496search algorithm to locate header files.
497
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498If you run the tests on a FAT partition, you may see some failures for
499C<link()> related tests (I<op/write.t>, I<op/stat.t> ...). Testing on
500NTFS avoids these errors.
501
502Furthermore, you should make sure that during C<make test> you do not
503have any GNU tool packages in your path: some toolkits like Unixutils
504include some tools (C<type> for instance) which override the Windows
505ones and makes tests fail. Remove them from your path while testing to
506avoid these errors.
507
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508Please report any other failures as described under L<BUGS AND CAVEATS>.
509
510=head2 Installation of Perl on Win32
511
512Type "dmake install" (or "nmake install"). This will put the newly
513built perl and the libraries under whatever C<INST_TOP> points to in the
514Makefile. It will also install the pod documentation under
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515C<$INST_TOP\$INST_VER\lib\pod> and HTML versions of the same under
516C<$INST_TOP\$INST_VER\lib\pod\html>.
9baed986 517
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518To use the Perl you just installed you will need to add a new entry to
519your PATH environment variable: C<$INST_TOP\bin>, e.g.
9baed986 520
00808b83 521 set PATH=c:\perl\bin;%PATH%
9baed986 522
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523If you opted to uncomment C<INST_VER> and C<INST_ARCH> in the makefile
524then the installation structure is a little more complicated and you will
525need to add two new PATH components instead: C<$INST_TOP\$INST_VER\bin> and
526C<$INST_TOP\$INST_VER\bin\$ARCHNAME>, e.g.
527
528 set PATH=c:\perl\5.6.0\bin;c:\perl\5.6.0\bin\MSWin32-x86;%PATH%
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529
530=head2 Usage Hints for Perl on Win32
531
532=over 4
533
534=item Environment Variables
535
536The installation paths that you set during the build get compiled
537into perl, so you don't have to do anything additional to start
538using that perl (except add its location to your PATH variable).
539
540If you put extensions in unusual places, you can set PERL5LIB
541to a list of paths separated by semicolons where you want perl
542to look for libraries. Look for descriptions of other environment
543variables you can set in L<perlrun>.
544
545You can also control the shell that perl uses to run system() and
546backtick commands via PERL5SHELL. See L<perlrun>.
547
548Perl does not depend on the registry, but it can look up certain default
549values if you choose to put them there. Perl attempts to read entries from
550C<HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Perl> and C<HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Perl>.
551Entries in the former override entries in the latter. One or more of the
552following entries (of type REG_SZ or REG_EXPAND_SZ) may be set:
553
554 lib-$] version-specific standard library path to add to @INC
555 lib standard library path to add to @INC
556 sitelib-$] version-specific site library path to add to @INC
557 sitelib site library path to add to @INC
558 vendorlib-$] version-specific vendor library path to add to @INC
559 vendorlib vendor library path to add to @INC
560 PERL* fallback for all %ENV lookups that begin with "PERL"
561
562Note the C<$]> in the above is not literal. Substitute whatever version
563of perl you want to honor that entry, e.g. C<5.6.0>. Paths must be
564separated with semicolons, as usual on win32.
565
566=item File Globbing
567
568By default, perl handles file globbing using the File::Glob extension,
569which provides portable globbing.
570
571If you want perl to use globbing that emulates the quirks of DOS
572filename conventions, you might want to consider using File::DosGlob
573to override the internal glob() implementation. See L<File::DosGlob> for
574details.
575
576=item Using perl from the command line
577
578If you are accustomed to using perl from various command-line
579shells found in UNIX environments, you will be less than pleased
580with what Windows offers by way of a command shell.
581
582The crucial thing to understand about the Windows environment is that
583the command line you type in is processed twice before Perl sees it.
584First, your command shell (usually CMD.EXE on Windows NT, and
585COMMAND.COM on Windows 9x) preprocesses the command line, to handle
586redirection, environment variable expansion, and location of the
587executable to run. Then, the perl executable splits the remaining
588command line into individual arguments, using the C runtime library
589upon which Perl was built.
590
591It is particularly important to note that neither the shell nor the C
592runtime do any wildcard expansions of command-line arguments (so
593wildcards need not be quoted). Also, the quoting behaviours of the
594shell and the C runtime are rudimentary at best (and may, if you are
595using a non-standard shell, be inconsistent). The only (useful) quote
596character is the double quote ("). It can be used to protect spaces
597and other special characters in arguments.
598
599The Windows NT documentation has almost no description of how the
600quoting rules are implemented, but here are some general observations
601based on experiments: The C runtime breaks arguments at spaces and
602passes them to programs in argc/argv. Double quotes can be used to
603prevent arguments with spaces in them from being split up. You can
604put a double quote in an argument by escaping it with a backslash and
605enclosing the whole argument within double quotes. The backslash and
606the pair of double quotes surrounding the argument will be stripped by
607the C runtime.
608
00808b83 609The file redirection characters "E<lt>", "E<gt>", and "|" can be quoted by
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610double quotes (although there are suggestions that this may not always
611be true). Single quotes are not treated as quotes by the shell or
612the C runtime, they don't get stripped by the shell (just to make
613this type of quoting completely useless). The caret "^" has also
614been observed to behave as a quoting character, but this appears
615to be a shell feature, and the caret is not stripped from the command
616line, so Perl still sees it (and the C runtime phase does not treat
617the caret as a quote character).
618
619Here are some examples of usage of the "cmd" shell:
620
621This prints two doublequotes:
622
623 perl -e "print '\"\"' "
624
625This does the same:
626
627 perl -e "print \"\\\"\\\"\" "
628
629This prints "bar" and writes "foo" to the file "blurch":
630
631 perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" > blurch
632
633This prints "foo" ("bar" disappears into nowhereland):
634
635 perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 2> nul
636
637This prints "bar" and writes "foo" into the file "blurch":
638
639 perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 1> blurch
640
641This pipes "foo" to the "less" pager and prints "bar" on the console:
642
643 perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" | less
644
645This pipes "foo\nbar\n" to the less pager:
646
647 perl -le "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 2>&1 | less
648
649This pipes "foo" to the pager and writes "bar" in the file "blurch":
650
651 perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 2> blurch | less
652
653
654Discovering the usefulness of the "command.com" shell on Windows 9x
655is left as an exercise to the reader :)
656
657One particularly pernicious problem with the 4NT command shell for
658Windows NT is that it (nearly) always treats a % character as indicating
659that environment variable expansion is needed. Under this shell, it is
660therefore important to always double any % characters which you want
661Perl to see (for example, for hash variables), even when they are
662quoted.
663
664=item Building Extensions
665
666The Comprehensive Perl Archive Network (CPAN) offers a wealth
667of extensions, some of which require a C compiler to build.
668Look in http://www.cpan.org/ for more information on CPAN.
669
670Note that not all of the extensions available from CPAN may work
671in the Win32 environment; you should check the information at
672http://testers.cpan.org/ before investing too much effort into
673porting modules that don't readily build.
674
675Most extensions (whether they require a C compiler or not) can
676be built, tested and installed with the standard mantra:
677
678 perl Makefile.PL
679 $MAKE
680 $MAKE test
681 $MAKE install
682
683where $MAKE is whatever 'make' program you have configured perl to
684use. Use "perl -V:make" to find out what this is. Some extensions
685may not provide a testsuite (so "$MAKE test" may not do anything or
686fail), but most serious ones do.
687
688It is important that you use a supported 'make' program, and
689ensure Config.pm knows about it. If you don't have nmake, you can
690either get dmake from the location mentioned earlier or get an
691old version of nmake reportedly available from:
692
cb9857f1 693 http://download.microsoft.com/download/vc15/Patch/1.52/W95/EN-US/nmake15.exe
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694
695Another option is to use the make written in Perl, available from
696CPAN.
697
698 http://www.cpan.org/modules/by-module/Make/
699
700You may also use dmake. See L</"Make"> above on how to get it.
701
702Note that MakeMaker actually emits makefiles with different syntax
703depending on what 'make' it thinks you are using. Therefore, it is
704important that one of the following values appears in Config.pm:
705
706 make='nmake' # MakeMaker emits nmake syntax
707 make='dmake' # MakeMaker emits dmake syntax
708 any other value # MakeMaker emits generic make syntax
709 (e.g GNU make, or Perl make)
710
711If the value doesn't match the 'make' program you want to use,
712edit Config.pm to fix it.
713
714If a module implements XSUBs, you will need one of the supported
715C compilers. You must make sure you have set up the environment for
716the compiler for command-line compilation.
717
718If a module does not build for some reason, look carefully for
719why it failed, and report problems to the module author. If
720it looks like the extension building support is at fault, report
721that with full details of how the build failed using the perlbug
722utility.
723
724=item Command-line Wildcard Expansion
725
726The default command shells on DOS descendant operating systems (such
727as they are) usually do not expand wildcard arguments supplied to
728programs. They consider it the application's job to handle that.
729This is commonly achieved by linking the application (in our case,
730perl) with startup code that the C runtime libraries usually provide.
731However, doing that results in incompatible perl versions (since the
732behavior of the argv expansion code differs depending on the
733compiler, and it is even buggy on some compilers). Besides, it may
734be a source of frustration if you use such a perl binary with an
735alternate shell that *does* expand wildcards.
736
737Instead, the following solution works rather well. The nice things
dbd54a9f 738about it are 1) you can start using it right away; 2) it is more
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739powerful, because it will do the right thing with a pattern like
740*/*/*.c; 3) you can decide whether you do/don't want to use it; and
dbd54a9f 7414) you can extend the method to add any customizations (or even
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742entirely different kinds of wildcard expansion).
743
744 C:\> copy con c:\perl\lib\Wild.pm
745 # Wild.pm - emulate shell @ARGV expansion on shells that don't
746 use File::DosGlob;
747 @ARGV = map {
748 my @g = File::DosGlob::glob($_) if /[*?]/;
749 @g ? @g : $_;
750 } @ARGV;
751 1;
752 ^Z
753 C:\> set PERL5OPT=-MWild
754 C:\> perl -le "for (@ARGV) { print }" */*/perl*.c
755 p4view/perl/perl.c
756 p4view/perl/perlio.c
757 p4view/perl/perly.c
758 perl5.005/win32/perlglob.c
759 perl5.005/win32/perllib.c
760 perl5.005/win32/perlglob.c
761 perl5.005/win32/perllib.c
762 perl5.005/win32/perlglob.c
763 perl5.005/win32/perllib.c
764
765Note there are two distinct steps there: 1) You'll have to create
766Wild.pm and put it in your perl lib directory. 2) You'll need to
767set the PERL5OPT environment variable. If you want argv expansion
768to be the default, just set PERL5OPT in your default startup
769environment.
770
771If you are using the Visual C compiler, you can get the C runtime's
772command line wildcard expansion built into perl binary. The resulting
773binary will always expand unquoted command lines, which may not be
774what you want if you use a shell that does that for you. The expansion
775done is also somewhat less powerful than the approach suggested above.
776
777=item Win32 Specific Extensions
778
779A number of extensions specific to the Win32 platform are available
780from CPAN. You may find that many of these extensions are meant to
781be used under the Activeware port of Perl, which used to be the only
782native port for the Win32 platform. Since the Activeware port does not
783have adequate support for Perl's extension building tools, these
784extensions typically do not support those tools either and, therefore,
785cannot be built using the generic steps shown in the previous section.
786
787To ensure smooth transitioning of existing code that uses the
788ActiveState port, there is a bundle of Win32 extensions that contains
00808b83 789all of the ActiveState extensions and several other Win32 extensions from
9baed986 790CPAN in source form, along with many added bugfixes, and with MakeMaker
758e4bce 791support. The latest version of this bundle is available at:
9baed986 792
758e4bce 793 http://search.cpan.org/dist/libwin32/
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794
795See the README in that distribution for building and installation
758e4bce 796instructions.
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797
798=item Notes on 64-bit Windows
799
800Windows .NET Server supports the LLP64 data model on the Intel Itanium
801architecture.
802
803The LLP64 data model is different from the LP64 data model that is the
804norm on 64-bit Unix platforms. In the former, C<int> and C<long> are
805both 32-bit data types, while pointers are 64 bits wide. In addition,
806there is a separate 64-bit wide integral type, C<__int64>. In contrast,
807the LP64 data model that is pervasive on Unix platforms provides C<int>
808as the 32-bit type, while both the C<long> type and pointers are of
80964-bit precision. Note that both models provide for 64-bits of
810addressability.
811
81264-bit Windows running on Itanium is capable of running 32-bit x86
813binaries transparently. This means that you could use a 32-bit build
814of Perl on a 64-bit system. Given this, why would one want to build
815a 64-bit build of Perl? Here are some reasons why you would bother:
816
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817=over
818
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819=item *
820
821A 64-bit native application will run much more efficiently on
822Itanium hardware.
823
824=item *
825
826There is no 2GB limit on process size.
827
828=item *
829
830Perl automatically provides large file support when built under
83164-bit Windows.
832
833=item *
834
835Embedding Perl inside a 64-bit application.
836
837=back
838
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839=back
840
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841=head2 Running Perl Scripts
842
843Perl scripts on UNIX use the "#!" (a.k.a "shebang") line to
844indicate to the OS that it should execute the file using perl.
845Win32 has no comparable means to indicate arbitrary files are
846executables.
847
848Instead, all available methods to execute plain text files on
849Win32 rely on the file "extension". There are three methods
850to use this to execute perl scripts:
851
852=over 8
853
854=item 1
855
856There is a facility called "file extension associations" that will
857work in Windows NT 4.0. This can be manipulated via the two
858commands "assoc" and "ftype" that come standard with Windows NT
8594.0. Type "ftype /?" for a complete example of how to set this
860up for perl scripts (Say what? You thought Windows NT wasn't
861perl-ready? :).
862
863=item 2
864
865Since file associations don't work everywhere, and there are
866reportedly bugs with file associations where it does work, the
867old method of wrapping the perl script to make it look like a
868regular batch file to the OS, may be used. The install process
869makes available the "pl2bat.bat" script which can be used to wrap
870perl scripts into batch files. For example:
871
872 pl2bat foo.pl
873
874will create the file "FOO.BAT". Note "pl2bat" strips any
875.pl suffix and adds a .bat suffix to the generated file.
876
877If you use the 4DOS/NT or similar command shell, note that
878"pl2bat" uses the "%*" variable in the generated batch file to
879refer to all the command line arguments, so you may need to make
880sure that construct works in batch files. As of this writing,
8814DOS/NT users will need a "ParameterChar = *" statement in their
8824NT.INI file or will need to execute "setdos /p*" in the 4DOS/NT
883startup file to enable this to work.
884
885=item 3
886
887Using "pl2bat" has a few problems: the file name gets changed,
888so scripts that rely on C<$0> to find what they must do may not
889run properly; running "pl2bat" replicates the contents of the
890original script, and so this process can be maintenance intensive
891if the originals get updated often. A different approach that
892avoids both problems is possible.
893
894A script called "runperl.bat" is available that can be copied
895to any filename (along with the .bat suffix). For example,
896if you call it "foo.bat", it will run the file "foo" when it is
897executed. Since you can run batch files on Win32 platforms simply
898by typing the name (without the extension), this effectively
899runs the file "foo", when you type either "foo" or "foo.bat".
900With this method, "foo.bat" can even be in a different location
901than the file "foo", as long as "foo" is available somewhere on
902the PATH. If your scripts are on a filesystem that allows symbolic
903links, you can even avoid copying "runperl.bat".
904
905Here's a diversion: copy "runperl.bat" to "runperl", and type
906"runperl". Explain the observed behavior, or lack thereof. :)
907Hint: .gnidnats llits er'uoy fi ,"lrepnur" eteled :tniH
908
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909=back
910
911=head2 Miscellaneous Things
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912
913A full set of HTML documentation is installed, so you should be
914able to use it if you have a web browser installed on your
915system.
916
917C<perldoc> is also a useful tool for browsing information contained
918in the documentation, especially in conjunction with a pager
919like C<less> (recent versions of which have Win32 support). You may
920have to set the PAGER environment variable to use a specific pager.
921"perldoc -f foo" will print information about the perl operator
922"foo".
923
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924One common mistake when using this port with a GUI library like C<Tk>
925is assuming that Perl's normal behavior of opening a command-line
926window will go away. This isn't the case. If you want to start a copy
927of C<perl> without opening a command-line window, use the C<wperl>
928executable built during the installation process. Usage is exactly
929the same as normal C<perl> on Win32, except that options like C<-h>
930don't work (since they need a command-line window to print to).
931
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932If you find bugs in perl, you can run C<perlbug> to create a
933bug report (you may have to send it manually if C<perlbug> cannot
934find a mailer on your system).
935
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936=head1 BUGS AND CAVEATS
937
dbd54a9f
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938Norton AntiVirus interferes with the build process, particularly if
939set to "AutoProtect, All Files, when Opened". Unlike large applications
940the perl build process opens and modifies a lot of files. Having the
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941the AntiVirus scan each and every one slows build the process significantly.
942Worse, with PERLIO=stdio the build process fails with peculiar messages
dbd54a9f 943as the virus checker interacts badly with miniperl.exe writing configure
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944files (it seems to either catch file part written and treat it as suspicious,
945or virus checker may have it "locked" in a way which inhibits miniperl
dbd54a9f 946updating it). The build does complete with
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947
948 set PERLIO=perlio
949
950but that may be just luck. Other AntiVirus software may have similar issues.
951
952Some of the built-in functions do not act exactly as documented in
953L<perlfunc>, and a few are not implemented at all. To avoid
954surprises, particularly if you have had prior exposure to Perl
955in other operating environments or if you intend to write code
00808b83 956that will be portable to other environments, see L<perlport>
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957for a reasonably definitive list of these differences.
958
959Not all extensions available from CPAN may build or work properly
960in the Win32 environment. See L</"Building Extensions">.
961
962Most C<socket()> related calls are supported, but they may not
963behave as on Unix platforms. See L<perlport> for the full list.
036c1c1e
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964Perl requires Winsock2 to be installed on the system. If you're
965running Win95, you can download Winsock upgrade from here:
966
967http://www.microsoft.com/windows95/downloads/contents/WUAdminTools/S_WUNetworkingTools/W95Sockets2/Default.asp
968
969Later OS versions already include Winsock2 support.
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970
971Signal handling may not behave as on Unix platforms (where it
972doesn't exactly "behave", either :). For instance, calling C<die()>
973or C<exit()> from signal handlers will cause an exception, since most
974implementations of C<signal()> on Win32 are severely crippled.
975Thus, signals may work only for simple things like setting a flag
976variable in the handler. Using signals under this port should
977currently be considered unsupported.
978
dbd54a9f 979Please send detailed descriptions of any problems and solutions that
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980you may find to E<lt>F<perlbug@perl.org>E<gt>, along with the output
981produced by C<perl -V>.
9baed986 982
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983=head1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
984
985The use of a camel with the topic of Perl is a trademark
986of O'Reilly and Associates, Inc. Used with permission.
987
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988=head1 AUTHORS
989
990=over 4
991
992=item Gary Ng E<lt>71564.1743@CompuServe.COME<gt>
993
994=item Gurusamy Sarathy E<lt>gsar@activestate.comE<gt>
995
996=item Nick Ing-Simmons E<lt>nick@ing-simmons.netE<gt>
997
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998=item Jan Dubois E<lt>jand@activestate.comE<gt>
999
1000=item Steve Hay E<lt>steve.hay@uk.radan.comE<gt>
1001
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1002=back
1003
2bfd3252 1004This document is maintained by Jan Dubois.
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1005
1006=head1 SEE ALSO
1007
1008L<perl>
1009
1010=head1 HISTORY
1011
1012This port was originally contributed by Gary Ng around 5.003_24,
1013and borrowed from the Hip Communications port that was available
1014at the time. Various people have made numerous and sundry hacks
1015since then.
1016
1017Borland support was added in 5.004_01 (Gurusamy Sarathy).
1018
1019GCC/mingw32 support was added in 5.005 (Nick Ing-Simmons).
1020
1021Support for PERL_OBJECT was added in 5.005 (ActiveState Tool Corp).
1022
1023Support for fork() emulation was added in 5.6 (ActiveState Tool Corp).
1024
1025Win9x support was added in 5.6 (Benjamin Stuhl).
1026
1027Support for 64-bit Windows added in 5.8 (ActiveState Corp).
1028
4a3cf07b 1029Last updated: 29 August 2007
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1030
1031=cut