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[perl5.git] / pod / perlebcdic.pod
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perlebcdic - Considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7An exploration of some of the issues facing Perl programmers
8on EBCDIC based computers. We do not cover localization,
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9internationalization, or multi byte character set issues other
10than some discussion of UTF-8 and UTF-EBCDIC.
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11
12Portions that are still incomplete are marked with XXX.
13
14=head1 COMMON CHARACTER CODE SETS
15
16=head2 ASCII
17
18The American Standard Code for Information Interchange is a set of
19integers running from 0 to 127 (decimal) that imply character
20interpretation by the display and other system(s) of computers.
51b5cecb 21The range 0..127 can be covered by setting the bits in a 7-bit binary
d396a558 22digit, hence the set is sometimes referred to as a "7-bit ASCII".
51b5cecb 23ASCII was described by the American National Standards Institute
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24document ANSI X3.4-1986. It was also described by ISO 646:1991
25(with localization for currency symbols). The full ASCII set is
26given in the table below as the first 128 elements. Languages that
27can be written adequately with the characters in ASCII include
28English, Hawaiian, Indonesian, Swahili and some Native American
29languages.
30
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31There are many character sets that extend the range of integers
32from 0..2**7-1 up to 2**8-1, or 8 bit bytes (octets if you prefer).
33One common one is the ISO 8859-1 character set.
34
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35=head2 ISO 8859
36
37The ISO 8859-$n are a collection of character code sets from the
38International Organization for Standardization (ISO) each of which
39adds characters to the ASCII set that are typically found in European
40languages many of which are based on the Roman, or Latin, alphabet.
41
42=head2 Latin 1 (ISO 8859-1)
43
44A particular 8-bit extension to ASCII that includes grave and acute
45accented Latin characters. Languages that can employ ISO 8859-1
46include all the languages covered by ASCII as well as Afrikaans,
47Albanian, Basque, Catalan, Danish, Faroese, Finnish, Norwegian,
3958b146 48Portuguese, Spanish, and Swedish. Dutch is covered albeit without
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49the ij ligature. French is covered too but without the oe ligature.
50German can use ISO 8859-1 but must do so without German-style
51quotation marks. This set is based on Western European extensions
52to ASCII and is commonly encountered in world wide web work.
53In IBM character code set identification terminology ISO 8859-1 is
51b5cecb 54also known as CCSID 819 (or sometimes 0819 or even 00819).
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55
56=head2 EBCDIC
57
395f5a0c 58The Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code refers to a
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59large collection of slightly different single and multi byte
60coded character sets that are different from ASCII or ISO 8859-1
61and typically run on host computers. The EBCDIC encodings derive
62from 8 bit byte extensions of Hollerith punched card encodings.
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63The layout on the cards was such that high bits were set for the
64upper and lower case alphabet characters [a-z] and [A-Z], but there
65were gaps within each latin alphabet range.
66
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67Some IBM EBCDIC character sets may be known by character code set
68identification numbers (CCSID numbers) or code page numbers. Leading
69zero digits in CCSID numbers within this document are insignificant.
70E.g. CCSID 0037 may be referred to as 37 in places.
71
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72=head2 13 variant characters
73
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74Among IBM EBCDIC character code sets there are 13 characters that
75are often mapped to different integer values. Those characters
76are known as the 13 "variant" characters and are:
d396a558 77
51b5cecb 78 \ [ ] { } ^ ~ ! # | $ @ `
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79
80=head2 0037
81
82Character code set ID 0037 is a mapping of the ASCII plus Latin-1
83characters (i.e. ISO 8859-1) to an EBCDIC set. 0037 is used
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84in North American English locales on the OS/400 operating system
85that runs on AS/400 computers. CCSID 37 differs from ISO 8859-1
86in 237 places, in other words they agree on only 19 code point values.
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87
88=head2 1047
89
90Character code set ID 1047 is also a mapping of the ASCII plus
91Latin-1 characters (i.e. ISO 8859-1) to an EBCDIC set. 1047 is
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92used under Unix System Services for OS/390 or z/OS, and OpenEdition
93for VM/ESA. CCSID 1047 differs from CCSID 0037 in eight places.
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94
95=head2 POSIX-BC
96
97The EBCDIC code page in use on Siemens' BS2000 system is distinct from
981047 and 0037. It is identified below as the POSIX-BC set.
99
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100=head2 Unicode code points versus EBCDIC code points
101
102In Unicode terminology a I<code point> is the number assigned to a
103character: for example, in EBCDIC the character "A" is usually assigned
104the number 193. In Unicode the character "A" is assigned the number 65.
105This causes a problem with the semantics of the pack/unpack "U", which
106are supposed to pack Unicode code points to characters and back to numbers.
107The problem is: which code points to use for code points less than 256?
108(for 256 and over there's no problem: Unicode code points are used)
109In EBCDIC, for the low 256 the EBCDIC code points are used. This
110means that the equivalences
111
112 pack("U", ord($character)) eq $character
113 unpack("U", $character) == ord $character
114
115will hold. (If Unicode code points were applied consistently over
116all the possible code points, pack("U",ord("A")) would in EBCDIC
117equal I<A with acute> or chr(101), and unpack("U", "A") would equal
11865, or I<non-breaking space>, not 193, or ord "A".)
119
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120=head2 Remaining Perl Unicode problems in EBCDIC
121
122=over 4
123
124=item *
125
126Many of the remaining seem to be related to case-insensitive matching:
127for example, C<< /[\x{131}]/ >> (LATIN SMALL LETTER DOTLESS I) does
128not match "I" case-insensitively, as it should under Unicode.
129(The match succeeds in ASCII-derived platforms.)
130
131=item *
132
133The extensions Unicode::Collate and Unicode::Normalized are not
134supported under EBCDIC, likewise for the encoding pragma.
135
136=back
137
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138=head2 Unicode and UTF
139
140UTF is a Unicode Transformation Format. UTF-8 is a Unicode conforming
141representation of the Unicode standard that looks very much like ASCII.
142UTF-EBCDIC is an attempt to represent Unicode characters in an EBCDIC
143transparent manner.
144
8704cfd1 145=head2 Using Encode
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146
147Starting from Perl 5.8 you can use the standard new module Encode
148to translate from EBCDIC to Latin-1 code points
149
150 use Encode 'from_to';
151
152 my %ebcdic = ( 176 => 'cp37', 95 => 'cp1047', 106 => 'posix-bc' );
153
154 # $a is in EBCDIC code points
155 from_to($a, $ebcdic{ord '^'}, 'latin1');
156 # $a is ISO 8859-1 code points
157
158and from Latin-1 code points to EBCDIC code points
159
160 use Encode 'from_to';
161
162 my %ebcdic = ( 176 => 'cp37', 95 => 'cp1047', 106 => 'posix-bc' );
163
164 # $a is ISO 8859-1 code points
165 from_to($a, 'latin1', $ebcdic{ord '^'});
166 # $a is in EBCDIC code points
167
168For doing I/O it is suggested that you use the autotranslating features
169of PerlIO, see L<perluniintro>.
170
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171Since version 5.8 Perl uses the new PerlIO I/O library. This enables
172you to use different encodings per IO channel. For example you may use
173
174 use Encode;
175 open($f, ">:encoding(ascii)", "test.ascii");
176 print $f "Hello World!\n";
177 open($f, ">:encoding(cp37)", "test.ebcdic");
178 print $f "Hello World!\n";
179 open($f, ">:encoding(latin1)", "test.latin1");
180 print $f "Hello World!\n";
181 open($f, ">:encoding(utf8)", "test.utf8");
182 print $f "Hello World!\n";
183
184to get two files containing "Hello World!\n" in ASCII, CP 37 EBCDIC,
185ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1) (in this example identical to ASCII) respective
186UTF-EBCDIC (in this example identical to normal EBCDIC). See the
187documentation of Encode::PerlIO for details.
188
189As the PerlIO layer uses raw IO (bytes) internally, all this totally
190ignores things like the type of your filesystem (ASCII or EBCDIC).
191
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192=head1 SINGLE OCTET TABLES
193
194The following tables list the ASCII and Latin 1 ordered sets including
195the subsets: C0 controls (0..31), ASCII graphics (32..7e), delete (7f),
196C1 controls (80..9f), and Latin-1 (a.k.a. ISO 8859-1) (a0..ff). In the
197table non-printing control character names as well as the Latin 1
198extensions to ASCII have been labelled with character names roughly
395f5a0c 199corresponding to I<The Unicode Standard, Version 3.0> albeit with
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200substitutions such as s/LATIN// and s/VULGAR// in all cases,
201s/CAPITAL LETTER// in some cases, and s/SMALL LETTER ([A-Z])/\l$1/
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202in some other cases (the C<charnames> pragma names unfortunately do
203not list explicit names for the C0 or C1 control characters). The
204"names" of the C1 control set (128..159 in ISO 8859-1) listed here are
205somewhat arbitrary. The differences between the 0037 and 1047 sets are
206flagged with ***. The differences between the 1047 and POSIX-BC sets
207are flagged with ###. All ord() numbers listed are decimal. If you
208would rather see this table listing octal values then run the table
209(that is, the pod version of this document since this recipe may not
210work with a pod2_other_format translation) through:
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211
212=over 4
213
214=item recipe 0
215
216=back
217
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218 perl -ne 'if(/(.{33})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)/)' \
219 -e '{printf("%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%o\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5)}' perlebcdic.pod
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220
221If you want to retain the UTF-x code points then in script form you
222might want to write:
223
224=over 4
225
226=item recipe 1
227
228=back
229
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230 open(FH,"<perlebcdic.pod") or die "Could not open perlebcdic.pod: $!";
231 while (<FH>) {
232 if (/(.{33})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)/) {
233 if ($7 ne '' && $9 ne '') {
234 printf("%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%-3o.%-5o%-3o.%o\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8,$9);
235 }
236 elsif ($7 ne '') {
237 printf("%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%-3o.%-5o%o\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8);
238 }
239 else {
240 printf("%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%o\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$8);
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241 }
242 }
243 }
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244
245If you would rather see this table listing hexadecimal values then
246run the table through:
247
248=over 4
249
395f5a0c 250=item recipe 2
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251
252=back
253
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254 perl -ne 'if(/(.{33})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)/)' \
255 -e '{printf("%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%X\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5)}' perlebcdic.pod
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256
257Or, in order to retain the UTF-x code points in hexadecimal:
258
259=over 4
260
261=item recipe 3
262
263=back
264
84f709e7 265 open(FH,"<perlebcdic.pod") or die "Could not open perlebcdic.pod: $!";
395f5a0c 266 while (<FH>) {
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267 if (/(.{33})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)/) {
268 if ($7 ne '' && $9 ne '') {
269 printf("%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%-2X.%-6X%-2X.%X\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8,$9);
395f5a0c 270 }
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271 elsif ($7 ne '') {
272 printf("%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%-2X.%-6X%X\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8);
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273 }
274 else {
84f709e7 275 printf("%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%X\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$8);
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276 }
277 }
278 }
279
280
281 incomp- incomp-
282 8859-1 lete lete
283 chr 0819 0037 1047 POSIX-BC UTF-8 UTF-EBCDIC
284 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
285 <NULL> 0 0 0 0 0 0
286 <START OF HEADING> 1 1 1 1 1 1
287 <START OF TEXT> 2 2 2 2 2 2
288 <END OF TEXT> 3 3 3 3 3 3
289 <END OF TRANSMISSION> 4 55 55 55 4 55
290 <ENQUIRY> 5 45 45 45 5 45
291 <ACKNOWLEDGE> 6 46 46 46 6 46
292 <BELL> 7 47 47 47 7 47
293 <BACKSPACE> 8 22 22 22 8 22
294 <HORIZONTAL TABULATION> 9 5 5 5 9 5
295 <LINE FEED> 10 37 21 21 10 21 ***
296 <VERTICAL TABULATION> 11 11 11 11 11 11
297 <FORM FEED> 12 12 12 12 12 12
298 <CARRIAGE RETURN> 13 13 13 13 13 13
299 <SHIFT OUT> 14 14 14 14 14 14
300 <SHIFT IN> 15 15 15 15 15 15
301 <DATA LINK ESCAPE> 16 16 16 16 16 16
302 <DEVICE CONTROL ONE> 17 17 17 17 17 17
303 <DEVICE CONTROL TWO> 18 18 18 18 18 18
304 <DEVICE CONTROL THREE> 19 19 19 19 19 19
305 <DEVICE CONTROL FOUR> 20 60 60 60 20 60
306 <NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGE> 21 61 61 61 21 61
307 <SYNCHRONOUS IDLE> 22 50 50 50 22 50
308 <END OF TRANSMISSION BLOCK> 23 38 38 38 23 38
309 <CANCEL> 24 24 24 24 24 24
310 <END OF MEDIUM> 25 25 25 25 25 25
311 <SUBSTITUTE> 26 63 63 63 26 63
312 <ESCAPE> 27 39 39 39 27 39
313 <FILE SEPARATOR> 28 28 28 28 28 28
314 <GROUP SEPARATOR> 29 29 29 29 29 29
315 <RECORD SEPARATOR> 30 30 30 30 30 30
316 <UNIT SEPARATOR> 31 31 31 31 31 31
317 <SPACE> 32 64 64 64 32 64
318 ! 33 90 90 90 33 90
319 " 34 127 127 127 34 127
320 # 35 123 123 123 35 123
321 $ 36 91 91 91 36 91
322 % 37 108 108 108 37 108
323 & 38 80 80 80 38 80
324 ' 39 125 125 125 39 125
325 ( 40 77 77 77 40 77
326 ) 41 93 93 93 41 93
327 * 42 92 92 92 42 92
328 + 43 78 78 78 43 78
329 , 44 107 107 107 44 107
330 - 45 96 96 96 45 96
331 . 46 75 75 75 46 75
332 / 47 97 97 97 47 97
333 0 48 240 240 240 48 240
334 1 49 241 241 241 49 241
335 2 50 242 242 242 50 242
336 3 51 243 243 243 51 243
337 4 52 244 244 244 52 244
338 5 53 245 245 245 53 245
339 6 54 246 246 246 54 246
340 7 55 247 247 247 55 247
341 8 56 248 248 248 56 248
342 9 57 249 249 249 57 249
343 : 58 122 122 122 58 122
344 ; 59 94 94 94 59 94
345 < 60 76 76 76 60 76
346 = 61 126 126 126 61 126
347 > 62 110 110 110 62 110
348 ? 63 111 111 111 63 111
349 @ 64 124 124 124 64 124
350 A 65 193 193 193 65 193
351 B 66 194 194 194 66 194
352 C 67 195 195 195 67 195
353 D 68 196 196 196 68 196
354 E 69 197 197 197 69 197
355 F 70 198 198 198 70 198
356 G 71 199 199 199 71 199
357 H 72 200 200 200 72 200
358 I 73 201 201 201 73 201
359 J 74 209 209 209 74 209
360 K 75 210 210 210 75 210
361 L 76 211 211 211 76 211
362 M 77 212 212 212 77 212
363 N 78 213 213 213 78 213
364 O 79 214 214 214 79 214
365 P 80 215 215 215 80 215
366 Q 81 216 216 216 81 216
367 R 82 217 217 217 82 217
368 S 83 226 226 226 83 226
369 T 84 227 227 227 84 227
370 U 85 228 228 228 85 228
371 V 86 229 229 229 86 229
372 W 87 230 230 230 87 230
373 X 88 231 231 231 88 231
374 Y 89 232 232 232 89 232
375 Z 90 233 233 233 90 233
376 [ 91 186 173 187 91 173 *** ###
377 \ 92 224 224 188 92 224 ###
378 ] 93 187 189 189 93 189 ***
379 ^ 94 176 95 106 94 95 *** ###
380 _ 95 109 109 109 95 109
381 ` 96 121 121 74 96 121 ###
382 a 97 129 129 129 97 129
383 b 98 130 130 130 98 130
384 c 99 131 131 131 99 131
385 d 100 132 132 132 100 132
386 e 101 133 133 133 101 133
387 f 102 134 134 134 102 134
388 g 103 135 135 135 103 135
389 h 104 136 136 136 104 136
390 i 105 137 137 137 105 137
391 j 106 145 145 145 106 145
392 k 107 146 146 146 107 146
393 l 108 147 147 147 108 147
394 m 109 148 148 148 109 148
395 n 110 149 149 149 110 149
396 o 111 150 150 150 111 150
397 p 112 151 151 151 112 151
398 q 113 152 152 152 113 152
399 r 114 153 153 153 114 153
400 s 115 162 162 162 115 162
401 t 116 163 163 163 116 163
402 u 117 164 164 164 117 164
403 v 118 165 165 165 118 165
404 w 119 166 166 166 119 166
405 x 120 167 167 167 120 167
406 y 121 168 168 168 121 168
407 z 122 169 169 169 122 169
408 { 123 192 192 251 123 192 ###
409 | 124 79 79 79 124 79
410 } 125 208 208 253 125 208 ###
411 ~ 126 161 161 255 126 161 ###
412 <DELETE> 127 7 7 7 127 7
413 <C1 0> 128 32 32 32 194.128 32
414 <C1 1> 129 33 33 33 194.129 33
415 <C1 2> 130 34 34 34 194.130 34
416 <C1 3> 131 35 35 35 194.131 35
417 <C1 4> 132 36 36 36 194.132 36
418 <C1 5> 133 21 37 37 194.133 37 ***
419 <C1 6> 134 6 6 6 194.134 6
420 <C1 7> 135 23 23 23 194.135 23
421 <C1 8> 136 40 40 40 194.136 40
422 <C1 9> 137 41 41 41 194.137 41
423 <C1 10> 138 42 42 42 194.138 42
424 <C1 11> 139 43 43 43 194.139 43
425 <C1 12> 140 44 44 44 194.140 44
426 <C1 13> 141 9 9 9 194.141 9
427 <C1 14> 142 10 10 10 194.142 10
428 <C1 15> 143 27 27 27 194.143 27
429 <C1 16> 144 48 48 48 194.144 48
430 <C1 17> 145 49 49 49 194.145 49
431 <C1 18> 146 26 26 26 194.146 26
432 <C1 19> 147 51 51 51 194.147 51
433 <C1 20> 148 52 52 52 194.148 52
434 <C1 21> 149 53 53 53 194.149 53
435 <C1 22> 150 54 54 54 194.150 54
436 <C1 23> 151 8 8 8 194.151 8
437 <C1 24> 152 56 56 56 194.152 56
438 <C1 25> 153 57 57 57 194.153 57
439 <C1 26> 154 58 58 58 194.154 58
440 <C1 27> 155 59 59 59 194.155 59
441 <C1 28> 156 4 4 4 194.156 4
442 <C1 29> 157 20 20 20 194.157 20
443 <C1 30> 158 62 62 62 194.158 62
444 <C1 31> 159 255 255 95 194.159 255 ###
445 <NON-BREAKING SPACE> 160 65 65 65 194.160 128.65
446 <INVERTED EXCLAMATION MARK> 161 170 170 170 194.161 128.66
447 <CENT SIGN> 162 74 74 176 194.162 128.67 ###
448 <POUND SIGN> 163 177 177 177 194.163 128.68
449 <CURRENCY SIGN> 164 159 159 159 194.164 128.69
450 <YEN SIGN> 165 178 178 178 194.165 128.70
451 <BROKEN BAR> 166 106 106 208 194.166 128.71 ###
452 <SECTION SIGN> 167 181 181 181 194.167 128.72
453 <DIAERESIS> 168 189 187 121 194.168 128.73 *** ###
454 <COPYRIGHT SIGN> 169 180 180 180 194.169 128.74
455 <FEMININE ORDINAL INDICATOR> 170 154 154 154 194.170 128.81
456 <LEFT POINTING GUILLEMET> 171 138 138 138 194.171 128.82
457 <NOT SIGN> 172 95 176 186 194.172 128.83 *** ###
458 <SOFT HYPHEN> 173 202 202 202 194.173 128.84
459 <REGISTERED TRADE MARK SIGN> 174 175 175 175 194.174 128.85
460 <MACRON> 175 188 188 161 194.175 128.86 ###
461 <DEGREE SIGN> 176 144 144 144 194.176 128.87
462 <PLUS-OR-MINUS SIGN> 177 143 143 143 194.177 128.88
463 <SUPERSCRIPT TWO> 178 234 234 234 194.178 128.89
464 <SUPERSCRIPT THREE> 179 250 250 250 194.179 128.98
465 <ACUTE ACCENT> 180 190 190 190 194.180 128.99
466 <MICRO SIGN> 181 160 160 160 194.181 128.100
467 <PARAGRAPH SIGN> 182 182 182 182 194.182 128.101
468 <MIDDLE DOT> 183 179 179 179 194.183 128.102
469 <CEDILLA> 184 157 157 157 194.184 128.103
470 <SUPERSCRIPT ONE> 185 218 218 218 194.185 128.104
471 <MASC. ORDINAL INDICATOR> 186 155 155 155 194.186 128.105
472 <RIGHT POINTING GUILLEMET> 187 139 139 139 194.187 128.106
473 <FRACTION ONE QUARTER> 188 183 183 183 194.188 128.112
474 <FRACTION ONE HALF> 189 184 184 184 194.189 128.113
475 <FRACTION THREE QUARTERS> 190 185 185 185 194.190 128.114
476 <INVERTED QUESTION MARK> 191 171 171 171 194.191 128.115
477 <A WITH GRAVE> 192 100 100 100 195.128 138.65
478 <A WITH ACUTE> 193 101 101 101 195.129 138.66
479 <A WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 194 98 98 98 195.130 138.67
480 <A WITH TILDE> 195 102 102 102 195.131 138.68
481 <A WITH DIAERESIS> 196 99 99 99 195.132 138.69
482 <A WITH RING ABOVE> 197 103 103 103 195.133 138.70
483 <CAPITAL LIGATURE AE> 198 158 158 158 195.134 138.71
484 <C WITH CEDILLA> 199 104 104 104 195.135 138.72
485 <E WITH GRAVE> 200 116 116 116 195.136 138.73
486 <E WITH ACUTE> 201 113 113 113 195.137 138.74
487 <E WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 202 114 114 114 195.138 138.81
488 <E WITH DIAERESIS> 203 115 115 115 195.139 138.82
489 <I WITH GRAVE> 204 120 120 120 195.140 138.83
490 <I WITH ACUTE> 205 117 117 117 195.141 138.84
491 <I WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 206 118 118 118 195.142 138.85
492 <I WITH DIAERESIS> 207 119 119 119 195.143 138.86
493 <CAPITAL LETTER ETH> 208 172 172 172 195.144 138.87
494 <N WITH TILDE> 209 105 105 105 195.145 138.88
495 <O WITH GRAVE> 210 237 237 237 195.146 138.89
496 <O WITH ACUTE> 211 238 238 238 195.147 138.98
497 <O WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 212 235 235 235 195.148 138.99
498 <O WITH TILDE> 213 239 239 239 195.149 138.100
499 <O WITH DIAERESIS> 214 236 236 236 195.150 138.101
500 <MULTIPLICATION SIGN> 215 191 191 191 195.151 138.102
501 <O WITH STROKE> 216 128 128 128 195.152 138.103
502 <U WITH GRAVE> 217 253 253 224 195.153 138.104 ###
503 <U WITH ACUTE> 218 254 254 254 195.154 138.105
504 <U WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 219 251 251 221 195.155 138.106 ###
505 <U WITH DIAERESIS> 220 252 252 252 195.156 138.112
506 <Y WITH ACUTE> 221 173 186 173 195.157 138.113 *** ###
507 <CAPITAL LETTER THORN> 222 174 174 174 195.158 138.114
508 <SMALL LETTER SHARP S> 223 89 89 89 195.159 138.115
509 <a WITH GRAVE> 224 68 68 68 195.160 139.65
510 <a WITH ACUTE> 225 69 69 69 195.161 139.66
511 <a WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 226 66 66 66 195.162 139.67
512 <a WITH TILDE> 227 70 70 70 195.163 139.68
513 <a WITH DIAERESIS> 228 67 67 67 195.164 139.69
514 <a WITH RING ABOVE> 229 71 71 71 195.165 139.70
515 <SMALL LIGATURE ae> 230 156 156 156 195.166 139.71
516 <c WITH CEDILLA> 231 72 72 72 195.167 139.72
517 <e WITH GRAVE> 232 84 84 84 195.168 139.73
518 <e WITH ACUTE> 233 81 81 81 195.169 139.74
519 <e WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 234 82 82 82 195.170 139.81
520 <e WITH DIAERESIS> 235 83 83 83 195.171 139.82
521 <i WITH GRAVE> 236 88 88 88 195.172 139.83
522 <i WITH ACUTE> 237 85 85 85 195.173 139.84
523 <i WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 238 86 86 86 195.174 139.85
524 <i WITH DIAERESIS> 239 87 87 87 195.175 139.86
525 <SMALL LETTER eth> 240 140 140 140 195.176 139.87
526 <n WITH TILDE> 241 73 73 73 195.177 139.88
527 <o WITH GRAVE> 242 205 205 205 195.178 139.89
528 <o WITH ACUTE> 243 206 206 206 195.179 139.98
529 <o WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 244 203 203 203 195.180 139.99
530 <o WITH TILDE> 245 207 207 207 195.181 139.100
531 <o WITH DIAERESIS> 246 204 204 204 195.182 139.101
532 <DIVISION SIGN> 247 225 225 225 195.183 139.102
533 <o WITH STROKE> 248 112 112 112 195.184 139.103
534 <u WITH GRAVE> 249 221 221 192 195.185 139.104 ###
535 <u WITH ACUTE> 250 222 222 222 195.186 139.105
536 <u WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 251 219 219 219 195.187 139.106
537 <u WITH DIAERESIS> 252 220 220 220 195.188 139.112
538 <y WITH ACUTE> 253 141 141 141 195.189 139.113
539 <SMALL LETTER thorn> 254 142 142 142 195.190 139.114
540 <y WITH DIAERESIS> 255 223 223 223 195.191 139.115
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541
542If you would rather see the above table in CCSID 0037 order rather than
543ASCII + Latin-1 order then run the table through:
544
545=over 4
546
395f5a0c 547=item recipe 4
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548
549=back
550
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551 perl -ne 'if(/.{33}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)'\
552 -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
553 -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
554 -e ' sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
555 -e ' map{[$_,substr($_,42,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod
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556
557If you would rather see it in CCSID 1047 order then change the digit
55842 in the last line to 51, like this:
559
560=over 4
561
395f5a0c 562=item recipe 5
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563
564=back
565
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566 perl -ne 'if(/.{33}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)'\
567 -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
568 -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
569 -e ' sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
570 -e ' map{[$_,substr($_,51,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod
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571
572If you would rather see it in POSIX-BC order then change the digit
57351 in the last line to 60, like this:
574
575=over 4
576
395f5a0c 577=item recipe 6
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578
579=back
580
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581 perl -ne 'if(/.{33}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)'\
582 -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
583 -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
584 -e ' sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
585 -e ' map{[$_,substr($_,60,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod
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586
587
588=head1 IDENTIFYING CHARACTER CODE SETS
589
590To determine the character set you are running under from perl one
591could use the return value of ord() or chr() to test one or more
592character values. For example:
593
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594 $is_ascii = "A" eq chr(65);
595 $is_ebcdic = "A" eq chr(193);
d396a558 596
51b5cecb 597Also, "\t" is a C<HORIZONTAL TABULATION> character so that:
d396a558 598
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599 $is_ascii = ord("\t") == 9;
600 $is_ebcdic = ord("\t") == 5;
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601
602To distinguish EBCDIC code pages try looking at one or more of
603the characters that differ between them. For example:
604
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605 $is_ebcdic_37 = "\n" eq chr(37);
606 $is_ebcdic_1047 = "\n" eq chr(21);
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607
608Or better still choose a character that is uniquely encoded in any
609of the code sets, e.g.:
610
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611 $is_ascii = ord('[') == 91;
612 $is_ebcdic_37 = ord('[') == 186;
613 $is_ebcdic_1047 = ord('[') == 173;
614 $is_ebcdic_POSIX_BC = ord('[') == 187;
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615
616However, it would be unwise to write tests such as:
617
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618 $is_ascii = "\r" ne chr(13); # WRONG
619 $is_ascii = "\n" ne chr(10); # ILL ADVISED
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620
621Obviously the first of these will fail to distinguish most ASCII machines
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622from either a CCSID 0037, a 1047, or a POSIX-BC EBCDIC machine since "\r" eq
623chr(13) under all of those coded character sets. But note too that
624because "\n" is chr(13) and "\r" is chr(10) on the MacIntosh (which is an
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625ASCII machine) the second C<$is_ascii> test will lead to trouble there.
626
84f709e7 627To determine whether or not perl was built under an EBCDIC
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628code page you can use the Config module like so:
629
630 use Config;
84f709e7 631 $is_ebcdic = $Config{'ebcdic'} eq 'define';
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632
633=head1 CONVERSIONS
634
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635=head2 tr///
636
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637In order to convert a string of characters from one character set to
638another a simple list of numbers, such as in the right columns in the
639above table, along with perl's tr/// operator is all that is needed.
640The data in the table are in ASCII order hence the EBCDIC columns
641provide easy to use ASCII to EBCDIC operations that are also easily
642reversed.
643
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644For example, to convert ASCII to code page 037 take the output of the second
645column from the output of recipe 0 (modified to add \\ characters) and use
d5d9880c 646it in tr/// like so:
d396a558 647
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648 $cp_037 =
649 '\000\001\002\003\234\011\206\177\227\215\216\013\014\015\016\017' .
650 '\020\021\022\023\235\205\010\207\030\031\222\217\034\035\036\037' .
651 '\200\201\202\203\204\012\027\033\210\211\212\213\214\005\006\007' .
652 '\220\221\026\223\224\225\226\004\230\231\232\233\024\025\236\032' .
653 '\040\240\342\344\340\341\343\345\347\361\242\056\074\050\053\174' .
654 '\046\351\352\353\350\355\356\357\354\337\041\044\052\051\073\254' .
655 '\055\057\302\304\300\301\303\305\307\321\246\054\045\137\076\077' .
656 '\370\311\312\313\310\315\316\317\314\140\072\043\100\047\075\042' .
657 '\330\141\142\143\144\145\146\147\150\151\253\273\360\375\376\261' .
658 '\260\152\153\154\155\156\157\160\161\162\252\272\346\270\306\244' .
659 '\265\176\163\164\165\166\167\170\171\172\241\277\320\335\336\256' .
660 '\136\243\245\267\251\247\266\274\275\276\133\135\257\250\264\327' .
661 '\173\101\102\103\104\105\106\107\110\111\255\364\366\362\363\365' .
662 '\175\112\113\114\115\116\117\120\121\122\271\373\374\371\372\377' .
663 '\134\367\123\124\125\126\127\130\131\132\262\324\326\322\323\325' .
664 '\060\061\062\063\064\065\066\067\070\071\263\333\334\331\332\237' ;
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665
666 my $ebcdic_string = $ascii_string;
d7449b02 667 eval '$ebcdic_string =~ tr/' . $cp_037 . '/\000-\377/';
d396a558 668
d5d9880c 669To convert from EBCDIC 037 to ASCII just reverse the order of the tr///
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670arguments like so:
671
672 my $ascii_string = $ebcdic_string;
d7449b02 673 eval '$ascii_string =~ tr/\000-\377/' . $cp_037 . '/';
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674
675Similarly one could take the output of the third column from recipe 0 to
676obtain a C<$cp_1047> table. The fourth column of the output from recipe
6770 could provide a C<$cp_posix_bc> table suitable for transcoding as well.
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678
679=head2 iconv
d396a558 680
d5d9880c 681XPG operability often implies the presence of an I<iconv> utility
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682available from the shell or from the C library. Consult your system's
683documentation for information on iconv.
684
3958b146 685On OS/390 or z/OS see the iconv(1) manpage. One way to invoke the iconv
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686shell utility from within perl would be to:
687
395f5a0c 688 # OS/390 or z/OS example
84f709e7 689 $ascii_data = `echo '$ebcdic_data'| iconv -f IBM-1047 -t ISO8859-1`
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690
691or the inverse map:
692
395f5a0c 693 # OS/390 or z/OS example
84f709e7 694 $ebcdic_data = `echo '$ascii_data'| iconv -f ISO8859-1 -t IBM-1047`
d396a558 695
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696For other perl based conversion options see the Convert::* modules on CPAN.
697
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698=head2 C RTL
699
395f5a0c 700The OS/390 and z/OS C run time libraries provide _atoe() and _etoa() functions.
1e054b24 701
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702=head1 OPERATOR DIFFERENCES
703
704The C<..> range operator treats certain character ranges with
705care on EBCDIC machines. For example the following array
706will have twenty six elements on either an EBCDIC machine
707or an ASCII machine:
708
84f709e7 709 @alphabet = ('A'..'Z'); # $#alphabet == 25
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710
711The bitwise operators such as & ^ | may return different results
712when operating on string or character data in a perl program running
713on an EBCDIC machine than when run on an ASCII machine. Here is
714an example adapted from the one in L<perlop>:
715
716 # EBCDIC-based examples
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717 print "j p \n" ^ " a h"; # prints "JAPH\n"
718 print "JA" | " ph\n"; # prints "japh\n"
719 print "JAPH\nJunk" & "\277\277\277\277\277"; # prints "japh\n";
720 print 'p N$' ^ " E<H\n"; # prints "Perl\n";
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721
722An interesting property of the 32 C0 control characters
723in the ASCII table is that they can "literally" be constructed
51b5cecb
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724as control characters in perl, e.g. C<(chr(0) eq "\c@")>
725C<(chr(1) eq "\cA")>, and so on. Perl on EBCDIC machines has been
726ported to take "\c@" to chr(0) and "\cA" to chr(1) as well, but the
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727thirty three characters that result depend on which code page you are
728using. The table below uses the character names from the previous table
51b5cecb 729but with substitutions such as s/START OF/S.O./; s/END OF /E.O./;
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730s/TRANSMISSION/TRANS./; s/TABULATION/TAB./; s/VERTICAL/VERT./;
731s/HORIZONTAL/HORIZ./; s/DEVICE CONTROL/D.C./; s/SEPARATOR/SEP./;
732s/NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGE/NEG. ACK./;. The POSIX-BC and 1047 sets are
733identical throughout this range and differ from the 0037 set at only
51b5cecb
PP
734one spot (21 decimal). Note that the C<LINE FEED> character
735may be generated by "\cJ" on ASCII machines but by "\cU" on 1047 or POSIX-BC
736machines and cannot be generated as a C<"\c.letter."> control character on
7370037 machines. Note also that "\c\\" maps to two characters
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738not one.
739
740 chr ord 8859-1 0037 1047 && POSIX-BC
741 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
742 "\c?" 127 <DELETE> " " ***><
743 "\c@" 0 <NULL> <NULL> <NULL> ***><
744 "\cA" 1 <S.O. HEADING> <S.O. HEADING> <S.O. HEADING>
745 "\cB" 2 <S.O. TEXT> <S.O. TEXT> <S.O. TEXT>
746 "\cC" 3 <E.O. TEXT> <E.O. TEXT> <E.O. TEXT>
747 "\cD" 4 <E.O. TRANS.> <C1 28> <C1 28>
748 "\cE" 5 <ENQUIRY> <HORIZ. TAB.> <HORIZ. TAB.>
749 "\cF" 6 <ACKNOWLEDGE> <C1 6> <C1 6>
750 "\cG" 7 <BELL> <DELETE> <DELETE>
751 "\cH" 8 <BACKSPACE> <C1 23> <C1 23>
752 "\cI" 9 <HORIZ. TAB.> <C1 13> <C1 13>
753 "\cJ" 10 <LINE FEED> <C1 14> <C1 14>
754 "\cK" 11 <VERT. TAB.> <VERT. TAB.> <VERT. TAB.>
755 "\cL" 12 <FORM FEED> <FORM FEED> <FORM FEED>
756 "\cM" 13 <CARRIAGE RETURN> <CARRIAGE RETURN> <CARRIAGE RETURN>
757 "\cN" 14 <SHIFT OUT> <SHIFT OUT> <SHIFT OUT>
758 "\cO" 15 <SHIFT IN> <SHIFT IN> <SHIFT IN>
759 "\cP" 16 <DATA LINK ESCAPE> <DATA LINK ESCAPE> <DATA LINK ESCAPE>
760 "\cQ" 17 <D.C. ONE> <D.C. ONE> <D.C. ONE>
761 "\cR" 18 <D.C. TWO> <D.C. TWO> <D.C. TWO>
762 "\cS" 19 <D.C. THREE> <D.C. THREE> <D.C. THREE>
763 "\cT" 20 <D.C. FOUR> <C1 29> <C1 29>
764 "\cU" 21 <NEG. ACK.> <C1 5> <LINE FEED> ***
765 "\cV" 22 <SYNCHRONOUS IDLE> <BACKSPACE> <BACKSPACE>
766 "\cW" 23 <E.O. TRANS. BLOCK> <C1 7> <C1 7>
767 "\cX" 24 <CANCEL> <CANCEL> <CANCEL>
768 "\cY" 25 <E.O. MEDIUM> <E.O. MEDIUM> <E.O. MEDIUM>
769 "\cZ" 26 <SUBSTITUTE> <C1 18> <C1 18>
770 "\c[" 27 <ESCAPE> <C1 15> <C1 15>
771 "\c\\" 28 <FILE SEP.>\ <FILE SEP.>\ <FILE SEP.>\
772 "\c]" 29 <GROUP SEP.> <GROUP SEP.> <GROUP SEP.>
773 "\c^" 30 <RECORD SEP.> <RECORD SEP.> <RECORD SEP.> ***><
774 "\c_" 31 <UNIT SEP.> <UNIT SEP.> <UNIT SEP.> ***><
775
776
777=head1 FUNCTION DIFFERENCES
778
779=over 8
780
781=item chr()
782
783chr() must be given an EBCDIC code number argument to yield a desired
784character return value on an EBCDIC machine. For example:
785
84f709e7 786 $CAPITAL_LETTER_A = chr(193);
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787
788=item ord()
789
790ord() will return EBCDIC code number values on an EBCDIC machine.
791For example:
792
84f709e7 793 $the_number_193 = ord("A");
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794
795=item pack()
796
797The c and C templates for pack() are dependent upon character set
798encoding. Examples of usage on EBCDIC include:
799
800 $foo = pack("CCCC",193,194,195,196);
801 # $foo eq "ABCD"
84f709e7 802 $foo = pack("C4",193,194,195,196);
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803 # same thing
804
805 $foo = pack("ccxxcc",193,194,195,196);
806 # $foo eq "AB\0\0CD"
807
808=item print()
809
810One must be careful with scalars and strings that are passed to
811print that contain ASCII encodings. One common place
812for this to occur is in the output of the MIME type header for
813CGI script writing. For example, many perl programming guides
814recommend something similar to:
815
816 print "Content-type:\ttext/html\015\012\015\012";
817 # this may be wrong on EBCDIC
818
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819Under the IBM OS/390 USS Web Server or WebSphere on z/OS for example
820you should instead write that as:
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821
822 print "Content-type:\ttext/html\r\n\r\n"; # OK for DGW et alia
823
824That is because the translation from EBCDIC to ASCII is done
825by the web server in this case (such code will not be appropriate for
826the Macintosh however). Consult your web server's documentation for
827further details.
828
829=item printf()
830
831The formats that can convert characters to numbers and vice versa
832will be different from their ASCII counterparts when executed
833on an EBCDIC machine. Examples include:
834
835 printf("%c%c%c",193,194,195); # prints ABC
836
837=item sort()
838
839EBCDIC sort results may differ from ASCII sort results especially for
840mixed case strings. This is discussed in more detail below.
841
842=item sprintf()
843
844See the discussion of printf() above. An example of the use
845of sprintf would be:
846
84f709e7 847 $CAPITAL_LETTER_A = sprintf("%c",193);
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848
849=item unpack()
850
851See the discussion of pack() above.
852
853=back
854
855=head1 REGULAR EXPRESSION DIFFERENCES
856
857As of perl 5.005_03 the letter range regular expression such as
858[A-Z] and [a-z] have been especially coded to not pick up gap
b3b6085d
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859characters. For example, characters such as E<ocirc> C<o WITH CIRCUMFLEX>
860that lie between I and J would not be matched by the
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861regular expression range C</[H-K]/>. This works in
862the other direction, too, if either of the range end points is
863explicitly numeric: C<[\x89-\x91]> will match C<\x8e>, even
864though C<\x89> is C<i> and C<\x91 > is C<j>, and C<\x8e>
865is a gap character from the alphabetic viewpoint.
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866
867If you do want to match the alphabet gap characters in a single octet
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868regular expression try matching the hex or octal code such
869as C</\313/> on EBCDIC or C</\364/> on ASCII machines to
51b5cecb 870have your regular expression match C<o WITH CIRCUMFLEX>.
d396a558 871
51b5cecb 872Another construct to be wary of is the inappropriate use of hex or
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873octal constants in regular expressions. Consider the following
874set of subs:
875
876 sub is_c0 {
877 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
878 $char =~ /[\000-\037]/;
879 }
880
881 sub is_print_ascii {
882 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
883 $char =~ /[\040-\176]/;
884 }
885
886 sub is_delete {
887 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
888 $char eq "\177";
889 }
890
891 sub is_c1 {
892 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
893 $char =~ /[\200-\237]/;
894 }
895
896 sub is_latin_1 {
897 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
898 $char =~ /[\240-\377]/;
899 }
900
51b5cecb
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901The above would be adequate if the concern was only with numeric code points.
902However, the concern may be with characters rather than code points
903and on an EBCDIC machine it may be desirable for constructs such as
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904C<if (is_print_ascii("A")) {print "A is a printable character\n";}> to print
905out the expected message. One way to represent the above collection
906of character classification subs that is capable of working across the
907four coded character sets discussed in this document is as follows:
908
909 sub Is_c0 {
910 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
84f709e7 911 if (ord('^')==94) { # ascii
d396a558 912 return $char =~ /[\000-\037]/;
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913 }
914 if (ord('^')==176) { # 37
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915 return $char =~ /[\000-\003\067\055-\057\026\005\045\013-\023\074\075\062\046\030\031\077\047\034-\037]/;
916 }
84f709e7 917 if (ord('^')==95 || ord('^')==106) { # 1047 || posix-bc
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918 return $char =~ /[\000-\003\067\055-\057\026\005\025\013-\023\074\075\062\046\030\031\077\047\034-\037]/;
919 }
920 }
921
922 sub Is_print_ascii {
923 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
924 $char =~ /[ !"\#\$%&'()*+,\-.\/0-9:;<=>?\@A-Z[\\\]^_`a-z{|}~]/;
925 }
926
927 sub Is_delete {
928 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
84f709e7 929 if (ord('^')==94) { # ascii
d396a558 930 return $char eq "\177";
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931 }
932 else { # ebcdic
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933 return $char eq "\007";
934 }
935 }
936
937 sub Is_c1 {
938 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
84f709e7 939 if (ord('^')==94) { # ascii
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940 return $char =~ /[\200-\237]/;
941 }
84f709e7 942 if (ord('^')==176) { # 37
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943 return $char =~ /[\040-\044\025\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\377]/;
944 }
84f709e7 945 if (ord('^')==95) { # 1047
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946 return $char =~ /[\040-\045\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\377]/;
947 }
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948 if (ord('^')==106) { # posix-bc
949 return $char =~
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950 /[\040-\045\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\137]/;
951 }
952 }
953
954 sub Is_latin_1 {
955 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
84f709e7 956 if (ord('^')==94) { # ascii
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957 return $char =~ /[\240-\377]/;
958 }
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959 if (ord('^')==176) { # 37
960 return $char =~
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961 /[\101\252\112\261\237\262\152\265\275\264\232\212\137\312\257\274\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\375\376\373\374\255\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\335\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
962 }
84f709e7 963 if (ord('^')==95) { # 1047
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964 return $char =~
965 /[\101\252\112\261\237\262\152\265\273\264\232\212\260\312\257\274\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\375\376\373\374\272\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\335\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
966 }
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967 if (ord('^')==106) { # posix-bc
968 return $char =~
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969 /[\101\252\260\261\237\262\320\265\171\264\232\212\272\312\257\241\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\340\376\335\374\255\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\300\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
970 }
971 }
972
973Note however that only the C<Is_ascii_print()> sub is really independent
974of coded character set. Another way to write C<Is_latin_1()> would be
975to use the characters in the range explicitly:
976
977 sub Is_latin_1 {
978 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
979 $char =~ /[ ¡¢£¤¥¦§¨©ª«¬­®¯°±²³´µ¶·¸¹º»¼½¾¿ÀÁÂÃÄÅÆÇÈÉÊËÌÍÎÏÐÑÒÓÔÕÖ×ØÙÚÛÜÝÞßàáâãäåæçèéêëìíîïðñòóôõö÷øùúûüýþÿ]/;
980 }
981
982Although that form may run into trouble in network transit (due to the
983presence of 8 bit characters) or on non ISO-Latin character sets.
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984
985=head1 SOCKETS
986
987Most socket programming assumes ASCII character encodings in network
988byte order. Exceptions can include CGI script writing under a
989host web server where the server may take care of translation for you.
990Most host web servers convert EBCDIC data to ISO-8859-1 or Unicode on
991output.
992
993=head1 SORTING
994
995One big difference between ASCII based character sets and EBCDIC ones
996are the relative positions of upper and lower case letters and the
997letters compared to the digits. If sorted on an ASCII based machine the
998two letter abbreviation for a physician comes before the two letter
999for drive, that is:
1000
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1001 @sorted = sort(qw(Dr. dr.)); # @sorted holds ('Dr.','dr.') on ASCII,
1002 # but ('dr.','Dr.') on EBCDIC
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1003
1004The property of lower case before uppercase letters in EBCDIC is
1005even carried to the Latin 1 EBCDIC pages such as 0037 and 1047.
b3b6085d
PP
1006An example would be that E<Euml> C<E WITH DIAERESIS> (203) comes
1007before E<euml> C<e WITH DIAERESIS> (235) on an ASCII machine, but
51b5cecb 1008the latter (83) comes before the former (115) on an EBCDIC machine.
b3b6085d 1009(Astute readers will note that the upper case version of E<szlig>
51b5cecb 1010C<SMALL LETTER SHARP S> is simply "SS" and that the upper case version of
b3b6085d 1011E<yuml> C<y WITH DIAERESIS> is not in the 0..255 range but it is
51b5cecb 1012at U+x0178 in Unicode, or C<"\x{178}"> in a Unicode enabled Perl).
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1013
1014The sort order will cause differences between results obtained on
1015ASCII machines versus EBCDIC machines. What follows are some suggestions
1016on how to deal with these differences.
1017
51b5cecb 1018=head2 Ignore ASCII vs. EBCDIC sort differences.
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1019
1020This is the least computationally expensive strategy. It may require
1021some user education.
1022
51b5cecb 1023=head2 MONO CASE then sort data.
d396a558 1024
51b5cecb 1025In order to minimize the expense of mono casing mixed test try to
d396a558
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1026C<tr///> towards the character set case most employed within the data.
1027If the data are primarily UPPERCASE non Latin 1 then apply tr/[a-z]/[A-Z]/
1028then sort(). If the data are primarily lowercase non Latin 1 then
1029apply tr/[A-Z]/[a-z]/ before sorting. If the data are primarily UPPERCASE
51b5cecb
PP
1030and include Latin-1 characters then apply:
1031
84f709e7 1032 tr/[a-z]/[A-Z]/;
51b5cecb 1033 tr/[àáâãäåæçèéêëìíîïðñòóôõöøùúûüýþ]/[ÀÁÂÃÄÅÆÇÈÉÊËÌÍÎÏÐÑÒÓÔÕÖØÙÚÛÜÝÞ]/;
84f709e7 1034 s/ß/SS/g;
d396a558 1035
51b5cecb 1036then sort(). Do note however that such Latin-1 manipulation does not
b3b6085d
PP
1037address the E<yuml> C<y WITH DIAERESIS> character that will remain at
1038code point 255 on ASCII machines, but 223 on most EBCDIC machines
51b5cecb
PP
1039where it will sort to a place less than the EBCDIC numerals. With a
1040Unicode enabled Perl you might try:
d396a558 1041
51b5cecb
PP
1042 tr/^?/\x{178}/;
1043
1044The strategy of mono casing data before sorting does not preserve the case
1045of the data and may not be acceptable for that reason.
1046
1047=head2 Convert, sort data, then re convert.
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1048
1049This is the most expensive proposition that does not employ a network
1050connection.
1051
1052=head2 Perform sorting on one type of machine only.
1053
1054This strategy can employ a network connection. As such
1055it would be computationally expensive.
1056
395f5a0c 1057=head1 TRANSFORMATION FORMATS
1e054b24
PP
1058
1059There are a variety of ways of transforming data with an intra character set
1060mapping that serve a variety of purposes. Sorting was discussed in the
1061previous section and a few of the other more popular mapping techniques are
1062discussed next.
1063
1064=head2 URL decoding and encoding
d396a558 1065
51b5cecb 1066Note that some URLs have hexadecimal ASCII code points in them in an
1e054b24
PP
1067attempt to overcome character or protocol limitation issues. For example
1068the tilde character is not on every keyboard hence a URL of the form:
d396a558
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1069
1070 http://www.pvhp.com/~pvhp/
1071
1072may also be expressed as either of:
1073
1074 http://www.pvhp.com/%7Epvhp/
1075
1076 http://www.pvhp.com/%7epvhp/
1077
51b5cecb 1078where 7E is the hexadecimal ASCII code point for '~'. Here is an example
d396a558
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1079of decoding such a URL under CCSID 1047:
1080
84f709e7 1081 $url = 'http://www.pvhp.com/%7Epvhp/';
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1082 # this array assumes code page 1047
1083 my @a2e_1047 = (
1084 0, 1, 2, 3, 55, 45, 46, 47, 22, 5, 21, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
1085 16, 17, 18, 19, 60, 61, 50, 38, 24, 25, 63, 39, 28, 29, 30, 31,
1086 64, 90,127,123, 91,108, 80,125, 77, 93, 92, 78,107, 96, 75, 97,
1087 240,241,242,243,244,245,246,247,248,249,122, 94, 76,126,110,111,
1088 124,193,194,195,196,197,198,199,200,201,209,210,211,212,213,214,
1089 215,216,217,226,227,228,229,230,231,232,233,173,224,189, 95,109,
1090 121,129,130,131,132,133,134,135,136,137,145,146,147,148,149,150,
1091 151,152,153,162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169,192, 79,208,161, 7,
1092 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 6, 23, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 9, 10, 27,
1093 48, 49, 26, 51, 52, 53, 54, 8, 56, 57, 58, 59, 4, 20, 62,255,
1094 65,170, 74,177,159,178,106,181,187,180,154,138,176,202,175,188,
1095 144,143,234,250,190,160,182,179,157,218,155,139,183,184,185,171,
1096 100,101, 98,102, 99,103,158,104,116,113,114,115,120,117,118,119,
1097 172,105,237,238,235,239,236,191,128,253,254,251,252,186,174, 89,
1098 68, 69, 66, 70, 67, 71,156, 72, 84, 81, 82, 83, 88, 85, 86, 87,
1099 140, 73,205,206,203,207,204,225,112,221,222,219,220,141,142,223
1100 );
1101 $url =~ s/%([0-9a-fA-F]{2})/pack("c",$a2e_1047[hex($1)])/ge;
1102
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1103Conversely, here is a partial solution for the task of encoding such
1104a URL under the 1047 code page:
1105
84f709e7 1106 $url = 'http://www.pvhp.com/~pvhp/';
1e054b24
PP
1107 # this array assumes code page 1047
1108 my @e2a_1047 = (
1109 0, 1, 2, 3,156, 9,134,127,151,141,142, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
1110 16, 17, 18, 19,157, 10, 8,135, 24, 25,146,143, 28, 29, 30, 31,
1111 128,129,130,131,132,133, 23, 27,136,137,138,139,140, 5, 6, 7,
1112 144,145, 22,147,148,149,150, 4,152,153,154,155, 20, 21,158, 26,
1113 32,160,226,228,224,225,227,229,231,241,162, 46, 60, 40, 43,124,
1114 38,233,234,235,232,237,238,239,236,223, 33, 36, 42, 41, 59, 94,
1115 45, 47,194,196,192,193,195,197,199,209,166, 44, 37, 95, 62, 63,
1116 248,201,202,203,200,205,206,207,204, 96, 58, 35, 64, 39, 61, 34,
1117 216, 97, 98, 99,100,101,102,103,104,105,171,187,240,253,254,177,
1118 176,106,107,108,109,110,111,112,113,114,170,186,230,184,198,164,
1119 181,126,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122,161,191,208, 91,222,174,
1120 172,163,165,183,169,167,182,188,189,190,221,168,175, 93,180,215,
1121 123, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73,173,244,246,242,243,245,
1122 125, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82,185,251,252,249,250,255,
1123 92,247, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90,178,212,214,210,211,213,
1124 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57,179,219,220,217,218,159
1125 );
84f709e7 1126 # The following regular expression does not address the
1e054b24
PP
1127 # mappings for: ('.' => '%2E', '/' => '%2F', ':' => '%3A')
1128 $url =~ s/([\t "#%&\(\),;<=>\?\@\[\\\]^`{|}~])/sprintf("%%%02X",$e2a_1047[ord($1)])/ge;
1129
1130where a more complete solution would split the URL into components
1131and apply a full s/// substitution only to the appropriate parts.
1132
1133In the remaining examples a @e2a or @a2e array may be employed
1134but the assignment will not be shown explicitly. For code page 1047
1135you could use the @a2e_1047 or @e2a_1047 arrays just shown.
1136
1137=head2 uu encoding and decoding
1138
1139The C<u> template to pack() or unpack() will render EBCDIC data in EBCDIC
1140characters equivalent to their ASCII counterparts. For example, the
1141following will print "Yes indeed\n" on either an ASCII or EBCDIC computer:
1142
84f709e7
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1143 $all_byte_chrs = '';
1144 for (0..255) { $all_byte_chrs .= chr($_); }
1145 $uuencode_byte_chrs = pack('u', $all_byte_chrs);
210b36aa 1146 ($uu = <<'ENDOFHEREDOC') =~ s/^\s*//gm;
1e054b24
PP
1147 M``$"`P0%!@<("0H+#`T.#Q`1$A,4%187&!D:&QP='A\@(2(C)"4F)R@I*BLL
1148 M+2XO,#$R,S0U-C<X.3H[/#T^/T!!0D-$149'2$E*2TQ-3D]045)35%565UA9
1149 M6EM<75Y?8&%B8V1E9F=H:6IK;&UN;W!Q<G-T=79W>'EZ>WQ]?G^`@8*#A(6&
1150 MAXB)BHN,C8Z/D)&2DY25EI>8F9J;G)V>GZ"AHJ.DI::GJ*FJJZRMKJ^PL;*S
1151 MM+6VM[BYNKN\O;Z_P,'"P\3%QL?(R<K+S,W.S]#1TM/4U=;7V-G:V]S=WM_@
1152 ?X>+CY.7FY^CIZNOL[>[O\/'R\_3U]O?X^?K[_/W^_P``
1153 ENDOFHEREDOC
84f709e7 1154 if ($uuencode_byte_chrs eq $uu) {
1e054b24
PP
1155 print "Yes ";
1156 }
1157 $uudecode_byte_chrs = unpack('u', $uuencode_byte_chrs);
84f709e7 1158 if ($uudecode_byte_chrs eq $all_byte_chrs) {
1e054b24
PP
1159 print "indeed\n";
1160 }
1161
1162Here is a very spartan uudecoder that will work on EBCDIC provided
1163that the @e2a array is filled in appropriately:
1164
84f709e7
JH
1165 #!/usr/local/bin/perl
1166 @e2a = ( # this must be filled in
1167 );
1168 $_ = <> until ($mode,$file) = /^begin\s*(\d*)\s*(\S*)/;
1e054b24
PP
1169 open(OUT, "> $file") if $file ne "";
1170 while(<>) {
1171 last if /^end/;
1172 next if /[a-z]/;
1173 next unless int(((($e2a[ord()] - 32 ) & 077) + 2) / 3) ==
1174 int(length() / 4);
1175 print OUT unpack("u", $_);
1176 }
1177 close(OUT);
1178 chmod oct($mode), $file;
1179
1180
1181=head2 Quoted-Printable encoding and decoding
1182
1183On ASCII encoded machines it is possible to strip characters outside of
1184the printable set using:
1185
1186 # This QP encoder works on ASCII only
84f709e7 1187 $qp_string =~ s/([=\x00-\x1F\x80-\xFF])/sprintf("=%02X",ord($1))/ge;
1e054b24
PP
1188
1189Whereas a QP encoder that works on both ASCII and EBCDIC machines
1190would look somewhat like the following (where the EBCDIC branch @e2a
1191array is omitted for brevity):
1192
1193 if (ord('A') == 65) { # ASCII
1194 $delete = "\x7F"; # ASCII
1195 @e2a = (0 .. 255) # ASCII to ASCII identity map
84f709e7
JH
1196 }
1197 else { # EBCDIC
1e054b24 1198 $delete = "\x07"; # EBCDIC
84f709e7 1199 @e2a = # EBCDIC to ASCII map (as shown above)
1e054b24 1200 }
84f709e7 1201 $qp_string =~
1e054b24
PP
1202 s/([^ !"\#\$%&'()*+,\-.\/0-9:;<>?\@A-Z[\\\]^_`a-z{|}~$delete])/sprintf("=%02X",$e2a[ord($1)])/ge;
1203
1204(although in production code the substitutions might be done
1205in the EBCDIC branch with the @e2a array and separately in the
1206ASCII branch without the expense of the identity map).
1207
1208Such QP strings can be decoded with:
1209
1210 # This QP decoder is limited to ASCII only
1211 $string =~ s/=([0-9A-Fa-f][0-9A-Fa-f])/chr hex $1/ge;
1212 $string =~ s/=[\n\r]+$//;
1213
1214Whereas a QP decoder that works on both ASCII and EBCDIC machines
1215would look somewhat like the following (where the @a2e array is
1216omitted for brevity):
1217
1218 $string =~ s/=([0-9A-Fa-f][0-9A-Fa-f])/chr $a2e[hex $1]/ge;
1219 $string =~ s/=[\n\r]+$//;
1220
395f5a0c 1221=head2 Caesarian ciphers
1e054b24
PP
1222
1223The practice of shifting an alphabet one or more characters for encipherment
1224dates back thousands of years and was explicitly detailed by Gaius Julius
1225Caesar in his B<Gallic Wars> text. A single alphabet shift is sometimes
1226referred to as a rotation and the shift amount is given as a number $n after
1227the string 'rot' or "rot$n". Rot0 and rot26 would designate identity maps
1228on the 26 letter English version of the Latin alphabet. Rot13 has the
1229interesting property that alternate subsequent invocations are identity maps
1230(thus rot13 is its own non-trivial inverse in the group of 26 alphabet
1231rotations). Hence the following is a rot13 encoder and decoder that will
1232work on ASCII and EBCDIC machines:
1233
1234 #!/usr/local/bin/perl
1235
84f709e7 1236 while(<>){
1e054b24
PP
1237 tr/n-za-mN-ZA-M/a-zA-Z/;
1238 print;
1239 }
1240
1241In one-liner form:
1242
84f709e7 1243 perl -ne 'tr/n-za-mN-ZA-M/a-zA-Z/;print'
1e054b24
PP
1244
1245
1246=head1 Hashing order and checksums
1247
395f5a0c
PK
1248To the extent that it is possible to write code that depends on
1249hashing order there may be differences between hashes as stored
1250on an ASCII based machine and hashes stored on an EBCDIC based machine.
1e054b24
PP
1251XXX
1252
d396a558
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1253=head1 I18N AND L10N
1254
1255Internationalization(I18N) and localization(L10N) are supported at least
1256in principle even on EBCDIC machines. The details are system dependent
1257and discussed under the L<perlebcdic/OS ISSUES> section below.
1258
1259=head1 MULTI OCTET CHARACTER SETS
1260
395f5a0c
PK
1261Perl may work with an internal UTF-EBCDIC encoding form for wide characters
1262on EBCDIC platforms in a manner analogous to the way that it works with
1263the UTF-8 internal encoding form on ASCII based platforms.
1264
1265Legacy multi byte EBCDIC code pages XXX.
d396a558
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1266
1267=head1 OS ISSUES
1268
1269There may be a few system dependent issues
1270of concern to EBCDIC Perl programmers.
1271
522b859a 1272=head2 OS/400
51b5cecb 1273
d396a558
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1274=over 8
1275
522b859a
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1276=item PASE
1277
1278The PASE environment is runtime environment for OS/400 that can run
1279executables built for PowerPC AIX in OS/400, see L<perlos400>. PASE
1280is ASCII-based, not EBCDIC-based as the ILE.
1281
d396a558
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1282=item IFS access
1283
1284XXX.
1285
1286=back
1287
395f5a0c 1288=head2 OS/390, z/OS
d396a558 1289
51b5cecb
PP
1290Perl runs under Unix Systems Services or USS.
1291
d396a558
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1292=over 8
1293
51b5cecb
PP
1294=item chcp
1295
1e054b24
PP
1296B<chcp> is supported as a shell utility for displaying and changing
1297one's code page. See also L<chcp>.
51b5cecb 1298
d396a558
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1299=item dataset access
1300
1301For sequential data set access try:
1302
1303 my @ds_records = `cat //DSNAME`;
1304
1305or:
1306
1307 my @ds_records = `cat //'HLQ.DSNAME'`;
1308
1309See also the OS390::Stdio module on CPAN.
1310
395f5a0c 1311=item OS/390, z/OS iconv
51b5cecb 1312
1e054b24
PP
1313B<iconv> is supported as both a shell utility and a C RTL routine.
1314See also the iconv(1) and iconv(3) manual pages.
51b5cecb 1315
d396a558
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1316=item locales
1317
395f5a0c
PK
1318On OS/390 or z/OS see L<locale> for information on locales. The L10N files
1319are in F</usr/nls/locale>. $Config{d_setlocale} is 'define' on OS/390
1320or z/OS.
d396a558
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1321
1322=back
1323
1324=head2 VM/ESA?
1325
1326XXX.
1327
1328=head2 POSIX-BC?
1329
1330XXX.
1331
51b5cecb
PP
1332=head1 BUGS
1333
1334This pod document contains literal Latin 1 characters and may encounter
b1866b2d 1335translation difficulties. In particular one popular nroff implementation
51b5cecb
PP
1336was known to strip accented characters to their unaccented counterparts
1337while attempting to view this document through the B<pod2man> program
1338(for example, you may see a plain C<y> rather than one with a diaeresis
3958b146 1339as in E<yuml>). Another nroff truncated the resultant manpage at
395f5a0c 1340the first occurrence of 8 bit characters.
51b5cecb
PP
1341
1342Not all shells will allow multiple C<-e> string arguments to perl to
395f5a0c
PK
1343be concatenated together properly as recipes 0, 2, 4, 5, and 6 might
1344seem to imply.
51b5cecb 1345
b3b6085d
PP
1346=head1 SEE ALSO
1347
395f5a0c 1348L<perllocale>, L<perlfunc>, L<perlunicode>, L<utf8>.
b3b6085d 1349
d396a558
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1350=head1 REFERENCES
1351
1352http://anubis.dkuug.dk/i18n/charmaps
1353
d396a558
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1354http://www.unicode.org/
1355
1356http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr16/
1357
51b5cecb
PP
1358http://www.wps.com/texts/codes/
1359B<ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Infiltration> Tom Jennings,
1360September 1999.
1361
395f5a0c 1362B<The Unicode Standard, Version 3.0> The Unicode Consortium, Lisa Moore ed.,
51b5cecb
PP
1363ISBN 0-201-61633-5, Addison Wesley Developers Press, February 2000.
1364
d396a558
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1365B<CDRA: IBM - Character Data Representation Architecture -
1366Reference and Registry>, IBM SC09-2190-00, December 1996.
1367
1368"Demystifying Character Sets", Andrea Vine, Multilingual Computing
1369& Technology, B<#26 Vol. 10 Issue 4>, August/September 1999;
1370ISSN 1523-0309; Multilingual Computing Inc. Sandpoint ID, USA.
1371
1e054b24
PP
1372B<Codes, Ciphers, and Other Cryptic and Clandestine Communication>
1373Fred B. Wrixon, ISBN 1-57912-040-7, Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers,
13741998.
1375
395f5a0c
PK
1376http://www.bobbemer.com/P-BIT.HTM
1377B<IBM - EBCDIC and the P-bit; The biggest Computer Goof Ever> Robert Bemer.
1378
1379=head1 HISTORY
1380
138115 April 2001: added UTF-8 and UTF-EBCDIC to main table, pvhp.
1382
d396a558
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1383=head1 AUTHOR
1384
b3b6085d 1385Peter Prymmer pvhp@best.com wrote this in 1999 and 2000
d396a558 1386with CCSID 0819 and 0037 help from Chris Leach and
b3b6085d
PP
1387AndrE<eacute> Pirard A.Pirard@ulg.ac.be as well as POSIX-BC
1388help from Thomas Dorner Thomas.Dorner@start.de.
1e054b24
PP
1389Thanks also to Vickie Cooper, Philip Newton, William Raffloer, and
1390Joe Smith. Trademarks, registered trademarks, service marks and
1391registered service marks used in this document are the property of
1392their respective owners.
84f709e7
JH
1393
1394