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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
fa816bf3 26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
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27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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JH
34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
6df41af2
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
de42a5a9 53=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
1109a392
MHM
59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
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88(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
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92=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
93
94(W ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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95bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
96(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
97like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
98assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
99clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
100really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 101
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102=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
103
104(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
105asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
106named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
1cecf2c0 107the variable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
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108function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
109and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
110
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111=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s[...]} resolved to %c%s[...]
112
113=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s{...}} resolved to %c%s{...}
4da60377 114
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115(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo represents
116the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for element number
1172 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write C<$foo[2]>, or you
118might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to the function named
119foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it returns. If you meant
120that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
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121
122In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
123to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
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124C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length> followed
125by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what you
126want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/> to the
127unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to something
128that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by simply turning
129off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 130
bdac9d71 131=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
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132
133(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
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134string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
135the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
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136write C<-foo()>.
137
79ef86ee 138=item Ambiguous use of 's//le...' resolved as 's// le...'; Rewrite as 's//el' if you meant 'use locale rules and evaluate rhs as an expression'. In Perl 5.18, it will be resolved the other way
94b03d7d 139
fa816bf3 140(W deprecated, ambiguous) You wrote a pattern match with substitution
79ef86ee 141immediately followed by "le". In Perl 5.16 and earlier, this is
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142resolved as meaning to take the result of the substitution, and see if
143it is stringwise less-than-or-equal-to what follows in the expression.
144Having the "le" immediately following a pattern is deprecated behavior,
79ef86ee 145so in Perl 5.18, this expression will be resolved as meaning to do the
94b03d7d 146pattern match using the rules of the current locale, and evaluate the
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147rhs as an expression when doing the substitution. In 5.14, and 5.16 if
148you want the latter interpretation, you can simply write "el" instead.
149But note that the C</l> modifier should not be used explicitly anyway;
150you should use C<use locale> instead. See L<perllocale>.
94b03d7d 151
6df41af2 152=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 153
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154(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
155redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
156redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 157
6df41af2 158=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 159
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160(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
161redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
162into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
163though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
164which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 165
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166 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
167 while (<STDIN>) {
168 print;
169 print OUT;
170 }
171 close OUT;
c9f97d15 172
6df41af2 173=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 174
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175(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
176transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 177one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 178a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
179hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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180you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
181alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 182
6df41af2 183=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 184
6df41af2 185(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 186
b0fdf69e 187=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 188
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189(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
190subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
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191
192 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 193 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 194 &do_something
a0d0e21e 195
8ea97a1e 196=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 197
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198(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
199such as:
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200
201 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 202 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 203
8ea97a1e 204or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 205
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206 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
207 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 208
6df41af2 209=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 210
6df41af2 211(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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212name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
213error.
a0d0e21e 214
f86702cc 215=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 216
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217(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
218that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
219will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 220
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221=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
222
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223(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O
224system you forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers
225take care of transforming data between external and internal
226representations.) Perl stopped parsing the layer list at this
227point and did not attempt to push this layer. If your program
228didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be the
229result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
b4581f09 230
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231=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
232
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233(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
234spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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235
236=item assertion botched: %s
237
21b5e840 238(X) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
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239
240=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
241
21b5e840 242(X) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
a0d0e21e 243
82122228
FC
244=item Assigning non-zero to $[ is no longer possible
245
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246(F) When the "array_base" feature is disabled (e.g., under C<use v5.16;>)
247the special variable C<$[>, which is deprecated, is now a fixed zero value.
82122228 248
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249=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
250
251(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
252must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
253know which context to supply to the right side.
254
96ebfdd7
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255=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
256
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257(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily
258the main thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
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FC
259Usually it's a good idea first to collect the return values of the
260created threads by joining them, and only then to exit from the main
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261thread. See L<threads>.
262
2393f1b9 263=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 264
49293501 265(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 266the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 267
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268=item Attempt to bless into a reference
269
270(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
57dedab9 271the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
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272supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
273
274 bless $self, $proto;
275
276when you intended
277
278 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
279
280If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
281of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
282example by:
283
284 bless $self, "$proto";
285
a730510a
FC
286=item Attempt to clear deleted array
287
288(S debugging) An array was assigned to when it was being freed.
289Freed values are not supposed to be visible to Perl code. This
290can also happen if XS code calls C<av_clear> from a custom magic
291callback on the array.
292
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293=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
294
295(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
296which is not in its key set.
297
298=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
299
300(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
301declared readonly from a restricted hash.
302
de42a5a9 303=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 304
f84fe999 305(S internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
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306that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
307outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 308
12578ffb 309=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string '%s'%s
bbce6d69 310
f84fe999 311(S internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
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312strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
313strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
314of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 315
7d5b40b4 316=item Attempt to free temp prematurely: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 317
f84fe999 318(S debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
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319free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
320SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
321free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
322try to free it.
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323
324=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
325
f84fe999 326(S internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
a0d0e21e 327
7d5b40b4 328=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 329
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330(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
331see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
332earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
333This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
334that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
335mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
336corrupted.
a0d0e21e 337
dcdda58d
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338=item Attempt to join self
339
340(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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341impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
342to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 343
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344=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
345
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346(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
347function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
348means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
349invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
350literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
351avoid this warning.
84902520 352
087b5369
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353=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
354
355(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
356compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
357unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
358L<perlvar/%INC>.
359
1b20cd17
NC
360=item Attempt to set length of freed array
361
362(W) You tried to set the length of an array which has been freed. You
363can do this by storing a reference to the scalar representing the last index
fa816bf3 364of an array and later assigning through that reference. For example
1b20cd17
NC
365
366 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
367 $$r = 503
368
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369=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
370
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371(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
372used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
373dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 374
c32124fe
NC
375=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
376
57dedab9
FC
377(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the
378"locked" attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is
379obsolete, has had no effect since 5005 threads were removed, and
380will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
c32124fe 381
f1a3ce43
NC
382=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
383
57dedab9
FC
384(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify
385the "unique" attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference.
386The :unique attribute has had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and
387will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
f1a3ce43 388
ccce04a4
FC
389=item av_reify called on tied array
390
391(S debugging) This indicates that something went wrong and Perl got I<very>
392confused about C<@_> or C<@DB::args> being tied.
393
de42a5a9 394=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 395
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396(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
397or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 398S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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399S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
400
7a95317d
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401=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
402
496a33f5 403(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
7a95317d
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404substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
405most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
406
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407=item Bad filehandle: %s
408
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409(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
410symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
411open(), or did it in another package.
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412
413=item Bad free() ignored
414
be771a83 415(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
fa816bf3 416been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 417setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 418
9ea8bc6d 419This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
6903afa2 420dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
be771a83 421which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 422
aa689395
PP
423=item Bad hash
424
425(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
426
6df41af2
GS
427=item Badly placed ()'s
428
429(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
430of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
431Perl yourself.
432
a7cb8dae 433=item Bad name after %s
a0d0e21e 434
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435(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
436didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
437of quotes, so
a0d0e21e
LW
438
439 $var = 'myvar';
440 $sym = mypack::$var;
441
442is not the same as
443
444 $var = 'myvar';
445 $sym = "mypack::$var";
446
88e1f1a2
JV
447=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
448
449(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
450plugin API.
451
4ad56ec9
IZ
452=item Bad realloc() ignored
453
6903afa2
FC
454(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that
455had never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can
456be disabled by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 457
a0d0e21e
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458=item Bad symbol for array
459
460(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
461wasn't a symbol table entry.
462
4df3f177
SP
463=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
464
465(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
466that wasn't a symbol table entry.
467
a0d0e21e
LW
468=item Bad symbol for filehandle
469
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470(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
471that wasn't a symbol table entry.
a0d0e21e
LW
472
473=item Bad symbol for hash
474
475(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
476wasn't a symbol table entry.
477
34d09196
GS
478=item Bareword found in conditional
479
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480(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
481conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
482of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
GS
483
484 open FOO || die;
485
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486It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
487a bareword:
34d09196
GS
488
489 use constant TYPO => 1;
490 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
491
492The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
493
6df41af2
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494=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
495
496(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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497subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
498symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
GS
499
500=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
501
be771a83
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502(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
503compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
504you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 505
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506=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
507
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508(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
509subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
510exited.
a0d0e21e 511
68dc0745
PP
512=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
513
514(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
be771a83
GS
515implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
516occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
517be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
518depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 519
6df41af2
GS
520=item \1 better written as $1
521
be771a83
GS
522(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
523The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
524substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
525because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
526there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 527
252aa082
JH
528=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
529
e476b1b5 530(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
531(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
532L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 533
69282e91 534=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 535
be771a83
GS
536(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
537check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 538
c289d2f7
JH
539=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
540
541(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 542Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 543
f866a7cd
FC
544=item "\b{" is deprecated; use "\b\{" instead
545
546=item "\B{" is deprecated; use "\B\{" instead
547
548(W deprecated, regexp) Use of an unescaped "{" immediately following a
549C<\b> or C<\B> is now deprecated so as to reserve its use for Perl
550itself in a future release.
551
c5a0f51a
JH
552=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
553
e476b1b5 554(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 555
043c750c 556=item Bizarre copy of %s
4633a7c4 557
be771a83 558(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
4dcecea4 559copiable.
4633a7c4 560
f675dbe5
CB
561=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
562
be771a83
GS
563(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
564iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
565which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 566
7fcfef4d
FC
567=item Bizarre SvTYPE [%d]
568
569(P) When starting a new thread or return values from a thread, Perl
570encountered an invalid data type.
571
a0d0e21e
LW
572=item Callback called exit
573
4929bf7b 574(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
575exited by calling exit.
576
6df41af2 577=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 578
be771a83
GS
579(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
580parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
581that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
582early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
583subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
584checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
585function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
586the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 587
49704364 588=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
589
590(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
591compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
592attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
593See L<perlfunc/pack>.
594
49704364 595=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
596
597(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
598format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
599
5c1f4d79
NC
600=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
601
6903afa2
FC
602(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference
603in it, then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax.
604The access triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is
605no legal conversion from that type of reference to a typeglob.
5c1f4d79 606
4040665a 607=item Cannot copy to %s
ba2fdce6
NC
608
609(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 610be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 611
b5d97229
RGS
612=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
613
614(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
615either with open() or binmode().
616
7355df7e
FC
617=item Cannot set tied @DB::args
618
619(F) C<caller> tried to set C<@DB::args>, but found it tied. Tying C<@DB::args>
620is not supported. (Before this error was added, it used to crash.)
621
ce65bc73
FC
622=item Cannot tie unreifiable array
623
624(P) You somehow managed to call C<tie> on an array that does not
625keep a reference count on its arguments and cannot be made to
626do so. Such arrays are not even supposed to be accessible to
627Perl code, but are only used internally.
628
96ebfdd7
RK
629=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
630
631(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
632integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
633to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
634
a0d0e21e
LW
635=item Can't bless non-reference value
636
637(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
638encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
639
dc57907a
RGS
640=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
641
0d863452 642(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
6903afa2 643a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
0d863452
RH
644
645=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 646
0d863452
RH
647(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
648
6df41af2
GS
649=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
650
651(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
652object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
653like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
654
655 $BADREF = undef;
656 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
657 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
658
a0d0e21e
LW
659=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
660
54310121 661(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
662ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
663didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
664object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
665
666=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
667
668(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
669object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
670defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
671Something like this will reproduce the error:
672
673 $BADREF = 42;
674 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
675 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
676
a0d0e21e
LW
677=item Can't chdir to %s
678
679(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
680that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
681
0545a864 682=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 683
be771a83
GS
684(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
685nosuid.
104d25b7 686
22e74366 687=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
688
689(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 690(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
691say things like:
692
693 *foo += 1;
694
695You CAN say
696
697 $foo = *foo;
698 $foo += 1;
699
700but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
701
0d863452 702=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 703
0d863452
RH
704(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
705or C<default> block.
706
a0d0e21e
LW
707=item Can't create pipe mailbox
708
be771a83
GS
709(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
710quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 711
eb64745e
GS
712=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
713
30c282f6
NC
714(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
715"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 716
fc7debfb
FC
717=item Can't "default" outside a topicalizer
718
719(F) You have used a C<default> block that is neither inside a
720C<foreach> loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is
721issued on exit from the C<default> block, so you won't get the
722error if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
723
6df41af2
GS
724=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
725
be771a83
GS
726(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
727a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 728
a0d0e21e
LW
729=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
730
be771a83
GS
731(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
732reason.
a0d0e21e 733
54310121 734=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 735
be771a83
GS
736(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
737reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
738C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 739
10f9c03d 740=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 741
e476b1b5 742(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
743characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
744inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 745
7253e4e3 746=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 747
6903afa2
FC
748(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really
749want your regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The
750<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem
751was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 752
a0d0e21e
LW
753=item Can't do waitpid with flags
754
be771a83
GS
755(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
756waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 757
a0d0e21e
LW
758=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
759
be771a83
GS
760(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
761point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
762line.
a0d0e21e 763
1109a392
MHM
764=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
765
766(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
767or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
768little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
769See L<perlfunc/pack>.
770
a0d0e21e
LW
771=item Can't exec "%s": %s
772
d1be9408 773(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
774named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
775permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
776C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
777architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
778can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
779#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
780
781=item Can't exec %s
782
be771a83
GS
783(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
784that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
785need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
786
787=item Can't execute %s
788
be771a83
GS
789(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
790found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 791
6df41af2 792=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 793
be771a83
GS
794(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
795is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 796
56ca2fc0
JH
797=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
798
799(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
6903afa2 800could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
e1b711da
KW
801See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
802for a complete list of available properties.
56ca2fc0 803
6df41af2
GS
804=item Can't find label %s
805
be771a83
GS
806(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
807possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
808
809=item Can't find %s on PATH
810
be771a83
GS
811(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
812found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 813
6df41af2 814=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 815
be771a83
GS
816(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
817found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
818script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
819
820=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
821
be771a83
GS
822(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
823that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
824nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 825
fb73857a
PP
826 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
827
97b3d10f 828If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
b6b8cb97
FC
829included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag or there
830may not be a linebreak after it. A good programmer's editor will have
831a way to help you find these characters (or lack of characters). See
832L<perlop> for the full details on here-documents.
a0d0e21e 833
660a4616
ST
834=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
835
5f8ad6b6
FC
836(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode
837property (for example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase
fa816bf3 838letters). If you did mean to use a Unicode property, see
e1b711da 839L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
6903afa2 840for a complete list of available properties. If you didn't
fa816bf3
FC
841mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either by
842C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, or
5f8ad6b6 843until C<\E>).
660a4616 844
b3647a36 845=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 846
be771a83
GS
847(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
848pipeline.
a0d0e21e 849
b3647a36
SR
850=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
851
c973c02e 852(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
853after five seconds.
854
748a9306
LW
855=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
856
be771a83
GS
857(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
858between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
859Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
860the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
861account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
862the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
2fe2bdfd 863the access-checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
be771a83
GS
864the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
865if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
866because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
2fe2bdfd
FC
867appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-checking routine gave up
868and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access-checking
be771a83
GS
869routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
870shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
871only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 872
a0d0e21e
LW
873=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
874
be771a83
GS
875(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
876pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
877
878=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
879
748a9306
LW
880(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
881mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 882
6df41af2 883=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 884
be771a83
GS
885(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
886loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
887
888=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
889
be771a83
GS
890(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
891a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
892you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
893See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 894
9850bf21 895=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 896
9850bf21
RH
897(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
898comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
899as the reduce() function in List::Util).
900
c74ace89 901=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 902
be771a83 903(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 904"string" or block.
b150fb22 905
6df41af2
GS
906=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
907
be771a83
GS
908(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
909subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
910cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
911routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 912
0b5b802d
GS
913=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
914
be771a83
GS
915(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
916signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
917signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
918processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
919situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
920may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 921
e2c0f81f
DG
922=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
923
924(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
925attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
926process identifier.
927
6df41af2 928=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 929
6df41af2 930(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
931except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
932block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
933block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
934usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
935inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
936L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 937
2c7d6b9c
RGS
938=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
939
940(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
941package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
942
b8170e59
JB
943=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
944
6903afa2
FC
945(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension.
946This may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one
947that is incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known
948to happen between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your
949dynamic extension was built against an older version of the library
950that is installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old
951dynamic extensions.
b8170e59 952
748a9306
LW
953=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
954
2ba9eb46 955(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
b7e4ecc1
FC
956lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you
957want to localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with
958the package name.
748a9306 959
6df41af2 960=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 961
6df41af2
GS
962(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
963handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 964pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 965that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 966
ea071790 967=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a 968
fa816bf3
FC
969(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be found.
970Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC, unless
971the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
972to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the
973extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
be771a83
GS
974to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
975L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 976
6df41af2
GS
977=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
978
be771a83
GS
979(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
980autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
981are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
982the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 983
b8170e59
JB
984=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
985
986(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
d70d8e57 987for example, F<foo.so> or F<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
b8170e59
JB
988unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
989
a0d0e21e
LW
990=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
991
992(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
993functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 994method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
995
996=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
997
be771a83
GS
998(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
999doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 1000
2f7da168
RK
1001=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
1002
1003(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
1004e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
1005
f4ad53f4 1006=item Can't make list assignment to %ENV on this system
3e3baf6d 1007
be771a83
GS
1008(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
1009VMS.
3e3baf6d 1010
a0d0e21e
LW
1011=item Can't modify %s in %s
1012
be771a83
GS
1013(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
1014to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 1015
54310121 1016=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
1017
1018(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
1019a NULL.
1020
6df41af2
GS
1021=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
1022
1023(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
2fe2bdfd 1024such. See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
6df41af2 1025
5f05dabc 1026=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 1027
5f05dabc 1028(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
1029buffer.
1030
6df41af2
GS
1031=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
1032
1033(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
1034there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
1035count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
1036grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1037though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
1038once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 1039
46fa9b26
FC
1040=item Can't open %s
1041
1042(F) You tried to run a perl built with MAD support with
1043the PERL_XMLDUMP environment variable set, but the file
1044named by that variable could not be opened.
1045
a0d0e21e
LW
1046=item Can't open %s: %s
1047
c47ff5f1 1048(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e 1049filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
46fa9b26
FC
1050switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually
1051this is because you don't have read permission for a file which
1052you named on the command line.
1053
1054(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-e> switch, but F</dev/null> (or
1055your operating system's equivalent) could not be opened.
a0d0e21e 1056
9a869a14
RGS
1057=item Can't open a reference
1058
1059(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
2fe2bdfd 1060using the 3-arg open() syntax:
9a869a14
RGS
1061
1062 open FH, '>', $ref;
1063
1064but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1065open is not supported.
1066
a0d0e21e
LW
1067=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1068
be771a83
GS
1069(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1070You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1071as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1072">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1073
748a9306
LW
1074=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1075
be771a83
GS
1076(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1077redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1078the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1079
1080=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1081
be771a83
GS
1082(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1083redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1084command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1085
1086=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1087
be771a83
GS
1088(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1089redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1090the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1091
1092=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1093
be771a83
GS
1094(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1095redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1096for stdout.
748a9306 1097
3b1cf97d 1098=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1099
1100(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1101
fa3aa65a
JC
1102If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1103shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1104you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1105
6df41af2
GS
1106=item Can't read CRTL environ
1107
1108(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1109from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1110missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1111or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1112searched.
6df41af2 1113
6df41af2
GS
1114=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1115
1116(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1117there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1118count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1119or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1120though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1121loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1122
64977eb6 1123=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1124
be771a83
GS
1125(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1126file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1127the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1128
a0d0e21e
LW
1129=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1130
e476b1b5 1131(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1132probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1133
748a9306
LW
1134=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1135
be771a83
GS
1136(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1137to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1138
4f12ec0e
FC
1139=item Can't reset %ENV on this system
1140
1141(F) You called C<reset('E')> or similar, which tried to reset
1142all variables in the current package beginning with "E". In
1143the main package, that includes %ENV. Resetting %ENV is not
1144supported on some systems, notably VMS.
1145
fe13d51d 1146=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1147
1fa582fa
FC
1148(F)(P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1149opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1150package. If the method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1151
cd06dffe
GS
1152=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1153
be771a83
GS
1154(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1155temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1156is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1157
96ebfdd7
RK
1158=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1159
1160(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1161there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1162
78f9721b
SM
1163=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1164
6903afa2
FC
1165(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue
1166subroutine, but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl
1167think you meant to return only one value. You probably meant to
1168write parentheses around the call to the subroutine, which tell
1169Perl that the call should be in list context.
78f9721b 1170
a0d0e21e
LW
1171=item Can't stat script "%s"
1172
be771a83
GS
1173(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1174open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1175
a0d0e21e
LW
1176=item Can't take log of %g
1177
fb73857a 1178(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
6903afa2 1179negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1180standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1181negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1182
1183=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1184
1185(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1186negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1187with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1188
1189=item Can't undef active subroutine
1190
1191(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1192however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1193redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1194
c81225bc 1195=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1196
be771a83
GS
1197(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1198into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1199specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1200indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1201
6651ba0b
FC
1202=item Can't use '%c' after -mname
1203
1204(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-m> switch, but you put something
1205other than "=" after the module name.
1206
1db89ea5
BS
1207=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1208
e27ad1f2 1209(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1210table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1211for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1212
96ebfdd7
RK
1213=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1214
1215(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1216be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1217
6df41af2
GS
1218=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1219
be771a83
GS
1220(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1221references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1222
90b75b61 1223=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63 1224
20561843 1225(F) The first time the C<%!> hash is used, perl automatically loads the
6903afa2 1226Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1d2dff63
GS
1227provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1228
1109a392
MHM
1229=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1230
1231(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1232byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1233allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1234
6df41af2
GS
1235=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1236
be771a83
GS
1237(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1238foreach.
6df41af2 1239
aab6a793 1240=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1241
be771a83
GS
1242(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1243is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1244(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1245have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1246weren't.
1247
6d3b25aa
RGS
1248=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1249
1250(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1251that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1252For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1253is inside a big-endian group.
1254
c07a80fd
PP
1255=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1256
1257(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1258You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1259and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1260Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1261lexical variable.
1262
a0d0e21e
LW
1263=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1264
1265(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1266reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1267test the type of the reference, if need be.
1268
748a9306 1269=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1270
be771a83
GS
1271(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1272references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1273
748a9306
LW
1274=item Can't use subscript on %s
1275
1276(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1277subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1278didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1279
6df41af2
GS
1280=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1281
75b44862
GS
1282(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1283creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1284backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1285expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1286value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1287instead.
6df41af2 1288
810b8aa5
GS
1289=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1290
1291(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1292references can be weakened.
1293
fc7debfb
FC
1294=item Can't "when" outside a topicalizer
1295
1296(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1297loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1298from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1299or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1300
5f05dabc 1301=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1302
be771a83
GS
1303(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1304with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1305Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1306
4a68bf9d 1307=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529 1308
1fa582fa 1309(F)(W deprecated, syntax) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
79ef86ee 1310It is planned to make this fatal in all instances in Perl 5.18. In the
17a3df4c
KW
1311cases where it isn't fatal, the character this evaluates to is
1312derived by exclusive or'ing the code point of this character with 0x40.
1313
1314Note that non-alphabetic ASCII characters are discouraged here as well.
f9d13529 1315
f337b084 1316=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1317
1318(W pack) You said
1319
1320 pack("C", $x)
1321
1322where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1323only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1324and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1325
1326 pack("C", $x & 255)
1327
1328If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1329instead.
1330
f337b084
TH
1331=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1332
1333(W pack) You said
1334
1335 pack("U0W", $x)
1336
6903afa2
FC
1337where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode
1338expects all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved
1339as if you meant:
f337b084
TH
1340
1341 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1342
1343=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1344
1345(W pack) You said
1346
1347 pack("c", $x)
1348
1349where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1350is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1351and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1352
1353 pack("c", $x & 255);
1354
1355If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1356instead.
1357
f337b084
TH
1358=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1359
1360(W unpack) You tried something like
1361
1362 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1363
1a147d38 1364where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
6903afa2
FC
1365below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the
1366value modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
f337b084
TH
1367
1368 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1369
1370=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1371
1372(W pack) You tried something like
1373
1374 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1375
1a147d38 1376where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1377value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1378uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1379
1380 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1381
1382=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1383
1384(W unpack) You tried something like
1385
1386 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1387
1a147d38 1388where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1389value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1390uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1391
1392 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1393
f866a7cd
FC
1394=item "\c{" is deprecated and is more clearly written as ";"
1395
1396(D deprecated, syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way
1397to specify non-printable characters. You used it with a "{" which
1398evaluates to ";", which is printable. It is planned to remove the
79ef86ee 1399ability to specify a semi-colon this way in Perl 5.18. Just use a
f866a7cd
FC
1400semi-colon or a backslash-semi-colon without the "\c".
1401
1402=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
1403
1404(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
1405non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1406written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
1407characters.
1408
6651ba0b
FC
1409=item Cloning substitution context is unimplemented
1410
1411(F) Creating a new thread inside the C<s///> operator is not supported.
1412
96ebfdd7
RK
1413=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1414
1415(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1416
abc7ecad
SP
1417=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1418
1419(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1420a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1421
541ed3a9
FC
1422=item Closure prototype called
1423
1424(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1425handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1426This subroutine cannot be called.
1427
49704364
LW
1428=item Code missing after '/'
1429
6903afa2
FC
1430(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be
1431another template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 1432
0876b9a0
KW
1433=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1434
c634fdd3 1435=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, all \p{} matches fail; all \P{} matches succeed
9ae3ac1a 1436
1b64326b
FC
1437(W utf8, non_unicode) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum
1438of U+10FFFF.
1439
1440Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code points, up
1441to the limit of what is storable in an unsigned integer on your system,
1442but these may not be accepted by other languages/systems. At one time,
1443it was legal in some standards to have code points up to 0x7FFF_FFFF,
1444but not higher. Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require larger than a
144532 bit word.
0876b9a0 1446
9ae3ac1a
KW
1447None of the Unicode or Perl-defined properties will match a non-Unicode
1448code point. For example,
1449
1450 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\p{Any}/
1451
1452will not match, because the code point is not in Unicode. But
1453
1454 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\P{Any}/
1455
1456will match.
1457
94b42e47
KW
1458This may be counterintuitive at times, as both these fail:
1459
1460 chr(0x110000) =~ \p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True} # Fails.
1461 chr(0x110000) =~ \p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False} # Also fails!
1462
1463and both these succeed:
1464
1465 chr(0x110000) =~ \P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True} # Succeeds.
1466 chr(0x110000) =~ \P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False} # Also succeeds!
1467
6df41af2
GS
1468=item %s: Command not found
1469
a892b81a
FC
1470(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> or another shell
1471shell instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
1472into Perl yourself. The #! line at the top of your file could look like
8f721816
MM
1473
1474 #!/usr/bin/perl -w
6df41af2 1475
7a2e2cd6
PP
1476=item Compilation failed in require
1477
1478(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1479Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1480encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1481
c3464db5
DD
1482=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1483
be771a83
GS
1484(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1485situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1486to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1487arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1488recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1489under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1490in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1491that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1492on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1493
38875929
DM
1494=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1495
6903afa2
FC
1496(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to
1497call cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked.
1498The cond_broadcast() function is used to wake up another thread
1499that is waiting in a cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't
1500sent before the other thread has a chance to enter the wait, it
1501is usual for the signaling thread first to wait for a lock on
1502variable. This lock attempt will only succeed after the other
1503thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the lock.
38875929 1504
38875929
DM
1505=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1506
6903afa2
FC
1507(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to
1508call cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The
1509cond_signal() function is used to wake up another thread that
1510is waiting in a cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't
1511sent before the other thread has a chance to enter the wait, it
1512is usual for the signaling thread first to wait for a lock on
1513variable. This lock attempt will only succeed after the other
1514thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the lock.
38875929 1515
69282e91 1516=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1517
be771a83
GS
1518(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1519to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1520L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1521
41ab332f 1522=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1523
be771a83
GS
1524(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1525an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1526specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
fbb93542 1527corresponding L<overload> pragma?.
6df41af2 1528
fc8cd66c
YO
1529=item Constant(%s)%s: %s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1530
1a147d38 1531(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to find
fbb93542 1532the character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape.
fc8cd66c 1533
779c5bc9
GS
1534=item Constant is not %s reference
1535
1536(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83 1537is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
6903afa2 1538The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
be771a83 1539usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1540See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1541
4cee8e80
CS
1542=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1543
aeb94125
FC
1544(W redefine)(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously
1545been eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions">
1546for commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1547
9607fc9c
PP
1548=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1549
be771a83
GS
1550(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1551for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1552workarounds.
9607fc9c 1553
e7ea3e70
IZ
1554=item Copy method did not return a reference
1555
6903afa2 1556(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1557L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1558
4aaa4757
FC
1559=item &CORE::%s cannot be called directly
1560
1561(F) You tried to call a subroutine in the C<CORE::> namespace
8d605c0d 1562with C<&foo> syntax or through a reference. Some subroutines
4aaa4757
FC
1563in this package cannot yet be called that way, but must be
1564called as barewords. Something like this will work:
1565
1566 BEGIN { *shove = \&CORE::push; }
1567 shove @array, 1,2,3; # pushes on to @array
1568
6798c92b
GS
1569=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1570
1571(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1572
a0d0e21e
LW
1573=item corrupted regexp pointers
1574
1575(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1576expression compiler gave it.
1577
1578=item corrupted regexp program
1579
be771a83
GS
1580(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1581valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1582
de42a5a9 1583=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1584
1585(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1586
49704364
LW
1587=item Count after length/code in unpack
1588
1589(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1590you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1591L<perlfunc/pack>.
1592
6651ba0b
FC
1593=item Deep recursion on anonymous subroutine
1594
a0d0e21e
LW
1595=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1596
be771a83
GS
1597(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1598100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1599infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1600which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1601
aad1d01f
NC
1602This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1603setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1604
f10b0346 1605=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1606
be771a83
GS
1607(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1608checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1609array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1610
f10b0346 1611=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1612
f0ec9725
KR
1613(D deprecated) C<defined()> is not usually right on hashes and has been
1614discouraged since 5.004.
1615
1616Although C<defined %hash> is false on a plain not-yet-used hash, it
1617becomes true in several non-obvious circumstances, including iterators,
1618weak references, stash names, even remaining true after C<undef %hash>.
1619These things make C<defined %hash> fairly useless in practice.
1620
1621If a check for non-empty is what you wanted then just put it in boolean
1622context (see L<perldata/Scalar values>):
16546e45
KR
1623
1624 if (%hash) {
1625 # not empty
1626 }
1627
f0ec9725
KR
1628If you had C<defined %Foo::Bar::QUUX> to check whether such a package
1629variable exists then that's never really been reliable, and isn't
1630a good way to enquire about the features of a package, or whether
1631it's loaded, etc.
1632
69794302 1633
bcb95744
FC
1634=item (?(DEFINE)....) does not allow branches in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1635
6903afa2 1636(F) You used something like C<(?(DEFINE)...|..)> which is illegal. The
bcb95744
FC
1637most likely cause of this error is that you left out a parenthesis inside
1638of the C<....> part.
1639
1640The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1641discovered.
1642
62658f4d
PM
1643=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1644
1645(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1646there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1647
fc36a67e
PP
1648=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1649
be771a83
GS
1650(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1651long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1652that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1653
4a68bf9d 1654=item Deprecated character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s<-- HERE %s
cb233ae3
KW
1655
1656(D deprecated) Just about anything is legal for the C<...> in C<\N{...}>.
5fca8acb
FC
1657But starting in 5.12, non-reasonable ones that don't look like names
1658are deprecated. A reasonable name begins with an alphabetic character
1659and continues with any combination of alphanumerics, dashes, spaces,
1660parentheses or colons.
cb233ae3 1661
6d3b25aa
RGS
1662=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1663
fa816bf3
FC
1664(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>. There
1665has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
6d3b25aa 1666not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
6903afa2 1667conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
fa816bf3 1668static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
6903afa2 1669relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
6d3b25aa 1670declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1671
6d3b25aa
RGS
1672 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1673
1674becomes
1675
1676 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1677
fa816bf3
FC
1678Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to have
1679lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
36fb85f3
RGS
1680
1681 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1682
500ab966
RGS
1683=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1684
1685(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
6903afa2
FC
1686just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather
1687than to create a dangling reference.
500ab966 1688
3cdd684c
TP
1689=item Did not produce a valid header
1690
1691See Server error.
1692
6df41af2
GS
1693=item %s did not return a true value
1694
1695(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1696it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1697traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1698do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1699
cc507455 1700=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1701
413ff9f6
FC
1702(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1703some such.
4633a7c4 1704
cc507455 1705=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1706
be771a83
GS
1707(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1708variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1709seems superfluous.
33633739 1710
cc507455 1711=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1712
be771a83
GS
1713(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1714@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1715carried away.
748a9306 1716
7e1af8bc 1717=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1718
1719(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
075b00aa 1720you called it with no args and C<$@> was empty.
5f05dabc 1721
3cdd684c
TP
1722=item Document contains no data
1723
1724See Server error.
1725
62658f4d
PM
1726=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1727
1728(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1729define a C<$VERSION.>
1730
49704364
LW
1731=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1732
1733(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1734See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1735
a0d0e21e
LW
1736=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1737
1738(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1739
1740=item do_study: out of memory
1741
1742(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1743
6df41af2
GS
1744=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1745
56da5a46
RGS
1746(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1747"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1748name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1749because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1750"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1751something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1752subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1753"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1754
ac206dc8
RGS
1755=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1756
1757(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1758qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1759
84d78eb7
YO
1760=item dump is not supported
1761
1762(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1763
a0d0e21e
LW
1764=item Duplicate free() ignored
1765
be771a83
GS
1766(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1767already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1768
1109a392
MHM
1769=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1770
1771(W) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a type
1772in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1773
4633a7c4
LW
1774=item elseif should be elsif
1775
fa816bf3
FC
1776(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks
1777it's ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1778named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1779unlikely to be what you want.
1780
ab13f0c7
JH
1781=item Empty %s
1782
af6f566e 1783(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
6903afa2 1784described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
af6f566e 1785a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1786
85ab1d1d 1787=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1788
85ab1d1d 1789(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1790effective uids or gids failed.
1791
c038024b
RGS
1792=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1793
1794(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1795aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
6903afa2 1796program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
c038024b 1797
748a9306
LW
1798=item Error converting file specification %s
1799
5f05dabc 1800(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1801specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1802single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1803an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1804conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1805
e4d48cc9
GS
1806=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1807
be771a83
GS
1808(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1809expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1810is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1811
fc8f615e 1812=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval'
e4d48cc9 1813
be771a83
GS
1814(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1815C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
f11307f5
FC
1816pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk,
1817it is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by using the
1818C<re 'eval'> pragma or by explicitly building the pattern from an
1819interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval(). See
1820L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1821
6df41af2
GS
1822=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1823
be771a83
GS
1824(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1825assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1826pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1827
1a147d38
YO
1828=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1829
1830(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
6903afa2 1831any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1a147d38
YO
1832
1833The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1834discovered.
1835
fc36a67e
PP
1836=item Excessively long <> operator
1837
1838(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1839Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1840filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1841variable and glob that.
1842
ed9aa3b7
SG
1843=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1844
af8bb25a 1845(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented on some systems, e.g., Symbian
6903afa2 1846OS. See L<perlport>.
ed9aa3b7 1847
fe13d51d 1848=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1849
1850(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1851
1852=item Exiting eval via %s
1853
be771a83
GS
1854(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1855goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1856
1857=item Exiting format via %s
1858
9a2ff54b 1859(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1860goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1861
0a753a76
PP
1862=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1863
be771a83
GS
1864(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1865sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1866loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1867
a0d0e21e
LW
1868=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1869
be771a83
GS
1870(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1871as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1872
1873=item Exiting substitution via %s
1874
be771a83
GS
1875(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1876as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1877
7b8d334a
GS
1878=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1879
be771a83
GS
1880(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1881the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1882usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1883e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1884
6df41af2
GS
1885=item %s: Expression syntax
1886
be771a83
GS
1887(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1888Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1889
1890=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1891
3c10abe3
AG
1892(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1893CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1894queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1895
7253e4e3 1896=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1897
be771a83 1898(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1899character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1900in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1901"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1902problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1903
1b1ee2ef 1904=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1905
be771a83
GS
1906(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1907system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1908details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1909you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1910
1911=item fcntl is not implemented
1912
1913(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1914PDP-11 or something?
1915
22846ab4
AB
1916=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1917
1918(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1919is not possible.
1920
f337b084
TH
1921=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1922
1923(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string start with a length indicator
6903afa2
FC
1924which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1925a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
5c96f6f7 1926C<u63> as the format.
f337b084 1927
af8c498a 1928=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1929
6c8d78fb
HS
1930(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1931it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1932"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1933write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1934
af8c498a 1935=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1936
6c8d78fb
HS
1937(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1938you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
89a1bda8
FC
1939with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with ">". If you intended only to
1940read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>. Another possibility
1941is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for
1942output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1943
1944=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1945
1946(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
6903afa2 1947as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1948previously.
1949
1950=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1951
1952(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
fa816bf3 1953as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1954
1955=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1956
1957(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1958a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1959happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1960name.
a0d0e21e 1961
56e90b21
GS
1962=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1963
be771a83 1964(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1965some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1966filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1967same name?
56e90b21 1968
6df41af2
GS
1969=item Format not terminated
1970
1971(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1972to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1973
a0d0e21e
LW
1974=item Format %s redefined
1975
e476b1b5 1976(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1977
1978 {
271595cc 1979 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1980 eval "format NAME =...";
1981 }
1982
a0d0e21e
LW
1983=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1984
e476b1b5 1985(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1986
1987 if ($foo = 123)
1988
1989when you meant
1990
1991 if ($foo == 123)
1992
1993(or something like that).
1994
6df41af2
GS
1995=item %s found where operator expected
1996
56da5a46
RGS
1997(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
1998If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
1999operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
2000operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 2001
a0d0e21e
LW
2002=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
2003
2004(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
2005
2006=item gethostent not implemented
2007
2008(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
2009because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
2010on the Internet.
2011
69282e91 2012=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2013
be771a83
GS
2014(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
2015socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 2016
748a9306
LW
2017=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
2018
2019(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
2020C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
2021
6df41af2
GS
2022=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
2023
be771a83
GS
2024(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
2025forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
2026L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
2027
2028=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
2029
a4edf47d 2030(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 2031that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
2032declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
2033which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 2034
e476b1b5
GS
2035=item glob failed (%s)
2036
73c4e9dc
FC
2037(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used
2038for C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
2039pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
be771a83 2040nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
73c4e9dc
FC
2041resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell)
2042is broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables
2043in config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as
2044if it were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them
2045all empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
be771a83 2046think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 2047C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 2048
a0d0e21e
LW
2049=item Glob not terminated
2050
2051(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
2052a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
2053not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
2054earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 2055
bcd05b94 2056=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2057
e9200be3 2058(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was larger than
fc003d4b 2059it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
6903afa2 2060date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2061not-a-number value).
2062
bcd05b94 2063=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2064
e9200be3 2065(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was smaller than
e7a1a147 2066it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2067
6df41af2 2068=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 2069
6df41af2
GS
2070(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
2071version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
2072
2073=item goto must have label
2074
2075(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
2076unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2077
6651ba0b
FC
2078=item Goto undefined subroutine%s
2079
2080(F) You tried to call a subroutine with C<goto &sub> syntax, but
2081the indicated subroutine hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2082has since been undefined.
2083
49704364 2084=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 2085
bca4a986
FC
2086(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is supposed to follow
2087something: a template character or a ()-group. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 2088
fe13d51d 2089=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
2090
2091(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
2092
a0d0e21e
LW
2093=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
2094
be771a83
GS
2095(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
2096to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
2097created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
2098
2099=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
2100
be771a83
GS
2101(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
2102spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 2103
6df41af2
GS
2104=item %s has too many errors
2105
2106(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
2107Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
2108
e6897b1a
KW
2109=item Having no space between pattern and following word is deprecated
2110
2111(D syntax)
2112
6903afa2
FC
2113You had a word that isn't a regex modifier immediately following
2114a pattern without an intervening space. If you are trying to use
2115the C</le> flags on a substitution, use C</el> instead. Otherwise, add
2116white space between the pattern and following word to eliminate
2117the warning. As an example of the latter, the two constructs:
2118
e6897b1a
KW
2119
2120 $a =~ m/$foo/sand $bar
2121 $a =~ m/$foo/s and $bar
2122
6903afa2
FC
2123both currently mean the same thing, but it is planned to disallow
2124the first form in Perl 5.18. And,
e6897b1a
KW
2125
2126 $a =~ m/$foo/and $bar
2127
2128will be disallowed too.
2129
252aa082
JH
2130=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2131
e476b1b5 2132(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2133(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2134L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2135
8903cb82
PP
2136=item Identifier too long
2137
2138(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2139about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2140names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2141of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2142
c3c41406 2143=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class
fc8cd66c 2144
20561843 2145(W) Named Unicode character escapes C<(\N{...})> may return a zero-length
6903afa2
FC
2146sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class its
2147behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
2148been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
2149
6df41af2 2150=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2151
6df41af2 2152(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2153
6df41af2 2154=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2155
be771a83
GS
2156(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2157binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2158offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2159
6597eb22
FC
2160=item Illegal character after '_' in prototype for %s : %s
2161
2162(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2163Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
2164
78d0fecf 2165=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2166
d5898338 2167(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2168would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2169when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2170version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2171to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2172
d37a9538
ST
2173=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2174
197afce1 2175(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2e9cc7ef 2176Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
d37a9538 2177
904d85c5
RGS
2178=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2179
2180(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
6903afa2 2181you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
904d85c5 2182
8e742a20
MHM
2183=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2184
6903afa2 2185(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
8e742a20 2186
a0d0e21e
LW
2187=item Illegal division by zero
2188
be771a83
GS
2189(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2190your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2191meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2192
6df41af2
GS
2193=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2194
be771a83
GS
2195(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2196A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2197number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2198
a0d0e21e
LW
2199=item Illegal modulus zero
2200
be771a83
GS
2201(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2202numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2203
6df41af2 2204=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2205
6df41af2
GS
2206(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2207two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2208
2209=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2210
d1be9408 2211(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2212
399388f4 2213=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2214
d1be9408 2215(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2216Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2217
fe13d51d 2218=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2219
6df41af2 2220(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2221following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2222
6df41af2 2223=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2224
75b44862 2225(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2226internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2227delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2228
6df41af2 2229=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2230
be771a83
GS
2231(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2232name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2233didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2234ignored.
54310121 2235
6df41af2 2236=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2237
be771a83
GS
2238(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2239the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2240system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2241times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2242would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2243
be771a83
GS
2244Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2245also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2246
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2247=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on parent '%s'
2248
2249(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2250C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2251documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2252
979699d9
JH
2253=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2254
2255(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2256Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2257encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2258
1a147d38
YO
2259=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2260
2261(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
6903afa2 2262text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
1a147d38
YO
2263either consume text or fail.
2264
2265The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2266discovered.
2267
6dbe9451
NC
2268=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2269
6903afa2
FC
2270(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the
2271initialization of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write
2272C<state ($a) = 42> as C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar
2273context. Constructions such as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be
2274supported in a future perl release.
6dbe9451 2275
a0d0e21e
LW
2276=item Insecure dependency in %s
2277
8b1a09fc 2278(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2279The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2280setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2281tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2282from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2283such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2284L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2285
2286=item Insecure directory in %s
2287
be771a83
GS
2288(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2289setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2290the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2291See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2292
62f468fc 2293=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2294
2295(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2296setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2297C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2298supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2299the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2300
0e9be77f
DM
2301=item Insecure user-defined property %s
2302
2303(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2304expression that contains a call to a user-defined character property
2305function, i.e. C<\p{IsFoo}> or C<\p{InFoo}>.
2306See L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties> and L<perlsec>.
2307
b9ef414d
FC
2308=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2309
2310(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2311or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2312integers for your architecture.
2313
a7ae9550
GS
2314=item Integer overflow in %s number
2315
75b44862 2316(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2317either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2318your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2319On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2320representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
23210b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2322transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2323internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2324operations.
bbce6d69 2325
46314c13
JP
2326=item Integer overflow in version
2327
2328(F) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the
2329size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
2330because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use a
2331element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by
2332trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
2333100/9.
2334
7253e4e3 2335=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2336
2337(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 2338The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2339discovered.
2340
748a9306
LW
2341=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2342
be771a83
GS
2343(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2344you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2345to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2346L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2347Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2348terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2349
7253e4e3 2350=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2351
fa816bf3 2352(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
7253e4e3
RK
2353<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2354discovered.
a0d0e21e 2355
6df41af2
GS
2356=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2357
75b44862 2358(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2359followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2360operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2361L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2362
09bef843
SB
2363=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2364
a4a4c9e2 2365(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2366by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2367
2368=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2369
a4a4c9e2 2370(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2371recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2372
c635e13b
PP
2373=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2374
be771a83
GS
2375(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2376L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2377
9e08bc66
ST
2378=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2379
2380(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2381didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2382from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2383The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
2384The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2385escape was discovered.
2386
8149aa9f
FC
2387=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
2388
2389(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
74f8e9e3
FC
2390number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than
23910 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
8149aa9f 2392
6651ba0b
FC
2393=item Invalid module name %s with -%c option: contains single ':'
2394
2395(F) The module argument to perl's B<-m> and B<-M> command-line options
2396cannot contain single colons in the module name, but only in the
2397arguments after "=". In other words, B<-MFoo::Bar=:baz> is ok, but
2398B<-MFoo:Bar=baz> is not.
2399
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2400=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2401
162a3e34
FC
2402(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")> or C<use mro 'foo'>,
2403where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO). Currently,
2404the only valid ones supported are C<dfs> and C<c3>, unless you have loaded
2405a module that is a MRO plugin. See L<mro> and L<perlmroapi>.
2c7d6b9c 2406
6651ba0b
FC
2407=item invalid option -D%c, use -D'' to see choices
2408
2409(F) Perl was called with invalid debugger flags. Call perl with
2410the B<-D> option with no flags to see the list of acceptable values.
2411See also L<< perlrun/B<-D>I<letters> >>.
2412
7253e4e3 2413=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2414
2415(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2416greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2417C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
2418up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2419problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2420
d1573ac7 2421=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2422
2423(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2424character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2425
09bef843
SB
2426=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2427
0120eecf 2428(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2429elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2430parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2431See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2432
b4581f09
JH
2433=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2434
2bfc5f71
FC
2435(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other
2436than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
b4581f09
JH
2437If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2438list was terminated too soon.
2439
2c86d456
DG
2440=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2441
fa816bf3 2442(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2443A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2444decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2445v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2446The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2447See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2448
49704364 2449=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2450
49704364
LW
2451(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2452See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6728c851 2453
49704364 2454(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2455silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2456
2c86d456
DG
2457=item Invalid version format (%s)
2458
fa816bf3 2459(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2460A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2461decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
fa816bf3
FC
2462v-string. If the v-string has fewer than three components, it
2463must have a leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is
2464optional. Both decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a
2465trailing "alpha" component separated by an underscore character
2466after a fractional or dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized
2467text indicates which criteria were not met. See the L<version> module
2468for more details on allowed version formats.
46314c13 2469
798ae1b7
DG
2470=item Invalid version object
2471
fa816bf3
FC
2472(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid.
2473Perhaps the internals were modified directly in some way or
2474an arbitrary reference was blessed into the "version" class.
798ae1b7 2475
a0d0e21e
LW
2476=item ioctl is not implemented
2477
2478(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2479strange for a machine that supports C.
2480
c289d2f7
JH
2481=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2482
2483(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
34b6fd5e 2484Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 2485
fe13d51d 2486=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2487
2488(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
34b6fd5e 2489you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO, Perl must be configured
363c40c4
SB
2490with 'useperlio'.
2491
80cbd5ad
JH
2492=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2493
2494(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
34b6fd5e 2495neither as a system call nor an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
80cbd5ad 2496
b4581f09
JH
2497=item $* is no longer supported
2498
a58ac25e 2499(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older
6903afa2 2500perls, has been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In
a58ac25e
FC
2501previous versions of perl the use of C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line
2502matching within a string.
4fd19576
B
2503
2504Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
6903afa2
FC
2505modifiers. You can enable C</m> for a lexical scope (even a whole file)
2506with C<use re '/m'>. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value
570dedd4 2507then all regular expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2508
8ae1fe26
RGS
2509=item $# is no longer supported
2510
a58ac25e 2511(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older
6903afa2 2512perls, has been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You
a58ac25e 2513should use the printf/sprintf functions instead.
8ae1fe26 2514
ccf3535a 2515=item '%s' is not a code reference
6ad11d81 2516
6903afa2
FC
2517(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of
2518overload::constant needs to be a code reference. Either
2519an anonymous subroutine, or a reference to a subroutine.
6ad11d81 2520
ccf3535a 2521=item '%s' is not an overloadable type
6ad11d81 2522
04a80ee0
RGS
2523(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2524unaware of.
6ad11d81 2525
a0d0e21e
LW
2526=item junk on end of regexp
2527
2528(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2529
2530=item Label not found for "last %s"
2531
be771a83
GS
2532(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2533of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2534L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2535
2536=item Label not found for "next %s"
2537
2538(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2539that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2540L<perlfunc/last>.
2541
2542=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2543
2544(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2545that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2546L<perlfunc/last>.
2547
85ab1d1d 2548=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2549
85ab1d1d 2550(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2551effective uids or gids failed.
2552
49704364
LW
2553=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2554
d7f8936a 2555(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
6903afa2
FC
2556length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2557an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 2558
e508c8a4
MH
2559=item length() used on %s
2560
0d46a4e7
FC
2561(W syntax) You used length() on either an array or a hash when you
2562probably wanted a count of the items.
e508c8a4
MH
2563
2564Array size can be obtained by doing:
2565
2566 scalar(@array);
2567
2568The number of items in a hash can be obtained by doing:
2569
2570 scalar(keys %hash);
2571
f0e67a1d
Z
2572=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2573
2574(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
6903afa2
FC
2575(using L<lex_stuff_pvn|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn> or similar), but tried to insert a character that
2576couldn't be part of the current input. This is an inherent pitfall
2577of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the reasons to avoid it. Where
2578it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only plain ASCII is recommended.
f0e67a1d
Z
2579
2580=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2581
2582(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2583detectable way.
2584
69282e91 2585=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2586
be771a83
GS
2587(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2588to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2589L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2590
6651ba0b
FC
2591=item List form of piped open not implemented
2592
2593(F) On some platforms, notably Windows, the three-or-more-arguments
2594form of C<open> does not support pipes, such as C<open($pipe, '|-', @args)>.
2595Use the two-argument C<open($pipe, '|prog arg1 arg2...')> form instead.
2596
bcd05b94 2597=item localtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2598
e9200be3 2599(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was larger
fc003d4b 2600than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
6903afa2 2601wrong date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2602not-a-number value).
2603
bcd05b94 2604=item localtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2605
e9200be3 2606(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was smaller
fc003d4b 2607than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
e7a1a147 2608wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2609
58e23c8d 2610=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2611
2612(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
6903afa2 2613handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2614
b88df990
NC
2615=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2616
2617(W) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one is too large
2618for the underlying floating point representation to store accurately,
6903afa2 2619hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this warning
b88df990
NC
2620because it has already switched from integers to floating point when values
2621are too large for integers, and now even floating point is insufficient.
2622You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
2623
93fad930 2624=item lstat() on filehandle%s
2f7da168
RK
2625
2626(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2627by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2628instead on the filehandle.)
2629
bb3abb05
FC
2630=item lvalue attribute cannot be removed after the subroutine has been defined
2631
2632(W misc) The lvalue attribute on a Perl subroutine cannot be turned off
2633once the subroutine is defined.
2634
885ef6f5
GG
2635=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2636
bb3abb05
FC
2637(W misc) Making a Perl subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been
2638defined, whether by declaring the subroutine with an lvalue attribute
2639or by using L<attributes.pm|attributes>, is not possible. To make the subroutine an
2640lvalue subroutine, add the lvalue attribute to the definition, or put
2641the declaration before the definition.
885ef6f5 2642
2db62bbc 2643=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
49704364 2644
2db62bbc 2645(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2646are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2647
2648=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2649
2db62bbc 2650(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2651are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2652
6df41af2
GS
2653=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2654
2655(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2656
2657 prefix1;prefix2
2658
2659or
6df41af2
GS
2660 prefix1 prefix2
2661
be771a83
GS
2662with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2663a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2664appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2665"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2666
2f758a16
ST
2667=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2668
d37a9538
ST
2669(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2670syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2671obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2672when the function is called.
2f758a16 2673
ba210ebe
JH
2674=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2675
4d6f11e5 2676(S utf8)(F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2575c402 2677encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2678
2575c402
JW
2679One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2680you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
6903afa2 26818-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2575c402
JW
2682
2683If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2684sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2685set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2686message.
2687
2688See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2689
ff3f963a
KW
2690=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N
2691
2692(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2693
4a5d3a93
FC
2694=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2695
2696(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2697rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2698
f337b084
TH
2699=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2700
2701(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2702rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2703
2704=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2705
2706(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2707rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2708
4a5d3a93 2709=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
f337b084 2710
4a5d3a93
FC
2711(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
2712doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2713
2714=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2715
2716(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
2717regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
2718shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2719See L<perlre>.
f337b084 2720
de42a5a9 2721=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 2722
6903afa2 2723(F) Perl aborted due to too high a number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2724usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2725too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2726resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
6903afa2 2727safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2563cec5 2728
25f58aea
PN
2729=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2730
2731(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2732interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2733"use" or "my".
2734
0d2487cd 2735=item '%' may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2736
2737(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2738checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2739See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2740
a0d0e21e
LW
2741=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2742
2743(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2744doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2745
3cdd684c
TP
2746=item Method %s not permitted
2747
2748See Server error.
2749
a0d0e21e
LW
2750=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2751
2752(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2753by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2754ended earlier on the current line.
2755
2756=item Misplaced _ in number
2757
d4ced10d
JH
2758(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2759separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2760
7baa4690
HS
2761=item Missing argument in %s
2762
2763(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2764supplied.
2765
9e81e6a1
RGS
2766=item Missing argument to -%c
2767
2768(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2769immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2770
ff3f963a 2771=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2772
4a2d328f 2773(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
532cb70d
FC
2774double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space
2775(or comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2776This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately
2777follow the C<\N>.
423cee85 2778
f0a2b745
KW
2779=item Missing braces on \o{}
2780
2781(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2782
a0d0e21e
LW
2783=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2784
2785(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2786"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2787
06eaf0bc
GS
2788=item Missing command in piped open
2789
be771a83
GS
2790(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2791C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2792blank.
06eaf0bc 2793
961ce445
RGS
2794=item Missing control char name in \c
2795
2796(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2797character name.
2798
6df41af2
GS
2799=item Missing name in "my sub"
2800
be771a83
GS
2801(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2802they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2803
2804=item Missing $ on loop variable
2805
be771a83
GS
2806(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2807are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2808can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2809
cc507455 2810=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2811
56da5a46
RGS
2812(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2813"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2814
ab13f0c7
JH
2815=item Missing right brace on %s
2816
ff3f963a
KW
2817(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
2818
4a68bf9d 2819=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 2820
d32207c9
FC
2821(F) C<\N> has two meanings.
2822
2823The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed in braces,
2824meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that
fa816bf3 2825name. Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
d32207c9
FC
2826double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns,
2827it doesn't have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
2828
2829Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only)
2830in patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short
2831for C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
2832
2833This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately
2834by a left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if the braces
2835form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes that this
2836means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
28373; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a
2838C<\N{> and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
2839
2840However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was
2841mistakenly omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and raises this error.
2842If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant the latter,
2843escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 2844
d98d5fff 2845=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2846
be771a83
GS
2847(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2848ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2849were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2850
6df41af2
GS
2851=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2852
56da5a46
RGS
2853(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2854"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2855the previous line just because you saw this message.
2856
a0d0e21e
LW
2857=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2858
2859(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2860constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2861catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2862
2863 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2864 mod(2);
2865
2866Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2867
c5674021
PDF
2868Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2869is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2870
b7e4ecc1
FC
2871 $x = 1;
2872 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2873 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to
2874 } # modify the 2
c5674021 2875
7a4340ed 2876=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2877
2878(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2879subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2880backwards.
2881
7a4340ed 2882=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2883
be771a83
GS
2884(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2885couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2886
2887=item Module name must be constant
2888
2889(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2890
be98fb35 2891=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2892
be98fb35
GS
2893(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2894you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2895about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2896
fe13d51d 2897=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7 2898
6903afa2 2899(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
ed9aa3b7
SG
2900can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2901list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2902See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2903
a0d0e21e
LW
2904=item msg%s not implemented
2905
2906(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2907
2908=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2909
75b44862
GS
2910(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2911They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2912
49704364 2913=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2914
49704364
LW
2915(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2916follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2917See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2918
2919=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2920
be771a83
GS
2921(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2922that yet.
6df41af2 2923
fd1b7234 2924=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 2925
be771a83
GS
2926(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2927sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2928local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2929
8149aa9f
FC
2930=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2931
2932(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
2933If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2934again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
2935provided for this purpose.
2936
2937NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2938%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2939the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2940will not trigger this warning.
2941
4a68bf9d 2942=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...}
ff3f963a 2943
c3c41406 2944(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in a bracketed
f4e361c7
FC
2945character class, for the same reason that C<.> in a character class loses
2946its specialness: it matches almost everything, which is probably not
2947what you want.
c3c41406 2948
4a68bf9d 2949=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer
c3c41406 2950
f4e361c7
FC
2951(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or
2952sequence was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that
2953bypass the lexer, such as using single-quotish context, or an extra
7fae04b9 2954backslash in double-quotish:
c3c41406
KW
2955
2956 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
b09c05e6 2957 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
c3c41406
KW
2958 /$re/;
2959
b09c05e6 2960Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
c3c41406
KW
2961
2962 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
2963 /$re/;
2964
2965The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
2966components:
2967
2968 $re = '\N';
2969 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
2970
2971It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and it
2972doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
2973
2974Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
2975C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
2976
2977 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
2978 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
ff3f963a 2979
49704364
LW
2980=item Negative '/' count in unpack
2981
2982(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
2983negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2984
a0d0e21e
LW
2985=item Negative length
2986
be771a83
GS
2987(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2988length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2989
ed9aa3b7
SG
2990=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
2991
2992(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
2993greater than or equal to zero.
2994
7253e4e3 2995=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2996
6903afa2
FC
2997(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses.
2998So things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the
2999regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 3000
7253e4e3 3001Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 3002C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3003
6df41af2 3004=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 3005
be771a83
GS
3006(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
3007scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 3008
2c7d6b9c
RGS
3009=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
3010
3011(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
3012real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
3013See L<mro>.
3014
a0d0e21e
LW
3015=item No %s allowed while running setuid
3016
be771a83
GS
3017(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
3018setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
3019will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
3020securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 3021
6651ba0b
FC
3022=item No code specified for -%c
3023
3024(F) Perl's B<-e> and B<-E> command-line options require an argument. If
3025you want to run an empty program, pass the empty string as a separate
3026argument or run a program consisting of a single 0 or 1:
3027
3028 perl -e ""
3029 perl -e0
3030 perl -e1
3031
a0d0e21e
LW
3032=item No comma allowed after %s
3033
6903afa2
FC
3034(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is
3035not allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
a0d0e21e
LW
3036Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
3037
6903afa2
FC
3038One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported
3039a constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
3040importing took place, it may for example be that your operating
3041system does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did
3042use an explicit import list for the constants you expect to see;
3043please see L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an
3044explicit import list would probably have caught this error earlier
3045it naturally does not remedy the fact that your operating system
3046still does not support that constant. Maybe you have a typo in
3047the constants of the symbol import list of B<use> or B<import> or in the
3048constant name at the line where this error was triggered?
0a753a76 3049
748a9306
LW
3050=item No command into which to pipe on command line
3051
be771a83
GS
3052(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3053redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
3054doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 3055
a0d0e21e
LW
3056=item No DB::DB routine defined
3057
be771a83 3058(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
f7af5ce1 3059for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
ccafdc96
RGS
3060module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
3061statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
3062
3063=item No dbm on this machine
3064
3065(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 3066supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 3067
ccafdc96 3068=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 3069
ccafdc96
RGS
3070(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
3071for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
3072module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
3073of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 3074
6651ba0b
FC
3075=item No directory specified for -I
3076
3077(F) The B<-I> command-line switch requires a directory name as part of the
3078I<same> argument. Use B<-Ilib>, for instance. B<-I lib> won't work.
3079
c47ff5f1 3080=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 3081
be771a83
GS
3082(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3083redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
3084find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 3085
49704364
LW
3086=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
3087
3088(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
6903afa2 3089matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 3090
c47ff5f1 3091=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 3092
be771a83
GS
3093(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3094redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
3095name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 3096
2c7d6b9c
RGS
3097=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
3098
3099(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
3100in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
3101it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
fa816bf3 3102or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2c7d6b9c 3103
6df41af2
GS
3104=item "no" not allowed in expression
3105
be771a83
GS
3106(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
3107returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 3108
c47ff5f1 3109=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 3110
be771a83
GS
3111(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3112redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
3113doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 3114
c47ff5f1 3115=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 3116
be771a83
GS
3117(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3118redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
3119find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 3120
1ec3e8de
GS
3121=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
3122
be771a83
GS
3123(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
3124declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
3125semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 3126
a0d0e21e
LW
3127=item No Perl script found in input
3128
3129(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
3130with #! and containing the word "perl".
3131
3132=item No setregid available
3133
3134(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
3135your system.
3136
3137=item No setreuid available
3138
3139(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
3140your system.
3141
e75d1f10
RD
3142=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
3143
b7e4ecc1
FC
3144(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed
3145variable but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type.
3146The indicated package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the
3147L<fields> pragma.
e75d1f10 3148
2c692339
RGS
3149=item No such class %s
3150
dc7e5945
FC
3151(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state"
3152declaration, but this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2c692339 3153
3c20a832
SP
3154=item No such hook: %s
3155
dc7e5945
FC
3156(F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl.
3157Currently, Perl accepts C<__DIE__> and C<__WARN__> as valid signal hooks.
3c20a832 3158
6df41af2
GS
3159=item No such pipe open
3160
3161(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
3162close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
3163earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 3164
a0d0e21e
LW
3165=item No such signal: SIG%s
3166
be771a83
GS
3167(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
3168not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
3169names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
3170
3171=item Not a CODE reference
3172
3173(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3174subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3175use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3176also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3177
3178=item Not a format reference
3179
3180(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
3181format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
3182
3183=item Not a GLOB reference
3184
be771a83
GS
3185(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
3186symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
3187something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
3188kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3189
3190=item Not a HASH reference
3191
be771a83
GS
3192(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
3193reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
3194find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3195
6df41af2
GS
3196=item Not an ARRAY reference
3197
be771a83
GS
3198(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
3199a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3200to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 3201
d4fc4415
FC
3202=item Not an unblessed ARRAY reference
3203
3204(F) You passed a reference to a blessed array to C<push>, C<shift> or
3205another array function. These only accept unblessed array references
3206or arrays beginning explicitly with C<@>.
3207
a0d0e21e
LW
3208=item Not a SCALAR reference
3209
be771a83
GS
3210(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
3211a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3212to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3213
3214=item Not a subroutine reference
3215
3216(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3217subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3218use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3219also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3220
e7ea3e70 3221=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
3222
3223(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 3224doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 3225
a0d0e21e
LW
3226=item Not enough arguments for %s
3227
3228(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
3229
6df41af2
GS
3230=item Not enough format arguments
3231
be771a83
GS
3232(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
3233supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
3234
3235=item %s: not found
3236
be771a83
GS
3237(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
3238of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
3239yourself.
6df41af2
GS
3240
3241=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 3242
6df41af2
GS
3243(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
3244timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
3245to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
3246F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
3247need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e 3248
f0a2b745
KW
3249=item Non-octal character '%c'. Resolved as "%s"
3250
fa816bf3
FC
3251(W digit) In parsing an octal numeric constant, a character was
3252unexpectedly encountered that isn't octal. The resulting value
3253is as indicated.
f0a2b745 3254
4ef2275c
GA
3255=item Non-string passed as bitmask
3256
3257(W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().
3258Use the vec() function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for
6903afa2 3259select. See L<perlfunc/select>.
4ef2275c 3260
a0d0e21e
LW
3261=item Null filename used
3262
be771a83
GS
3263(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
3264machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 3265
6df41af2
GS
3266=item NULL OP IN RUN
3267
f84fe999 3268(S debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
be771a83 3269pointer.
6df41af2 3270
55497cff
PP
3271=item Null picture in formline
3272
3273(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
3274specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
3275supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
3276
a0d0e21e
LW
3277=item Null realloc
3278
3279(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
3280
3281=item NULL regexp argument
3282
5f05dabc 3283(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
3284
3285=item NULL regexp parameter
3286
3287(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
3288
fc36a67e
PP
3289=item Number too long
3290
be771a83 3291(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 3292about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
3293versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
3294the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
3295"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 3296
f0a2b745
KW
3297=item Number with no digits
3298
1043934d 3299(F) Perl was looking for a number but found nothing that looked like
6903afa2 3300a number. This happens, for example with C<\o{}>, with no number between
1043934d 3301the braces.
f0a2b745 3302
252aa082
JH
3303=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
3304
75b44862 3305(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
3306(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See