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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you
2see. It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is
3specially designed to be readable as is.
5aabfad6 4
8736538c 5=head1 NAME
5aabfad6 6
f8dbba82 7README.cygwin - Perl for Cygwin
5aabfad6 8
8736538c 9=head1 SYNOPSIS
5aabfad6 10
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11This document will help you configure, make, test and install Perl
12on Cygwin. This document also describes features of Cygwin that will
13affect how Perl behaves at runtime.
5aabfad6 14
f8dbba82 15B<NOTE:> There are pre-built Perl packages available for Cygwin and a
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16version of Perl is provided in the normal Cygwin install. If you do
17not need to customize the configuration, consider using one of those
18packages.
5aabfad6 19
5aabfad6 20
a83b6f46 21=head1 PREREQUISITES FOR COMPILING PERL ON CYGWIN
8736538c 22
f8dbba82 23=head2 Cygwin = GNU+Cygnus+Windows (Don't leave UNIX without it)
8736538c 24
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25The Cygwin tools are ports of the popular GNU development tools for Win32
26platforms. They run thanks to the Cygwin library which provides the UNIX
27system calls and environment these programs expect. More information
28about this project can be found at:
8736538c 29
47dafe4d 30 http://www.cygwin.com/
1cab015a 31
f8dbba82 32A recent net or commercial release of Cygwin is required.
8736538c 33
6a01534f 34At the time this document was last updated, Cygwin 1.3.12 was current.
8736538c 35
1cab015a 36
f8dbba82 37=head2 Cygwin Configuration
1cab015a 38
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39While building Perl some changes may be necessary to your Cygwin setup so
40that Perl builds cleanly. These changes are B<not> required for normal
41Perl usage.
1cab015a 42
f8dbba82 43B<NOTE:> The binaries that are built will run on all Win32 versions.
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44They do not depend on your host system (Win9x/WinME, WinNT/Win2K)
45or your Cygwin configuration (I<ntea>, I<ntsec>, binary/text mounts).
46The only dependencies come from hard-coded pathnames like C</usr/local>.
47However, your host system and Cygwin configuration will affect Perl's
48runtime behavior (see L</"TEST">).
1cab015a 49
f8dbba82 50=over 4
1cab015a 51
f8dbba82 52=item * C<PATH>
1cab015a 53
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54Set the C<PATH> environment variable so that Configure finds the Cygwin
55versions of programs. Any Windows directories should be removed or
56moved to the end of your C<PATH>.
1cab015a 57
f8dbba82 58=item * I<nroff>
1cab015a 59
f8dbba82 60If you do not have I<nroff> (which is part of the I<groff> package),
b4bcd662 61Configure will B<not> prompt you to install I<man> pages.
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62
63=item * Permissions
64
65On WinNT with either the I<ntea> or I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> settings, directory
66and file permissions may not be set correctly. Since the build process
125a13ce 67creates directories and files, to be safe you may want to run a `C<chmod
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68-R +w *>' on the entire Perl source tree.
69
70Also, it is a well known WinNT "feature" that files created by a login
71that is a member of the I<Administrators> group will be owned by the
72I<Administrators> group. Depending on your umask, you may find that you
73can not write to files that you just created (because you are no longer
74the owner). When using the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, this is not an
75issue because it "corrects" the ownership to what you would expect on
76a UNIX system.
1cab015a 77
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78=back
79
a83b6f46 80=head1 CONFIGURE PERL ON CYGWIN
8736538c 81
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82The default options gathered by Configure with the assistance of
83F<hints/cygwin.sh> will build a Perl that supports dynamic loading
84(which requires a shared F<libperl.dll>).
f89d6eaa 85
f8dbba82 86This will run Configure and keep a record:
8736538c 87
f8dbba82 88 ./Configure 2>&1 | tee log.configure
8736538c 89
b4bcd662 90If you are willing to accept all the defaults run Configure with B<-de>.
f8dbba82 91However, several useful customizations are available.
5aabfad6 92
a83b6f46 93=head2 Stripping Perl Binaries on Cygwin
5aabfad6 94
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95It is possible to strip the EXEs and DLLs created by the build process.
96The resulting binaries will be significantly smaller. If you want the
97binaries to be stripped, you can either add a B<-s> option when Configure
98prompts you,
8736538c 99
f8dbba82 100 Any additional ld flags (NOT including libraries)? [none] -s
5db16f6a 101 Any special flags to pass to gcc to use dynamic linking? [none] -s
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102 Any special flags to pass to ld2 to create a dynamically loaded library?
103 [none] -s
8736538c 104
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105or you can edit F<hints/cygwin.sh> and uncomment the relevant variables
106near the end of the file.
8736538c 107
a83b6f46 108=head2 Optional Libraries for Perl on Cygwin
8736538c 109
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110Several Perl functions and modules depend on the existence of
111some optional libraries. Configure will find them if they are
112installed in one of the directories listed as being used for library
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113searches. Pre-built packages for most of these are available from
114the Cygwin installer.
8736538c 115
f8dbba82 116=over 4
8736538c 117
f8dbba82 118=item * C<-lcrypt>
8736538c 119
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120The crypt package distributed with Cygwin is a Linux compatible 56-bit
121DES crypt port by Corinna Vinschen.
122
123Alternatively, the crypt libraries in GNU libc have been ported to Cygwin.
1cab015a 124
5db16f6a 125The DES based Ultra Fast Crypt port was done by Alexey Truhan:
1cab015a 126
2ca463cb 127 ftp://ftp.uni-erlangen.de/pub/pc/gnuwin32/cygwin/porters/Okhapkin_Sergey/cw32crypt-dist-0.tgz
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128
129NOTE: There are various export restrictions on DES implementations,
130see the glibc README for more details.
1cab015a 131
f8dbba82 132The MD5 port was done by Andy Piper:
1cab015a 133
2ca463cb 134 ftp://ftp.uni-erlangen.de/pub/pc/gnuwin32/cygwin/porters/Okhapkin_Sergey/libcrypt.tgz
1cab015a 135
f8dbba82 136=item * C<-lgdbm> (C<use GDBM_File>)
1cab015a 137
a0457be1 138GDBM is available for Cygwin.
125a13ce 139
f8dbba82 140=item * C<-ldb> (C<use DB_File>)
1cab015a 141
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142BerkeleyDB is available for Cygwin. Some details can be found in
143F<ext/DB_File/DB_File.pm>.
1cab015a 144
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145NOTE: The BerkeleyDB library only completely works on NTFS partitions.
146
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147=item * C<-lcygipc> (C<use IPC::SysV>)
148
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149A port of SysV IPC is available for Cygwin.
150
151NOTE: This has B<not> been extensively tested. In particular,
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152C<d_semctl_semun> is undefined because it fails a Configure test
153and on Win9x the I<shm*()> functions seem to hang. It also creates
154a compile time dependency because F<perl.h> includes F<<sys/ipc.h>>
155and F<<sys/sem.h>> (which will be required in the future when compiling
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156CPAN modules). NO LONGER SUPPORTED!
157
158=item * C<-lutil>
159
160Included with the standard Cygwin netrelease is the inetutils package
161which includes libutil.a.
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162
163=back
164
a83b6f46 165=head2 Configure-time Options for Perl on Cygwin
f8dbba82 166
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167The F<INSTALL> document describes several Configure-time options. Some of
168these will work with Cygwin, others are not yet possible. Also, some of
169these are experimental. You can either select an option when Configure
170prompts you or you can define (undefine) symbols on the command line.
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171
172=over 4
173
174=item * C<-Uusedl>
175
0a110db2 176Undefining this symbol forces Perl to be compiled statically.
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177
178=item * C<-Uusemymalloc>
1cab015a 179
f8dbba82 180By default Perl uses the malloc() included with the Perl source. If you
0a110db2 181want to force Perl to build with the system malloc() undefine this symbol.
1cab015a 182
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183=item * C<-Uuseperlio>
184
185Undefining this symbol disables the PerlIO abstraction, which is now the
186default.
187
6b49d266 188=item * C<-Dusemultiplicity>
1cab015a 189
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190Multiplicity is required when embedding Perl in a C program and using
191more than one interpreter instance. This works with the Cygwin port.
1cab015a 192
0a110db2 193=item * C<-Duse64bitint>
1cab015a 194
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195By default Perl uses 32 bit integers. If you want to use larger 64
196bit integers, define this symbol. If there is trouble, check that
197your Cygwin installation is up to date.
1cab015a 198
f8dbba82 199=item * C<-Duselongdouble>
1cab015a 200
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201I<gcc> supports long doubles (12 bytes). However, several additional
202long double math functions are necessary to use them within Perl
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203(I<{atan2, cos, exp, floor, fmod, frexp, isnan, log, modf, pow, sin, sqrt}l,
204strtold>).
f8dbba82 205These are B<not> yet available with Cygwin.
1cab015a 206
f8dbba82 207=item * C<-Dusethreads>
1cab015a 208
a0457be1 209POSIX threads are B<not> yet implemented in Cygwin completely.
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210
211=item * C<-Duselargefiles>
212
0a110db2 213Although Win32 supports large files, Cygwin currently uses 32-bit integers
5db16f6a 214for internal size and position calculations.
1cab015a 215
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216=item * C<-Dmksymlinks>
217
218Use this to build perl outside of the source tree. This works with Cygwin.
219Details can be found in the F<INSTALL> document.
220
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221=back
222
a83b6f46 223=head2 Suspicious Warnings on Cygwin
1cab015a 224
f8dbba82 225You may see some messages during Configure that seem suspicious.
8736538c 226
f8dbba82 227=over 4
8736538c 228
b4bcd662 229=item * I<dlsym()>
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230
231I<ld2> is needed to build dynamic libraries, but it does not exist
232when dlsym() checking occurs (it is not created until `C<make>' runs).
233You will see the following message:
234
235 Checking whether your dlsym() needs a leading underscore ...
b4bcd662 236 ld2: not found
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237 I can't compile and run the test program.
238 I'm guessing that dlsym doesn't need a leading underscore.
239
240Since the guess is correct, this is not a problem.
241
b4bcd662 242=item * Win9x and C<d_eofnblk>
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243
244Win9x does not correctly report C<EOF> with a non-blocking read on a
245closed pipe. You will see the following messages:
246
247 But it also returns -1 to signal EOF, so be careful!
248 WARNING: you can't distinguish between EOF and no data!
249
250 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
251 The recommended value for $d_eofnblk on this machine was "define"!
252 Keep the recommended value? [y]
253
254At least for consistency with WinNT, you should keep the recommended
255value.
256
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257=item * Compiler/Preprocessor defines
258
259The following error occurs because of the Cygwin C<#define> of
260C<_LONG_DOUBLE>:
261
262 Guessing which symbols your C compiler and preprocessor define...
5d129265 263 try.c:<line#>: parse error
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264
265This failure does not seem to cause any problems.
266
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267=back
268
a83b6f46 269=head1 MAKE ON CYGWIN
5aabfad6 270
b4bcd662 271Simply run I<make> and wait:
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272
273 make 2>&1 | tee log.make
274
a83b6f46 275=head2 Warnings on Cygwin
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276
277Warnings like these are normal:
278
279 warning: overriding commands for target <file>
280 warning: ignoring old commands for target <file>
281
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282 dllwrap: no export definition file provided
283 dllwrap: creating one, but that may not be what you want
f8dbba82 284
a83b6f46 285=head2 ld2 on Cygwin
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286
287During `C<make>', I<ld2> will be created and installed in your $installbin
288directory (where you said to put public executables). It does not
289wait until the `C<make install>' process to install the I<ld2> script,
290this is because the remainder of the `C<make>' refers to I<ld2> without
291fully specifying its path and does this from multiple subdirectories.
292The assumption is that $installbin is in your current C<PATH>. If this
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293is not the case `C<make>' will fail at some point. If this happens,
294just manually copy I<ld2> from the source directory to somewhere in
295your C<PATH>.
f8dbba82 296
a83b6f46 297=head1 TEST ON CYGWIN
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298
299There are two steps to running the test suite:
300
301 make test 2>&1 | tee log.make-test
302
303 cd t;./perl harness 2>&1 | tee ../log.harness
304
305The same tests are run both times, but more information is provided when
306running as `C<./perl harness>'.
5aabfad6 307
f8dbba82 308Test results vary depending on your host system and your Cygwin
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309configuration. If a test can pass in some Cygwin setup, it is always
310attempted and explainable test failures are documented. It is possible
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311for Perl to pass all the tests, but it is more likely that some tests
312will fail for one of the reasons listed below.
1cab015a 313
a83b6f46 314=head2 File Permissions on Cygwin
1cab015a 315
f8dbba82 316UNIX file permissions are based on sets of mode bits for
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317{read,write,execute} for each {user,group,other}. By default Cygwin
318only tracks the Win32 read-only attribute represented as the UNIX file
319user write bit (files are always readable, files are executable if they
320have a F<.{com,bat,exe}> extension or begin with C<#!>, directories are
321always readable and executable). On WinNT with the I<ntea> C<CYGWIN>
322setting, the additional mode bits are stored as extended file attributes.
323On WinNT with the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, permissions use the standard
324WinNT security descriptors and access control lists. Without one of
47f4f673 325these options, these tests will fail (listing not updated yet):
1cab015a 326
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327 Failed Test List of failed
328 ------------------------------------
329 io/fs.t 5, 7, 9-10
330 lib/anydbm.t 2
331 lib/db-btree.t 20
332 lib/db-hash.t 16
333 lib/db-recno.t 18
334 lib/gdbm.t 2
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335 lib/ndbm.t 2
336 lib/odbm.t 2
337 lib/sdbm.t 2
338 op/stat.t 9, 20 (.tmp not an executable extension)
1cab015a 339
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340=head2 NDBM_File does not work on FAT filesystems
341
342Do not install NDBM_File on FAT filesystem. It can be built on a FAT
343filesystem, but many ndbm tests will fail. With NTFS, there should be
344no problems either way.
345
a83b6f46 346=head2 Script Portability on Cygwin
1cab015a 347
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348Cygwin does an outstanding job of providing UNIX-like semantics on top of
349Win32 systems. However, in addition to the items noted above, there are
350some differences that you should know about. This is a very brief guide
351to portability, more information can be found in the Cygwin documentation.
1cab015a 352
f8dbba82 353=over 4
1cab015a 354
f8dbba82 355=item * Pathnames
1cab015a 356
a0457be1 357Cygwin pathnames can be separated by forward (F</>) or backward (F<\\>)
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358slashes. They may also begin with drive letters (F<C:>) or Universal
359Naming Codes (F<//UNC>). DOS device names (F<aux>, F<con>, F<prn>,
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360F<com*>, F<lpt?>, F<nul>) are invalid as base filenames. However, they
361can be used in extensions (e.g., F<hello.aux>). Names may contain all
362printable characters except these:
1cab015a 363
f8dbba82 364 : * ? " < > |
1cab015a 365
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366File names are case insensitive, but case preserving. A pathname that
367contains a backslash or drive letter is a Win32 pathname (and not subject
368to the translations applied to POSIX style pathnames).
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369
370=item * Text/Binary
371
372When a file is opened it is in either text or binary mode. In text mode
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373a file is subject to CR/LF/Ctrl-Z translations. With Cygwin, the default
374mode for an open() is determined by the mode of the mount that underlies
375the file. Perl provides a binmode() function to set binary mode on files
376that otherwise would be treated as text. sysopen() with the C<O_TEXT>
377flag sets text mode on files that otherwise would be treated as binary:
378
379 sysopen(FOO, "bar", O_WRONLY|O_CREAT|O_TEXT)
f8dbba82 380
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381lseek(), tell() and sysseek() only work with files opened in binary mode.
382
383The text/binary issue is covered at length in the Cygwin documentation.
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384
385=item * F<.exe>
386
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387The Cygwin stat(), lstat() and readlink() functions make the F<.exe>
388extension transparent by looking for F<foo.exe> when you ask for F<foo>
389(unless a F<foo> also exists). Cygwin does not require a F<.exe>
390extension, but I<gcc> adds it automatically when building a program.
391However, when accessing an executable as a normal file (e.g., I<cp>
392in a makefile) the F<.exe> is not transparent. The I<install> included
393with Cygwin automatically appends a F<.exe> when necessary.
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394
395=item * chown()
396
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397On WinNT chown() can change a file's user and group IDs. On Win9x chown()
398is a no-op, although this is appropriate since there is no security model.
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399
400=item * Miscellaneous
401
402File locking using the C<F_GETLK> command to fcntl() is a stub that
403returns C<ENOSYS>.
404
f8dbba82 405Win9x can not rename() an open file (although WinNT can).
1cab015a 406
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407The Cygwin chroot() implementation has holes (it can not restrict file
408access by native Win32 programs).
409
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410Inplace editing C<perl -i> of files doesn't work without doing a backup
411of the file being edited C<perl -i.bak> because of windowish restrictions,
f5b24c15 412so Perl adds the C<.bak> automatically if you just use C<perl -i>.
818c4caa 413
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414=back
415
a83b6f46 416=head1 INSTALL PERL ON CYGWIN
f8dbba82 417
b4bcd662 418This will install Perl, including I<man> pages.
f8dbba82 419
a0457be1 420 make install 2>&1 | tee log.make-install
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421
422NOTE: If C<STDERR> is redirected `C<make install>' will B<not> prompt
423you to install I<perl> into F</usr/bin>.
1cab015a 424
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425You may need to be I<Administrator> to run `C<make install>'. If you
426are not, you must have write access to the directories in question.
1cab015a 427
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428Information on installing the Perl documentation in HTML format can be
429found in the F<INSTALL> document.
1cab015a 430
a83b6f46 431=head1 MANIFEST ON CYGWIN
1cab015a 432
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433These are the files in the Perl release that contain references to Cygwin.
434These very brief notes attempt to explain the reason for all conditional
435code. Hopefully, keeping this up to date will allow the Cygwin port to
47f4f673 436be kept as clean as possible (listing not updated yet).
1cab015a 437
f8dbba82 438=over 4
1cab015a 439
f8dbba82 440=item Documentation
1cab015a 441
47dafe4d 442 INSTALL README.cygwin README.win32 MANIFEST
5d129265 443 Changes Changes5.005 Changes5.004 Changes5.6
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444 pod/perl.pod pod/perlport.pod pod/perlfaq3.pod
445 pod/perldelta.pod pod/perl5004delta.pod pod/perl56delta.pod
446 pod/perlhist.pod pod/perlmodlib.pod pod/buildtoc.PL pod/perltoc.pod
1cab015a 447
f8dbba82 448=item Build, Configure, Make, Install
1cab015a 449
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450 cygwin/Makefile.SHs
451 cygwin/ld2.in
452 cygwin/perlld.in
453 ext/IPC/SysV/hints/cygwin.pl
454 ext/NDBM_File/hints/cygwin.pl
455 ext/ODBM_File/hints/cygwin.pl
456 hints/cygwin.sh
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457 Configure - help finding hints from uname,
458 shared libperl required for dynamic loading
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459 Makefile.SH - linklibperl
460 Porting/patchls - cygwin in port list
f8dbba82 461 installman - man pages with :: translated to .
5db16f6a 462 installperl - install dll/ld2/perlld, install to pods
6b49d266 463 makedepend.SH - uwinfix
1cab015a 464
f8dbba82 465=item Tests
1cab015a 466
f8dbba82 467 t/io/tell.t - binmode
5d129265 468 t/lib/b.t - ignore Cwd from os_extras
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469 t/lib/glob-basic.t - Win32 directory list access differs from read mode
470 t/op/magic.t - $^X/symlink WORKAROUND, s/.exe//
471 t/op/stat.t - no /dev, skip Win32 ftCreationTime quirk
472 (cache manager sometimes preserves ctime of file
473 previously created and deleted), no -u (setuid)
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474
475=item Compiled Perl Source
476
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477 EXTERN.h - __declspec(dllimport)
478 XSUB.h - __declspec(dllexport)
b4bcd662 479 cygwin/cygwin.c - os_extras (getcwd, spawn)
6b49d266 480 perl.c - os_extras
f8dbba82 481 perl.h - binmode
6b49d266 482 doio.c - win9x can not rename a file when it is open
b4bcd662 483 pp_sys.c - do not define h_errno, pp_system with spawn
47dafe4d 484 util.c - use setenv
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485
486=item Compiled Module Source
487
488 ext/POSIX/POSIX.xs - tzname defined externally
489 ext/SDBM_File/sdbm/pair.c
490 - EXTCONST needs to be redefined from EXTERN.h
491 ext/SDBM_File/sdbm/sdbm.c
492 - binary open
493
494=item Perl Modules/Scripts
495
6b49d266 496 lib/Cwd.pm - hook to internal Cwd::cwd
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497 lib/ExtUtils/MakeMaker.pm
498 - require MM_Cygwin.pm
499 lib/ExtUtils/MM_Cygwin.pm
500 - canonpath, cflags, manifypods, perl_archive
497711e7 501 lib/File/Find.pm - on remote drives stat() always sets st_nlink to 1
6b49d266 502 lib/File/Spec/Unix.pm - preserve //unc
5d129265 503 lib/File/Temp.pm - no directory sticky bit
6b49d266 504 lib/perl5db.pl - use stdin not /dev/tty
6b49d266 505 utils/perldoc.PL - version comment
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506
507=back
f89d6eaa 508
a83b6f46 509=head1 BUGS ON CYGWIN
f8dbba82 510
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511Support for swapping real and effective user and group IDs is incomplete.
512On WinNT Cygwin provides setuid(), seteuid(), setgid() and setegid().
513However, additional Cygwin calls for manipulating WinNT access tokens
514and security contexts are required.
515
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516=head1 AUTHORS
517
b4bcd662 518Charles Wilson <cwilson@ece.gatech.edu>,
47dafe4d 519Eric Fifer <egf7@columbia.edu>,
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520alexander smishlajev <als@turnhere.com>,
521Steven Morlock <newspost@morlock.net>,
522Sebastien Barre <Sebastien.Barre@utc.fr>,
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523Teun Burgers <burgers@ecn.nl>,
524Gerrit Haase <gh@familiehaase.de>.
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525
526=head1 HISTORY
527
a0457be1 528Last updated: 2002-02-27