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utf8.c: further doc tweaks
[perl5.git] / utf8.h
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1/* utf8.h
2 *
83706693 3 * Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009 by Larry Wall and others
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4 *
5 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
6 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
7 *
8 */
9
39e02b42 10/* Use UTF-8 as the default script encoding?
1e54db1a 11 * Turning this on will break scripts having non-UTF-8 binary
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12 * data (such as Latin-1) in string literals. */
13#ifdef USE_UTF8_SCRIPTS
14# define USE_UTF8_IN_NAMES (!IN_BYTES)
15#else
16# define USE_UTF8_IN_NAMES (PL_hints & HINT_UTF8)
17#endif
18
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19/* Source backward compatibility. */
20#define uvuni_to_utf8(d, uv) uvuni_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, 0)
21#define is_utf8_string_loc(s, len, ep) is_utf8_string_loclen(s, len, ep, 0)
22
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23#ifdef EBCDIC
24/* The equivalent of these macros but implementing UTF-EBCDIC
25 are in the following header file:
26 */
27
28#include "utfebcdic.h"
fd7cb289 29
d06134e5 30#else /* ! EBCDIC */
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31START_EXTERN_C
32
a0ed51b3 33#ifdef DOINIT
6f06b55f 34EXTCONST unsigned char PL_utf8skip[] = {
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351,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1, /* ascii */
361,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1, /* ascii */
371,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1, /* ascii */
381,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1, /* ascii */
391,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1, /* bogus */
401,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1, /* bogus */
412,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2, /* scripts */
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423,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,5,5,5,5,6,6, /* cjk etc. */
437,13, /* Perl extended (not UTF-8). Up to 72bit allowed (64-bit + reserved). */
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44};
45#else
6f06b55f 46EXTCONST unsigned char PL_utf8skip[];
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47#endif
48
73c4f7a1 49END_EXTERN_C
7e2040f0 50
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51/* Native character to iso-8859-1 */
52#define NATIVE_TO_ASCII(ch) (ch)
53#define ASCII_TO_NATIVE(ch) (ch)
54/* Transform after encoding */
55#define NATIVE_TO_UTF(ch) (ch)
56#define UTF_TO_NATIVE(ch) (ch)
57/* Transforms in wide UV chars */
58#define UNI_TO_NATIVE(ch) (ch)
59#define NATIVE_TO_UNI(ch) (ch)
60/* Transforms in invariant space */
61#define NATIVE_TO_NEED(enc,ch) (ch)
62#define ASCII_TO_NEED(enc,ch) (ch)
d7578b48 63
d06134e5 64/* As there are no translations, avoid the function wrapper */
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65#define utf8n_to_uvchr utf8n_to_uvuni
66#define uvchr_to_utf8 uvuni_to_utf8
2b9d42f0 67
877d9f0d 68/*
9041c2e3 69
8c007b5a 70 The following table is from Unicode 3.2.
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71
72 Code Points 1st Byte 2nd Byte 3rd Byte 4th Byte
73
375122d7 74 U+0000..U+007F 00..7F
e1b711da 75 U+0080..U+07FF * C2..DF 80..BF
37e2e78e 76 U+0800..U+0FFF E0 * A0..BF 80..BF
375122d7 77 U+1000..U+CFFF E1..EC 80..BF 80..BF
e1b711da 78 U+D000..U+D7FF ED 80..9F 80..BF
37e2e78e 79 U+D800..U+DFFF +++++++ utf16 surrogates, not legal utf8 +++++++
375122d7 80 U+E000..U+FFFF EE..EF 80..BF 80..BF
37e2e78e 81 U+10000..U+3FFFF F0 * 90..BF 80..BF 80..BF
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82 U+40000..U+FFFFF F1..F3 80..BF 80..BF 80..BF
83 U+100000..U+10FFFF F4 80..8F 80..BF 80..BF
84
e1b711da 85Note the gaps before several of the byte entries above marked by '*'. These are
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86caused by legal UTF-8 avoiding non-shortest encodings: it is technically
87possible to UTF-8-encode a single code point in different ways, but that is
88explicitly forbidden, and the shortest possible encoding should always be used
89(and that is what Perl does).
8c007b5a 90
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91 */
92
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93/*
94 Another way to look at it, as bits:
95
96 Code Points 1st Byte 2nd Byte 3rd Byte 4th Byte
97
98 0aaaaaaa 0aaaaaaa
99 00000bbbbbaaaaaa 110bbbbb 10aaaaaa
100 ccccbbbbbbaaaaaa 1110cccc 10bbbbbb 10aaaaaa
101 00000dddccccccbbbbbbaaaaaa 11110ddd 10cccccc 10bbbbbb 10aaaaaa
102
103As you can see, the continuation bytes all begin with C<10>, and the
e1b711da 104leading bits of the start byte tell how many bytes there are in the
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105encoded character.
106
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107Perl's extended UTF-8 means we can have start bytes up to FF.
108
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109*/
110
111
c4d5f83a 112#define UNI_IS_INVARIANT(c) (((UV)c) < 0x80)
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113/* Note that C0 and C1 are invalid in legal UTF8, so the lower bound of the
114 * below might ought to be C2 */
65ab9279 115#define UTF8_IS_START(c) (((U8)c) >= 0xc0)
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116#define UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(c) (((U8)c) >= 0x80 && (((U8)c) <= 0xbf))
117#define UTF8_IS_CONTINUED(c) (((U8)c) & 0x80)
db42d148 118#define UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(c) (((U8)c & 0xfc) == 0xc0)
8850bf83 119
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120#define UTF_START_MARK(len) (((len) > 7) ? 0xFF : (0xFE << (7-(len))))
121#define UTF_START_MASK(len) (((len) >= 7) ? 0x00 : (0x1F >> ((len)-2)))
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122
123#define UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK 0x80
124#define UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT 6
125#define UTF_CONTINUATION_MASK ((U8)0x3f)
c512ce4f 126
1d68d6cd 127#ifdef HAS_QUAD
5bbb0b5a 128#define UNISKIP(uv) ( (uv) < 0x80 ? 1 : \
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129 (uv) < 0x800 ? 2 : \
130 (uv) < 0x10000 ? 3 : \
131 (uv) < 0x200000 ? 4 : \
132 (uv) < 0x4000000 ? 5 : \
133 (uv) < 0x80000000 ? 6 : \
9041c2e3 134 (uv) < UTF8_QUAD_MAX ? 7 : 13 )
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135#else
136/* No, I'm not even going to *TRY* putting #ifdef inside a #define */
5bbb0b5a 137#define UNISKIP(uv) ( (uv) < 0x80 ? 1 : \
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138 (uv) < 0x800 ? 2 : \
139 (uv) < 0x10000 ? 3 : \
140 (uv) < 0x200000 ? 4 : \
141 (uv) < 0x4000000 ? 5 : \
142 (uv) < 0x80000000 ? 6 : 7 )
143#endif
144
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145#endif /* EBCDIC vs ASCII */
146
147/* Rest of these are attributes of Unicode and perl's internals rather than the
148 * encoding, or happen to be the same in both ASCII and EBCDIC (at least at
149 * this level; the macros that some of these call may have different
150 * definitions in the two encodings */
151
152#define NATIVE8_TO_UNI(ch) NATIVE_TO_ASCII(ch) /* a clearer synonym */
153
154#define UTF8_ACCUMULATE(old, new) (((old) << UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT) | (((U8)new) & UTF_CONTINUATION_MASK))
155
156#define UTF8SKIP(s) PL_utf8skip[*(const U8*)(s)]
157
158#define UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c) UNI_IS_INVARIANT(NATIVE_TO_UTF(c))
159#define NATIVE_IS_INVARIANT(c) UNI_IS_INVARIANT(NATIVE8_TO_UNI(c))
160
161#define MAX_PORTABLE_UTF8_TWO_BYTE 0x3FF /* constrained by EBCDIC */
162
163/* The macros in the next sets are used to generate the two utf8 or utfebcdic
164 * bytes from an ordinal that is known to fit into two bytes; it must be less
165 * than 0x3FF to work across both encodings. */
166/* Nocast allows these to be used in the case label of a switch statement */
167#define UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI_nocast(c) UTF_TO_NATIVE(((c)>>UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT)|UTF_START_MARK(2))
168#define UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO_nocast(c) UTF_TO_NATIVE(((c)&UTF_CONTINUATION_MASK)|UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK)
169
170#define UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI(c) ((U8) (UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI_nocast(c)))
171#define UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO(c) ((U8) (UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO_nocast(c)))
172
173/* This name is used when the source is a single byte */
174#define UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(c) UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI((U8)(c))
175#define UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(c) UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO((U8)(c))
176
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177/*
178 * Note: we try to be careful never to call the isXXX_utf8() functions
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179 * unless we're pretty sure we've seen the beginning of a UTF-8 or UTFEBCDIC
180 * character. Otherwise we risk loading in the heavy-duty swash_init and
181 * swash_fetch routines unnecessarily.
7e2040f0 182 */
d06134e5 183#define isIDFIRST_lazy_if(p,c) ((IN_BYTES || (!c || ! UTF8_IS_START(*((const U8*)p)))) \
7e2040f0 184 ? isIDFIRST(*(p)) \
e1ec3a88 185 : isIDFIRST_utf8((const U8*)p))
d06134e5 186#define isALNUM_lazy_if(p,c) ((IN_BYTES || (!c || ! UTF8_IS_START(*((const U8*)p)))) \
7e2040f0 187 ? isALNUM(*(p)) \
e1ec3a88 188 : isALNUM_utf8((const U8*)p))
1d72bdf6 189
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190#define isIDFIRST_lazy(p) isIDFIRST_lazy_if(p,1)
191#define isALNUM_lazy(p) isALNUM_lazy_if(p,1)
3bd709b1 192
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193#define UTF8_MAXBYTES 13
194/* How wide can a single UTF-8 encoded character become in bytes.
195 * NOTE: Strictly speaking Perl's UTF-8 should not be called UTF-8
196 * since UTF-8 is an encoding of Unicode and given Unicode's current
197 * upper limit only four bytes is possible. Perl thinks of UTF-8
198 * as a way to encode non-negative integers in a binary format. */
199#define UTF8_MAXLEN UTF8_MAXBYTES
200
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201/* The maximum number of UTF-8 bytes a single Unicode character can
202 * uppercase/lowercase/fold into; this number depends on the Unicode
203 * version. An example of maximal expansion is the U+03B0 which
204 * uppercases to U+03C5 U+0308 U+0301. The Unicode databases that
d06134e5 205 * tell these things are UnicodeData.txt, CaseFolding.txt, and
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206 * SpecialCasing.txt. */
207#define UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE 6
3bd709b1 208
a98fe34d 209#define IN_BYTES (CopHINTS_get(PL_curcop) & HINT_BYTES)
0064a8a9 210#define DO_UTF8(sv) (SvUTF8(sv) && !IN_BYTES)
1863b879 211#define IN_UNI_8_BIT ( (CopHINTS_get(PL_curcop) & HINT_UNI_8_BIT) \
61fc5122 212 && ! IN_LOCALE_RUNTIME && ! IN_BYTES)
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213
214#define UTF8_ALLOW_EMPTY 0x0001
215#define UTF8_ALLOW_CONTINUATION 0x0002
216#define UTF8_ALLOW_NON_CONTINUATION 0x0004
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217#define UTF8_ALLOW_FE_FF 0x0008 /* Allow FE or FF start bytes, \
218 yields above 0x7fffFFFF */
219#define UTF8_ALLOW_SHORT 0x0010 /* expecting more bytes */
1d72bdf6 220#define UTF8_ALLOW_SURROGATE 0x0020
9f7f3913 221#define UTF8_ALLOW_FFFF 0x0040 /* Allow UNICODE_ILLEGAL */
37e2e78e 222#define UTF8_ALLOW_LONG 0x0080 /* expecting fewer bytes */
1d72bdf6 223#define UTF8_ALLOW_ANYUV (UTF8_ALLOW_EMPTY|UTF8_ALLOW_FE_FF|\
61843245 224 UTF8_ALLOW_SURROGATE|UTF8_ALLOW_FFFF)
c867b360 225#define UTF8_ALLOW_ANY 0x00FF
e83d50c9 226#define UTF8_CHECK_ONLY 0x0200
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227#define UTF8_ALLOW_DEFAULT (ckWARN(WARN_UTF8) ? 0 : \
228 UTF8_ALLOW_ANYUV)
1d72bdf6 229
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230#define UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST 0xD800
231#define UNICODE_SURROGATE_LAST 0xDFFF
232#define UNICODE_REPLACEMENT 0xFFFD
233#define UNICODE_BYTE_ORDER_MARK 0xFEFF
234#define UNICODE_ILLEGAL 0xFFFF
1d72bdf6 235
b851fbc1 236/* Though our UTF-8 encoding can go beyond this,
b3ab6785 237 * let's be conservative and do as Unicode 5.1 says. */
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238#define PERL_UNICODE_MAX 0x10FFFF
239
240#define UNICODE_ALLOW_SURROGATE 0x0001 /* Allow UTF-16 surrogates (EVIL) */
241#define UNICODE_ALLOW_FDD0 0x0002 /* Allow the U+FDD0...U+FDEF */
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242#define UNICODE_ALLOW_FFFF 0x0004 /* Allow U+FFF[EF], U+1FFF[EF], ... */
243#define UNICODE_ALLOW_SUPER 0x0008 /* Allow past 0x10FFFF */
c867b360 244#define UNICODE_ALLOW_ANY 0x000F
b851fbc1 245
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246#define UNICODE_IS_SURROGATE(c) ((c) >= UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST && \
247 (c) <= UNICODE_SURROGATE_LAST)
a10ec373 248#define UNICODE_IS_REPLACEMENT(c) ((c) == UNICODE_REPLACEMENT)
872c91ae 249#define UNICODE_IS_BYTE_ORDER_MARK(c) ((c) == UNICODE_BYTE_ORDER_MARK)
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250#define UNICODE_IS_ILLEGAL(c) ((c) == UNICODE_ILLEGAL)
251
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252#ifdef HAS_QUAD
253# define UTF8_QUAD_MAX UINT64_C(0x1000000000)
254#endif
3bd709b1 255
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256#define UNICODE_GREEK_CAPITAL_LETTER_SIGMA 0x03A3
257#define UNICODE_GREEK_SMALL_LETTER_FINAL_SIGMA 0x03C2
258#define UNICODE_GREEK_SMALL_LETTER_SIGMA 0x03C3
259
9e55ce06 260#define UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT 0x0001
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261#define UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH 0x0002
262#define UNI_DISPLAY_QQ (UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT|UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH)
263#define UNI_DISPLAY_REGEX (UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT|UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH)
9e55ce06 264
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265#ifndef EBCDIC
266# define LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S 0x00DF
267# define LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS 0x00FF
268# define MICRO_SIGN 0x00B5
269#endif
270
271#define ANYOF_FOLD_SHARP_S(node, input, end) \
272 (ANYOF_BITMAP_TEST(node, LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S) && \
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273 (ANYOF_FLAGS(node) & ANYOF_UNICODE) && \
274 (ANYOF_FLAGS(node) & ANYOF_FOLD) && \
275 ((end) > (input) + 1) && \
276 toLOWER((input)[0]) == 's' && \
277 toLOWER((input)[1]) == 's')
ebc501f0 278#define SHARP_S_SKIP 2
3b0fc154 279
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280#ifdef EBCDIC
281/* IS_UTF8_CHAR() is not ported to EBCDIC */
282#else
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283#define IS_UTF8_CHAR_1(p) \
284 ((p)[0] <= 0x7F)
285#define IS_UTF8_CHAR_2(p) \
286 ((p)[0] >= 0xC2 && (p)[0] <= 0xDF && \
287 (p)[1] >= 0x80 && (p)[1] <= 0xBF)
288#define IS_UTF8_CHAR_3a(p) \
289 ((p)[0] == 0xE0 && \
290 (p)[1] >= 0xA0 && (p)[1] <= 0xBF && \
291 (p)[2] >= 0x80 && (p)[2] <= 0xBF)
292#define IS_UTF8_CHAR_3b(p) \
293 ((p)[0] >= 0xE1 && (p)[0] <= 0xEC && \
294 (p)[1] >= 0x80 && (p)[1] <= 0xBF && \
295 (p)[2] >= 0x80 && (p)[2] <= 0xBF)
296#define IS_UTF8_CHAR_3c(p) \
297 ((p)[0] == 0xED && \
298 (p)[1] >= 0x80 && (p)[1] <= 0xBF && \
299 (p)[2] >= 0x80 && (p)[2] <= 0xBF)
300/* In IS_UTF8_CHAR_3c(p) one could use
301 * (p)[1] >= 0x80 && (p)[1] <= 0x9F
302 * if one wanted to exclude surrogates. */
303#define IS_UTF8_CHAR_3d(p) \
304 ((p)[0] >= 0xEE && (p)[0] <= 0xEF && \
305 (p)[1] >= 0x80 && (p)[1] <= 0xBF && \
306 (p)[2] >= 0x80 && (p)[2] <= 0xBF)
307#define IS_UTF8_CHAR_4a(p) \
308 ((p)[0] == 0xF0 && \
309 (p)[1] >= 0x90 && (p)[1] <= 0xBF && \
310 (p)[2] >= 0x80 && (p)[2] <= 0xBF && \
311 (p)[3] >= 0x80 && (p)[3] <= 0xBF)
312#define IS_UTF8_CHAR_4b(p) \
313 ((p)[0] >= 0xF1 && (p)[0] <= 0xF3 && \
314 (p)[1] >= 0x80 && (p)[1] <= 0xBF && \
315 (p)[2] >= 0x80 && (p)[2] <= 0xBF && \
316 (p)[3] >= 0x80 && (p)[3] <= 0xBF)
317/* In IS_UTF8_CHAR_4c(p) one could use
318 * (p)[0] == 0xF4
319 * if one wanted to stop at the Unicode limit U+10FFFF.
320 * The 0xF7 allows us to go to 0x1fffff (0x200000 would
321 * require five bytes). Not doing any further code points
322 * since that is not needed (and that would not be strict
323 * UTF-8, anyway). The "slow path" in Perl_is_utf8_char()
324 * will take care of the "extended UTF-8". */
325#define IS_UTF8_CHAR_4c(p) \
326 ((p)[0] == 0xF4 && (p)[0] <= 0xF7 && \
327 (p)[1] >= 0x80 && (p)[1] <= 0xBF && \
328 (p)[2] >= 0x80 && (p)[2] <= 0xBF && \
329 (p)[3] >= 0x80 && (p)[3] <= 0xBF)
330
331#define IS_UTF8_CHAR_3(p) \
332 (IS_UTF8_CHAR_3a(p) || \
333 IS_UTF8_CHAR_3b(p) || \
334 IS_UTF8_CHAR_3c(p) || \
335 IS_UTF8_CHAR_3d(p))
336#define IS_UTF8_CHAR_4(p) \
337 (IS_UTF8_CHAR_4a(p) || \
338 IS_UTF8_CHAR_4b(p) || \
339 IS_UTF8_CHAR_4c(p))
340
341/* IS_UTF8_CHAR(p) is strictly speaking wrong (not UTF-8) because it
342 * (1) allows UTF-8 encoded UTF-16 surrogates
343 * (2) it allows code points past U+10FFFF.
344 * The Perl_is_utf8_char() full "slow" code will handle the Perl
345 * "extended UTF-8". */
346#define IS_UTF8_CHAR(p, n) \
347 ((n) == 1 ? IS_UTF8_CHAR_1(p) : \
348 (n) == 2 ? IS_UTF8_CHAR_2(p) : \
349 (n) == 3 ? IS_UTF8_CHAR_3(p) : \
350 (n) == 4 ? IS_UTF8_CHAR_4(p) : 0)
351
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352#define IS_UTF8_CHAR_FAST(n) ((n) <= 4)
353
77263263 354#endif /* IS_UTF8_CHAR() for UTF-8 */
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355
356/*
357 * Local variables:
358 * c-indentation-style: bsd
359 * c-basic-offset: 4
360 * indent-tabs-mode: t
361 * End:
362 *
363 * ex: set ts=8 sts=4 sw=4 noet:
364 */