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utf8.h: Add clearer #define synonyms
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1/* utf8.h
2 *
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3 * This file contains definitions for use with the UTF-8 encoding. It
4 * actually also works with the variant UTF-8 encoding called UTF-EBCDIC, and
5 * hides almost all of the differences between these from the caller. In other
6 * words, someone should #include this file, and if the code is being compiled
7 * on an EBCDIC platform, things should mostly just work.
8 *
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9 * Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009,
10 * 2010, 2011 by Larry Wall and others
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11 *
12 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
13 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
14 *
15 */
16
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17#ifndef H_UTF8 /* Guard against recursive inclusion */
18#define H_UTF8 1
19
39e02b42 20/* Use UTF-8 as the default script encoding?
1e54db1a 21 * Turning this on will break scripts having non-UTF-8 binary
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22 * data (such as Latin-1) in string literals. */
23#ifdef USE_UTF8_SCRIPTS
24# define USE_UTF8_IN_NAMES (!IN_BYTES)
25#else
26# define USE_UTF8_IN_NAMES (PL_hints & HINT_UTF8)
27#endif
28
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29#include "regcharclass.h"
30#include "unicode_constants.h"
31
051a06d4 32/* For to_utf8_fold_flags, q.v. */
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33#define FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE 0x1
34#define FOLD_FLAGS_FULL 0x2
35#define FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII 0x4
051a06d4 36
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37/* For _core_swash_init(), internal core use only */
38#define _CORE_SWASH_INIT_USER_DEFINED_PROPERTY 0x1
5d3d13d1 39#define _CORE_SWASH_INIT_RETURN_IF_UNDEF 0x2
87367d5f 40#define _CORE_SWASH_INIT_ACCEPT_INVLIST 0x4
83199d38 41
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42/*
43=head1 Unicode Support
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44L<perlguts/Unicode Support> has an introduction to this API.
45
46See also L</Character classification>,
47and L</Character case changing>.
48Various functions outside this section also work specially with Unicode.
49Search for the string "utf8" in this document.
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50
51=for apidoc is_ascii_string
52
53This is a misleadingly-named synonym for L</is_invariant_string>.
54On ASCII-ish platforms, the name isn't misleading: the ASCII-range characters
55are exactly the UTF-8 invariants. But EBCDIC machines have more invariants
56than just the ASCII characters, so C<is_invariant_string> is preferred.
57
58=cut
59*/
60#define is_ascii_string(s, len) is_invariant_string(s, len)
61
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62#define uvchr_to_utf8(a,b) uvchr_to_utf8_flags(a,b,0)
63#define uvchr_to_utf8_flags(d,uv,flags) \
64 uvoffuni_to_utf8_flags(d,NATIVE_TO_UNI(uv),flags)
65#define utf8_to_uvchr_buf(s, e, lenp) \
842991ae 66 utf8n_to_uvchr(s, (U8*)(e) - (U8*)(s), lenp, \
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67 ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) ? 0 : UTF8_ALLOW_ANY)
68
a0270393 69#define to_uni_fold(c, p, lenp) _to_uni_fold_flags(c, p, lenp, FOLD_FLAGS_FULL)
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70#define to_utf8_fold(c, p, lenp) _to_utf8_fold_flags(c, p, lenp, FOLD_FLAGS_FULL)
71#define to_utf8_lower(a,b,c) _to_utf8_lower_flags(a,b,c,0)
72#define to_utf8_upper(a,b,c) _to_utf8_upper_flags(a,b,c,0)
73#define to_utf8_title(a,b,c) _to_utf8_title_flags(a,b,c,0)
36bb2ab6 74
fd7cb289 75/* Source backward compatibility. */
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76#define is_utf8_string_loc(s, len, ep) is_utf8_string_loclen(s, len, ep, 0)
77
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78#define foldEQ_utf8(s1, pe1, l1, u1, s2, pe2, l2, u2) \
79 foldEQ_utf8_flags(s1, pe1, l1, u1, s2, pe2, l2, u2, 0)
baa60164 80#define FOLDEQ_UTF8_NOMIX_ASCII (1 << 0)
cea315b6 81#define FOLDEQ_LOCALE (1 << 1)
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82#define FOLDEQ_S1_ALREADY_FOLDED (1 << 2)
83#define FOLDEQ_S2_ALREADY_FOLDED (1 << 3)
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84#define FOLDEQ_S1_FOLDS_SANE (1 << 4)
85#define FOLDEQ_S2_FOLDS_SANE (1 << 5)
a33c29bc 86
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87#define ibcmp_utf8(s1, pe1, l1, u1, s2, pe2, l2, u2) \
88 cBOOL(! foldEQ_utf8(s1, pe1, l1, u1, s2, pe2, l2, u2))
89
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90#ifdef EBCDIC
91/* The equivalent of these macros but implementing UTF-EBCDIC
92 are in the following header file:
93 */
94
95#include "utfebcdic.h"
fd7cb289 96
d06134e5 97#else /* ! EBCDIC */
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98START_EXTERN_C
99
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100/* How wide can a single UTF-8 encoded character become in bytes. */
101/* NOTE: Strictly speaking Perl's UTF-8 should not be called UTF-8 since UTF-8
102 * is an encoding of Unicode, and Unicode's upper limit, 0x10FFFF, can be
103 * expressed with 4 bytes. However, Perl thinks of UTF-8 as a way to encode
104 * non-negative integers in a binary format, even those above Unicode */
105#define UTF8_MAXBYTES 13
106
a0ed51b3 107#ifdef DOINIT
6f06b55f 108EXTCONST unsigned char PL_utf8skip[] = {
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109/* 0x00 */ 1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1, /* ascii */
110/* 0x10 */ 1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1, /* ascii */
111/* 0x20 */ 1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1, /* ascii */
112/* 0x30 */ 1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1, /* ascii */
113/* 0x40 */ 1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1, /* ascii */
114/* 0x50 */ 1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1, /* ascii */
115/* 0x60 */ 1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1, /* ascii */
116/* 0x70 */ 1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1, /* ascii */
117/* 0x80 */ 1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1, /* bogus: continuation byte */
118/* 0x90 */ 1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1, /* bogus: continuation byte */
119/* 0xA0 */ 1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1, /* bogus: continuation byte */
120/* 0xB0 */ 1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1, /* bogus: continuation byte */
121/* 0xC0 */ 2,2, /* overlong */
1ff3baa2 122/* 0xC2 */ 2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2, /* U+0080 to U+03FF */
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123/* 0xD0 */ 2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2, /* U+0400 to U+07FF */
124/* 0xE0 */ 3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3, /* U+0800 to U+FFFF */
125/* 0xF0 */ 4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,5,5,5,5,6,6, /* above BMP to 2**31 - 1 */
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126 /* Perl extended (never was official UTF-8). Up to 36 bit */
127/* 0xFE */ 7,
128 /* More extended, Up to 72 bits (64-bit + reserved) */
111e8ed9 129/* 0xFF */ UTF8_MAXBYTES
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130};
131#else
6f06b55f 132EXTCONST unsigned char PL_utf8skip[];
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133#endif
134
73c4f7a1 135END_EXTERN_C
7e2040f0 136
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137/* Native character to/from iso-8859-1. Are the identity functions on ASCII
138 * platforms */
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139#define NATIVE_TO_LATIN1(ch) (__ASSERT_(FITS_IN_8_BITS(ch)) (ch))
140#define LATIN1_TO_NATIVE(ch) (__ASSERT_(FITS_IN_8_BITS(ch)) (ch))
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141
142/* I8 is an intermediate version of UTF-8 used only in UTF-EBCDIC. We thus
143 * consider it to be identical to UTF-8 on ASCII platforms. Strictly speaking
144 * UTF-8 and UTF-EBCDIC are two different things, but we often conflate them
145 * because they are 8-bit encodings that serve the same purpose in Perl, and
146 * rarely do we need to distinguish them. The term "NATIVE_UTF8" applies to
147 * whichever one is applicable on the current platform */
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148#define NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(ch) (__ASSERT_(FITS_IN_8_BITS(ch)) (ch))
149#define I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(ch) (__ASSERT_(FITS_IN_8_BITS(ch)) (ch))
59a449d5 150
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151/* Transforms in wide UV chars */
152#define UNI_TO_NATIVE(ch) (ch)
153#define NATIVE_TO_UNI(ch) (ch)
d7578b48 154
877d9f0d 155/*
9041c2e3 156
8c007b5a 157 The following table is from Unicode 3.2.
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158
159 Code Points 1st Byte 2nd Byte 3rd Byte 4th Byte
160
375122d7 161 U+0000..U+007F 00..7F
e1b711da 162 U+0080..U+07FF * C2..DF 80..BF
37e2e78e 163 U+0800..U+0FFF E0 * A0..BF 80..BF
375122d7 164 U+1000..U+CFFF E1..EC 80..BF 80..BF
e1b711da 165 U+D000..U+D7FF ED 80..9F 80..BF
537124e4 166 U+D800..U+DFFF ED A0..BF 80..BF (surrogates)
375122d7 167 U+E000..U+FFFF EE..EF 80..BF 80..BF
37e2e78e 168 U+10000..U+3FFFF F0 * 90..BF 80..BF 80..BF
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169 U+40000..U+FFFFF F1..F3 80..BF 80..BF 80..BF
170 U+100000..U+10FFFF F4 80..8F 80..BF 80..BF
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171 Below are non-Unicode code points
172 U+110000..U+13FFFF F4 90..BF 80..BF 80..BF
173 U+110000..U+1FFFFF F5..F7 80..BF 80..BF 80..BF
537124e4 174 U+200000..: F8.. * 88..BF 80..BF 80..BF 80..BF
877d9f0d 175
e1b711da 176Note the gaps before several of the byte entries above marked by '*'. These are
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177caused by legal UTF-8 avoiding non-shortest encodings: it is technically
178possible to UTF-8-encode a single code point in different ways, but that is
179explicitly forbidden, and the shortest possible encoding should always be used
15824458 180(and that is what Perl does). The non-shortest ones are called 'overlongs'.
8c007b5a 181
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182 */
183
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184/*
185 Another way to look at it, as bits:
186
b2635aa8 187 Code Points 1st Byte 2nd Byte 3rd Byte 4th Byte
8c007b5a 188
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189 0aaa aaaa 0aaa aaaa
190 0000 0bbb bbaa aaaa 110b bbbb 10aa aaaa
191 cccc bbbb bbaa aaaa 1110 cccc 10bb bbbb 10aa aaaa
192 00 000d ddcc cccc bbbb bbaa aaaa 1111 0ddd 10cc cccc 10bb bbbb 10aa aaaa
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193
194As you can see, the continuation bytes all begin with C<10>, and the
e1b711da 195leading bits of the start byte tell how many bytes there are in the
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196encoded character.
197
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198Perl's extended UTF-8 means we can have start bytes up to FF.
199
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200*/
201
6c88483e 202/* Is the representation of the Unicode code point 'cp' the same regardless of
15824458 203 * being encoded in UTF-8 or not? */
2d1545e5 204#define OFFUNI_IS_INVARIANT(cp) isASCII(cp)
15824458 205
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206/* Is the representation of the code point 'cp' the same regardless of
207 * being encoded in UTF-8 or not? 'cp' is native if < 256; Unicode otherwise
208 * */
cf1be84e 209#define UVCHR_IS_INVARIANT(cp) OFFUNI_IS_INVARIANT(cp)
38953e5a 210
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211/* Misleadingly named: is the UTF8-encoded byte 'c' part of a variant sequence
212 * in UTF-8? This is the inverse of UTF8_IS_INVARIANT */
e4f4ef45 213#define UTF8_IS_CONTINUED(c) (((U8)c) & 0x80)
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214
215/* Is the byte 'c' the first byte of a multi-byte UTF8-8 encoded sequence?
216 * This doesn't catch invariants (they are single-byte). It also excludes the
217 * illegal overlong sequences that begin with C0 and C1. */
e4f4ef45 218#define UTF8_IS_START(c) (((U8)c) >= 0xc2)
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219
220/* Is the byte 'c' part of a multi-byte UTF8-8 encoded sequence, and not the
221 * first byte thereof? */
e4f4ef45 222#define UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(c) ((((U8)c) & 0xC0) == 0x80)
0ae1fa71 223
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224/* Is the UTF8-encoded byte 'c' the first byte of a two byte sequence? Use
225 * UTF8_IS_NEXT_CHAR_DOWNGRADEABLE() instead if the input isn't known to
226 * be well-formed. Masking with 0xfe allows the low bit to be 0 or 1; thus
227 * this matches 0xc[23]. */
559c7f10 228#define UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(c) (((U8)(c) & 0xfe) == 0xc2)
4ab10950 229
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230/* Is the UTF8-encoded byte 'c' the first byte of a sequence of bytes that
231 * represent a code point > 255? */
e4f4ef45 232#define UTF8_IS_ABOVE_LATIN1(c) ((U8)(c) >= 0xc4)
8850bf83 233
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234/* This defines the bits that are to be in the continuation bytes of a multi-byte
235 * UTF-8 encoded character that indicate it is a continuation byte. */
1d72bdf6 236#define UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK 0x80
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237
238/* This is the number of low-order bits a continuation byte in a UTF-8 encoded
239 * sequence contributes to the specification of the code point. In the bit
240 * maps above, you see that the first 2 bits are a constant '10', leaving 6 of
241 * real information */
1d72bdf6 242#define UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT 6
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243
244/* 2**UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT - 1 */
1d72bdf6 245#define UTF_CONTINUATION_MASK ((U8)0x3f)
c512ce4f 246
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247#if UVSIZE >= 8
248# define UTF8_QUAD_MAX UINT64_C(0x1000000000)
249
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250/* Input is a true Unicode (not-native) code point */
251#define OFFUNISKIP(uv) ( (uv) < 0x80 ? 1 : \
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252 (uv) < 0x800 ? 2 : \
253 (uv) < 0x10000 ? 3 : \
254 (uv) < 0x200000 ? 4 : \
255 (uv) < 0x4000000 ? 5 : \
256 (uv) < 0x80000000 ? 6 : \
111e8ed9 257 (uv) < UTF8_QUAD_MAX ? 7 : UTF8_MAXBYTES )
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258#else
259/* No, I'm not even going to *TRY* putting #ifdef inside a #define */
5aaebcb3 260#define OFFUNISKIP(uv) ( (uv) < 0x80 ? 1 : \
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261 (uv) < 0x800 ? 2 : \
262 (uv) < 0x10000 ? 3 : \
263 (uv) < 0x200000 ? 4 : \
264 (uv) < 0x4000000 ? 5 : \
265 (uv) < 0x80000000 ? 6 : 7 )
266#endif
267
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268/* The maximum number of UTF-8 bytes a single Unicode character can
269 * uppercase/lowercase/fold into. Unicode guarantees that the maximum
270 * expansion is 3 characters. On ASCIIish platforms, the highest Unicode
271 * character occupies 4 bytes, therefore this number would be 12, but this is
272 * smaller than the maximum width a single above-Unicode character can occupy,
273 * so use that instead */
274#if UTF8_MAXBYTES < 12
275#error UTF8_MAXBYTES must be at least 12
276#endif
277
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278/* ^? is defined to be DEL on ASCII systems. See the definition of toCTRL()
279 * for more */
280#define QUESTION_MARK_CTRL DEL_NATIVE
281
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282#define MAX_UTF8_TWO_BYTE 0x7FF
283
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284#define UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE UTF8_MAXBYTES
285
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286/*
287
288=for apidoc Am|STRLEN|UVCHR_SKIP|UV cp
289returns the number of bytes required to represent the code point C<cp> when
290encoded as UTF-8. C<cp> is a native (ASCII or EBCDIC) code point if less than
291255; a Unicode code point otherwise.
292
293=cut
294 */
295#define UVCHR_SKIP(uv) OFFUNISKIP(uv)
296
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297/* Surrogates, non-character code points and above-Unicode code points are
298 * problematic in some contexts. This allows code that needs to check for
299 * those to to quickly exclude the vast majority of code points it will
300 * encounter */
301#define isUTF8_POSSIBLY_PROBLEMATIC(c) ((U8) c >= 0xED)
302
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303#endif /* EBCDIC vs ASCII */
304
305/* Rest of these are attributes of Unicode and perl's internals rather than the
306 * encoding, or happen to be the same in both ASCII and EBCDIC (at least at
307 * this level; the macros that some of these call may have different
308 * definitions in the two encodings */
309
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310/* In domain restricted to ASCII, these may make more sense to the reader than
311 * the ones with Latin1 in the name */
312#define NATIVE_TO_ASCII(ch) NATIVE_TO_LATIN1(ch)
313#define ASCII_TO_NATIVE(ch) LATIN1_TO_NATIVE(ch)
314
315/* More or less misleadingly-named defines, retained for back compat */
316#define NATIVE_TO_UTF(ch) NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(ch)
317#define NATIVE_TO_I8(ch) NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(ch)
318#define UTF_TO_NATIVE(ch) I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(ch)
319#define I8_TO_NATIVE(ch) I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(ch)
320#define NATIVE8_TO_UNI(ch) NATIVE_TO_LATIN1(ch)
d06134e5 321
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322/* This defines the 1-bits that are to be in the first byte of a multi-byte
323 * UTF-8 encoded character that give the number of bytes that comprise the
324 * character. 'len' is the number of bytes in the multi-byte sequence. */
325#define UTF_START_MARK(len) (((len) > 7) ? 0xFF : (0xFF & (0xFE << (7-(len)))))
326
327/* Masks out the initial one bits in a start byte, leaving the real data ones.
328 * Doesn't work on an invariant byte. 'len' is the number of bytes in the
329 * multi-byte sequence that comprises the character. */
330#define UTF_START_MASK(len) (((len) >= 7) ? 0x00 : (0x1F >> ((len)-2)))
331
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332/* Adds a UTF8 continuation byte 'new' of information to a running total code
333 * point 'old' of all the continuation bytes so far. This is designed to be
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334 * used in a loop to convert from UTF-8 to the code point represented. Note
335 * that this is asymmetric on EBCDIC platforms, in that the 'new' parameter is
336 * the UTF-EBCDIC byte, whereas the 'old' parameter is a Unicode (not EBCDIC)
337 * code point in process of being generated */
338#define UTF8_ACCUMULATE(old, new) (((old) << UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT) \
339 | ((NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8((U8)new)) \
340 & UTF_CONTINUATION_MASK))
d06134e5 341
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342/* If a value is anded with this, and the result is non-zero, then using the
343 * original value in UTF8_ACCUMULATE will overflow, shifting bits off the left
344 * */
345#define UTF_ACCUMULATION_OVERFLOW_MASK \
346 (((UV) UTF_CONTINUATION_MASK) << ((sizeof(UV) * CHARBITS) \
347 - UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT))
348
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349/* This works in the face of malformed UTF-8. */
350#define UTF8_IS_NEXT_CHAR_DOWNGRADEABLE(s, e) (UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*s) \
351 && ( (e) - (s) > 1) \
352 && UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(*((s)+1)))
353
5aaebcb3 354/* Number of bytes a code point occupies in UTF-8. */
5352a763 355#define NATIVE_SKIP(uv) UVCHR_SKIP(uv)
bd18bd40 356
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357/* Most code which says UNISKIP is really thinking in terms of native code
358 * points (0-255) plus all those beyond. This is an imprecise term, but having
2accb712 359 * it means existing code continues to work. For precision, use UVCHR_SKIP,
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360 * NATIVE_SKIP, or OFFUNISKIP */
361#define UNISKIP(uv) UVCHR_SKIP(uv)
5aaebcb3 362
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363/* Longer, but more accurate name */
364#define UTF8_IS_ABOVE_LATIN1_START(c) UTF8_IS_ABOVE_LATIN1(c)
365
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366/* Convert a UTF-8 variant Latin1 character to a native code point value.
367 * Needs just one iteration of accumulate. Should be used only if it is known
368 * that the code point is < 256, and is not UTF-8 invariant. Use the slower
369 * but more general TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_NATIVE() which handles any code point
370 * representable by two bytes (which turns out to be up through
371 * MAX_PORTABLE_UTF8_TWO_BYTE). The two parameters are:
372 * HI: a downgradable start byte;
373 * LO: continuation.
374 * */
375#define EIGHT_BIT_UTF8_TO_NATIVE(HI, LO) \
376 ( __ASSERT_(UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(HI)) \
377 __ASSERT_(UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(LO)) \
378 LATIN1_TO_NATIVE(UTF8_ACCUMULATE(( \
379 NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(HI) & UTF_START_MASK(2)), (LO))))
380
94bb8c36 381/* Convert a two (not one) byte utf8 character to a native code point value.
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382 * Needs just one iteration of accumulate. Should not be used unless it is
383 * known that the two bytes are legal: 1) two-byte start, and 2) continuation.
384 * Note that the result can be larger than 255 if the input character is not
385 * downgradable */
94bb8c36 386#define TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_NATIVE(HI, LO) \
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387 ( __ASSERT_(UTF8SKIP(HI) == 2) \
388 __ASSERT_(UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(LO)) \
94bb8c36 389 UNI_TO_NATIVE(UTF8_ACCUMULATE((NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(HI) & UTF_START_MASK(2)), \
635e76f5 390 (LO))))
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391
392/* Should never be used, and be deprecated */
393#define TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(HI, LO) NATIVE_TO_UNI(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_NATIVE(HI, LO))
2950f2a7 394
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395/*
396
397=for apidoc Am|STRLEN|UTF8SKIP|char* s
398returns the number of bytes in the UTF-8 encoded character whose first (perhaps
399only) byte is pointed to by C<s>.
400
401=cut
402 */
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403#define UTF8SKIP(s) PL_utf8skip[*(const U8*)(s)]
404#define UTF8_SKIP(s) UTF8SKIP(s)
d06134e5 405
2d1545e5
KW
406/* Most code that says 'UNI_' really means the native value for code points up
407 * through 255 */
408#define UNI_IS_INVARIANT(cp) UVCHR_IS_INVARIANT(cp)
409
15824458
KW
410/* Is the byte 'c' the same character when encoded in UTF-8 as when not. This
411 * works on both UTF-8 encoded strings and non-encoded, as it returns TRUE in
5fc230f1
KW
412 * each for the exact same set of bit patterns. It is valid on a subset of
413 * what UVCHR_IS_INVARIANT is valid on, so can just use that; and the compiler
414 * should optimize out anything extraneous given the implementation of the
415 * latter */
416#define UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c) UVCHR_IS_INVARIANT(c)
417
418/* Like the above, but its name implies a non-UTF8 input, which as the comments
419 * above show, doesn't matter as to its implementation */
38953e5a 420#define NATIVE_BYTE_IS_INVARIANT(c) UVCHR_IS_INVARIANT(c)
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421
422#define MAX_PORTABLE_UTF8_TWO_BYTE 0x3FF /* constrained by EBCDIC */
423
48ccf5e1
KW
424/* The macros in the next 4 sets are used to generate the two utf8 or utfebcdic
425 * bytes from an ordinal that is known to fit into exactly two (not one) bytes;
426 * it must be less than 0x3FF to work across both encodings. */
427
428/* These two are helper macros for the other three sets, and should not be used
429 * directly anywhere else. 'translate_function' is either NATIVE_TO_LATIN1
1ff3baa2
KW
430 * (which works for code points up through 0xFF) or NATIVE_TO_UNI which works
431 * for any code point */
48ccf5e1
KW
432#define __BASE_TWO_BYTE_HI(c, translate_function) \
433 I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8((translate_function(c) >> UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT) \
434 | UTF_START_MARK(2))
435#define __BASE_TWO_BYTE_LO(c, translate_function) \
436 I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8((translate_function(c) & UTF_CONTINUATION_MASK) \
437 | UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK)
438
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KW
439/* The next two macros should not be used. They were designed to be usable as
440 * the case label of a switch statement, but this doesn't work for EBCDIC. Use
9d0d3a03 441 * regen/unicode_constants.pl instead */
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KW
442#define UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI_nocast(c) __BASE_TWO_BYTE_HI(c, NATIVE_TO_UNI)
443#define UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO_nocast(c) __BASE_TWO_BYTE_LO(c, NATIVE_TO_UNI)
444
445/* The next two macros are used when the source should be a single byte
446 * character; checked for under DEBUGGING */
447#define UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(c) (__ASSERT_(FITS_IN_8_BITS(c)) \
448 ((U8) __BASE_TWO_BYTE_HI(c, NATIVE_TO_LATIN1)))
449#define UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(c) (__ASSERT_(FITS_IN_8_BITS(c)) \
450 ((U8) __BASE_TWO_BYTE_LO(c, NATIVE_TO_LATIN1)))
451
452/* These final two macros in the series are used when the source can be any
453 * code point whose UTF-8 is known to occupy 2 bytes; they are less efficient
454 * than the EIGHT_BIT versions on EBCDIC platforms. We use the logical '~'
455 * operator instead of "<=" to avoid getting compiler warnings.
d52b8576 456 * MAX_UTF8_TWO_BYTE should be exactly all one bits in the lower few
48ccf5e1
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457 * places, so the ~ works */
458#define UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI(c) \
459 (__ASSERT_((sizeof(c) == 1) \
d52b8576 460 || !(((WIDEST_UTYPE)(c)) & ~MAX_UTF8_TWO_BYTE)) \
d9759938 461 ((U8) __BASE_TWO_BYTE_HI(c, NATIVE_TO_UNI)))
48ccf5e1
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462#define UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO(c) \
463 (__ASSERT_((sizeof(c) == 1) \
d52b8576 464 || !(((WIDEST_UTYPE)(c)) & ~MAX_UTF8_TWO_BYTE)) \
d9759938 465 ((U8) __BASE_TWO_BYTE_LO(c, NATIVE_TO_UNI)))
d06134e5 466
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467/* This is illegal in any well-formed UTF-8 in both EBCDIC and ASCII
468 * as it is only in overlongs. */
469#define ILLEGAL_UTF8_BYTE I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(0xC1)
470
7e2040f0 471/*
e3036cf4 472 * 'UTF' is whether or not p is encoded in UTF8. The names 'foo_lazy_if' stem
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473 * from an earlier version of these macros in which they didn't call the
474 * foo_utf8() macros (i.e. were 'lazy') unless they decided that *p is the
475 * beginning of a utf8 character. Now that foo_utf8() determines that itself,
476 * no need to do it again here
7e2040f0 477 */
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KW
478#define isIDFIRST_lazy_if(p,UTF) ((IN_BYTES || !UTF ) \
479 ? isIDFIRST(*(p)) \
480 : isIDFIRST_utf8((const U8*)p))
32636478
KW
481#define isWORDCHAR_lazy_if(p,UTF) ((IN_BYTES || (!UTF )) \
482 ? isWORDCHAR(*(p)) \
483 : isWORDCHAR_utf8((const U8*)p))
484#define isALNUM_lazy_if(p,UTF) isWORDCHAR_lazy_if(p,UTF)
1d72bdf6 485
89ebb4a3
JH
486#define UTF8_MAXLEN UTF8_MAXBYTES
487
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KW
488/* A Unicode character can fold to up to 3 characters */
489#define UTF8_MAX_FOLD_CHAR_EXPAND 3
490
a98fe34d 491#define IN_BYTES (CopHINTS_get(PL_curcop) & HINT_BYTES)
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492
493/*
494
495=for apidoc Am|bool|DO_UTF8|SV* sv
496Returns a bool giving whether or not the PV in C<sv> is to be treated as being
497encoded in UTF-8.
498
499You should use this I<after> a call to C<SvPV()> or one of its variants, in
500case any call to string overloading updates the internal UTF-8 encoding flag.
501
502=cut
503*/
0064a8a9 504#define DO_UTF8(sv) (SvUTF8(sv) && !IN_BYTES)
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505
506/* Should all strings be treated as Unicode, and not just UTF-8 encoded ones?
507 * Is so within 'feature unicode_strings' or 'locale :not_characters', and not
508 * within 'use bytes'. UTF-8 locales are not tested for here, but perhaps
509 * could be */
510#define IN_UNI_8_BIT \
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511 (((CopHINTS_get(PL_curcop) & (HINT_UNI_8_BIT)) \
512 || (CopHINTS_get(PL_curcop) & HINT_LOCALE_PARTIAL \
513 /* -1 below is for :not_characters */ \
514 && _is_in_locale_category(FALSE, -1))) \
515 && ! IN_BYTES)
b36bf33f 516
1d72bdf6 517
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518#define UTF8_ALLOW_EMPTY 0x0001 /* Allow a zero length string */
519
520/* Allow first byte to be a continuation byte */
1d72bdf6 521#define UTF8_ALLOW_CONTINUATION 0x0002
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522
523/* Allow second... bytes to be non-continuation bytes */
1d72bdf6 524#define UTF8_ALLOW_NON_CONTINUATION 0x0004
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525
526/* expecting more bytes than were available in the string */
527#define UTF8_ALLOW_SHORT 0x0008
528
529/* Overlong sequence; i.e., the code point can be specified in fewer bytes. */
530#define UTF8_ALLOW_LONG 0x0010
531
532#define UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE 0x0020 /* Unicode surrogates */
533#define UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE 0x0040
534
535#define UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR 0x0080 /* Unicode non-character */
536#define UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR 0x0100 /* code points */
537
538#define UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER 0x0200 /* Super-set of Unicode: code */
539#define UTF8_WARN_SUPER 0x0400 /* points above the legal max */
540
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541/* Code points which never were part of the original UTF-8 standard, which only
542 * went up to 2 ** 31 - 1. Note that these all overflow a signed 32-bit word,
543 * The first byte of these code points is FE or FF on ASCII platforms. If the
544 * first byte is FF, it will overflow a 32-bit word. */
545#define UTF8_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT 0x0800
546#define UTF8_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT 0x1000
547
548/* For back compat, these old names are misleading for UTF_EBCDIC */
549#define UTF8_DISALLOW_FE_FF UTF8_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT
550#define UTF8_WARN_FE_FF UTF8_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT
949cf498
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551
552#define UTF8_CHECK_ONLY 0x2000
553
554/* For backwards source compatibility. They do nothing, as the default now
555 * includes what they used to mean. The first one's meaning was to allow the
556 * just the single non-character 0xFFFF */
557#define UTF8_ALLOW_FFFF 0
558#define UTF8_ALLOW_SURROGATE 0
559
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560#define UTF8_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE \
561 (UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER|UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR \
562 |UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE|UTF8_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT)
949cf498 563#define UTF8_WARN_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE \
d35f2ca5 564 (UTF8_WARN_SUPER|UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR|UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE|UTF8_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT)
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565#define UTF8_ALLOW_ANY \
566 (~(UTF8_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE|UTF8_WARN_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE))
567#define UTF8_ALLOW_ANYUV \
568 (UTF8_ALLOW_EMPTY \
569 & ~(UTF8_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE|UTF8_WARN_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE))
9f7f3913
ST
570#define UTF8_ALLOW_DEFAULT (ckWARN(WARN_UTF8) ? 0 : \
571 UTF8_ALLOW_ANYUV)
1d72bdf6 572
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573/* Several of the macros below have a second parameter that is currently
574 * unused; but could be used in the future to make sure that the input is
575 * well-formed. */
576
577#define UTF8_IS_SURROGATE(s, e) cBOOL(is_SURROGATE_utf8(s))
b96a92fb 578#define UTF8_IS_REPLACEMENT(s, send) cBOOL(is_REPLACEMENT_utf8_safe(s,send))
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579
580/* ASCII EBCDIC I8
581 * U+10FFFF: \xF4\x8F\xBF\xBF \xF9\xA1\xBF\xBF\xBF max legal Unicode
582 * U+110000: \xF4\x90\x80\x80 \xF9\xA2\xA0\xA0\xA0
583 * U+110001: \xF4\x90\x80\x81 \xF9\xA2\xA0\xA0\xA1
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584 *
585 * BE AWARE that this test doesn't rule out malformed code points, in
586 * particular overlongs */
7131f24d 587#ifdef EBCDIC /* Both versions assume well-formed UTF8 */
0c58a72b 588# define UTF8_IS_SUPER(s, e) (NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(* (U8*) (s)) >= 0xF9 \
bc3632a8 589 && (NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(* (U8*) (s)) > 0xF9 \
a3481822 590 || (NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(* ((U8*) (s) + 1)) >= 0xA2)))
7131f24d 591#else
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592# define UTF8_IS_SUPER(s, e) (*(U8*) (s) >= 0xF4 \
593 && (*(U8*) (s) > 0xF4 || (*((U8*) (s) + 1) >= 0x90)))
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594#endif
595
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596/* These are now machine generated, and the 'given' clause is no longer
597 * applicable */
0c58a72b 598#define UTF8_IS_NONCHAR_GIVEN_THAT_NON_SUPER_AND_GE_PROBLEMATIC(s, e) \
b96a92fb 599 cBOOL(is_NONCHAR_utf8(s))
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600#define UTF8_IS_NONCHAR(s, e) \
601 UTF8_IS_NONCHAR_GIVEN_THAT_NON_SUPER_AND_GE_PROBLEMATIC(s, e)
7131f24d 602
c867b360
JH
603#define UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST 0xD800
604#define UNICODE_SURROGATE_LAST 0xDFFF
605#define UNICODE_REPLACEMENT 0xFFFD
606#define UNICODE_BYTE_ORDER_MARK 0xFEFF
1d72bdf6 607
b851fbc1 608/* Though our UTF-8 encoding can go beyond this,
c76687c5 609 * let's be conservative and do as Unicode says. */
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JH
610#define PERL_UNICODE_MAX 0x10FFFF
611
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612#define UNICODE_WARN_SURROGATE 0x0001 /* UTF-16 surrogates */
613#define UNICODE_WARN_NONCHAR 0x0002 /* Non-char code points */
614#define UNICODE_WARN_SUPER 0x0004 /* Above 0x10FFFF */
615#define UNICODE_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT 0x0008 /* Above 0x7FFF_FFFF */
616#define UNICODE_DISALLOW_SURROGATE 0x0010
617#define UNICODE_DISALLOW_NONCHAR 0x0020
618#define UNICODE_DISALLOW_SUPER 0x0040
619#define UNICODE_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT 0x0080
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620#define UNICODE_WARN_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE \
621 (UNICODE_WARN_SURROGATE|UNICODE_WARN_NONCHAR|UNICODE_WARN_SUPER)
622#define UNICODE_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE \
623 (UNICODE_DISALLOW_SURROGATE|UNICODE_DISALLOW_NONCHAR|UNICODE_DISALLOW_SUPER)
949cf498
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624
625/* For backward source compatibility, as are now the default */
626#define UNICODE_ALLOW_SURROGATE 0
627#define UNICODE_ALLOW_SUPER 0
628#define UNICODE_ALLOW_ANY 0
b851fbc1 629
1d72bdf6
NIS
630#define UNICODE_IS_SURROGATE(c) ((c) >= UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST && \
631 (c) <= UNICODE_SURROGATE_LAST)
a10ec373 632#define UNICODE_IS_REPLACEMENT(c) ((c) == UNICODE_REPLACEMENT)
872c91ae 633#define UNICODE_IS_BYTE_ORDER_MARK(c) ((c) == UNICODE_BYTE_ORDER_MARK)
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634#define UNICODE_IS_NONCHAR(c) ((c >= 0xFDD0 && c <= 0xFDEF) \
635 /* The other noncharacters end in FFFE or FFFF, which \
636 * the mask below catches both of, but beyond the last \
637 * official unicode code point, they aren't \
638 * noncharacters, since those aren't Unicode \
639 * characters at all */ \
640 || ((((c & 0xFFFE) == 0xFFFE)) && ! UNICODE_IS_SUPER(c)))
641#define UNICODE_IS_SUPER(c) ((c) > PERL_UNICODE_MAX)
d35f2ca5 642#define UNICODE_IS_ABOVE_31_BIT(uv) ((UV) (uv) > 0x7FFFFFFF)
1d72bdf6 643
ec34087a
KW
644#define LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S_NATIVE
645#define LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS \
646 LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS_NATIVE
647#define MICRO_SIGN MICRO_SIGN_NATIVE
648#define LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_A_WITH_RING_ABOVE \
649 LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_A_WITH_RING_ABOVE_NATIVE
650#define LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_A_WITH_RING_ABOVE \
651 LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_A_WITH_RING_ABOVE_NATIVE
09091399
JH
652#define UNICODE_GREEK_CAPITAL_LETTER_SIGMA 0x03A3
653#define UNICODE_GREEK_SMALL_LETTER_FINAL_SIGMA 0x03C2
654#define UNICODE_GREEK_SMALL_LETTER_SIGMA 0x03C3
9dcbe121 655#define GREEK_SMALL_LETTER_MU 0x03BC
9e682c18
KW
656#define GREEK_CAPITAL_LETTER_MU 0x039C /* Upper and title case
657 of MICRON */
658#define LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS 0x0178 /* Also is title case */
0766489e
KW
659#ifdef LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_SHARP_S_UTF8
660# define LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_SHARP_S 0x1E9E
661#endif
74894415
KW
662#define LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_I_WITH_DOT_ABOVE 0x130
663#define LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_DOTLESS_I 0x131
9e682c18 664#define LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_LONG_S 0x017F
a9f50d33
KW
665#define LATIN_SMALL_LIGATURE_LONG_S_T 0xFB05
666#define LATIN_SMALL_LIGATURE_ST 0xFB06
9e682c18
KW
667#define KELVIN_SIGN 0x212A
668#define ANGSTROM_SIGN 0x212B
09091399 669
9e55ce06 670#define UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT 0x0001
c728cb41
JH
671#define UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH 0x0002
672#define UNI_DISPLAY_QQ (UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT|UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH)
673#define UNI_DISPLAY_REGEX (UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT|UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH)
9e55ce06 674
5cd46e1f
KW
675#define ANYOF_FOLD_SHARP_S(node, input, end) \
676 (ANYOF_BITMAP_TEST(node, LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S) && \
137165a6 677 (ANYOF_NONBITMAP(node)) && \
39065660 678 (ANYOF_FLAGS(node) & ANYOF_LOC_NONBITMAP_FOLD) && \
07b6858f 679 ((end) > (input) + 1) && \
305b8651 680 isALPHA_FOLD_EQ((input)[0], 's'))
6302f837 681
ebc501f0 682#define SHARP_S_SKIP 2
3b0fc154 683
a4f7a67c
KW
684/* If you want to exclude surrogates, and beyond legal Unicode, see the blame
685 * log for earlier versions which gave details for these */
4d646140 686
6302f837
KW
687/* A helper macro for isUTF8_CHAR, so use that one, and not this one. This is
688 * retained solely for backwards compatibility and may be deprecated and
689 * removed in a future Perl version.
690 *
691 * regen/regcharclass.pl generates is_UTF8_CHAR_utf8() macros for up to these
d9f92374
KW
692 * number of bytes. So this has to be coordinated with that file */
693#ifdef EBCDIC
694# define IS_UTF8_CHAR_FAST(n) ((n) <= 3)
695#else
696# define IS_UTF8_CHAR_FAST(n) ((n) <= 4)
697#endif
698
4d646140 699#ifndef EBCDIC
6302f837
KW
700/* A helper macro for isUTF8_CHAR, so use that one instead of this. This was
701 * generated by regen/regcharclass.pl, and then moved here. The lines that
702 * generated it were then commented out. This was done solely because it takes
703 * on the order of 10 minutes to generate, and is never going to change, unless
704 * the generated code is improved.
705 *
1ff3baa2
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706 * The EBCDIC versions have been cut to not cover all of legal Unicode,
707 * otherwise they take too long to generate; besides there is a separate one
708 * for each code page, so they are in regcharclass.h instead of here */
39a0f513 709/*
5dca9278 710 UTF8_CHAR: Matches legal UTF-8 encoded characters from 2 through 4 bytes
39a0f513 711
5dca9278 712 0x80 - 0x1FFFFF
39a0f513 713*/
4d646140 714/*** GENERATED CODE ***/
5dca9278
KW
715#define is_UTF8_CHAR_utf8_no_length_checks(s) \
716( ( 0xC2 <= ((U8*)s)[0] && ((U8*)s)[0] <= 0xDF ) ? \
717 ( ( ( ((U8*)s)[1] & 0xC0 ) == 0x80 ) ? 2 : 0 ) \
718: ( 0xE0 == ((U8*)s)[0] ) ? \
719 ( ( ( ( ((U8*)s)[1] & 0xE0 ) == 0xA0 ) && ( ( ((U8*)s)[2] & 0xC0 ) == 0x80 ) ) ? 3 : 0 )\
720: ( 0xE1 <= ((U8*)s)[0] && ((U8*)s)[0] <= 0xEF ) ? \
721 ( ( ( ( ((U8*)s)[1] & 0xC0 ) == 0x80 ) && ( ( ((U8*)s)[2] & 0xC0 ) == 0x80 ) ) ? 3 : 0 )\
722: ( 0xF0 == ((U8*)s)[0] ) ? \
723 ( ( ( ( 0x90 <= ((U8*)s)[1] && ((U8*)s)[1] <= 0xBF ) && ( ( ((U8*)s)[2] & 0xC0 ) == 0x80 ) ) && ( ( ((U8*)s)[3] & 0xC0 ) == 0x80 ) ) ? 4 : 0 )\
724: ( ( ( ( 0xF1 <= ((U8*)s)[0] && ((U8*)s)[0] <= 0xF7 ) && ( ( ((U8*)s)[1] & 0xC0 ) == 0x80 ) ) && ( ( ((U8*)s)[2] & 0xC0 ) == 0x80 ) ) && ( ( ((U8*)s)[3] & 0xC0 ) == 0x80 ) ) ? 4 : 0 )
4d646140 725#endif
3b0fc154 726
6302f837 727/*
5dca9278
KW
728
729=for apidoc Am|STRLEN|isUTF8_CHAR|const U8 *s|const U8 *e
730
731Returns the number of bytes beginning at C<s> which form a legal UTF-8 (or
61b16eb9
KW
732UTF-EBCDIC) encoded character, looking no further than S<C<e - s>> bytes into
733C<s>. Returns 0 if the sequence starting at C<s> through S<C<e - 1>> is not
734well-formed UTF-8.
6302f837
KW
735
736Note that an INVARIANT character (i.e. ASCII on non-EBCDIC
5dca9278
KW
737machines) is a valid UTF-8 character.
738
739=cut
740*/
6302f837 741
dd9bc2b0 742#define isUTF8_CHAR(s, e) (UNLIKELY((e) <= (s)) \
6302f837
KW
743 ? 0 \
744 : (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*s)) \
745 ? 1 \
dd9bc2b0 746 : UNLIKELY(((e) - (s)) < UTF8SKIP(s)) \
6302f837 747 ? 0 \
dd9bc2b0 748 : LIKELY(IS_UTF8_CHAR_FAST(UTF8SKIP(s))) \
5dca9278 749 ? is_UTF8_CHAR_utf8_no_length_checks(s) \
6302f837
KW
750 : _is_utf8_char_slow(s, e))
751
3cedd9d9
KW
752#define is_utf8_char_buf(buf, buf_end) isUTF8_CHAR(buf, buf_end)
753
6302f837
KW
754/* Do not use; should be deprecated. Use isUTF8_CHAR() instead; this is
755 * retained solely for backwards compatibility */
756#define IS_UTF8_CHAR(p, n) (isUTF8_CHAR(p, (p) + (n)) == n)
e9a8c099 757
57f0e7e2
KW
758#endif /* H_UTF8 */
759
e9a8c099 760/*
14d04a33 761 * ex: set ts=8 sts=4 sw=4 et:
e9a8c099 762 */