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6e90668e 1# B::Deparse.pm
6f611a1a 2# Copyright (c) 1998, 1999, 2000 Stephen McCamant. All rights reserved.
6e90668e
SM
3# This module is free software; you can redistribute and/or modify
4# it under the same terms as Perl itself.
5
6# This is based on the module of the same name by Malcolm Beattie,
7# but essentially none of his code remains.
8
a798dbf2 9package B::Deparse;
f4a44678 10use Carp 'cluck', 'croak';
7a9b44b9 11use B qw(class main_root main_start main_cv svref_2object opnumber cstring
bd0865ec 12 OPf_WANT OPf_WANT_VOID OPf_WANT_SCALAR OPf_WANT_LIST
90c0eb26 13 OPf_KIDS OPf_REF OPf_STACKED OPf_SPECIAL OPf_MOD
ce4e655d 14 OPpLVAL_INTRO OPpOUR_INTRO OPpENTERSUB_AMPER OPpSLICE OPpCONST_BARE
3ed82cfc 15 OPpTRANS_SQUASH OPpTRANS_DELETE OPpTRANS_COMPLEMENT OPpTARGET_MY
7e80da18
RH
16 OPpCONST_ARYBASE OPpEXISTS_SUB OPpSORT_NUMERIC OPpSORT_INTEGER
17 OPpSORT_REVERSE
ce4e655d 18 SVf_IOK SVf_NOK SVf_ROK SVf_POK SVpad_OUR
6aaf4108 19 CVf_METHOD CVf_LOCKED CVf_LVALUE
fcd95d64 20 PMf_KEEP PMf_GLOBAL PMf_CONTINUE PMf_EVAL PMf_ONCE PMf_SKIPWHITE
bd0865ec 21 PMf_MULTILINE PMf_SINGLELINE PMf_FOLD PMf_EXTENDED);
c7f67cde 22$VERSION = 0.61;
a798dbf2 23use strict;
34a48b4b 24use warnings ();
a798dbf2 25
6e90668e
SM
26# Changes between 0.50 and 0.51:
27# - fixed nulled leave with live enter in sort { }
28# - fixed reference constants (\"str")
29# - handle empty programs gracefully
30# - handle infinte loops (for (;;) {}, while (1) {})
31# - differentiate between `for my $x ...' and `my $x; for $x ...'
32# - various minor cleanups
33# - moved globals into an object
34# - added `-u', like B::C
35# - package declarations using cop_stash
36# - subs, formats and code sorted by cop_seq
f6f9bdb7
SM
37# Changes between 0.51 and 0.52:
38# - added pp_threadsv (special variables under USE_THREADS)
39# - added documentation
bd0865ec 40# Changes between 0.52 and 0.53:
9d2c6865
SM
41# - many changes adding precedence contexts and associativity
42# - added `-p' and `-s' output style options
43# - various other minor fixes
bd0865ec 44# Changes between 0.53 and 0.54:
d7f5b6da
SM
45# - added support for new `for (1..100)' optimization,
46# thanks to Gisle Aas
bd0865ec 47# Changes between 0.54 and 0.55:
90be192f
SM
48# - added support for new qr// construct
49# - added support for new pp_regcreset OP
bd0865ec 50# Changes between 0.55 and 0.56:
f5aa8f4e
SM
51# - tested on base/*.t, cmd/*.t, comp/*.t, io/*.t
52# - fixed $# on non-lexicals broken in last big rewrite
53# - added temporary fix for change in opcode of OP_STRINGIFY
54# - fixed problem in 0.54's for() patch in `for (@ary)'
55# - fixed precedence in conditional of ?:
56# - tweaked list paren elimination in `my($x) = @_'
57# - made continue-block detection trickier wrt. null ops
58# - fixed various prototype problems in pp_entersub
59# - added support for sub prototypes that never get GVs
60# - added unquoting for special filehandle first arg in truncate
61# - print doubled rv2gv (a bug) as `*{*GV}' instead of illegal `**GV'
62# - added semicolons at the ends of blocks
63# - added -l `#line' declaration option -- fixes cmd/subval.t 27,28
bd0865ec
GS
64# Changes between 0.56 and 0.561:
65# - fixed multiply-declared my var in pp_truncate (thanks to Sarathy)
66# - used new B.pm symbolic constants (done by Nick Ing-Simmons)
67# Changes between 0.561 and 0.57:
68# - stylistic changes to symbolic constant stuff
69# - handled scope in s///e replacement code
70# - added unquote option for expanding "" into concats, etc.
71# - split method and proto parts of pp_entersub into separate functions
72# - various minor cleanups
f4a44678
SM
73# Changes after 0.57:
74# - added parens in \&foo (patch by Albert Dvornik)
75# Changes between 0.57 and 0.58:
76# - fixed `0' statements that weren't being printed
77# - added methods for use from other programs
78# (based on patches from James Duncan and Hugo van der Sanden)
79# - added -si and -sT to control indenting (also based on a patch from Hugo)
80# - added -sv to print something else instead of '???'
81# - preliminary version of utf8 tr/// handling
3ed82cfc
GS
82# Changes after 0.58:
83# - uses of $op->ppaddr changed to new $op->name (done by Sarathy)
84# - added support for Hugo's new OP_SETSTATE (like nextstate)
85# Changes between 0.58 and 0.59
86# - added support for Chip's OP_METHOD_NAMED
87# - added support for Ilya's OPpTARGET_MY optimization
88# - elided arrows before `()' subscripts when possible
58cccf98
SM
89# Changes between 0.59 and 0.60
90# - support for method attribues was added
91# - some warnings fixed
92# - separate recognition of constant subs
93# - rewrote continue block handling, now recoginizing for loops
94# - added more control of expanding control structures
c7f67cde
RH
95# Changes between 0.60 and 0.61 (mostly by Robin Houston)
96# - many bug-fixes
97# - support for pragmas and 'use'
98# - support for the little-used $[ variable
99# - support for __DATA__ sections
100# - UTF8 support
101# - BEGIN, CHECK, INIT and END blocks
102# - scoping of subroutine declarations fixed
103# - compile-time output from the input program can be suppressed, so that the
104# output is just the deparsed code. (a change to O.pm in fact)
105# - our() declarations
106# - *all* the known bugs are now listed in the BUGS section
107# - comprehensive test mechanism (TEST -deparse)
6e90668e
SM
108
109# Todo:
2a9e2f8a
RH
110# (See also BUGS section at the end of this file)
111#
f4a44678
SM
112# - finish tr/// changes
113# - add option for even more parens (generalize \&foo change)
90be192f 114# - left/right context
f4a44678 115# - treat top-level block specially for incremental output
58cccf98 116# - copy comments (look at real text with $^P?)
f5aa8f4e 117# - avoid semis in one-statement blocks
9d2c6865 118# - associativity of &&=, ||=, ?:
6e90668e
SM
119# - ',' => '=>' (auto-unquote?)
120# - break long lines ("\r" as discretionary break?)
f4a44678
SM
121# - configurable syntax highlighting: ANSI color, HTML, TeX, etc.
122# - more style options: brace style, hex vs. octal, quotes, ...
123# - print big ints as hex/octal instead of decimal (heuristic?)
3ed82cfc 124# - handle `my $x if 0'?
f5aa8f4e 125# - coordinate with Data::Dumper (both directions? see previous)
6e90668e
SM
126# - version using op_next instead of op_first/sibling?
127# - avoid string copies (pass arrays, one big join?)
9d2c6865 128# - here-docs?
6e90668e 129
f5aa8f4e 130# Tests that will always fail:
2a9e2f8a 131# (see t/TEST for the short list)
f5aa8f4e 132
6e90668e
SM
133# Object fields (were globals):
134#
135# avoid_local:
136# (local($a), local($b)) and local($a, $b) have the same internal
137# representation but the short form looks better. We notice we can
138# use a large-scale local when checking the list, but need to prevent
139# individual locals too. This hash holds the addresses of OPs that
140# have already had their local-ness accounted for. The same thing
141# is done with my().
142#
143# curcv:
144# CV for current sub (or main program) being deparsed
145#
8510e997
RH
146# curcvlex:
147# Cached hash of lexical variables for curcv: keys are names,
148# each value is an array of pairs, indicating the cop_seq of scopes
149# in which a var of that name is valid.
150#
34a48b4b
RH
151# curcop:
152# COP for statement being deparsed
153#
6e90668e
SM
154# curstash:
155# name of the current package for deparsed code
156#
157# subs_todo:
34a48b4b 158# array of [cop_seq, CV, is_format?] for subs and formats we still
6e90668e
SM
159# want to deparse
160#
f5aa8f4e
SM
161# protos_todo:
162# as above, but [name, prototype] for subs that never got a GV
163#
6e90668e
SM
164# subs_done, forms_done:
165# keys are addresses of GVs for subs and formats we've already
166# deparsed (or at least put into subs_todo)
9d2c6865 167#
0ca62a8e
RH
168# subs_declared
169# keys are names of subs for which we've printed declarations.
170# That means we can omit parentheses from the arguments.
171#
9d2c6865 172# parens: -p
f5aa8f4e 173# linenums: -l
bd0865ec 174# unquote: -q
9d2c6865 175# cuddle: ` ' or `\n', depending on -sC
f4a44678
SM
176# indent_size: -si
177# use_tabs: -sT
178# ex_const: -sv
9d2c6865
SM
179
180# A little explanation of how precedence contexts and associativity
181# work:
182#
183# deparse() calls each per-op subroutine with an argument $cx (short
184# for context, but not the same as the cx* in the perl core), which is
185# a number describing the op's parents in terms of precedence, whether
f5aa8f4e 186# they're inside an expression or at statement level, etc. (see
9d2c6865
SM
187# chart below). When ops with children call deparse on them, they pass
188# along their precedence. Fractional values are used to implement
189# associativity (`($x + $y) + $z' => `$x + $y + $y') and related
190# parentheses hacks. The major disadvantage of this scheme is that
191# it doesn't know about right sides and left sides, so say if you
192# assign a listop to a variable, it can't tell it's allowed to leave
193# the parens off the listop.
194
195# Precedences:
196# 26 [TODO] inside interpolation context ("")
197# 25 left terms and list operators (leftward)
198# 24 left ->
199# 23 nonassoc ++ --
200# 22 right **
201# 21 right ! ~ \ and unary + and -
202# 20 left =~ !~
203# 19 left * / % x
204# 18 left + - .
205# 17 left << >>
206# 16 nonassoc named unary operators
207# 15 nonassoc < > <= >= lt gt le ge
208# 14 nonassoc == != <=> eq ne cmp
209# 13 left &
210# 12 left | ^
211# 11 left &&
212# 10 left ||
213# 9 nonassoc .. ...
214# 8 right ?:
215# 7 right = += -= *= etc.
216# 6 left , =>
217# 5 nonassoc list operators (rightward)
218# 4 right not
219# 3 left and
220# 2 left or xor
221# 1 statement modifiers
222# 0 statement level
223
6ec152c3
RH
224# Also, lineseq may pass a fourth parameter to the pp_ routines:
225# if present, the fourth parameter is passed on by deparse.
226#
227# If present and true, it means that the op exists directly as
ce4e655d 228# part of a lineseq. Currently it's only used by scopeop to
6ec152c3
RH
229# decide whether its results need to be enclosed in a do {} block.
230
9d2c6865
SM
231# Nonprinting characters with special meaning:
232# \cS - steal parens (see maybe_parens_unop)
233# \n - newline and indent
234# \t - increase indent
235# \b - decrease indent (`outdent')
f5aa8f4e 236# \f - flush left (no indent)
9d2c6865 237# \cK - kill following semicolon, if any
6e90668e
SM
238
239sub null {
240 my $op = shift;
241 return class($op) eq "NULL";
242}
243
244sub todo {
245 my $self = shift;
34a48b4b 246 my($cv, $is_form) = @_;
e31885a0 247 return unless ($cv->FILE eq $0 || exists $self->{files}{$cv->FILE});
6e90668e
SM
248 my $seq;
249 if (!null($cv->START) and is_state($cv->START)) {
250 $seq = $cv->START->cop_seq;
251 } else {
252 $seq = 0;
253 }
34a48b4b 254 push @{$self->{'subs_todo'}}, [$seq, $cv, $is_form];
6e90668e
SM
255}
256
257sub next_todo {
258 my $self = shift;
259 my $ent = shift @{$self->{'subs_todo'}};
34a48b4b
RH
260 my $cv = $ent->[1];
261 my $gv = $cv->GV;
262 my $name = $self->gv_name($gv);
6e90668e
SM
263 if ($ent->[2]) {
264 return "format $name =\n"
e31885a0 265 . $self->deparse_format($ent->[1]). "\n";
6e90668e 266 } else {
0ca62a8e 267 $self->{'subs_declared'}{$name} = 1;
34a48b4b
RH
268 if ($name eq "BEGIN") {
269 my $use_dec = $self->begin_is_use($cv);
0e7fe0f0
RH
270 if (defined ($use_dec)) {
271 return () if 0 == length($use_dec);
272 return $use_dec;
273 }
34a48b4b 274 }
a0035eb8
RH
275 my $l = '';
276 if ($self->{'linenums'}) {
277 my $line = $gv->LINE;
278 my $file = $gv->FILE;
279 $l = "\n\f#line $line \"$file\"\n";
280 }
281 return "${l}sub $name " . $self->deparse_sub($cv);
34a48b4b
RH
282 }
283}
284
285# Return a "use" declaration for this BEGIN block, if appropriate
286sub begin_is_use {
287 my ($self, $cv) = @_;
288 my $root = $cv->ROOT;
80dc0729 289 local @$self{qw'curcv curcvlex'} = ($cv);
34a48b4b
RH
290#require B::Debug;
291#B::walkoptree($cv->ROOT, "debug");
292 my $lineseq = $root->first;
293 return if $lineseq->name ne "lineseq";
294
295 my $req_op = $lineseq->first->sibling;
296 return if $req_op->name ne "require";
297
298 my $module;
299 if ($req_op->first->private & OPpCONST_BARE) {
300 # Actually it should always be a bareword
301 $module = $self->const_sv($req_op->first)->PV;
302 $module =~ s[/][::]g;
303 $module =~ s/.pm$//;
304 }
305 else {
306 $module = const($self->const_sv($req_op->first));
307 }
308
309 my $version;
310 my $version_op = $req_op->sibling;
311 return if class($version_op) eq "NULL";
312 if ($version_op->name eq "lineseq") {
313 # We have a version parameter; skip nextstate & pushmark
314 my $constop = $version_op->first->next->next;
315
316 return unless $self->const_sv($constop)->PV eq $module;
317 $constop = $constop->sibling;
34a48b4b
RH
318 $version = $self->const_sv($constop)->int_value;
319 $constop = $constop->sibling;
320 return if $constop->name ne "method_named";
321 return if $self->const_sv($constop)->PV ne "VERSION";
322 }
323
324 $lineseq = $version_op->sibling;
325 return if $lineseq->name ne "lineseq";
326 my $entersub = $lineseq->first->sibling;
327 if ($entersub->name eq "stub") {
328 return "use $module $version ();\n" if defined $version;
329 return "use $module ();\n";
330 }
331 return if $entersub->name ne "entersub";
332
333 # See if there are import arguments
334 my $args = '';
335
6ec152c3
RH
336 my $svop = $entersub->first->sibling; # Skip over pushmark
337 return unless $self->const_sv($svop)->PV eq $module;
34a48b4b
RH
338
339 # Pull out the arguments
6ec152c3
RH
340 for ($svop=$svop->sibling; $svop->name ne "method_named";
341 $svop = $svop->sibling) {
34a48b4b 342 $args .= ", " if length($args);
6ec152c3 343 $args .= $self->deparse($svop, 6);
34a48b4b
RH
344 }
345
346 my $use = 'use';
6ec152c3 347 my $method_named = $svop;
34a48b4b
RH
348 return if $method_named->name ne "method_named";
349 my $method_name = $self->const_sv($method_named)->PV;
350
351 if ($method_name eq "unimport") {
352 $use = 'no';
353 }
354
355 # Certain pragmas are dealt with using hint bits,
356 # so we ignore them here
357 if ($module eq 'strict' || $module eq 'integer'
0e7fe0f0 358 || $module eq 'bytes' || $module eq 'warnings') {
34a48b4b
RH
359 return "";
360 }
361
362 if (defined $version && length $args) {
363 return "$use $module $version ($args);\n";
364 } elsif (defined $version) {
365 return "$use $module $version;\n";
366 } elsif (length $args) {
367 return "$use $module ($args);\n";
368 } else {
369 return "$use $module;\n";
6e90668e
SM
370 }
371}
372
6e90668e 373sub stash_subs {
34a48b4b
RH
374 my ($self, $pack) = @_;
375 my (@ret, $stash);
376 if (!defined $pack) {
377 $pack = '';
378 $stash = \%::;
f5aa8f4e 379 }
34a48b4b
RH
380 else {
381 $pack =~ s/(::)?$/::/;
382 no strict 'refs';
383 $stash = \%$pack;
384 }
385 my %stash = svref_2object($stash)->ARRAY;
386 while (my ($key, $val) = each %stash) {
387 next if $key eq 'main::'; # avoid infinite recursion
f5aa8f4e
SM
388 my $class = class($val);
389 if ($class eq "PV") {
a0035eb8
RH
390 # Just a prototype. As an ugly but fairly effective way
391 # to find out if it belongs here is to see if the AUTOLOAD
392 # (if any) for the stash was defined in one of our files.
393 my $A = $stash{"AUTOLOAD"};
394 if (defined ($A) && class($A) eq "GV" && defined($A->CV)
395 && class($A->CV) eq "CV") {
396 my $AF = $A->FILE;
397 next unless $AF eq $0 || exists $self->{'files'}{$AF};
398 }
f5aa8f4e
SM
399 push @{$self->{'protos_todo'}}, [$pack . $key, $val->PV];
400 } elsif ($class eq "IV") {
a0035eb8
RH
401 # Just a name. As above.
402 my $A = $stash{"AUTOLOAD"};
403 if (defined ($A) && class($A) eq "GV" && defined($A->CV)
404 && class($A->CV) eq "CV") {
405 my $AF = $A->FILE;
406 next unless $AF eq $0 || exists $self->{'files'}{$AF};
407 }
f5aa8f4e
SM
408 push @{$self->{'protos_todo'}}, [$pack . $key, undef];
409 } elsif ($class eq "GV") {
34a48b4b 410 if (class(my $cv = $val->CV) ne "SPECIAL") {
f5aa8f4e 411 next if $self->{'subs_done'}{$$val}++;
e31885a0 412 next if $$val != ${$cv->GV}; # Ignore imposters
8510e997 413 $self->todo($cv, 0);
f5aa8f4e 414 }
e31885a0 415 if (class(my $cv = $val->FORM) ne "SPECIAL") {
f5aa8f4e 416 next if $self->{'forms_done'}{$$val}++;
e31885a0
RH
417 next if $$val != ${$cv->GV}; # Ignore imposters
418 $self->todo($cv, 1);
f5aa8f4e 419 }
34a48b4b
RH
420 if (class($val->HV) ne "SPECIAL" && $key =~ /::$/) {
421 $self->stash_subs($pack . $key);
422 }
6e90668e
SM
423 }
424 }
425}
a798dbf2 426
f5aa8f4e
SM
427sub print_protos {
428 my $self = shift;
429 my $ar;
430 my @ret;
431 foreach $ar (@{$self->{'protos_todo'}}) {
432 my $proto = (defined $ar->[1] ? " (". $ar->[1] . ")" : "");
433 push @ret, "sub " . $ar->[0] . "$proto;\n";
434 }
435 delete $self->{'protos_todo'};
436 return @ret;
437}
438
9d2c6865
SM
439sub style_opts {
440 my $self = shift;
441 my $opts = shift;
442 my $opt;
443 while (length($opt = substr($opts, 0, 1))) {
444 if ($opt eq "C") {
445 $self->{'cuddle'} = " ";
f4a44678
SM
446 $opts = substr($opts, 1);
447 } elsif ($opt eq "i") {
448 $opts =~ s/^i(\d+)//;
449 $self->{'indent_size'} = $1;
450 } elsif ($opt eq "T") {
451 $self->{'use_tabs'} = 1;
452 $opts = substr($opts, 1);
453 } elsif ($opt eq "v") {
454 $opts =~ s/^v([^.]*)(.|$)//;
455 $self->{'ex_const'} = $1;
9d2c6865 456 }
9d2c6865
SM
457 }
458}
459
f4a44678
SM
460sub new {
461 my $class = shift;
462 my $self = bless {}, $class;
463 $self->{'subs_todo'} = [];
34a48b4b 464 $self->{'files'} = {};
f4a44678 465 $self->{'curstash'} = "main";
34a48b4b 466 $self->{'curcop'} = undef;
f4a44678
SM
467 $self->{'cuddle'} = "\n";
468 $self->{'indent_size'} = 4;
469 $self->{'use_tabs'} = 0;
793e2a70
RH
470 $self->{'expand'} = 0;
471 $self->{'unquote'} = 0;
472 $self->{'linenums'} = 0;
473 $self->{'parens'} = 0;
f4a44678 474 $self->{'ex_const'} = "'???'";
08c6f5ec
RH
475
476 $self->{'ambient_arybase'} = 0;
e31885a0 477 $self->{'ambient_warnings'} = undef; # Assume no lexical warnings
a0405c92 478 $self->{'ambient_hints'} = 0;
08c6f5ec
RH
479 $self->init();
480
f4a44678 481 while (my $arg = shift @_) {
34a48b4b
RH
482 if ($arg =~ /^-f(.*)/) {
483 $self->{'files'}{$1} = 1;
f4a44678
SM
484 } elsif ($arg eq "-p") {
485 $self->{'parens'} = 1;
486 } elsif ($arg eq "-l") {
487 $self->{'linenums'} = 1;
488 } elsif ($arg eq "-q") {
489 $self->{'unquote'} = 1;
490 } elsif (substr($arg, 0, 2) eq "-s") {
491 $self->style_opts(substr $arg, 2);
58cccf98
SM
492 } elsif ($arg =~ /^-x(\d)$/) {
493 $self->{'expand'} = $1;
f4a44678
SM
494 }
495 }
496 return $self;
497}
498
34a48b4b
RH
499sub WARN_MASK () {
500 # Mask out the bits that C<use vars> uses
501 $warnings::Bits{all} | $warnings::DeadBits{all};
502}
503
08c6f5ec
RH
504# Initialise the contextual information, either from
505# defaults provided with the ambient_pragmas method,
506# or from perl's own defaults otherwise.
507sub init {
508 my $self = shift;
509
510 $self->{'arybase'} = $self->{'ambient_arybase'};
e31885a0
RH
511 $self->{'warnings'} = defined ($self->{'ambient_warnings'})
512 ? $self->{'ambient_warnings'} & WARN_MASK
513 : undef;
a0405c92 514 $self->{'hints'} = $self->{'ambient_hints'} & 0xFF;
217aba5d
RH
515
516 # also a convenient place to clear out subs_declared
517 delete $self->{'subs_declared'};
08c6f5ec
RH
518}
519
a798dbf2 520sub compile {
6e90668e
SM
521 my(@args) = @_;
522 return sub {
f4a44678 523 my $self = B::Deparse->new(@args);
34a48b4b
RH
524 my @BEGINs = B::begin_av->isa("B::AV") ? B::begin_av->ARRAY : ();
525 my @INITs = B::init_av->isa("B::AV") ? B::init_av->ARRAY : ();
526 my @ENDs = B::end_av->isa("B::AV") ? B::end_av->ARRAY : ();
527 for my $block (@BEGINs, @INITs, @ENDs) {
e31885a0 528 $self->todo($block, 0);
34a48b4b
RH
529 }
530 $self->stash_subs();
6e90668e 531 $self->{'curcv'} = main_cv;
8510e997 532 $self->{'curcvlex'} = undef;
f5aa8f4e 533 print $self->print_protos;
6e90668e 534 @{$self->{'subs_todo'}} =
f4a44678
SM
535 sort {$a->[0] <=> $b->[0]} @{$self->{'subs_todo'}};
536 print $self->indent($self->deparse(main_root, 0)), "\n"
537 unless null main_root;
6e90668e
SM
538 my @text;
539 while (scalar(@{$self->{'subs_todo'}})) {
540 push @text, $self->next_todo;
541 }
6f611a1a 542 print $self->indent(join("", @text)), "\n" if @text;
e31885a0
RH
543
544 # Print __DATA__ section, if necessary
545 no strict 'refs';
546 if (defined *{$self->{'curstash'}."::DATA"}{IO}) {
547 print "__DATA__\n";
548 print readline(*{$self->{'curstash'}."::DATA"});
549 }
a798dbf2 550 }
a798dbf2
MB
551}
552
f4a44678
SM
553sub coderef2text {
554 my $self = shift;
555 my $sub = shift;
556 croak "Usage: ->coderef2text(CODEREF)" unless ref($sub) eq "CODE";
08c6f5ec
RH
557
558 $self->init();
f4a44678
SM
559 return $self->indent($self->deparse_sub(svref_2object($sub)));
560}
561
08c6f5ec
RH
562sub ambient_pragmas {
563 my $self = shift;
e31885a0 564 my ($arybase, $hint_bits, $warning_bits) = (0, 0);
08c6f5ec
RH
565
566 while (@_ > 1) {
567 my $name = shift();
568 my $val = shift();
569
570 if ($name eq 'strict') {
571 require strict;
572
573 if ($val eq 'none') {
574 $hint_bits &= ~strict::bits(qw/refs subs vars/);
575 next();
576 }
577
578 my @names;
579 if ($val eq "all") {
580 @names = qw/refs subs vars/;
581 }
582 elsif (ref $val) {
583 @names = @$val;
584 }
585 else {
a0405c92 586 @names = split' ', $val;
08c6f5ec
RH
587 }
588 $hint_bits |= strict::bits(@names);
589 }
590
591 elsif ($name eq '$[') {
592 $arybase = $val;
593 }
594
a0405c92
RH
595 elsif ($name eq 'integer'
596 || $name eq 'bytes'
597 || $name eq 'utf8') {
598 require "$name.pm";
08c6f5ec 599 if ($val) {
a0405c92
RH
600 $hint_bits |= ${$::{"${name}::"}{"hint_bits"}};
601 }
602 else {
603 $hint_bits &= ~${$::{"${name}::"}{"hint_bits"}};
604 }
605 }
606
607 elsif ($name eq 're') {
608 require re;
609 if ($val eq 'none') {
2570cdf1 610 $hint_bits &= ~re::bits(qw/taint eval/);
a0405c92
RH
611 next();
612 }
613
614 my @names;
615 if ($val eq 'all') {
2570cdf1 616 @names = qw/taint eval/;
a0405c92
RH
617 }
618 elsif (ref $val) {
619 @names = @$val;
08c6f5ec
RH
620 }
621 else {
a0405c92 622 @names = split' ',$val;
08c6f5ec 623 }
a0405c92 624 $hint_bits |= re::bits(@names);
08c6f5ec
RH
625 }
626
627 elsif ($name eq 'warnings') {
08c6f5ec
RH
628 if ($val eq 'none') {
629 $warning_bits = "\0"x12;
630 next();
631 }
632
633 my @names;
634 if (ref $val) {
635 @names = @$val;
636 }
637 else {
638 @names = split/\s+/, $val;
639 }
640
e31885a0 641 $warning_bits = "\0"x12 if !defined ($warning_bits);
08c6f5ec
RH
642 $warning_bits |= warnings::bits(@names);
643 }
644
645 elsif ($name eq 'warning_bits') {
646 $warning_bits = $val;
647 }
648
649 elsif ($name eq 'hint_bits') {
650 $hint_bits = $val;
651 }
652
653 else {
654 croak "Unknown pragma type: $name";
655 }
656 }
657 if (@_) {
658 croak "The ambient_pragmas method expects an even number of args";
659 }
660
661 $self->{'ambient_arybase'} = $arybase;
662 $self->{'ambient_warnings'} = $warning_bits;
a0405c92 663 $self->{'ambient_hints'} = $hint_bits;
08c6f5ec
RH
664}
665
6e90668e
SM
666sub deparse {
667 my $self = shift;
6ec152c3 668 my($op, $cx, $flags) = @_;
34a48b4b
RH
669
670 Carp::confess("Null op in deparse") if !defined($op)
671 || class($op) eq "NULL";
3f872cb9 672 my $meth = "pp_" . $op->name;
ce4e655d
RH
673 if (is_scope($op)) {
674 return $self->$meth($op, $cx, $flags);
6ec152c3 675 }
9d2c6865 676 return $self->$meth($op, $cx);
a798dbf2
MB
677}
678
6e90668e 679sub indent {
f4a44678 680 my $self = shift;
6e90668e
SM
681 my $txt = shift;
682 my @lines = split(/\n/, $txt);
683 my $leader = "";
f4a44678 684 my $level = 0;
6e90668e
SM
685 my $line;
686 for $line (@lines) {
f4a44678
SM
687 my $cmd = substr($line, 0, 1);
688 if ($cmd eq "\t" or $cmd eq "\b") {
689 $level += ($cmd eq "\t" ? 1 : -1) * $self->{'indent_size'};
690 if ($self->{'use_tabs'}) {
691 $leader = "\t" x ($level / 8) . " " x ($level % 8);
692 } else {
693 $leader = " " x $level;
694 }
6e90668e
SM
695 $line = substr($line, 1);
696 }
f5aa8f4e
SM
697 if (substr($line, 0, 1) eq "\f") {
698 $line = substr($line, 1); # no indent
699 } else {
700 $line = $leader . $line;
701 }
9d2c6865 702 $line =~ s/\cK;?//g;
6e90668e
SM
703 }
704 return join("\n", @lines);
705}
706
6e90668e
SM
707sub deparse_sub {
708 my $self = shift;
709 my $cv = shift;
710 my $proto = "";
ce4e655d 711Carp::confess("NULL in deparse_sub") if !defined($cv) || $cv->isa("B::NULL");
34a48b4b
RH
712Carp::confess("SPECIAL in deparse_sub") if $cv->isa("B::SPECIAL");
713 local $self->{'curcop'} = $self->{'curcop'};
6e90668e
SM
714 if ($cv->FLAGS & SVf_POK) {
715 $proto = "(". $cv->PV . ") ";
716 }
6aaf4108
SC
717 if ($cv->CvFLAGS & (CVf_METHOD|CVf_LOCKED|CVf_LVALUE)) {
718 $proto .= ": ";
719 $proto .= "lvalue " if $cv->CvFLAGS & CVf_LVALUE;
720 $proto .= "locked " if $cv->CvFLAGS & CVf_LOCKED;
721 $proto .= "method " if $cv->CvFLAGS & CVf_METHOD;
722 }
723
6e90668e 724 local($self->{'curcv'}) = $cv;
8510e997 725 local($self->{'curcvlex'});
a0405c92
RH
726 local(@$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'})
727 = @$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'};
ce4e655d 728 my $body;
6e90668e 729 if (not null $cv->ROOT) {
ce4e655d
RH
730 my $lineseq = $cv->ROOT->first;
731 if ($lineseq->name eq "lineseq") {
732 my @ops;
733 for(my$o=$lineseq->first; $$o; $o=$o->sibling) {
734 push @ops, $o;
735 }
736 $body = $self->lineseq(undef, @ops).";";
737 my $scope_en = $self->find_scope_en($lineseq);
738 if (defined $scope_en) {
739 my $subs = join"", $self->seq_subs($scope_en);
740 $body .= ";\n$subs" if length($subs);
741 }
742 }
743 else {
744 $body = $self->deparse($cv->ROOT->first, 0);
745 }
de3f1649 746 }
ce4e655d
RH
747 else {
748 my $sv = $cv->const_sv;
749 if ($$sv) {
750 # uh-oh. inlinable sub... format it differently
751 return $proto . "{ " . const($sv) . " }\n";
752 } else { # XSUB? (or just a declaration)
753 return "$proto;\n";
754 }
6e90668e 755 }
ce4e655d 756 return $proto ."{\n\t$body\n\b}" ."\n";
6e90668e
SM
757}
758
759sub deparse_format {
760 my $self = shift;
761 my $form = shift;
762 my @text;
763 local($self->{'curcv'}) = $form;
8510e997 764 local($self->{'curcvlex'});
a0405c92
RH
765 local(@$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'})
766 = @$self{'curstash warnings hints'};
6e90668e
SM
767 my $op = $form->ROOT;
768 my $kid;
769 $op = $op->first->first; # skip leavewrite, lineseq
770 while (not null $op) {
771 $op = $op->sibling; # skip nextstate
772 my @exprs;
773 $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
a5b0cd91 774 push @text, "\f".$self->const_sv($kid)->PV;
6e90668e
SM
775 $kid = $kid->sibling;
776 for (; not null $kid; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 777 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 0);
6e90668e 778 }
a5b0cd91 779 push @text, "\f".join(", ", @exprs)."\n" if @exprs;
6e90668e
SM
780 $op = $op->sibling;
781 }
a5b0cd91 782 return join("", @text) . "\f.";
6e90668e
SM
783}
784
6e90668e 785sub is_scope {
a798dbf2 786 my $op = shift;
3f872cb9
GS
787 return $op->name eq "leave" || $op->name eq "scope"
788 || $op->name eq "lineseq"
789 || ($op->name eq "null" && class($op) eq "UNOP"
790 && (is_scope($op->first) || $op->first->name eq "enter"));
6e90668e
SM
791}
792
793sub is_state {
3f872cb9
GS
794 my $name = $_[0]->name;
795 return $name eq "nextstate" || $name eq "dbstate" || $name eq "setstate";
6e90668e
SM
796}
797
798sub is_miniwhile { # check for one-line loop (`foo() while $y--')
799 my $op = shift;
800 return (!null($op) and null($op->sibling)
3f872cb9
GS
801 and $op->name eq "null" and class($op) eq "UNOP"
802 and (($op->first->name =~ /^(and|or)$/
803 and $op->first->first->sibling->name eq "lineseq")
804 or ($op->first->name eq "lineseq"
6e90668e 805 and not null $op->first->first->sibling
3f872cb9 806 and $op->first->first->sibling->name eq "unstack")
6e90668e
SM
807 ));
808}
809
810sub is_scalar {
811 my $op = shift;
3f872cb9
GS
812 return ($op->name eq "rv2sv" or
813 $op->name eq "padsv" or
814 $op->name eq "gv" or # only in array/hash constructs
bd0865ec 815 $op->flags & OPf_KIDS && !null($op->first)
3f872cb9 816 && $op->first->name eq "gvsv");
6e90668e
SM
817}
818
9d2c6865
SM
819sub maybe_parens {
820 my $self = shift;
821 my($text, $cx, $prec) = @_;
822 if ($prec < $cx # unary ops nest just fine
823 or $prec == $cx and $cx != 4 and $cx != 16 and $cx != 21
824 or $self->{'parens'})
825 {
826 $text = "($text)";
827 # In a unop, let parent reuse our parens; see maybe_parens_unop
828 $text = "\cS" . $text if $cx == 16;
829 return $text;
830 } else {
831 return $text;
832 }
833}
834
835# same as above, but get around the `if it looks like a function' rule
836sub maybe_parens_unop {
837 my $self = shift;
838 my($name, $kid, $cx) = @_;
839 if ($cx > 16 or $self->{'parens'}) {
a0035eb8
RH
840 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 1);
841 if ($name eq "umask" && $kid =~ /^\d+$/) {
842 $kid = sprintf("%#o", $kid);
843 }
844 return "$name($kid)";
9d2c6865
SM
845 } else {
846 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 16);
a0035eb8
RH
847 if ($name eq "umask" && $kid =~ /^\d+$/) {
848 $kid = sprintf("%#o", $kid);
849 }
9d2c6865
SM
850 if (substr($kid, 0, 1) eq "\cS") {
851 # use kid's parens
852 return $name . substr($kid, 1);
853 } elsif (substr($kid, 0, 1) eq "(") {
854 # avoid looks-like-a-function trap with extra parens
855 # (`+' can lead to ambiguities)
856 return "$name(" . $kid . ")";
857 } else {
858 return "$name $kid";
859 }
860 }
861}
862
863sub maybe_parens_func {
864 my $self = shift;
865 my($func, $text, $cx, $prec) = @_;
866 if ($prec <= $cx or substr($text, 0, 1) eq "(" or $self->{'parens'}) {
867 return "$func($text)";
868 } else {
869 return "$func $text";
870 }
871}
872
6e90668e
SM
873sub maybe_local {
874 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 875 my($op, $cx, $text) = @_;
ce4e655d
RH
876 my $our_intro = ($op->name =~ /^(gv|rv2)[ash]v$/) ? OPpOUR_INTRO : 0;
877 if ($op->private & (OPpLVAL_INTRO|$our_intro)
878 and not $self->{'avoid_local'}{$$op}) {
879 my $our_local = ($op->private & OPpLVAL_INTRO) ? "local" : "our";
e8d3f51b 880 if (want_scalar($op)) {
ce4e655d 881 return "$our_local $text";
e8d3f51b 882 } else {
ce4e655d 883 return $self->maybe_parens_func("$our_local", $text, $cx, 16);
e8d3f51b 884 }
6e90668e
SM
885 } else {
886 return $text;
a798dbf2 887 }
a798dbf2
MB
888}
889
3ed82cfc
GS
890sub maybe_targmy {
891 my $self = shift;
892 my($op, $cx, $func, @args) = @_;
893 if ($op->private & OPpTARGET_MY) {
894 my $var = $self->padname($op->targ);
895 my $val = $func->($self, $op, 7, @args);
896 return $self->maybe_parens("$var = $val", $cx, 7);
897 } else {
898 return $func->($self, $op, $cx, @args);
899 }
900}
901
6e90668e
SM
902sub padname_sv {
903 my $self = shift;
904 my $targ = shift;
905 return (($self->{'curcv'}->PADLIST->ARRAY)[0]->ARRAY)[$targ];
906}
907
908sub maybe_my {
909 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 910 my($op, $cx, $text) = @_;
4c1f658f 911 if ($op->private & OPpLVAL_INTRO and not $self->{'avoid_local'}{$$op}) {
e8d3f51b
RH
912 if (want_scalar($op)) {
913 return "my $text";
914 } else {
915 return $self->maybe_parens_func("my", $text, $cx, 16);
916 }
6e90668e
SM
917 } else {
918 return $text;
919 }
920}
921
9d2c6865
SM
922# The following OPs don't have functions:
923
924# pp_padany -- does not exist after parsing
925# pp_rcatline -- does not exist
926
927sub pp_enter { # see also leave
928 cluck "unexpected OP_ENTER";
929 return "XXX";
930}
931
932sub pp_pushmark { # see also list
933 cluck "unexpected OP_PUSHMARK";
934 return "XXX";
935}
936
937sub pp_leavesub { # see also deparse_sub
938 cluck "unexpected OP_LEAVESUB";
939 return "XXX";
940}
941
942sub pp_leavewrite { # see also deparse_format
943 cluck "unexpected OP_LEAVEWRITE";
944 return "XXX";
945}
946
947sub pp_method { # see also entersub
948 cluck "unexpected OP_METHOD";
949 return "XXX";
950}
951
952sub pp_regcmaybe { # see also regcomp
953 cluck "unexpected OP_REGCMAYBE";
954 return "XXX";
955}
956
90be192f
SM
957sub pp_regcreset { # see also regcomp
958 cluck "unexpected OP_REGCRESET";
959 return "XXX";
960}
961
9d2c6865
SM
962sub pp_substcont { # see also subst
963 cluck "unexpected OP_SUBSTCONT";
964 return "XXX";
965}
966
967sub pp_grepstart { # see also grepwhile
968 cluck "unexpected OP_GREPSTART";
969 return "XXX";
970}
971
972sub pp_mapstart { # see also mapwhile
973 cluck "unexpected OP_MAPSTART";
974 return "XXX";
975}
976
90c0eb26
RH
977sub pp_method_named {
978 cluck "unexpected OP_METHOD_NAMED";
979 return "XXX";
980}
981
9d2c6865
SM
982sub pp_flip { # see also flop
983 cluck "unexpected OP_FLIP";
984 return "XXX";
985}
986
987sub pp_iter { # see also leaveloop
988 cluck "unexpected OP_ITER";
989 return "XXX";
990}
991
992sub pp_enteriter { # see also leaveloop
993 cluck "unexpected OP_ENTERITER";
994 return "XXX";
995}
996
997sub pp_enterloop { # see also leaveloop
998 cluck "unexpected OP_ENTERLOOP";
999 return "XXX";
1000}
1001
1002sub pp_leaveeval { # see also entereval
1003 cluck "unexpected OP_LEAVEEVAL";
1004 return "XXX";
1005}
1006
1007sub pp_entertry { # see also leavetry
1008 cluck "unexpected OP_ENTERTRY";
1009 return "XXX";
1010}
6e90668e 1011
ce4e655d
RH
1012# $root should be the op which represents the root of whatever
1013# we're sequencing here. If it's undefined, then we don't append
1014# any subroutine declarations to the deparsed ops, otherwise we
1015# append appropriate declarations.
58cccf98 1016sub lineseq {
ce4e655d 1017 my($self, $root, @ops) = @_;
58cccf98 1018 my($expr, @exprs);
ce4e655d
RH
1019
1020 my $out_cop = $self->{'curcop'};
1021 my $out_seq = defined($out_cop) ? $out_cop->cop_seq : undef;
1022 my $limit_seq;
1023 if (defined $root) {
1024 $limit_seq = $out_seq;
1025 my $nseq = $self->find_scope_st($root->sibling) if ${$root->sibling};
1026 $limit_seq = $nseq if !defined($limit_seq)
1027 or defined($nseq) && $nseq < $limit_seq;
1028 }
1029 $limit_seq = $self->{'limit_seq'}
1030 if defined($self->{'limit_seq'})
1031 && (!defined($limit_seq) || $self->{'limit_seq'} < $limit_seq);
1032 local $self->{'limit_seq'} = $limit_seq;
58cccf98 1033 for (my $i = 0; $i < @ops; $i++) {
6e90668e 1034 $expr = "";
58cccf98
SM
1035 if (is_state $ops[$i]) {
1036 $expr = $self->deparse($ops[$i], 0);
1037 $i++;
e99ebc55
RH
1038 if ($i > $#ops) {
1039 push @exprs, $expr;
1040 last;
1041 }
58cccf98 1042 }
c73811ab
RH
1043 if (!is_state $ops[$i] and (my $ls = $ops[$i+1]) and
1044 !null($ops[$i+1]) and $ops[$i+1]->name eq "lineseq")
58cccf98 1045 {
c73811ab
RH
1046 if ($ls->first && !null($ls->first) && is_state($ls->first)
1047 && (my $sib = $ls->first->sibling)) {
1048 if (!null($sib) && $sib->name eq "leaveloop") {
1049 push @exprs, $expr . $self->for_loop($ops[$i], 0);
1050 $i++;
1051 next;
1052 }
1053 }
6e90668e 1054 }
6ec152c3 1055 $expr .= $self->deparse($ops[$i], 0, (@ops != 1));
e99ebc55 1056 $expr =~ s/;\n?\z//;
f99a63a2 1057 push @exprs, $expr;
6e90668e 1058 }
ce4e655d
RH
1059 my $body = join(";\n", grep {length} @exprs);
1060 my $subs = "";
1061 if (defined $root && defined $limit_seq) {
1062 $subs = join "\n", $self->seq_subs($limit_seq);
1063 }
1064 return join(";\n", grep {length} $body, $subs);
6e90668e
SM
1065}
1066
58cccf98 1067sub scopeop {
ce4e655d 1068 my($real_block, $self, $op, $cx, $flags) = @_;
58cccf98
SM
1069 my $kid;
1070 my @kids;
a0405c92
RH
1071
1072 local(@$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'})
1073 = @$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'} if $real_block;
58cccf98
SM
1074 if ($real_block) {
1075 $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip enter
1076 if (is_miniwhile($kid)) {
1077 my $top = $kid->first;
1078 my $name = $top->name;
1079 if ($name eq "and") {
1080 $name = "while";
1081 } elsif ($name eq "or") {
1082 $name = "until";
1083 } else { # no conditional -> while 1 or until 0
1084 return $self->deparse($top->first, 1) . " while 1";
1085 }
1086 my $cond = $top->first;
1087 my $body = $cond->sibling->first; # skip lineseq
1088 $cond = $self->deparse($cond, 1);
1089 $body = $self->deparse($body, 1);
1090 return "$body $name $cond";
6e90668e 1091 }
58cccf98
SM
1092 } else {
1093 $kid = $op->first;
1094 }
1095 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
1096 push @kids, $kid;
6e90668e 1097 }
ce4e655d
RH
1098 if ($flags || $cx > 0) { # inside an expression, (a do {} while for lineseq)
1099 return "do {\n\t" . $self->lineseq($op, @kids) . "\n\b}";
9d2c6865 1100 } else {
ce4e655d 1101 my $lineseq = $self->lineseq($op, @kids);
7a9b44b9 1102 return (length ($lineseq) ? "$lineseq;" : "");
6e90668e 1103 }
6e90668e
SM
1104}
1105
ce4e655d 1106sub pp_scope { scopeop(0, @_); }
58cccf98
SM
1107sub pp_lineseq { scopeop(0, @_); }
1108sub pp_leave { scopeop(1, @_); }
9d2c6865 1109
6e90668e
SM
1110# The BEGIN {} is used here because otherwise this code isn't executed
1111# when you run B::Deparse on itself.
1112my %globalnames;
1113BEGIN { map($globalnames{$_}++, "SIG", "STDIN", "STDOUT", "STDERR", "INC",
1114 "ENV", "ARGV", "ARGVOUT", "_"); }
1115
1116sub gv_name {
1117 my $self = shift;
1118 my $gv = shift;
34a48b4b 1119Carp::confess() if $gv->isa("B::CV");
6e90668e 1120 my $stash = $gv->STASH->NAME;
d9963e60 1121 my $name = $gv->SAFENAME;
9d2c6865
SM
1122 if ($stash eq $self->{'curstash'} or $globalnames{$name}
1123 or $name =~ /^[^A-Za-z_]/)
1124 {
6e90668e
SM
1125 $stash = "";
1126 } else {
1127 $stash = $stash . "::";
a798dbf2 1128 }
d9963e60
RH
1129 if ($name =~ /^\^../) {
1130 $name = "{$name}"; # ${^WARNING_BITS} etc
6e90668e
SM
1131 }
1132 return $stash . $name;
a798dbf2
MB
1133}
1134
8510e997
RH
1135# Return the name to use for a stash variable.
1136# If a lexical with the same name is in scope, it may need to be
1137# fully-qualified.
1138sub stash_variable {
1139 my ($self, $prefix, $name) = @_;
1140
1141 return "$prefix$name" if $name =~ /::/;
1142
1143 unless ($prefix eq '$' || $prefix eq '@' ||
1144 $prefix eq '%' || $prefix eq '$#') {
1145 return "$prefix$name";
1146 }
1147
1148 my $v = ($prefix eq '$#' ? '@' : $prefix) . $name;
1149 return $prefix .$self->{'curstash'}.'::'. $name if $self->lex_in_scope($v);
1150 return "$prefix$name";
1151}
1152
1153sub lex_in_scope {
1154 my ($self, $name) = @_;
1155 $self->populate_curcvlex() if !defined $self->{'curcvlex'};
1156
6ec152c3 1157 return 0 if !defined($self->{'curcop'});
8510e997
RH
1158 my $seq = $self->{'curcop'}->cop_seq;
1159 return 0 if !exists $self->{'curcvlex'}{$name};
1160 for my $a (@{$self->{'curcvlex'}{$name}}) {
1161 my ($st, $en) = @$a;
1162 return 1 if $seq > $st && $seq <= $en;
1163 }
1164 return 0;
1165}
1166
1167sub populate_curcvlex {
1168 my $self = shift;
ce4e655d 1169 for (my $cv = $self->{'curcv'}; class($cv) eq "CV"; $cv = $cv->OUTSIDE) {
8510e997
RH
1170 my @padlist = $cv->PADLIST->ARRAY;
1171 my @ns = $padlist[0]->ARRAY;
1172
1173 for (my $i=0; $i<@ns; ++$i) {
1174 next if class($ns[$i]) eq "SPECIAL";
ce4e655d 1175 next if $ns[$i]->FLAGS & SVpad_OUR; # Skip "our" vars
0f2fe21d
RH
1176 if (class($ns[$i]) eq "PV") {
1177 # Probably that pesky lexical @_
1178 next;
1179 }
8510e997
RH
1180 my $name = $ns[$i]->PVX;
1181 my $seq_st = $ns[$i]->NVX;
1182 my $seq_en = int($ns[$i]->IVX);
1183
1184 push @{$self->{'curcvlex'}{$name}}, [$seq_st, $seq_en];
1185 }
1186 }
1187}
1188
ce4e655d
RH
1189sub find_scope_st { ((find_scope(@_))[0]); }
1190sub find_scope_en { ((find_scope(@_))[1]); }
1191
1192# Recurses down the tree, looking for pad variable introductions and COPs
1193sub find_scope {
1194 my ($self, $op, $scope_st, $scope_en) = @_;
1195Carp::cluck() if !defined $op;
1196 return ($scope_st, $scope_en) unless $op->flags & OPf_KIDS;
1197
1198 for (my $o=$op->first; $$o; $o=$o->sibling) {
1199 if ($o->name =~ /^pad.v$/ && $o->private & OPpLVAL_INTRO) {
1200 my $s = int($self->padname_sv($o->targ)->NVX);
1201 my $e = $self->padname_sv($o->targ)->IVX;
1202 $scope_st = $s if !defined($scope_st) || $s < $scope_st;
1203 $scope_en = $e if !defined($scope_en) || $e > $scope_en;
1204 }
1205 elsif (is_state($o)) {
1206 my $c = $o->cop_seq;
1207 $scope_st = $c if !defined($scope_st) || $c < $scope_st;
1208 $scope_en = $c if !defined($scope_en) || $c > $scope_en;
1209 }
1210 elsif ($o->flags & OPf_KIDS) {
1211 ($scope_st, $scope_en) =
1212 $self->find_scope($o, $scope_st, $scope_en)
34a48b4b
RH
1213 }
1214 }
ce4e655d
RH
1215
1216 return ($scope_st, $scope_en);
34a48b4b
RH
1217}
1218
1219# Returns a list of subs which should be inserted before the COP
1220sub cop_subs {
1221 my ($self, $op, $out_seq) = @_;
1222 my $seq = $op->cop_seq;
1223 # If we have nephews, then our sequence number indicates
1224 # the cop_seq of the end of some sort of scope.
1225 if (class($op->sibling) ne "NULL" && $op->sibling->flags & OPf_KIDS
ce4e655d
RH
1226 and my $nseq = $self->find_scope_st($op->sibling) ) {
1227 $seq = $nseq;
34a48b4b
RH
1228 }
1229 $seq = $out_seq if defined($out_seq) && $out_seq < $seq;
1230 return $self->seq_subs($seq);
1231}
1232
1233sub seq_subs {
1234 my ($self, $seq) = @_;
1235 my @text;
1236#push @text, "# ($seq)\n";
1237
ce4e655d 1238 return "" if !defined $seq;
34a48b4b
RH
1239 while (scalar(@{$self->{'subs_todo'}})
1240 and $seq > $self->{'subs_todo'}[0][0]) {
1241 push @text, $self->next_todo;
1242 }
1243 return @text;
1244}
1245
08c6f5ec 1246# Notice how subs and formats are inserted between statements here;
a0405c92 1247# also $[ assignments and pragmas.
6e90668e
SM
1248sub pp_nextstate {
1249 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1250 my($op, $cx) = @_;
34a48b4b 1251 $self->{'curcop'} = $op;
6e90668e 1252 my @text;
34a48b4b 1253 push @text, $self->cop_subs($op);
e99ebc55 1254 push @text, $op->label . ": " if $op->label;
11faa288 1255 my $stash = $op->stashpv;
6e90668e
SM
1256 if ($stash ne $self->{'curstash'}) {
1257 push @text, "package $stash;\n";
1258 $self->{'curstash'} = $stash;
1259 }
f5aa8f4e
SM
1260 if ($self->{'linenums'}) {
1261 push @text, "\f#line " . $op->line .
57843af0 1262 ' "' . $op->file, qq'"\n';
f5aa8f4e 1263 }
08c6f5ec 1264
7a9b44b9
RH
1265 if ($self->{'arybase'} != $op->arybase) {
1266 push @text, '$[ = '. $op->arybase .";\n";
1267 $self->{'arybase'} = $op->arybase;
1268 }
1269
1270 my $warnings = $op->warnings;
1271 my $warning_bits;
1272 if ($warnings->isa("B::SPECIAL") && $$warnings == 4) {
1273 $warning_bits = $warnings::Bits{"all"};
1274 }
e31885a0 1275 elsif ($warnings->isa("B::SPECIAL") && $$warnings == 5) {
7a9b44b9
RH
1276 $warning_bits = "\0"x12;
1277 }
e31885a0
RH
1278 elsif ($warnings->isa("B::SPECIAL")) {
1279 $warning_bits = undef;
1280 }
7a9b44b9 1281 else {
34a48b4b 1282 $warning_bits = $warnings->PV & WARN_MASK;
7a9b44b9
RH
1283 }
1284
e31885a0
RH
1285 if (defined ($warning_bits) and
1286 !defined($self->{warnings}) || $self->{'warnings'} ne $warning_bits) {
08c6f5ec 1287 push @text, declare_warnings($self->{'warnings'}, $warning_bits);
7a9b44b9
RH
1288 $self->{'warnings'} = $warning_bits;
1289 }
1290
a0405c92
RH
1291 if ($self->{'hints'} != $op->private) {
1292 push @text, declare_hints($self->{'hints'}, $op->private);
1293 $self->{'hints'} = $op->private;
1294 }
1295
6e90668e
SM
1296 return join("", @text);
1297}
1298
08c6f5ec
RH
1299sub declare_warnings {
1300 my ($from, $to) = @_;
6ec152c3 1301 if (($to & WARN_MASK) eq warnings::bits("all")) {
a0405c92
RH
1302 return "use warnings;\n";
1303 }
6ec152c3 1304 elsif (($to & WARN_MASK) eq "\0"x length($to)) {
a0405c92
RH
1305 return "no warnings;\n";
1306 }
1307 return "BEGIN {\${^WARNING_BITS} = ".cstring($to)."}\n";
1308}
1309
1310sub declare_hints {
1311 my ($from, $to) = @_;
a0035eb8
RH
1312 my $use = $to & ~$from;
1313 my $no = $from & ~$to;
1314 my $decls = "";
1315 for my $pragma (hint_pragmas($use)) {
1316 $decls .= "use $pragma;\n";
1317 }
1318 for my $pragma (hint_pragmas($no)) {
1319 $decls .= "no $pragma;\n";
1320 }
1321 return $decls;
1322}
1323
1324sub hint_pragmas {
1325 my ($bits) = @_;
1326 my @pragmas;
1327 push @pragmas, "integer" if $bits & 0x1;
1328 push @pragmas, "strict 'refs'" if $bits & 0x2;
1329 push @pragmas, "bytes" if $bits & 0x8;
1330 return @pragmas;
08c6f5ec
RH
1331}
1332
6e90668e 1333sub pp_dbstate { pp_nextstate(@_) }
3f872cb9 1334sub pp_setstate { pp_nextstate(@_) }
6e90668e
SM
1335
1336sub pp_unstack { return "" } # see also leaveloop
1337
1338sub baseop {
1339 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1340 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1341 return $name;
1342}
1343
e99ebc55
RH
1344sub pp_stub {
1345 my $self = shift;
1346 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
1347 if ($cx) {
1348 return "()";
1349 }
1350 else {
1351 return "();";
1352 }
1353}
6e90668e
SM
1354sub pp_wantarray { baseop(@_, "wantarray") }
1355sub pp_fork { baseop(@_, "fork") }
3ed82cfc
GS
1356sub pp_wait { maybe_targmy(@_, \&baseop, "wait") }
1357sub pp_getppid { maybe_targmy(@_, \&baseop, "getppid") }
1358sub pp_time { maybe_targmy(@_, \&baseop, "time") }
6e90668e
SM
1359sub pp_tms { baseop(@_, "times") }
1360sub pp_ghostent { baseop(@_, "gethostent") }
1361sub pp_gnetent { baseop(@_, "getnetent") }
1362sub pp_gprotoent { baseop(@_, "getprotoent") }
1363sub pp_gservent { baseop(@_, "getservent") }
1364sub pp_ehostent { baseop(@_, "endhostent") }
1365sub pp_enetent { baseop(@_, "endnetent") }
1366sub pp_eprotoent { baseop(@_, "endprotoent") }
1367sub pp_eservent { baseop(@_, "endservent") }
1368sub pp_gpwent { baseop(@_, "getpwent") }
1369sub pp_spwent { baseop(@_, "setpwent") }
1370sub pp_epwent { baseop(@_, "endpwent") }
1371sub pp_ggrent { baseop(@_, "getgrent") }
1372sub pp_sgrent { baseop(@_, "setgrent") }
1373sub pp_egrent { baseop(@_, "endgrent") }
1374sub pp_getlogin { baseop(@_, "getlogin") }
1375
1376sub POSTFIX () { 1 }
1377
9d2c6865
SM
1378# I couldn't think of a good short name, but this is the category of
1379# symbolic unary operators with interesting precedence
1380
1381sub pfixop {
1382 my $self = shift;
1383 my($op, $cx, $name, $prec, $flags) = (@_, 0);
1384 my $kid = $op->first;
1385 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, $prec);
1386 return $self->maybe_parens(($flags & POSTFIX) ? "$kid$name" : "$name$kid",
1387 $cx, $prec);
1388}
1389
1390sub pp_preinc { pfixop(@_, "++", 23) }
1391sub pp_predec { pfixop(@_, "--", 23) }
3ed82cfc
GS
1392sub pp_postinc { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "++", 23, POSTFIX) }
1393sub pp_postdec { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "--", 23, POSTFIX) }
9d2c6865
SM
1394sub pp_i_preinc { pfixop(@_, "++", 23) }
1395sub pp_i_predec { pfixop(@_, "--", 23) }
3ed82cfc
GS
1396sub pp_i_postinc { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "++", 23, POSTFIX) }
1397sub pp_i_postdec { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "--", 23, POSTFIX) }
68cc8748 1398sub pp_complement { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "~", 21) }
9d2c6865 1399
3ed82cfc
GS
1400sub pp_negate { maybe_targmy(@_, \&real_negate) }
1401sub real_negate {
9d2c6865
SM
1402 my $self = shift;
1403 my($op, $cx) = @_;
3f872cb9 1404 if ($op->first->name =~ /^(i_)?negate$/) {
9d2c6865
SM
1405 # avoid --$x
1406 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "-", 21.5);
1407 } else {
1408 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "-", 21);
1409 }
1410}
1411sub pp_i_negate { pp_negate(@_) }
1412
1413sub pp_not {
1414 my $self = shift;
1415 my($op, $cx) = @_;
1416 if ($cx <= 4) {
1417 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "not ", 4);
1418 } else {
1419 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "!", 21);
1420 }
1421}
1422
6e90668e
SM
1423sub unop {
1424 my $self = shift;
f4a44678 1425 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e 1426 my $kid;
9d2c6865 1427 if ($op->flags & OPf_KIDS) {
6e90668e 1428 $kid = $op->first;
e31885a0
RH
1429 if (defined prototype("CORE::$name")
1430 && prototype("CORE::$name") =~ /^;?\*/
1431 && $kid->name eq "rv2gv") {
1432 $kid = $kid->first;
1433 }
1434
9d2c6865 1435 return $self->maybe_parens_unop($name, $kid, $cx);
6e90668e 1436 } else {
9d2c6865 1437 return $name . ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL ? "()" : "");
6e90668e 1438 }
6e90668e
SM
1439}
1440
3ed82cfc
GS
1441sub pp_chop { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chop") }
1442sub pp_chomp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chomp") }
1443sub pp_schop { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chop") }
1444sub pp_schomp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chomp") }
6e90668e
SM
1445sub pp_defined { unop(@_, "defined") }
1446sub pp_undef { unop(@_, "undef") }
1447sub pp_study { unop(@_, "study") }
6e90668e
SM
1448sub pp_ref { unop(@_, "ref") }
1449sub pp_pos { maybe_local(@_, unop(@_, "pos")) }
1450
3ed82cfc
GS
1451sub pp_sin { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "sin") }
1452sub pp_cos { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "cos") }
1453sub pp_rand { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "rand") }
6e90668e 1454sub pp_srand { unop(@_, "srand") }
3ed82cfc
GS
1455sub pp_exp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "exp") }
1456sub pp_log { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "log") }
1457sub pp_sqrt { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "sqrt") }
1458sub pp_int { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "int") }
1459sub pp_hex { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "hex") }
1460sub pp_oct { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "oct") }
1461sub pp_abs { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "abs") }
1462
1463sub pp_length { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "length") }
1464sub pp_ord { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "ord") }
1465sub pp_chr { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chr") }
6e90668e
SM
1466
1467sub pp_each { unop(@_, "each") }
1468sub pp_values { unop(@_, "values") }
1469sub pp_keys { unop(@_, "keys") }
1470sub pp_pop { unop(@_, "pop") }
1471sub pp_shift { unop(@_, "shift") }
1472
1473sub pp_caller { unop(@_, "caller") }
1474sub pp_reset { unop(@_, "reset") }
1475sub pp_exit { unop(@_, "exit") }
1476sub pp_prototype { unop(@_, "prototype") }
1477
1478sub pp_close { unop(@_, "close") }
1479sub pp_fileno { unop(@_, "fileno") }
1480sub pp_umask { unop(@_, "umask") }
6e90668e
SM
1481sub pp_untie { unop(@_, "untie") }
1482sub pp_tied { unop(@_, "tied") }
1483sub pp_dbmclose { unop(@_, "dbmclose") }
1484sub pp_getc { unop(@_, "getc") }
1485sub pp_eof { unop(@_, "eof") }
1486sub pp_tell { unop(@_, "tell") }
1487sub pp_getsockname { unop(@_, "getsockname") }
1488sub pp_getpeername { unop(@_, "getpeername") }
1489
3ed82cfc
GS
1490sub pp_chdir { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chdir") }
1491sub pp_chroot { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chroot") }
6e90668e 1492sub pp_readlink { unop(@_, "readlink") }
3ed82cfc 1493sub pp_rmdir { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "rmdir") }
6e90668e
SM
1494sub pp_readdir { unop(@_, "readdir") }
1495sub pp_telldir { unop(@_, "telldir") }
1496sub pp_rewinddir { unop(@_, "rewinddir") }
1497sub pp_closedir { unop(@_, "closedir") }
3ed82cfc 1498sub pp_getpgrp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "getpgrp") }
6e90668e
SM
1499sub pp_localtime { unop(@_, "localtime") }
1500sub pp_gmtime { unop(@_, "gmtime") }
1501sub pp_alarm { unop(@_, "alarm") }
3ed82cfc 1502sub pp_sleep { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "sleep") }
6e90668e
SM
1503
1504sub pp_dofile { unop(@_, "do") }
1505sub pp_entereval { unop(@_, "eval") }
1506
1507sub pp_ghbyname { unop(@_, "gethostbyname") }
1508sub pp_gnbyname { unop(@_, "getnetbyname") }
1509sub pp_gpbyname { unop(@_, "getprotobyname") }
1510sub pp_shostent { unop(@_, "sethostent") }
1511sub pp_snetent { unop(@_, "setnetent") }
1512sub pp_sprotoent { unop(@_, "setprotoent") }
1513sub pp_sservent { unop(@_, "setservent") }
1514sub pp_gpwnam { unop(@_, "getpwnam") }
1515sub pp_gpwuid { unop(@_, "getpwuid") }
1516sub pp_ggrnam { unop(@_, "getgrnam") }
1517sub pp_ggrgid { unop(@_, "getgrgid") }
1518
1519sub pp_lock { unop(@_, "lock") }
1520
1521sub pp_exists {
1522 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1523 my($op, $cx) = @_;
34a48b4b
RH
1524 my $arg;
1525 if ($op->private & OPpEXISTS_SUB) {
1526 # Checking for the existence of a subroutine
1527 return $self->maybe_parens_func("exists",
1528 $self->pp_rv2cv($op->first, 16), $cx, 16);
1529 }
1530 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
1531 # Array element, not hash element
1532 return $self->maybe_parens_func("exists",
1533 $self->pp_aelem($op->first, 16), $cx, 16);
1534 }
9d2c6865
SM
1535 return $self->maybe_parens_func("exists", $self->pp_helem($op->first, 16),
1536 $cx, 16);
6e90668e
SM
1537}
1538
6e90668e
SM
1539sub pp_delete {
1540 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1541 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1542 my $arg;
1543 if ($op->private & OPpSLICE) {
34a48b4b
RH
1544 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
1545 # Deleting from an array, not a hash
1546 return $self->maybe_parens_func("delete",
1547 $self->pp_aslice($op->first, 16),
1548 $cx, 16);
1549 }
9d2c6865
SM
1550 return $self->maybe_parens_func("delete",
1551 $self->pp_hslice($op->first, 16),
1552 $cx, 16);
6e90668e 1553 } else {
34a48b4b
RH
1554 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
1555 # Deleting from an array, not a hash
1556 return $self->maybe_parens_func("delete",
1557 $self->pp_aelem($op->first, 16),
1558 $cx, 16);
1559 }
9d2c6865
SM
1560 return $self->maybe_parens_func("delete",
1561 $self->pp_helem($op->first, 16),
1562 $cx, 16);
6e90668e 1563 }
6e90668e
SM
1564}
1565
6e90668e
SM
1566sub pp_require {
1567 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1568 my($op, $cx) = @_;
3f872cb9 1569 if (class($op) eq "UNOP" and $op->first->name eq "const"
4c1f658f 1570 and $op->first->private & OPpCONST_BARE)
6e90668e 1571 {
18228111 1572 my $name = $self->const_sv($op->first)->PV;
6e90668e
SM
1573 $name =~ s[/][::]g;
1574 $name =~ s/\.pm//g;
34a48b4b 1575 return "require $name";
6e90668e 1576 } else {
9d2c6865 1577 $self->unop($op, $cx, "require");
6e90668e
SM
1578 }
1579}
1580
9d2c6865
SM
1581sub pp_scalar {
1582 my $self = shift;
1583 my($op, $cv) = @_;
1584 my $kid = $op->first;
1585 if (not null $kid->sibling) {
1586 # XXX Was a here-doc
1587 return $self->dquote($op);
1588 }
1589 $self->unop(@_, "scalar");
1590}
1591
1592
6e90668e
SM
1593sub padval {
1594 my $self = shift;
1595 my $targ = shift;
18228111 1596 #cluck "curcv was undef" unless $self->{curcv};
6e90668e
SM
1597 return (($self->{'curcv'}->PADLIST->ARRAY)[1]->ARRAY)[$targ];
1598}
1599
1600sub pp_refgen {
1601 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1602 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 1603 my $kid = $op->first;
3f872cb9 1604 if ($kid->name eq "null") {
6e90668e 1605 $kid = $kid->first;
3f872cb9
GS
1606 if ($kid->name eq "anonlist" || $kid->name eq "anonhash") {
1607 my($pre, $post) = @{{"anonlist" => ["[","]"],
1608 "anonhash" => ["{","}"]}->{$kid->name}};
6e90668e
SM
1609 my($expr, @exprs);
1610 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
1611 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 1612 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
1613 push @exprs, $expr;
1614 }
1615 return $pre . join(", ", @exprs) . $post;
1616 } elsif (!null($kid->sibling) and
3f872cb9 1617 $kid->sibling->name eq "anoncode") {
6e90668e
SM
1618 return "sub " .
1619 $self->deparse_sub($self->padval($kid->sibling->targ));
3f872cb9
GS
1620 } elsif ($kid->name eq "pushmark") {
1621 my $sib_name = $kid->sibling->name;
1622 if ($sib_name =~ /^(pad|rv2)[ah]v$/
c8c62db7
AD
1623 and not $kid->sibling->flags & OPf_REF)
1624 {
1625 # The @a in \(@a) isn't in ref context, but only when the
1626 # parens are there.
1627 return "\\(" . $self->deparse($kid->sibling, 1) . ")";
3f872cb9 1628 } elsif ($sib_name eq 'entersub') {
c8c62db7
AD
1629 my $text = $self->deparse($kid->sibling, 1);
1630 # Always show parens for \(&func()), but only with -p otherwise
1631 $text = "($text)" if $self->{'parens'}
1632 or $kid->sibling->private & OPpENTERSUB_AMPER;
1633 return "\\$text";
1634 }
1635 }
6e90668e 1636 }
9d2c6865 1637 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "\\", 20);
6e90668e
SM
1638}
1639
1640sub pp_srefgen { pp_refgen(@_) }
1641
1642sub pp_readline {
1643 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1644 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 1645 my $kid = $op->first;
3f872cb9 1646 $kid = $kid->first if $kid->name eq "rv2gv"; # <$fh>
e31885a0
RH
1647 return "<" . $self->deparse($kid, 1) . ">" if is_scalar($kid);
1648 return $self->unop($op, $cx, "readline");
6e90668e
SM
1649}
1650
bd0865ec
GS
1651# Unary operators that can occur as pseudo-listops inside double quotes
1652sub dq_unop {
1653 my $self = shift;
1654 my($op, $cx, $name, $prec, $flags) = (@_, 0, 0);
1655 my $kid;
1656 if ($op->flags & OPf_KIDS) {
1657 $kid = $op->first;
1658 # If there's more than one kid, the first is an ex-pushmark.
1659 $kid = $kid->sibling if not null $kid->sibling;
1660 return $self->maybe_parens_unop($name, $kid, $cx);
1661 } else {
1662 return $name . ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL ? "()" : "");
1663 }
1664}
1665
1666sub pp_ucfirst { dq_unop(@_, "ucfirst") }
1667sub pp_lcfirst { dq_unop(@_, "lcfirst") }
1668sub pp_uc { dq_unop(@_, "uc") }
1669sub pp_lc { dq_unop(@_, "lc") }
3ed82cfc 1670sub pp_quotemeta { maybe_targmy(@_, \&dq_unop, "quotemeta") }
bd0865ec 1671
6e90668e
SM
1672sub loopex {
1673 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1674 my ($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e 1675 if (class($op) eq "PVOP") {
9d2c6865
SM
1676 return "$name " . $op->pv;
1677 } elsif (class($op) eq "OP") {
1678 return $name;
6e90668e 1679 } elsif (class($op) eq "UNOP") {
9d2c6865
SM
1680 # Note -- loop exits are actually exempt from the
1681 # looks-like-a-func rule, but a few extra parens won't hurt
1682 return $self->maybe_parens_unop($name, $op->first, $cx);
6e90668e 1683 }
6e90668e
SM
1684}
1685
1686sub pp_last { loopex(@_, "last") }
1687sub pp_next { loopex(@_, "next") }
1688sub pp_redo { loopex(@_, "redo") }
1689sub pp_goto { loopex(@_, "goto") }
1690sub pp_dump { loopex(@_, "dump") }
1691
1692sub ftst {
1693 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1694 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e 1695 if (class($op) eq "UNOP") {
9d2c6865
SM
1696 # Genuine `-X' filetests are exempt from the LLAFR, but not
1697 # l?stat(); for the sake of clarity, give'em all parens
1698 return $self->maybe_parens_unop($name, $op->first, $cx);
7934575e 1699 } elsif (class($op) eq "SVOP") {
9d2c6865 1700 return $self->maybe_parens_func($name, $self->pp_gv($op, 1), $cx, 16);
6e90668e 1701 } else { # I don't think baseop filetests ever survive ck_ftst, but...
9d2c6865 1702 return $name;
6e90668e 1703 }
6e90668e
SM
1704}
1705
1706sub pp_lstat { ftst(@_, "lstat") }
1707sub pp_stat { ftst(@_, "stat") }
1708sub pp_ftrread { ftst(@_, "-R") }
1709sub pp_ftrwrite { ftst(@_, "-W") }
1710sub pp_ftrexec { ftst(@_, "-X") }
1711sub pp_fteread { ftst(@_, "-r") }
e31885a0
RH
1712sub pp_ftewrite { ftst(@_, "-w") }
1713sub pp_fteexec { ftst(@_, "-x") }
6e90668e
SM
1714sub pp_ftis { ftst(@_, "-e") }
1715sub pp_fteowned { ftst(@_, "-O") }
1716sub pp_ftrowned { ftst(@_, "-o") }
1717sub pp_ftzero { ftst(@_, "-z") }
1718sub pp_ftsize { ftst(@_, "-s") }
1719sub pp_ftmtime { ftst(@_, "-M") }
1720sub pp_ftatime { ftst(@_, "-A") }
1721sub pp_ftctime { ftst(@_, "-C") }
1722sub pp_ftsock { ftst(@_, "-S") }
1723sub pp_ftchr { ftst(@_, "-c") }
1724sub pp_ftblk { ftst(@_, "-b") }
1725sub pp_ftfile { ftst(@_, "-f") }
1726sub pp_ftdir { ftst(@_, "-d") }
1727sub pp_ftpipe { ftst(@_, "-p") }
1728sub pp_ftlink { ftst(@_, "-l") }
1729sub pp_ftsuid { ftst(@_, "-u") }
1730sub pp_ftsgid { ftst(@_, "-g") }
1731sub pp_ftsvtx { ftst(@_, "-k") }
1732sub pp_fttty { ftst(@_, "-t") }
1733sub pp_fttext { ftst(@_, "-T") }
1734sub pp_ftbinary { ftst(@_, "-B") }
1735
a798dbf2 1736sub SWAP_CHILDREN () { 1 }
6e90668e 1737sub ASSIGN () { 2 } # has OP= variant
7013e6ae 1738sub LIST_CONTEXT () { 4 } # Assignment is in list context
6e90668e 1739
9d2c6865
SM
1740my(%left, %right);
1741
1742sub assoc_class {
1743 my $op = shift;
3f872cb9
GS
1744 my $name = $op->name;
1745 if ($name eq "concat" and $op->first->name eq "concat") {
9d2c6865 1746 # avoid spurious `=' -- see comment in pp_concat
3f872cb9 1747 return "concat";
9d2c6865 1748 }
3f872cb9
GS
1749 if ($name eq "null" and class($op) eq "UNOP"
1750 and $op->first->name =~ /^(and|x?or)$/
9d2c6865
SM
1751 and null $op->first->sibling)
1752 {
1753 # Like all conditional constructs, OP_ANDs and OP_ORs are topped
1754 # with a null that's used as the common end point of the two
1755 # flows of control. For precedence purposes, ignore it.
1756 # (COND_EXPRs have these too, but we don't bother with
1757 # their associativity).
1758 return assoc_class($op->first);
1759 }
1760 return $name . ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED ? "=" : "");
1761}
1762
1763# Left associative operators, like `+', for which
1764# $a + $b + $c is equivalent to ($a + $b) + $c
1765
1766BEGIN {
3f872cb9
GS
1767 %left = ('multiply' => 19, 'i_multiply' => 19,
1768 'divide' => 19, 'i_divide' => 19,
1769 'modulo' => 19, 'i_modulo' => 19,
1770 'repeat' => 19,
1771 'add' => 18, 'i_add' => 18,
1772 'subtract' => 18, 'i_subtract' => 18,
1773 'concat' => 18,
1774 'left_shift' => 17, 'right_shift' => 17,
1775 'bit_and' => 13,
1776 'bit_or' => 12, 'bit_xor' => 12,
1777 'and' => 3,
1778 'or' => 2, 'xor' => 2,
9d2c6865
SM
1779 );
1780}
1781
1782sub deparse_binop_left {
1783 my $self = shift;
1784 my($op, $left, $prec) = @_;
58231d39 1785 if ($left{assoc_class($op)} && $left{assoc_class($left)}
9d2c6865
SM
1786 and $left{assoc_class($op)} == $left{assoc_class($left)})
1787 {
1788 return $self->deparse($left, $prec - .00001);
1789 } else {
1790 return $self->deparse($left, $prec);
1791 }
1792}
1793
1794# Right associative operators, like `=', for which
1795# $a = $b = $c is equivalent to $a = ($b = $c)
1796
1797BEGIN {
3f872cb9
GS
1798 %right = ('pow' => 22,
1799 'sassign=' => 7, 'aassign=' => 7,
1800 'multiply=' => 7, 'i_multiply=' => 7,
1801 'divide=' => 7, 'i_divide=' => 7,
1802 'modulo=' => 7, 'i_modulo=' => 7,
1803 'repeat=' => 7,
1804 'add=' => 7, 'i_add=' => 7,
1805 'subtract=' => 7, 'i_subtract=' => 7,
1806 'concat=' => 7,
1807 'left_shift=' => 7, 'right_shift=' => 7,
1808 'bit_and=' => 7,
1809 'bit_or=' => 7, 'bit_xor=' => 7,
1810 'andassign' => 7,
1811 'orassign' => 7,
9d2c6865
SM
1812 );
1813}
1814
1815sub deparse_binop_right {
1816 my $self = shift;
1817 my($op, $right, $prec) = @_;
58231d39 1818 if ($right{assoc_class($op)} && $right{assoc_class($right)}
9d2c6865
SM
1819 and $right{assoc_class($op)} == $right{assoc_class($right)})
1820 {
1821 return $self->deparse($right, $prec - .00001);
1822 } else {
1823 return $self->deparse($right, $prec);
1824 }
1825}
1826
a798dbf2 1827sub binop {
6e90668e 1828 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1829 my ($op, $cx, $opname, $prec, $flags) = (@_, 0);
a798dbf2
MB
1830 my $left = $op->first;
1831 my $right = $op->last;
9d2c6865
SM
1832 my $eq = "";
1833 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED && $flags & ASSIGN) {
1834 $eq = "=";
1835 $prec = 7;
1836 }
a798dbf2
MB
1837 if ($flags & SWAP_CHILDREN) {
1838 ($left, $right) = ($right, $left);
1839 }
9d2c6865 1840 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $prec);
90c0eb26
RH
1841 $left = "($left)" if $flags & LIST_CONTEXT
1842 && $left !~ /^(my|our|local|)[\@\(]/;
9d2c6865
SM
1843 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $prec);
1844 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $opname$eq $right", $cx, $prec);
1845}
1846
3ed82cfc
GS
1847sub pp_add { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "+", 18, ASSIGN) }
1848sub pp_multiply { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "*", 19, ASSIGN) }
1849sub pp_subtract { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "-",18, ASSIGN) }
1850sub pp_divide { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "/", 19, ASSIGN) }
1851sub pp_modulo { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "%", 19, ASSIGN) }
1852sub pp_i_add { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "+", 18, ASSIGN) }
1853sub pp_i_multiply { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "*", 19, ASSIGN) }
1854sub pp_i_subtract { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "-", 18, ASSIGN) }
1855sub pp_i_divide { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "/", 19, ASSIGN) }
1856sub pp_i_modulo { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "%", 19, ASSIGN) }
1857sub pp_pow { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "**", 22, ASSIGN) }
1858
1859sub pp_left_shift { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "<<", 17, ASSIGN) }
1860sub pp_right_shift { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, ">>", 17, ASSIGN) }
1861sub pp_bit_and { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "&", 13, ASSIGN) }
1862sub pp_bit_or { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "|", 12, ASSIGN) }
1863sub pp_bit_xor { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "^", 12, ASSIGN) }
9d2c6865
SM
1864
1865sub pp_eq { binop(@_, "==", 14) }
1866sub pp_ne { binop(@_, "!=", 14) }
1867sub pp_lt { binop(@_, "<", 15) }
1868sub pp_gt { binop(@_, ">", 15) }
1869sub pp_ge { binop(@_, ">=", 15) }
1870sub pp_le { binop(@_, "<=", 15) }
1871sub pp_ncmp { binop(@_, "<=>", 14) }
1872sub pp_i_eq { binop(@_, "==", 14) }
1873sub pp_i_ne { binop(@_, "!=", 14) }
1874sub pp_i_lt { binop(@_, "<", 15) }
1875sub pp_i_gt { binop(@_, ">", 15) }
1876sub pp_i_ge { binop(@_, ">=", 15) }
1877sub pp_i_le { binop(@_, "<=", 15) }
1878sub pp_i_ncmp { binop(@_, "<=>", 14) }
1879
1880sub pp_seq { binop(@_, "eq", 14) }
1881sub pp_sne { binop(@_, "ne", 14) }
1882sub pp_slt { binop(@_, "lt", 15) }
1883sub pp_sgt { binop(@_, "gt", 15) }
1884sub pp_sge { binop(@_, "ge", 15) }
1885sub pp_sle { binop(@_, "le", 15) }
1886sub pp_scmp { binop(@_, "cmp", 14) }
1887
1888sub pp_sassign { binop(@_, "=", 7, SWAP_CHILDREN) }
7013e6ae 1889sub pp_aassign { binop(@_, "=", 7, SWAP_CHILDREN | LIST_CONTEXT) }
6e90668e
SM
1890
1891# `.' is special because concats-of-concats are optimized to save copying
1892# by making all but the first concat stacked. The effect is as if the
1893# programmer had written `($a . $b) .= $c', except legal.
3ed82cfc
GS
1894sub pp_concat { maybe_targmy(@_, \&real_concat) }
1895sub real_concat {
6e90668e 1896 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1897 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1898 my $left = $op->first;
1899 my $right = $op->last;
1900 my $eq = "";
9d2c6865 1901 my $prec = 18;
3f872cb9 1902 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED and $op->first->name ne "concat") {
6e90668e 1903 $eq = "=";
9d2c6865 1904 $prec = 7;
6e90668e 1905 }
9d2c6865
SM
1906 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $prec);
1907 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $prec);
1908 return $self->maybe_parens("$left .$eq $right", $cx, $prec);
6e90668e
SM
1909}
1910
1911# `x' is weird when the left arg is a list
1912sub pp_repeat {
1913 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1914 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1915 my $left = $op->first;
1916 my $right = $op->last;
9d2c6865
SM
1917 my $eq = "";
1918 my $prec = 19;
1919 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
1920 $eq = "=";
1921 $prec = 7;
1922 }
6e90668e
SM
1923 if (null($right)) { # list repeat; count is inside left-side ex-list
1924 my $kid = $left->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
1925 my @exprs;
1926 for (; !null($kid->sibling); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 1927 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
1928 }
1929 $right = $kid;
1930 $left = "(" . join(", ", @exprs). ")";
1931 } else {
9d2c6865 1932 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $prec);
6e90668e 1933 }
9d2c6865
SM
1934 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $prec);
1935 return $self->maybe_parens("$left x$eq $right", $cx, $prec);
6e90668e
SM
1936}
1937
1938sub range {
1939 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1940 my ($op, $cx, $type) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1941 my $left = $op->first;
1942 my $right = $left->sibling;
9d2c6865
SM
1943 $left = $self->deparse($left, 9);
1944 $right = $self->deparse($right, 9);
1945 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $type $right", $cx, 9);
6e90668e
SM
1946}
1947
1948sub pp_flop {
1949 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1950 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1951 my $flip = $op->first;
1952 my $type = ($flip->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) ? "..." : "..";
9d2c6865 1953 return $self->range($flip->first, $cx, $type);
6e90668e
SM
1954}
1955
1956# one-line while/until is handled in pp_leave
1957
1958sub logop {
1959 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1960 my ($op, $cx, $lowop, $lowprec, $highop, $highprec, $blockname) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1961 my $left = $op->first;
1962 my $right = $op->first->sibling;
58cccf98
SM
1963 if ($cx == 0 and is_scope($right) and $blockname
1964 and $self->{'expand'} < 7)
1965 { # if ($a) {$b}
9d2c6865
SM
1966 $left = $self->deparse($left, 1);
1967 $right = $self->deparse($right, 0);
1968 return "$blockname ($left) {\n\t$right\n\b}\cK";
58cccf98
SM
1969 } elsif ($cx == 0 and $blockname and not $self->{'parens'}
1970 and $self->{'expand'} < 7) { # $b if $a
9d2c6865
SM
1971 $right = $self->deparse($right, 1);
1972 $left = $self->deparse($left, 1);
1973 return "$right $blockname $left";
1974 } elsif ($cx > $lowprec and $highop) { # $a && $b
1975 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $highprec);
1976 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $highprec);
1977 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $highop $right", $cx, $highprec);
1978 } else { # $a and $b
1979 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $lowprec);
1980 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $lowprec);
1981 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $lowop $right", $cx, $lowprec);
1982 }
1983}
1984
1985sub pp_and { logop(@_, "and", 3, "&&", 11, "if") }
f4a44678 1986sub pp_or { logop(@_, "or", 2, "||", 10, "unless") }
3ed82cfc
GS
1987
1988# xor is syntactically a logop, but it's really a binop (contrary to
1989# old versions of opcode.pl). Syntax is what matters here.
9d2c6865 1990sub pp_xor { logop(@_, "xor", 2, "", 0, "") }
6e90668e
SM
1991
1992sub logassignop {
1993 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1994 my ($op, $cx, $opname) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1995 my $left = $op->first;
1996 my $right = $op->first->sibling->first; # skip sassign
9d2c6865
SM
1997 $left = $self->deparse($left, 7);
1998 $right = $self->deparse($right, 7);
1999 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $opname $right", $cx, 7);
a798dbf2
MB
2000}
2001
6e90668e
SM
2002sub pp_andassign { logassignop(@_, "&&=") }
2003sub pp_orassign { logassignop(@_, "||=") }
2004
2005sub listop {
2006 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865
SM
2007 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
2008 my(@exprs);
2009 my $parens = ($cx >= 5) || $self->{'parens'};
2010 my $kid = $op->first->sibling;
2011 return $name if null $kid;
e31885a0
RH
2012 my $first;
2013 if (defined prototype("CORE::$name")
2014 && prototype("CORE::$name") =~ /^;?\*/
2015 && $kid->name eq "rv2gv") {
2016 $first = $self->deparse($kid->first, 6);
2017 }
2018 else {
2019 $first = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
2020 }
e99ebc55 2021 if ($name eq "chmod" && $first =~ /^\d+$/) {
a0035eb8 2022 $first = sprintf("%#o", $first);
e99ebc55 2023 }
9d2c6865
SM
2024 $first = "+$first" if not $parens and substr($first, 0, 1) eq "(";
2025 push @exprs, $first;
2026 $kid = $kid->sibling;
2027 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
2028 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
2029 }
2030 if ($parens) {
2031 return "$name(" . join(", ", @exprs) . ")";
2032 } else {
2033 return "$name " . join(", ", @exprs);
6e90668e 2034 }
6e90668e 2035}
a798dbf2 2036
6e90668e 2037sub pp_bless { listop(@_, "bless") }
3ed82cfc 2038sub pp_atan2 { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "atan2") }
6e90668e
SM
2039sub pp_substr { maybe_local(@_, listop(@_, "substr")) }
2040sub pp_vec { maybe_local(@_, listop(@_, "vec")) }
3ed82cfc
GS
2041sub pp_index { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "index") }
2042sub pp_rindex { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "rindex") }
2043sub pp_sprintf { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "sprintf") }
6e90668e 2044sub pp_formline { listop(@_, "formline") } # see also deparse_format
3ed82cfc 2045sub pp_crypt { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "crypt") }
6e90668e
SM
2046sub pp_unpack { listop(@_, "unpack") }
2047sub pp_pack { listop(@_, "pack") }
3ed82cfc 2048sub pp_join { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "join") }
6e90668e 2049sub pp_splice { listop(@_, "splice") }
3ed82cfc
GS
2050sub pp_push { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "push") }
2051sub pp_unshift { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "unshift") }
6e90668e
SM
2052sub pp_reverse { listop(@_, "reverse") }
2053sub pp_warn { listop(@_, "warn") }
2054sub pp_die { listop(@_, "die") }
9d2c6865
SM
2055# Actually, return is exempt from the LLAFR (see examples in this very
2056# module!), but for consistency's sake, ignore that fact
6e90668e
SM
2057sub pp_return { listop(@_, "return") }
2058sub pp_open { listop(@_, "open") }
2059sub pp_pipe_op { listop(@_, "pipe") }
2060sub pp_tie { listop(@_, "tie") }
82bafd27 2061sub pp_binmode { listop(@_, "binmode") }
6e90668e
SM
2062sub pp_dbmopen { listop(@_, "dbmopen") }
2063sub pp_sselect { listop(@_, "select") }
2064sub pp_select { listop(@_, "select") }
2065sub pp_read { listop(@_, "read") }
2066sub pp_sysopen { listop(@_, "sysopen") }
2067sub pp_sysseek { listop(@_, "sysseek") }
2068sub pp_sysread { listop(@_, "sysread") }
2069sub pp_syswrite { listop(@_, "syswrite") }
2070sub pp_send { listop(@_, "send") }
2071sub pp_recv { listop(@_, "recv") }
2072sub pp_seek { listop(@_, "seek") }
6e90668e
SM
2073sub pp_fcntl { listop(@_, "fcntl") }
2074sub pp_ioctl { listop(@_, "ioctl") }
3ed82cfc 2075sub pp_flock { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "flock") }
6e90668e
SM
2076sub pp_socket { listop(@_, "socket") }
2077sub pp_sockpair { listop(@_, "sockpair") }
2078sub pp_bind { listop(@_, "bind") }
2079sub pp_connect { listop(@_, "connect") }
2080sub pp_listen { listop(@_, "listen") }
2081sub pp_accept { listop(@_, "accept") }
2082sub pp_shutdown { listop(@_, "shutdown") }
2083sub pp_gsockopt { listop(@_, "getsockopt") }
2084sub pp_ssockopt { listop(@_, "setsockopt") }
3ed82cfc
GS
2085sub pp_chown { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "chown") }
2086sub pp_unlink { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "unlink") }
2087sub pp_chmod { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "chmod") }
2088sub pp_utime { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "utime") }
2089sub pp_rename { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "rename") }
2090sub pp_link { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "link") }
2091sub pp_symlink { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "symlink") }
2092sub pp_mkdir { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "mkdir") }
6e90668e
SM
2093sub pp_open_dir { listop(@_, "opendir") }
2094sub pp_seekdir { listop(@_, "seekdir") }
3ed82cfc
GS
2095sub pp_waitpid { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "waitpid") }
2096sub pp_system { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "system") }
2097sub pp_exec { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "exec") }
2098sub pp_kill { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "kill") }
2099sub pp_setpgrp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "setpgrp") }
2100sub pp_getpriority { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "getpriority") }
2101sub pp_setpriority { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "setpriority") }
6e90668e
SM
2102sub pp_shmget { listop(@_, "shmget") }
2103sub pp_shmctl { listop(@_, "shmctl") }
2104sub pp_shmread { listop(@_, "shmread") }
2105sub pp_shmwrite { listop(@_, "shmwrite") }
2106sub pp_msgget { listop(@_, "msgget") }
2107sub pp_msgctl { listop(@_, "msgctl") }
2108sub pp_msgsnd { listop(@_, "msgsnd") }
2109sub pp_msgrcv { listop(@_, "msgrcv") }
2110sub pp_semget { listop(@_, "semget") }
2111sub pp_semctl { listop(@_, "semctl") }
2112sub pp_semop { listop(@_, "semop") }
2113sub pp_ghbyaddr { listop(@_, "gethostbyaddr") }
2114sub pp_gnbyaddr { listop(@_, "getnetbyaddr") }
2115sub pp_gpbynumber { listop(@_, "getprotobynumber") }
2116sub pp_gsbyname { listop(@_, "getservbyname") }
2117sub pp_gsbyport { listop(@_, "getservbyport") }
2118sub pp_syscall { listop(@_, "syscall") }
2119
2120sub pp_glob {
2121 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2122 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2123 my $text = $self->dq($op->first->sibling); # skip pushmark
2124 if ($text =~ /^\$?(\w|::|\`)+$/ # could look like a readline
2125 or $text =~ /[<>]/) {
2126 return 'glob(' . single_delim('qq', '"', $text) . ')';
2127 } else {
2128 return '<' . $text . '>';
2129 }
2130}
2131
f5aa8f4e
SM
2132# Truncate is special because OPf_SPECIAL makes a bareword first arg
2133# be a filehandle. This could probably be better fixed in the core
2134# by moving the GV lookup into ck_truc.
2135
2136sub pp_truncate {
2137 my $self = shift;
2138 my($op, $cx) = @_;
2139 my(@exprs);
2140 my $parens = ($cx >= 5) || $self->{'parens'};
2141 my $kid = $op->first->sibling;
acba1d67 2142 my $fh;
f5aa8f4e
SM
2143 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
2144 # $kid is an OP_CONST
18228111 2145 $fh = $self->const_sv($kid)->PV;
f5aa8f4e
SM
2146 } else {
2147 $fh = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
2148 $fh = "+$fh" if not $parens and substr($fh, 0, 1) eq "(";
2149 }
2150 my $len = $self->deparse($kid->sibling, 6);
2151 if ($parens) {
2152 return "truncate($fh, $len)";
2153 } else {
2154 return "truncate $fh, $len";
2155 }
f5aa8f4e
SM
2156}
2157
6e90668e
SM
2158sub indirop {
2159 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2160 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2161 my($expr, @exprs);
2162 my $kid = $op->first->sibling;
2163 my $indir = "";
2164 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
2165 $indir = $kid;
2166 $indir = $indir->first; # skip rv2gv
2167 if (is_scope($indir)) {
9d2c6865 2168 $indir = "{" . $self->deparse($indir, 0) . "}";
c73811ab
RH
2169 } elsif ($indir->name eq "const" && $indir->private & OPpCONST_BARE) {
2170 $indir = $self->const_sv($indir)->PV;
6e90668e 2171 } else {
9d2c6865 2172 $indir = $self->deparse($indir, 24);
6e90668e
SM
2173 }
2174 $indir = $indir . " ";
2175 $kid = $kid->sibling;
2176 }
7e80da18
RH
2177 if ($name eq "sort" && $op->private & (OPpSORT_NUMERIC | OPpSORT_INTEGER)) {
2178 $indir = ($op->private & OPpSORT_REVERSE) ? '{$b <=> $a} '
2179 : '{$a <=> $b} ';
2180 }
2181 elsif ($name eq "sort" && $op->private & OPpSORT_REVERSE) {
2182 $indir = '{$b cmp $a} ';
2183 }
6e90668e 2184 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 2185 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
2186 push @exprs, $expr;
2187 }
3ed82cfc 2188 return $self->maybe_parens_func($name, $indir . join(", ", @exprs),
9d2c6865 2189 $cx, 5);
6e90668e
SM
2190}
2191
2192sub pp_prtf { indirop(@_, "printf") }
2193sub pp_print { indirop(@_, "print") }
2194sub pp_sort { indirop(@_, "sort") }
2195
2196sub mapop {
2197 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2198 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2199 my($expr, @exprs);
2200 my $kid = $op->first; # this is the (map|grep)start
2201 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip a pushmark
2202 my $code = $kid->first; # skip a null
2203 if (is_scope $code) {
f4a44678 2204 $code = "{" . $self->deparse($code, 0) . "} ";
6e90668e 2205 } else {
9d2c6865 2206 $code = $self->deparse($code, 24) . ", ";
6e90668e
SM
2207 }
2208 $kid = $kid->sibling;
2209 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 2210 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
2211 push @exprs, $expr if $expr;
2212 }
9d2c6865 2213 return $self->maybe_parens_func($name, $code . join(", ", @exprs), $cx, 5);
6e90668e
SM
2214}
2215
2216sub pp_mapwhile { mapop(@_, "map") }
2217sub pp_grepwhile { mapop(@_, "grep") }
2218
2219sub pp_list {
2220 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2221 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2222 my($expr, @exprs);
2223 my $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
2224 my $lop;
ce4e655d 2225 my $local = "either"; # could be local(...), my(...) or our(...)
6e90668e
SM
2226 for ($lop = $kid; !null($lop); $lop = $lop->sibling) {
2227 # This assumes that no other private flags equal 128, and that
2228 # OPs that store things other than flags in their op_private,
2229 # like OP_AELEMFAST, won't be immediate children of a list.
b8e103fc
RH
2230 #
2231 # OP_ENTERSUB can break this logic, so check for it.
2232 # I suspect that open and exit can too.
2233
2234 if (!($lop->private & (OPpLVAL_INTRO|OPpOUR_INTRO)
ce4e655d 2235 or $lop->name eq "undef")
b8e103fc
RH
2236 or $lop->name eq "entersub"
2237 or $lop->name eq "exit"
2238 or $lop->name eq "open")
6e90668e
SM
2239 {
2240 $local = ""; # or not
2241 last;
2242 }
3f872cb9 2243 if ($lop->name =~ /^pad[ash]v$/) { # my()
ce4e655d 2244 ($local = "", last) if $local eq "local" || $local eq "our";
6e90668e 2245 $local = "my";
b8e103fc
RH
2246 } elsif ($lop->name =~ /^(gv|rv2)[ash]v$/
2247 && $lop->private & OPpOUR_INTRO
2248 or $lop->name eq "null" && $lop->first->name eq "gvsv"
2249 && $lop->first->private & OPpOUR_INTRO) { # our()
ce4e655d
RH
2250 ($local = "", last) if $local eq "my" || $local eq "local";
2251 $local = "our";
3f872cb9 2252 } elsif ($lop->name ne "undef") { # local()
ce4e655d 2253 ($local = "", last) if $local eq "my" || $local eq "our";
6e90668e
SM
2254 $local = "local";
2255 }
2256 }
2257 $local = "" if $local eq "either"; # no point if it's all undefs
f5aa8f4e 2258 return $self->deparse($kid, $cx) if null $kid->sibling and not $local;
6e90668e
SM
2259 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
2260 if ($local) {
3f872cb9 2261 if (class($kid) eq "UNOP" and $kid->first->name eq "gvsv") {
6e90668e
SM
2262 $lop = $kid->first;
2263 } else {
2264 $lop = $kid;
2265 }
2266 $self->{'avoid_local'}{$$lop}++;
9d2c6865 2267 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
2268 delete $self->{'avoid_local'}{$$lop};
2269 } else {
9d2c6865 2270 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
2271 }
2272 push @exprs, $expr;
2273 }
9d2c6865
SM
2274 if ($local) {
2275 return "$local(" . join(", ", @exprs) . ")";
2276 } else {
2277 return $self->maybe_parens( join(", ", @exprs), $cx, 6);
2278 }
6e90668e
SM
2279}
2280
6f611a1a
GS
2281sub is_ifelse_cont {
2282 my $op = shift;
2283 return ($op->name eq "null" and class($op) eq "UNOP"
2284 and $op->first->name =~ /^(and|cond_expr)$/
2285 and is_scope($op->first->first->sibling));
2286}
2287
6e90668e
SM
2288sub pp_cond_expr {
2289 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2290 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2291 my $cond = $op->first;
2292 my $true = $cond->sibling;
2293 my $false = $true->sibling;
9d2c6865 2294 my $cuddle = $self->{'cuddle'};
6f611a1a 2295 unless ($cx == 0 and (is_scope($true) and $true->name ne "null") and
58cccf98
SM
2296 (is_scope($false) || is_ifelse_cont($false))
2297 and $self->{'expand'} < 7) {
f5aa8f4e 2298 $cond = $self->deparse($cond, 8);
9d2c6865
SM
2299 $true = $self->deparse($true, 8);
2300 $false = $self->deparse($false, 8);
2301 return $self->maybe_parens("$cond ? $true : $false", $cx, 8);
6f611a1a
GS
2302 }
2303
f5aa8f4e 2304 $cond = $self->deparse($cond, 1);
9d2c6865 2305 $true = $self->deparse($true, 0);
6f611a1a
GS
2306 my $head = "if ($cond) {\n\t$true\n\b}";
2307 my @elsifs;
2308 while (!null($false) and is_ifelse_cont($false)) {
2309 my $newop = $false->first;
2310 my $newcond = $newop->first;
2311 my $newtrue = $newcond->sibling;
2312 $false = $newtrue->sibling; # last in chain is OP_AND => no else
2313 $newcond = $self->deparse($newcond, 1);
2314 $newtrue = $self->deparse($newtrue, 0);
2315 push @elsifs, "elsif ($newcond) {\n\t$newtrue\n\b}";
2316 }
2317 if (!null($false)) {
2318 $false = $cuddle . "else {\n\t" .
2319 $self->deparse($false, 0) . "\n\b}\cK";
2320 } else {
2321 $false = "\cK";
6e90668e 2322 }
6f611a1a 2323 return $head . join($cuddle, "", @elsifs) . $false;
6e90668e
SM
2324}
2325
58cccf98 2326sub loop_common {
6e90668e 2327 my $self = shift;
58cccf98 2328 my($op, $cx, $init) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2329 my $enter = $op->first;
2330 my $kid = $enter->sibling;
a0405c92
RH
2331 local(@$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'})
2332 = @$self{qw'curstash warnings hints'};
6e90668e 2333 my $head = "";
9d2c6865 2334 my $bare = 0;
58cccf98
SM
2335 my $body;
2336 my $cond = undef;
3f872cb9 2337 if ($kid->name eq "lineseq") { # bare or infinite loop
6e90668e 2338 if (is_state $kid->last) { # infinite
e99ebc55 2339 $head = "while (1) "; # Can't use for(;;) if there's a continue
58cccf98 2340 $cond = "";
9d2c6865
SM
2341 } else {
2342 $bare = 1;
6e90668e 2343 }
58cccf98 2344 $body = $kid;
3f872cb9 2345 } elsif ($enter->name eq "enteriter") { # foreach
6e90668e
SM
2346 my $ary = $enter->first->sibling; # first was pushmark
2347 my $var = $ary->sibling;
f5aa8f4e
SM
2348 if ($enter->flags & OPf_STACKED
2349 and not null $ary->first->sibling->sibling)
2350 {
d7f5b6da
SM
2351 $ary = $self->deparse($ary->first->sibling, 9) . " .. " .
2352 $self->deparse($ary->first->sibling->sibling, 9);
d8d95777
GA
2353 } else {
2354 $ary = $self->deparse($ary, 1);
2355 }
6e90668e 2356 if (null $var) {
f6f9bdb7 2357 if ($enter->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) { # thread special var
9d2c6865 2358 $var = $self->pp_threadsv($enter, 1);
f6f9bdb7 2359 } else { # regular my() variable
9d2c6865 2360 $var = $self->pp_padsv($enter, 1);
f6f9bdb7
SM
2361 if ($self->padname_sv($enter->targ)->IVX ==
2362 $kid->first->first->sibling->last->cop_seq)
2363 {
2364 # If the scope of this variable closes at the last
2365 # statement of the loop, it must have been
2366 # declared here.
2367 $var = "my " . $var;
2368 }
6e90668e 2369 }
3f872cb9 2370 } elsif ($var->name eq "rv2gv") {
9d2c6865 2371 $var = $self->pp_rv2sv($var, 1);
3f872cb9 2372 } elsif ($var->name eq "gv") {
9d2c6865 2373 $var = "\$" . $self->deparse($var, 1);
6e90668e 2374 }
9d2c6865 2375 $head = "foreach $var ($ary) ";
58cccf98 2376 $body = $kid->first->first->sibling; # skip OP_AND and OP_ITER
3f872cb9 2377 } elsif ($kid->name eq "null") { # while/until
6e90668e 2378 $kid = $kid->first;
58cccf98
SM
2379 my $name = {"and" => "while", "or" => "until"}->{$kid->name};
2380 $cond = $self->deparse($kid->first, 1);
2381 $head = "$name ($cond) ";
2382 $body = $kid->first->sibling;
3f872cb9 2383 } elsif ($kid->name eq "stub") { # bare and empty
9d2c6865 2384 return "{;}"; # {} could be a hashref
6e90668e 2385 }
58cccf98
SM
2386 # If there isn't a continue block, then the next pointer for the loop
2387 # will point to the unstack, which is kid's penultimate child, except
2388 # in a bare loop, when it will point to the leaveloop. When neither of
2389 # these conditions hold, then the third-to-last child in the continue
2390 # block (or the last in a bare loop).
2391 my $cont_start = $enter->nextop;
2392 my $cont;
c73811ab 2393 if ($$cont_start != $$op && ${$cont_start->sibling} != ${$body->last}) {
58cccf98
SM
2394 if ($bare) {
2395 $cont = $body->last;
2396 } else {
2397 $cont = $body->first;
2398 while (!null($cont->sibling->sibling->sibling)) {
2399 $cont = $cont->sibling;
2400 }
2401 }
2402 my $state = $body->first;
2403 my $cuddle = $self->{'cuddle'};
2404 my @states;
2405 for (; $$state != $$cont; $state = $state->sibling) {
2406 push @states, $state;
2407 }
ce4e655d 2408 $body = $self->lineseq(undef, @states);
58cccf98
SM
2409 if (defined $cond and not is_scope $cont and $self->{'expand'} < 3) {
2410 $head = "for ($init; $cond; " . $self->deparse($cont, 1) .") ";
2411 $cont = "\cK";
2412 } else {
2413 $cont = $cuddle . "continue {\n\t" .
2414 $self->deparse($cont, 0) . "\n\b}\cK";
6e90668e 2415 }
6e90668e 2416 } else {
7a9b44b9 2417 return "" if !defined $body;
c73811ab
RH
2418 if (length $init) {
2419 $head = "for ($init; $cond;) ";
2420 }
9d2c6865 2421 $cont = "\cK";
58cccf98 2422 $body = $self->deparse($body, 0);
6e90668e 2423 }
ce4e655d 2424 $body =~ s/;?$/;\n/;
34a48b4b
RH
2425
2426 return $head . "{\n\t" . $body . "\b}" . $cont;
58cccf98
SM
2427}
2428
2429sub pp_leaveloop { loop_common(@_, "") }
2430
2431sub for_loop {
2432 my $self = shift;
2433 my($op, $cx) = @_;
2434 my $init = $self->deparse($op, 1);
c73811ab 2435 return $self->loop_common($op->sibling->first->sibling, $cx, $init);
6e90668e
SM
2436}
2437
2438sub pp_leavetry {
2439 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2440 return "eval {\n\t" . $self->pp_leave(@_) . "\n\b}";
bd0865ec 2441}
6e90668e 2442
bd0865ec
GS
2443BEGIN { eval "sub OP_CONST () {" . opnumber("const") . "}" }
2444BEGIN { eval "sub OP_STRINGIFY () {" . opnumber("stringify") . "}" }
a9760014 2445BEGIN { eval "sub OP_RV2SV () {" . opnumber("rv2sv") . "}" }
90c0eb26 2446BEGIN { eval "sub OP_LIST () {" . opnumber("list") . "}" }
f5aa8f4e 2447
a798dbf2 2448sub pp_null {
6e90668e 2449 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2450 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 2451 if (class($op) eq "OP") {
f4a44678
SM
2452 # old value is lost
2453 return $self->{'ex_const'} if $op->targ == OP_CONST;
3f872cb9 2454 } elsif ($op->first->name eq "pushmark") {
9d2c6865 2455 return $self->pp_list($op, $cx);
3f872cb9 2456 } elsif ($op->first->name eq "enter") {
9d2c6865 2457 return $self->pp_leave($op, $cx);
bd0865ec 2458 } elsif ($op->targ == OP_STRINGIFY) {
6f611a1a 2459 return $self->dquote($op, $cx);
6e90668e 2460 } elsif (!null($op->first->sibling) and
3f872cb9 2461 $op->first->sibling->name eq "readline" and
6e90668e 2462 $op->first->sibling->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
9d2c6865
SM
2463 return $self->maybe_parens($self->deparse($op->first, 7) . " = "
2464 . $self->deparse($op->first->sibling, 7),
2465 $cx, 7);
6e90668e 2466 } elsif (!null($op->first->sibling) and
3f872cb9 2467 $op->first->sibling->name eq "trans" and
6e90668e 2468 $op->first->sibling->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
9d2c6865
SM
2469 return $self->maybe_parens($self->deparse($op->first, 20) . " =~ "
2470 . $self->deparse($op->first->sibling, 20),
2471 $cx, 20);
c102638c
RH
2472 } elsif ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL && $cx == 0 && !$op->targ) {
2473 return "do {\n\t". $self->deparse($op->first, $cx) ."\n\b};";
6e90668e 2474 } else {
9d2c6865 2475 return $self->deparse($op->first, $cx);
6e90668e 2476 }
a798dbf2
MB
2477}
2478
6e90668e
SM
2479sub padname {
2480 my $self = shift;
2481 my $targ = shift;
68223ea3 2482 return $self->padname_sv($targ)->PVX;
6e90668e
SM
2483}
2484
2485sub padany {
2486 my $self = shift;
2487 my $op = shift;
2488 return substr($self->padname($op->targ), 1); # skip $/@/%
2489}
2490
2491sub pp_padsv {
2492 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865
SM
2493 my($op, $cx) = @_;
2494 return $self->maybe_my($op, $cx, $self->padname($op->targ));
6e90668e
SM
2495}
2496
2497sub pp_padav { pp_padsv(@_) }
2498sub pp_padhv { pp_padsv(@_) }
2499
9d2c6865
SM
2500my @threadsv_names;
2501
2502BEGIN {
2503 @threadsv_names = ("_", "1", "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", "7", "8", "9",
2504 "&", "`", "'", "+", "/", ".", ",", "\\", '"', ";",
2505 "^", "-", "%", "=", "|", "~", ":", "^A", "^E",
2506 "!", "@");
2507}
f6f9bdb7
SM
2508
2509sub pp_threadsv {
2510 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865
SM
2511 my($op, $cx) = @_;
2512 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx, "\$" . $threadsv_names[$op->targ]);
f6f9bdb7
SM
2513}
2514
6f611a1a 2515sub gv_or_padgv {
18228111
GS
2516 my $self = shift;
2517 my $op = shift;
6f611a1a
GS
2518 if (class($op) eq "PADOP") {
2519 return $self->padval($op->padix);
2520 } else { # class($op) eq "SVOP"
2521 return $op->gv;
18228111 2522 }
18228111
GS
2523}
2524
6e90668e
SM
2525sub pp_gvsv {
2526 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2527 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6f611a1a 2528 my $gv = $self->gv_or_padgv($op);
8510e997
RH
2529 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx, $self->stash_variable("\$",
2530 $self->gv_name($gv)));
6e90668e
SM
2531}
2532
2533sub pp_gv {
2534 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2535 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6f611a1a 2536 my $gv = $self->gv_or_padgv($op);
18228111 2537 return $self->gv_name($gv);
6e90668e
SM
2538}
2539
2540sub pp_aelemfast {
2541 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2542 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6f611a1a 2543 my $gv = $self->gv_or_padgv($op);
ce4e655d
RH
2544 my $name = $self->gv_name($gv);
2545 $name = $self->{'curstash'}."::$name"
2546 if $name !~ /::/ && $self->lex_in_scope('@'.$name);
2547
2548 return "\$" . $name . "[" .
7a9b44b9 2549 ($op->private + $self->{'arybase'}) . "]";
6e90668e
SM
2550}
2551
2552sub rv2x {
2553 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2554 my($op, $cx, $type) = @_;
90c0eb26
RH
2555
2556 if (class($op) eq 'NULL' || !$op->can("first")) {
2557 Carp::cluck("Unexpected op in pp_rv2x");
2558 return 'XXX';
2559 }
6e90668e 2560 my $kid = $op->first;
f5aa8f4e 2561 my $str = $self->deparse($kid, 0);
8510e997
RH
2562 return $self->stash_variable($type, $str) if is_scalar($kid);
2563 return $type ."{$str}";
6e90668e
SM
2564}
2565
2566sub pp_rv2sv { maybe_local(@_, rv2x(@_, "\$")) }
2567sub pp_rv2hv { maybe_local(@_, rv2x(@_, "%")) }
2568sub pp_rv2gv { maybe_local(@_, rv2x(@_, "*")) }
2569
2570# skip rv2av
2571sub pp_av2arylen {
2572 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2573 my($op, $cx) = @_;
3f872cb9 2574 if ($op->first->name eq "padav") {
9d2c6865 2575 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx, '$#' . $self->padany($op->first));
6e90668e 2576 } else {
f5aa8f4e
SM
2577 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx,
2578 $self->rv2x($op->first, $cx, '$#'));
6e90668e
SM
2579 }
2580}
2581
2582# skip down to the old, ex-rv2cv
90c0eb26
RH
2583sub pp_rv2cv {
2584 my ($self, $op, $cx) = @_;
2585 if (!null($op->first) && $op->first->name eq 'null' &&
2586 $op->first->targ eq OP_LIST)
2587 {
2588 return $self->rv2x($op->first->first->sibling, $cx, "&")
2589 }
2590 else {
2591 return $self->rv2x($op, $cx, "")
2592 }
2593}
6e90668e
SM
2594
2595sub pp_rv2av {
2596 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2597 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 2598 my $kid = $op->first;
3f872cb9 2599 if ($kid->name eq "const") { # constant list
18228111 2600 my $av = $self->const_sv($kid);
6e90668e
SM
2601 return "(" . join(", ", map(const($_), $av->ARRAY)) . ")";
2602 } else {
9d2c6865 2603 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx, $self->rv2x($op, $cx, "\@"));
6e90668e
SM
2604 }
2605 }
2606
3ed82cfc
GS
2607sub is_subscriptable {
2608 my $op = shift;
2609 if ($op->name =~ /^[ahg]elem/) {
2610 return 1;
2611 } elsif ($op->name eq "entersub") {
2612 my $kid = $op->first;
2613 return 0 unless null $kid->sibling;
2614 $kid = $kid->first;
2615 $kid = $kid->sibling until null $kid->sibling;
2616 return 0 if is_scope($kid);
2617 $kid = $kid->first;
2618 return 0 if $kid->name eq "gv";
2619 return 0 if is_scalar($kid);
2620 return is_subscriptable($kid);
2621 } else {
2622 return 0;
2623 }
2624}
6e90668e
SM
2625
2626sub elem {
2627 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2628 my ($op, $cx, $left, $right, $padname) = @_;
6e90668e 2629 my($array, $idx) = ($op->first, $op->first->sibling);
3f872cb9 2630 unless ($array->name eq $padname) { # Maybe this has been fixed
6e90668e
SM
2631 $array = $array->first; # skip rv2av (or ex-rv2av in _53+)
2632 }
3f872cb9 2633 if ($array->name eq $padname) {
6e90668e
SM
2634 $array = $self->padany($array);
2635 } elsif (is_scope($array)) { # ${expr}[0]
9d2c6865 2636 $array = "{" . $self->deparse($array, 0) . "}";
ce4e655d
RH
2637 } elsif ($array->name eq "gv") {
2638 $array = $self->gv_name($self->gv_or_padgv($array));
2639 if ($array !~ /::/) {
2640 my $prefix = ($left eq '[' ? '@' : '%');
2641 $array = $self->{curstash}.'::'.$array
2642 if $self->lex_in_scope($prefix . $array);
2643 }
6e90668e 2644 } elsif (is_scalar $array) { # $x[0], $$x[0], ...
9d2c6865 2645 $array = $self->deparse($array, 24);
6e90668e
SM
2646 } else {
2647 # $x[20][3]{hi} or expr->[20]
3ed82cfc 2648 my $arrow = is_subscriptable($array) ? "" : "->";
9d2c6865
SM
2649 return $self->deparse($array, 24) . $arrow .
2650 $left . $self->deparse($idx, 1) . $right;
6e90668e 2651 }
9d2c6865 2652 $idx = $self->deparse($idx, 1);
7a9b44b9
RH
2653
2654 # Outer parens in an array index will confuse perl
2655 # if we're interpolating in a regular expression, i.e.
2656 # /$x$foo[(-1)]/ is *not* the same as /$x$foo[-1]/
2657 #
2658 # If $self->{parens}, then an initial '(' will
2659 # definitely be paired with a final ')'. If
2660 # !$self->{parens}, the misleading parens won't
2661 # have been added in the first place.
2662 #
2663 # [You might think that we could get "(...)...(...)"
2664 # where the initial and final parens do not match
2665 # each other. But we can't, because the above would
2666 # only happen if there's an infix binop between the
2667 # two pairs of parens, and *that* means that the whole
2668 # expression would be parenthesized as well.]
2669 #
2670 $idx =~ s/^\((.*)\)$/$1/ if $self->{'parens'};
2671
6e90668e
SM
2672 return "\$" . $array . $left . $idx . $right;
2673}
2674
3f872cb9
GS
2675sub pp_aelem { maybe_local(@_, elem(@_, "[", "]", "padav")) }
2676sub pp_helem { maybe_local(@_, elem(@_, "{", "}", "padhv")) }
6e90668e
SM
2677
2678sub pp_gelem {
2679 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2680 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2681 my($glob, $part) = ($op->first, $op->last);
2682 $glob = $glob->first; # skip rv2gv
3f872cb9 2683 $glob = $glob->first if $glob->name eq "rv2gv"; # this one's a bug
9d2c6865
SM
2684 my $scope = is_scope($glob);
2685 $glob = $self->deparse($glob, 0);
2686 $part = $self->deparse($part, 1);
6e90668e
SM
2687 return "*" . ($scope ? "{$glob}" : $glob) . "{$part}";
2688}
2689
2690sub slice {
2691 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2692 my ($op, $cx, $left, $right, $regname, $padname) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2693 my $last;
2694 my(@elems, $kid, $array, $list);
2695 if (class($op) eq "LISTOP") {
2696 $last = $op->last;
2697 } else { # ex-hslice inside delete()
2698 for ($kid = $op->first; !null $kid->sibling; $kid = $kid->sibling) {}
2699 $last = $kid;
2700 }
2701 $array = $last;
2702 $array = $array->first
3f872cb9 2703 if $array->name eq $regname or $array->name eq "null";
6e90668e 2704 if (is_scope($array)) {
9d2c6865 2705 $array = "{" . $self->deparse($array, 0) . "}";
3f872cb9 2706 } elsif ($array->name eq $padname) {
6e90668e
SM
2707 $array = $self->padany($array);
2708 } else {
9d2c6865 2709 $array = $self->deparse($array, 24);
6e90668e
SM
2710 }
2711 $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
3f872cb9 2712 if ($kid->name eq "list") {
6e90668e
SM
2713 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip list, pushmark
2714 for (; !null $kid; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 2715 push @elems, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
2716 }
2717 $list = join(", ", @elems);
2718 } else {
9d2c6865 2719 $list = $self->deparse($kid, 1);
6e90668e
SM
2720 }
2721 return "\@" . $array . $left . $list . $right;
2722}
2723
3ed82cfc
GS
2724sub pp_aslice { maybe_local(@_, slice(@_, "[", "]", "rv2av", "padav")) }
2725sub pp_hslice { maybe_local(@_, slice(@_, "{", "}", "rv2hv", "padhv")) }
6e90668e
SM
2726
2727sub pp_lslice {
2728 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2729 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2730 my $idx = $op->first;
2731 my $list = $op->last;
2732 my(@elems, $kid);
9d2c6865
SM
2733 $list = $self->deparse($list, 1);
2734 $idx = $self->deparse($idx, 1);
2735 return "($list)" . "[$idx]";
6e90668e
SM
2736}
2737
6e90668e
SM
2738sub want_scalar {
2739 my $op = shift;
2740 return ($op->flags & OPf_WANT) == OPf_WANT_SCALAR;
2741}
2742
bd0865ec
GS
2743sub want_list {
2744 my $op = shift;
2745 return ($op->flags & OPf_WANT) == OPf_WANT_LIST;
2746}
2747
2748sub method {
6e90668e 2749 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2750 my($op, $cx) = @_;
bd0865ec
GS
2751 my $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
2752 my($meth, $obj, @exprs);
3f872cb9 2753 if ($kid->name eq "list" and want_list $kid) {
bd0865ec
GS
2754 # When an indirect object isn't a bareword but the args are in
2755 # parens, the parens aren't part of the method syntax (the LLAFR
2756 # doesn't apply), but they make a list with OPf_PARENS set that
2757 # doesn't get flattened by the append_elem that adds the method,
2758 # making a (object, arg1, arg2, ...) list where the object
2759 # usually is. This can be distinguished from
2760 # `($obj, $arg1, $arg2)->meth()' (which is legal if $arg2 is an
2761 # object) because in the later the list is in scalar context
2762 # as the left side of -> always is, while in the former
2763 # the list is in list context as method arguments always are.
2764 # (Good thing there aren't method prototypes!)
3ed82cfc 2765 $meth = $kid->sibling;
bd0865ec
GS
2766 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
2767 $obj = $kid;
6e90668e 2768 $kid = $kid->sibling;
bd0865ec 2769 for (; not null $kid; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 2770 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e 2771 }
bd0865ec
GS
2772 } else {
2773 $obj = $kid;
2774 $kid = $kid->sibling;
90c0eb26
RH
2775 for (; !null ($kid->sibling) && $kid->name ne "method_named";
2776 $kid = $kid->sibling) {
bd0865ec 2777 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e 2778 }
3ed82cfc 2779 $meth = $kid;
bd0865ec
GS
2780 }
2781 $obj = $self->deparse($obj, 24);
3ed82cfc 2782 if ($meth->name eq "method_named") {
18228111 2783 $meth = $self->const_sv($meth)->PV;
bd0865ec 2784 } else {
3ed82cfc
GS
2785 $meth = $meth->first;
2786 if ($meth->name eq "const") {
2787 # As of 5.005_58, this case is probably obsoleted by the
2788 # method_named case above
18228111 2789 $meth = $self->const_sv($meth)->PV; # needs to be bare
3ed82cfc
GS
2790 } else {
2791 $meth = $self->deparse($meth, 1);
2792 }
bd0865ec
GS
2793 }
2794 my $args = join(", ", @exprs);
2795 $kid = $obj . "->" . $meth;
145eb477 2796 if (length $args) {
bd0865ec
GS
2797 return $kid . "(" . $args . ")"; # parens mandatory
2798 } else {
2799 return $kid;
2800 }
2801}
2802
2803# returns "&" if the prototype doesn't match the args,
2804# or ("", $args_after_prototype_demunging) if it does.
2805sub check_proto {
2806 my $self = shift;
2807 my($proto, @args) = @_;
2808 my($arg, $real);
2809 my $doneok = 0;
2810 my @reals;
2811 # An unbackslashed @ or % gobbles up the rest of the args
2812 $proto =~ s/([^\\]|^)([@%])(.*)$/$1$2/;
2813 while ($proto) {
2814 $proto =~ s/^ *([\\]?[\$\@&%*]|;)//;
2815 my $chr = $1;
2816 if ($chr eq "") {
2817 return "&" if @args;
2818 } elsif ($chr eq ";") {
2819 $doneok = 1;
2820 } elsif ($chr eq "@" or $chr eq "%") {
2821 push @reals, map($self->deparse($_, 6), @args);
2822 @args = ();
6e90668e 2823 } else {
bd0865ec
GS
2824 $arg = shift @args;
2825 last unless $arg;
2826 if ($chr eq "\$") {
2827 if (want_scalar $arg) {
2828 push @reals, $self->deparse($arg, 6);
2829 } else {
2830 return "&";
2831 }
2832 } elsif ($chr eq "&") {
3f872cb9 2833 if ($arg->name =~ /^(s?refgen|undef)$/) {
bd0865ec
GS
2834 push @reals, $self->deparse($arg, 6);
2835 } else {
2836 return "&";
2837 }
2838 } elsif ($chr eq "*") {
3f872cb9
GS
2839 if ($arg->name =~ /^s?refgen$/
2840 and $arg->first->first->name eq "rv2gv")
bd0865ec
GS
2841 {
2842 $real = $arg->first->first; # skip refgen, null
3f872cb9 2843 if ($real->first->name eq "gv") {
bd0865ec
GS
2844 push @reals, $self->deparse($real, 6);
2845 } else {
2846 push @reals, $self->deparse($real->first, 6);
2847 }
2848 } else {
2849 return "&";
2850 }
2851 } elsif (substr($chr, 0, 1) eq "\\") {
2852 $chr = substr($chr, 1);
3f872cb9 2853 if ($arg->name =~ /^s?refgen$/ and
bd0865ec
GS
2854 !null($real = $arg->first) and
2855 ($chr eq "\$" && is_scalar($real->first)
2856 or ($chr eq "\@"
3f872cb9
GS
2857 && $real->first->sibling->name
2858 =~ /^(rv2|pad)av$/)
bd0865ec 2859 or ($chr eq "%"
3f872cb9
GS
2860 && $real->first->sibling->name
2861 =~ /^(rv2|pad)hv$/)
bd0865ec 2862 #or ($chr eq "&" # This doesn't work
3f872cb9 2863 # && $real->first->name eq "rv2cv")
bd0865ec 2864 or ($chr eq "*"
3f872cb9 2865 && $real->first->name eq "rv2gv")))
bd0865ec
GS
2866 {
2867 push @reals, $self->deparse($real, 6);
2868 } else {
2869 return "&";
2870 }
2871 }
2872 }
9d2c6865 2873 }
bd0865ec
GS
2874 return "&" if $proto and !$doneok; # too few args and no `;'
2875 return "&" if @args; # too many args
2876 return ("", join ", ", @reals);
2877}
2878
2879sub pp_entersub {
2880 my $self = shift;
2881 my($op, $cx) = @_;
2882 return $self->method($op, $cx) unless null $op->first->sibling;
2883 my $prefix = "";
2884 my $amper = "";
2885 my($kid, @exprs);
90c0eb26 2886 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL && !($op->flags & OPf_MOD)) {
9d2c6865
SM
2887 $prefix = "do ";
2888 } elsif ($op->private & OPpENTERSUB_AMPER) {
2889 $amper = "&";
2890 }
2891 $kid = $op->first;
2892 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip ex-list, pushmark
2893 for (; not null $kid->sibling; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
2894 push @exprs, $kid;
2895 }
bd0865ec
GS
2896 my $simple = 0;
2897 my $proto = undef;
9d2c6865
SM
2898 if (is_scope($kid)) {
2899 $amper = "&";
2900 $kid = "{" . $self->deparse($kid, 0) . "}";
3f872cb9 2901 } elsif ($kid->first->name eq "gv") {
6f611a1a 2902 my $gv = $self->gv_or_padgv($kid->first);
9d2c6865
SM
2903 if (class($gv->CV) ne "SPECIAL") {
2904 $proto = $gv->CV->PV if $gv->CV->FLAGS & SVf_POK;
2905 }
bd0865ec 2906 $simple = 1; # only calls of named functions can be prototyped
9d2c6865 2907 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 24);
90c0eb26 2908 } elsif (is_scalar ($kid->first) && $kid->first->name ne 'rv2cv') {
9d2c6865
SM
2909 $amper = "&";
2910 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 24);
2911 } else {
2912 $prefix = "";
3ed82cfc
GS
2913 my $arrow = is_subscriptable($kid->first) ? "" : "->";
2914 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 24) . $arrow;
9d2c6865 2915 }
0ca62a8e
RH
2916
2917 # Doesn't matter how many prototypes there are, if
2918 # they haven't happened yet!
2919 my $declared = exists $self->{'subs_declared'}{$kid};
e99ebc55
RH
2920 if (!$declared && defined($proto)) {
2921 # Avoid "too early to check prototype" warning
2922 ($amper, $proto) = ('&');
2923 }
0ca62a8e 2924
bd0865ec 2925 my $args;
0ca62a8e 2926 if ($declared and defined $proto and not $amper) {
bd0865ec
GS
2927 ($amper, $args) = $self->check_proto($proto, @exprs);
2928 if ($amper eq "&") {
9d2c6865
SM
2929 $args = join(", ", map($self->deparse($_, 6), @exprs));
2930 }
2931 } else {
2932 $args = join(", ", map($self->deparse($_, 6), @exprs));
6e90668e 2933 }
9d2c6865
SM
2934 if ($prefix or $amper) {
2935 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
2936 return $prefix . $amper . $kid . "(" . $args . ")";
2937 } else {
2938 return $prefix . $amper. $kid;
2939 }
6e90668e 2940 } else {
34a48b4b
RH
2941 # glob() invocations can be translated into calls of
2942 # CORE::GLOBAL::glob with an second parameter, a number.
2943 # Reverse this.
2944 if ($kid eq "CORE::GLOBAL::glob") {
2945 $kid = "glob";
2946 $args =~ s/\s*,[^,]+$//;
2947 }
2948
2949 # It's a syntax error to call CORE::GLOBAL::foo without a prefix,
2950 # so it must have been translated from a keyword call. Translate
2951 # it back.
2952 $kid =~ s/^CORE::GLOBAL:://;
2953
0ca62a8e
RH
2954 if (!$declared) {
2955 return "$kid(" . $args . ")";
2956 } elsif (defined $proto and $proto eq "") {
9d2c6865 2957 return $kid;
ce4e655d 2958 } elsif (defined $proto and $proto eq "\$" and is_scalar($exprs[0])) {
9d2c6865 2959 return $self->maybe_parens_func($kid, $args, $cx, 16);
6f611a1a 2960 } elsif (defined($proto) && $proto or $simple) {
9d2c6865
SM
2961 return $self->maybe_parens_func($kid, $args, $cx, 5);
2962 } else {
2963 return "$kid(" . $args . ")";
2964 }
6e90668e
SM
2965 }
2966}
2967
2968sub pp_enterwrite { unop(@_, "write") }
2969
2970# escape things that cause interpolation in double quotes,
2971# but not character escapes
2972sub uninterp {
2973 my($str) = @_;
3f766ba3 2974 $str =~ s/(^|\G|[^\\])((?:\\\\)*)([\$\@]|\\[uUlLQE])/$1$2\\$3/g;
9d2c6865
SM
2975 return $str;
2976}
2977
b7dad2dc
RH
2978{
2979my $bal;
2980BEGIN {
cdf8218f
RH
2981 use re "eval";
2982 # Matches any string which is balanced with respect to {braces}
b7dad2dc 2983 $bal = qr(
cdf8218f
RH
2984 (?:
2985 [^\\{}]
2986 | \\\\
2987 | \\[{}]
2988 | \{(??{$bal})\}
2989 )*
2990 )x;
b7dad2dc
RH
2991}
2992
2993# the same, but treat $|, $), $( and $ at the end of the string differently
2994sub re_uninterp {
2995 my($str) = @_;
cdf8218f
RH
2996
2997 $str =~ s/
2998 ( ^|\G # $1
2999 | [^\\]
3000 )
3001
3002 ( # $2
3003 (?:\\\\)*
3004 )
3005
3006 ( # $3
3007 (\(\?\??\{$bal\}\)) # $4
3008 | [\$\@]
3009 (?!\||\)|\(|$)
3010 | \\[uUlLQE]
3011 )
3012
3013 /length($4) ? "$1$2$4" : "$1$2\\$3"/xeg;
3014
6e90668e
SM
3015 return $str;
3016}
3017
b7dad2dc
RH
3018# This is for regular expressions with the /x modifier
3019# We have to leave comments unmangled.
a9760014 3020sub re_uninterp_extended {
b7dad2dc
RH
3021 my($str) = @_;
3022
3023 $str =~ s/
3024 ( ^|\G # $1
3025 | [^\\]
3026 )
3027
3028 ( # $2
3029 (?:\\\\)*
3030 )
3031
3032 ( # $3
3033 ( \(\?\??\{$bal\}\) # $4 (skip over (?{}) and (??{}) blocks)
3034 | \#[^\n]* # (skip over comments)
3035 )
3036 | [\$\@]
3037 (?!\||\)|\(|$)
3038 | \\[uUlLQE]
3039 )
3040
3041 /length($4) ? "$1$2$4" : "$1$2\\$3"/xeg;
3042
a9760014
RH
3043 return $str;
3044}
b7dad2dc 3045}
a9760014 3046
6e90668e 3047# character escapes, but not delimiters that might need to be escaped
746698c5 3048sub escape_str { # ASCII, UTF8
6e90668e 3049 my($str) = @_;
746698c5 3050 $str =~ s/(.)/ord($1)>255 ? sprintf("\\x{%x}", ord($1)) : $1/eg;
6e90668e
SM
3051 $str =~ s/\a/\\a/g;
3052# $str =~ s/\cH/\\b/g; # \b means someting different in a regex
3053 $str =~ s/\t/\\t/g;
3054 $str =~ s/\n/\\n/g;
3055 $str =~ s/\e/\\e/g;
3056 $str =~ s/\f/\\f/g;
3057 $str =~ s/\r/\\r/g;
3058 $str =~ s/([\cA-\cZ])/'\\c' . chr(ord('@') + ord($1))/ge;
3059 $str =~ s/([\0\033-\037\177-\377])/'\\' . sprintf("%03o", ord($1))/ge;
3060 return $str;
3061}
3062
b7dad2dc
RH
3063# For regexes with the /x modifier.
3064# Leave whitespace unmangled.
a9760014
RH
3065sub escape_extended_re {
3066 my($str) = @_;
3067 $str =~ s/(.)/ord($1)>255 ? sprintf("\\x{%x}", ord($1)) : $1/eg;
3068 $str =~ s/([\0\033-\037\177-\377])/'\\' . sprintf("%03o", ord($1))/ge;
3069 $str =~ s/\n/\n\f/g;
3070 return $str;
3071}
3072
9d2c6865
SM
3073# Don't do this for regexen
3074sub unback {
3075 my($str) = @_;
3076 $str =~ s/\\/\\\\/g;
3077 return $str;
3078}
3079
08c6f5ec
RH
3080# Remove backslashes which precede literal control characters,
3081# to avoid creating ambiguity when we escape the latter.
3082sub re_unback {
3083 my($str) = @_;
3084
3085 # the insane complexity here is due to the behaviour of "\c\"
3086 $str =~ s/(^|[^\\]|\\c\\)(?<!\\c)\\(\\\\)*(?=[\0-\031\177-\377])/$1$2/g;
3087 return $str;
3088}
3089
6e90668e
SM
3090sub balanced_delim {
3091 my($str) = @_;
3092 my @str = split //, $str;
3093 my($ar, $open, $close, $fail, $c, $cnt);
3094 for $ar (['[',']'], ['(',')'], ['<','>'], ['{','}']) {
3095 ($open, $close) = @$ar;
3096 $fail = 0; $cnt = 0;
3097 for $c (@str) {
3098 if ($c eq $open) {
3099 $cnt++;
3100 } elsif ($c eq $close) {
3101 $cnt--;
3102 if ($cnt < 0) {
bd0865ec 3103 # qq()() isn't ")("
6e90668e
SM
3104 $fail = 1;
3105 last;
3106 }
3107 }
3108 }
3109 $fail = 1 if $cnt != 0;
3110 return ($open, "$open$str$close") if not $fail;
3111 }
3112 return ("", $str);
3113}
3114
3115sub single_delim {
3116 my($q, $default, $str) = @_;
90be192f 3117 return "$default$str$default" if $default and index($str, $default) == -1;
6e90668e
SM
3118 my($succeed, $delim);
3119 ($succeed, $str) = balanced_delim($str);
3120 return "$q$str" if $succeed;
3121 for $delim ('/', '"', '#') {
3122 return "$q$delim" . $str . $delim if index($str, $delim) == -1;
3123 }
90be192f
SM
3124 if ($default) {
3125 $str =~ s/$default/\\$default/g;
3126 return "$default$str$default";
3127 } else {
3128 $str =~ s[/][\\/]g;
3129 return "$q/$str/";
3130 }
6e90668e
SM
3131}
3132
6e90668e
SM
3133sub const {
3134 my $sv = shift;
3135 if (class($sv) eq "SPECIAL") {
bd0865ec 3136 return ('undef', '1', '0')[$$sv-1]; # sv_undef, sv_yes, sv_no
7a9b44b9
RH
3137 } elsif (class($sv) eq "NULL") {
3138 return 'undef';
6e90668e 3139 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_IOK) {
d9963e60 3140 return $sv->int_value;
6e90668e 3141 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_NOK) {
fecea806
RH
3142 # try the default stringification
3143 my $r = "".$sv->NV;
3144 if ($r =~ /e/) {
3145 # If it's in scientific notation, we might have lost information
3146 return sprintf("%.20e", $sv->NV);
3147 }
3148 return $r;
7a9b44b9 3149 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_ROK && $sv->can("RV")) {
6e90668e 3150 return "\\(" . const($sv->RV) . ")"; # constant folded
34768ba5 3151 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_POK) {
6e90668e 3152 my $str = $sv->PV;
bd0865ec 3153 if ($str =~ /[^ -~]/) { # ASCII for non-printing
9d2c6865 3154 return single_delim("qq", '"', uninterp escape_str unback $str);
6e90668e 3155 } else {
bd0865ec 3156 return single_delim("q", "'", unback $str);
6e90668e 3157 }
34768ba5
RH
3158 } else {
3159 return "undef";
a798dbf2
MB
3160 }
3161}
3162
18228111
GS
3163sub const_sv {
3164 my $self = shift;
3165 my $op = shift;
3166 my $sv = $op->sv;
3167 # the constant could be in the pad (under useithreads)
3168 $sv = $self->padval($op->targ) unless $$sv;
3169 return $sv;
3170}
3171
6e90668e
SM
3172sub pp_const {
3173 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 3174 my($op, $cx) = @_;
7e40138b
RH
3175 if ($op->private & OPpCONST_ARYBASE) {
3176 return '$[';
3177 }
4c1f658f 3178# if ($op->private & OPpCONST_BARE) { # trouble with `=>' autoquoting
18228111 3179# return $self->const_sv($op)->PV;
6e90668e 3180# }
18228111 3181 my $sv = $self->const_sv($op);
d5ae42cc
JM
3182# return const($sv);
3183 my $c = const $sv;
76ef7183 3184 return $c =~ /^-\d/ ? $self->maybe_parens($c, $cx, 21) : $c;
6e90668e
SM
3185}
3186
3187sub dq {
3188 my $self = shift;
3189 my $op = shift;
3f872cb9
GS
3190 my $type = $op->name;
3191 if ($type eq "const") {
f3402b25
RH
3192 return '$[' if $op->private & OPpCONST_ARYBASE;
3193 return uninterp(escape_str(unback($self->const_sv($op)->as_string)));
3f872cb9 3194 } elsif ($type eq "concat") {
8fed1104
RH
3195 my $first = $self->dq($op->first);
3196 my $last = $self->dq($op->last);
44c6d2a1 3197
b7dad2dc 3198 # Disambiguate "${foo}bar", "${foo}{bar}", "${foo}[1]"
44c6d2a1
RH
3199 ($last =~ /^[A-Z\\\^\[\]_?]/ &&
3200 $first =~ s/([\$@])\^$/${1}{^}/) # "${^}W" etc
3201 || ($last =~ /^[{\[\w_]/ &&
3202 $first =~ s/([\$@])([A-Za-z_]\w*)$/${1}{$2}/);
3203
8fed1104 3204 return $first . $last;
3f872cb9 3205 } elsif ($type eq "uc") {
6e90668e 3206 return '\U' . $self->dq($op->first->sibling) . '\E';
3f872cb9 3207 } elsif ($type eq "lc") {
6e90668e 3208 return '\L' . $self->dq($op->first->sibling) . '\E';
3f872cb9 3209 } elsif ($type eq "ucfirst") {
6e90668e 3210 return '\u' . $self->dq($op->first->sibling);
3f872cb9 3211 } elsif ($type eq "lcfirst") {
6e90668e 3212 return '\l' . $self->dq($op->first->sibling);
3f872cb9 3213 } elsif ($type eq "quotemeta") {
6e90668e 3214 return '\Q' . $self->dq($op->first->sibling) . '\E';
3f872cb9 3215 } elsif ($type eq "join") {
9d2c6865 3216 return $self->deparse($op->last, 26); # was join($", @ary)
a798dbf2 3217 } else {
9d2c6865 3218 return $self->deparse($op, 26);
6e90668e
SM
3219 }
3220}
3221
3222sub pp_backtick {
3223 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 3224 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
3225 # skip pushmark
3226 return single_delim("qx", '`', $self->dq($op->first->sibling));
3227}
3228
3229sub dquote {
3230 my $self = shift;
6f611a1a 3231 my($op, $cx) = @_;
3ed82cfc
GS
3232 my $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip ex-stringify, pushmark
3233 return $self->deparse($kid, $cx) if $self->{'unquote'};
3234 $self->maybe_targmy($kid, $cx,
3235 sub {single_delim("qq", '"', $self->dq($_[1]))});
6e90668e
SM
3236}
3237
bd0865ec 3238# OP_STRINGIFY is a listop, but it only ever has one arg
3ed82cfc 3239sub pp_stringify { maybe_targmy(@_, \&dquote) }
6e90668e
SM
3240
3241# tr/// and s/// (and tr[][], tr[]//, tr###, etc)
3242# note that tr(from)/to/ is OK, but not tr/from/(to)
3243sub double_delim {
3244 my($from, $to) = @_;
3245 my($succeed, $delim);
3246 if ($from !~ m[/] and $to !~ m[/]) {
3247 return "/$from/$to/";
3248 } elsif (($succeed, $from) = balanced_delim($from) and $succeed) {
3249 if (($succeed, $to) = balanced_delim($to) and $succeed) {
3250 return "$from$to";
3251 } else {
3252 for $delim ('/', '"', '#') { # note no `'' -- s''' is special
3253 return "$from$delim$to$delim" if index($to, $delim) == -1;
3254 }
3255 $to =~ s[/][\\/]g;
3256 return "$from/$to/";
3257 }
3258 } else {
3259 for $delim ('/', '"', '#') { # note no '
3260 return "$delim$from$delim$to$delim"
3261 if index($to . $from, $delim) == -1;
3262 }
3263 $from =~ s[/][\\/]g;
3264 $to =~ s[/][\\/]g;
3265 return "/$from/$to/";
3266 }
3267}
3268
2a9e2f8a 3269# Only used by tr///, so backslashes hyphens
6e90668e
SM
3270sub pchr { # ASCII
3271 my($n) = @_;
3272 if ($n == ord '\\') {
3273 return '\\\\';
2a9e2f8a
RH
3274 } elsif ($n == ord "-") {
3275 return "\\-";
6e90668e
SM
3276 } elsif ($n >= ord(' ') and $n <= ord('~')) {
3277 return chr($n);
3278 } elsif ($n == ord "\a") {
3279 return '\\a';
3280 } elsif ($n == ord "\b") {
3281 return '\\b';
3282 } elsif ($n == ord "\t") {
3283 return '\\t';
3284 } elsif ($n == ord "\n") {
3285 return '\\n';
3286 } elsif ($n == ord "\e") {
3287 return '\\e';
3288 } elsif ($n == ord "\f") {
3289 return '\\f';
3290 } elsif ($n == ord "\r") {
3291 return '\\r';
3292 } elsif ($n >= ord("\cA") and $n <= ord("\cZ")) {
3293 return '\\c' . chr(ord("@") + $n);
3294 } else {
3295# return '\x' . sprintf("%02x", $n);
3296 return '\\' . sprintf("%03o", $n);
3297 }
3298}
3299
3300sub collapse {
3301 my(@chars) = @_;
23db111c 3302 my($str, $c, $tr) = ("");
6e90668e
SM
3303 for ($c = 0; $c < @chars; $c++) {
3304 $tr = $chars[$c];
3305 $str .= pchr($tr);
3306 if ($c <= $#chars - 2 and $chars[$c + 1] == $tr + 1 and
3307 $chars[$c + 2] == $tr + 2)
3308 {
f4a44678
SM
3309 for (; $c <= $#chars-1 and $chars[$c + 1] == $chars[$c] + 1; $c++)
3310 {}
6e90668e
SM
3311 $str .= "-";
3312 $str .= pchr($chars[$c]);
3313 }
3314 }
3315 return $str;
3316}
3317
f4a44678
SM
3318sub tr_decode_byte {
3319 my($table, $flags) = @_;
2a9e2f8a 3320 my(@table) = unpack("s*", $table);
bec89253 3321 splice @table, 0x100, 1; # Number of subsequent elements
6e90668e
SM
3322 my($c, $tr, @from, @to, @delfrom, $delhyphen);
3323 if ($table[ord "-"] != -1 and
3324 $table[ord("-") - 1] == -1 || $table[ord("-") + 1] == -1)
3325 {
3326 $tr = $table[ord "-"];
3327 $table[ord "-"] = -1;
3328 if ($tr >= 0) {
3329 @from = ord("-");
3330 @to = $tr;
3331 } else { # -2 ==> delete
3332 $delhyphen = 1;
3333 }
3334 }
2a9e2f8a 3335 for ($c = 0; $c < @table; $c++) {
6e90668e
SM
3336 $tr = $table[$c];
3337 if ($tr >= 0) {
3338 push @from, $c; push @to, $tr;
3339 } elsif ($tr == -2) {
3340 push @delfrom, $c;
3341 }
3342 }
6e90668e 3343 @from = (@from, @delfrom);
f4a44678 3344 if ($flags & OPpTRANS_COMPLEMENT) {
6e90668e
SM
3345 my @newfrom = ();
3346 my %from;
3347 @from{@from} = (1) x @from;
3348 for ($c = 0; $c < 256; $c++) {
3349 push @newfrom, $c unless $from{$c};
3350 }
3351 @from = @newfrom;
3352 }
56d8b52c 3353 unless ($flags & OPpTRANS_DELETE || !@to) {
6e90668e
SM
3354 pop @to while $#to and $to[$#to] == $to[$#to -1];
3355 }
6e90668e
SM
3356 my($from, $to);
3357 $from = collapse(@from);
3358 $to = collapse(@to);
3359 $from .= "-" if $delhyphen;
f4a44678
SM
3360 return ($from, $to);
3361}
3362
3363sub tr_chr {
3364 my $x = shift;
3365 if ($x == ord "-") {
3366 return "\\-";
2a9e2f8a
RH
3367 } elsif ($x == ord "\\") {
3368 return "\\\\";
f4a44678
SM
3369 } else {
3370 return chr $x;
3371 }
3372}
3373
3374# XXX This doesn't yet handle all cases correctly either
3375
3376sub tr_decode_utf8 {
3377 my($swash_hv, $flags) = @_;
3378 my %swash = $swash_hv->ARRAY;
3379 my $final = undef;
3380 $final = $swash{'FINAL'}->IV if exists $swash{'FINAL'};
3381 my $none = $swash{"NONE"}->IV;
3382 my $extra = $none + 1;
3383 my(@from, @delfrom, @to);
3384 my $line;
3385 foreach $line (split /\n/, $swash{'LIST'}->PV) {
3386 my($min, $max, $result) = split(/\t/, $line);
3387 $min = hex $min;
3388 if (length $max) {
3389 $max = hex $max;
3390 } else {
3391 $max = $min;
3392 }
3393 $result = hex $result;
3394 if ($result == $extra) {
3395 push @delfrom, [$min, $max];
3396 } else {
3397 push @from, [$min, $max];
3398 push @to, [$result, $result + $max - $min];
3399 }
3400 }
3401 for my $i (0 .. $#from) {
3402 if ($from[$i][0] == ord '-') {
3403 unshift @from, splice(@from, $i, 1);
3404 unshift @to, splice(@to, $i, 1);
3405 last;
3406 } elsif ($from[$i][1] == ord '-') {
3407 $from[$i][1]--;
3408 $to[$i][1]--;
3409 unshift @from, ord '-';
3410 unshift @to, ord '-';
3411 last;
3412 }
3413 }
3414 for my $i (0 .. $#delfrom) {
3415 if ($delfrom[$i][0] == ord '-') {
3416 push @delfrom, splice(@delfrom, $i, 1);
3417 last;
3418 } elsif ($delfrom[$i][1] == ord '-') {
3419 $delfrom[$i][1]--;
3420 push @delfrom, ord '-';
3421 last;
3422 }
3423 }
3424 if (defined $final and $to[$#to][1] != $final) {
3425 push @to, [$final, $final];
3426 }
3427 push @from, @delfrom;
3428 if ($flags & OPpTRANS_COMPLEMENT) {
3429 my @newfrom;
3430 my $next = 0;
3431 for my $i (0 .. $#from) {
3432 push @newfrom, [$next, $from[$i][0] - 1];
3433 $next = $from[$i][1] + 1;
3434 }
3435 @from = ();
3436 for my $range (@newfrom) {
3437 if ($range->[0] <= $range->[1]) {
3438 push @from, $range;
3439 }
3440 }
3441 }
3442 my($from, $to, $diff);
3443 for my $chunk (@from) {
3444 $diff = $chunk->[1] - $chunk->[0];
3445 if ($diff > 1) {
3446 $from .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]) . "-" . tr_chr($chunk->[1]);
3447 } elsif ($diff == 1) {
3448 $from .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]) . tr_chr($chunk->[1]);
3449 } else {
3450 $from .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]);
3451 }
3452 }
3453 for my $chunk (@to) {
3454 $diff = $chunk->[1] - $chunk->[0];
3455 if ($diff > 1) {
3456 $to .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]) . "-" . tr_chr($chunk->[1]);
3457 } elsif ($diff == 1) {
3458 $to .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]) . tr_chr($chunk->[1]);
3459 } else {
3460 $to .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]);
3461 }
3462 }
3463 #$final = sprintf("%04x", $final) if defined $final;
3464 #$none = sprintf("%04x", $none) if defined $none;
3465 #$extra = sprintf("%04x", $extra) if defined $extra;
3466 #print STDERR "final: $final\n none: $none\nextra: $extra\n";
3467 #print STDERR $swash{'LIST'}->PV;
3468 return (escape_str($from), escape_str($to));
3469}
3470
3471sub pp_trans {
3472 my $self = shift;
3473 my($op, $cx) = @_;
3474 my($from, $to);
3475 if (class($op) eq "PVOP") {
3476 ($from, $to) = tr_decode_byte($op->pv, $op->private);
3477 } else { # class($op) eq "SVOP"
3478 ($from, $to) = tr_decode_utf8($op->sv->RV, $op->private);
3479 }
3480 my $flags = "";
3481 $flags .= "c" if $op->private & OPpTRANS_COMPLEMENT;
3482 $flags .= "d" if $op->private & OPpTRANS_DELETE;
3483 $to = "" if $from eq $to and $flags eq "";
3484 $flags .= "s" if $op->private & OPpTRANS_SQUASH;
6e90668e
SM
3485 return "tr" . double_delim($from, $to) . $flags;
3486}
3487
3488# Like dq(), but different
3489sub re_dq {
3490 my $self = shift;
a9760014
RH
3491 my ($op, $extended) = @_;
3492
3f872cb9
GS
3493 my $type = $op->name;
3494 if ($type eq "const") {
f3402b25 3495 return '$[' if $op->private & OPpCONST_ARYBASE;
a9760014
RH
3496 my $unbacked = re_unback($self->const_sv($op)->as_string);
3497 return re_uninterp_extended(escape_extended_re($unbacked))
3498 if $extended;
3499 return re_uninterp(escape_str($unbacked));
3f872cb9 3500 } elsif ($type eq "concat") {
a9760014
RH
3501 my $first = $self->re_dq($op->first, $extended);
3502 my $last = $self->re_dq($op->last, $extended);
b73b7152 3503
a0e66df8 3504 # Disambiguate "${foo}bar", "${foo}{bar}", "${foo}[1]"
b73b7152
JH
3505 ($last =~ /^[A-Z\\\^\[\]_?]/ &&
3506 $first =~ s/([\$@])\^$/${1}{^}/) # "${^}W" etc
3507 || ($last =~ /^[{\[\w_]/ &&
3508 $first =~ s/([\$@])([A-Za-z_]\w*)$/${1}{$2}/);
3509
a0e66df8 3510 return $first . $last;
3f872cb9 3511 } elsif ($type eq "uc") {
a9760014 3512 return '\U' . $self->re_dq($op->first->sibling, $extended) . '\E';
3f872cb9 3513 } elsif ($type eq "lc") {
a9760014 3514 return '\L' . $self->re_dq($op->first->sibling, $extended) . '\E';
3f872cb9 3515 } elsif ($type eq "ucfirst") {
a9760014 3516 return '\u' . $self->re_dq($op->first->sibling, $extended);
3f872cb9 3517 } elsif ($type eq "lcfirst") {
a9760014 3518 return '\l' . $self->re_dq($op->first->sibling, $extended);
3f872cb9 3519 } elsif ($type eq "quotemeta") {
a9760014 3520 return '\Q' . $self->re_dq($op->first->sibling, $extended) . '\E';
3f872cb9 3521 } elsif ($type eq "join") {
9d2c6865 3522 return $self->deparse($op->last, 26); # was join($", @ary)
6e90668e 3523 } else {
9d2c6865 3524 return $self->deparse($op, 26);
6e90668e
SM
3525 }
3526}
3527
a9760014
RH
3528sub pure_string {
3529 my ($self, $op) = @_;
3530 my $type = $op->name;
3531
3532 if ($type eq 'const') {
3533 return 1;
3534 }
3535 elsif ($type =~ /^[ul]c(first)?$/ || $type eq 'quotemeta') {
3536 return $self->pure_string($op->first->sibling);
3537 }
3538 elsif ($type eq 'join') {
3539 my $join_op = $op->first->sibling; # Skip pushmark
3540 return 0 unless $join_op->name eq 'null' && $join_op->targ eq OP_RV2SV;
3541
3542 my $gvop = $join_op->first;
3543 return 0 unless $gvop->name eq 'gvsv';
3544 return 0 unless '"' eq $self->gv_name($self->gv_or_padgv($gvop));
3545
3546 return 0 unless ${$join_op->sibling} eq ${$op->last};
3547 return 0 unless $op->last->name =~ /^(rv2|pad)av$/;
3548 }
3549 elsif ($type eq 'concat') {
3550 return $self->pure_string($op->first)
3551 && $self->pure_string($op->last);
3552 }
3553 elsif (is_scalar($op) || $type =~ /^[ah]elem(fast)?$/) {
3554 return 1;
3555 }
3556 else {
3557 return 0;
3558 }
3559
3560 return 1;
3561}
3562
3563sub regcomp {
6e90668e 3564 my $self = shift;
a9760014 3565 my($op, $cx, $extended) = @_;
6e90668e 3566 my $kid = $op->first;
3f872cb9
GS
3567 $kid = $kid->first if $kid->name eq "regcmaybe";
3568 $kid = $kid->first if $kid->name eq "regcreset";
a9760014
RH
3569 return ($self->re_dq($kid, $extended), 1) if $self->pure_string($kid);
3570 return ($self->deparse($kid, $cx), 0);
3571}
3572
3573sub pp_regcomp {
3574 my ($self, $op, $cx) = @_;
3575 return (($self->regcomp($op, $cx, 0))[0]);
6e90668e
SM
3576}
3577
6e90668e
SM
3578# osmic acid -- see osmium tetroxide
3579
3580my %matchwords;
3581map($matchwords{join "", sort split //, $_} = $_, 'cig', 'cog', 'cos', 'cogs',
3582 'cox', 'go', 'is', 'ism', 'iso', 'mig', 'mix', 'osmic', 'ox', 'sic',
3583 'sig', 'six', 'smog', 'so', 'soc', 'sog', 'xi');
3584
90be192f 3585sub matchop {
6e90668e 3586 my $self = shift;
90be192f 3587 my($op, $cx, $name, $delim) = @_;
6e90668e 3588 my $kid = $op->first;
9d2c6865 3589 my ($binop, $var, $re) = ("", "", "");
6e90668e 3590 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
9d2c6865
SM
3591 $binop = 1;
3592 $var = $self->deparse($kid, 20);
6e90668e
SM
3593 $kid = $kid->sibling;
3594 }
a9760014
RH
3595 my $quote = 1;
3596 my $extended = ($op->pmflags & PMf_EXTENDED);
6e90668e 3597 if (null $kid) {
a9760014
RH
3598 my $unbacked = re_unback($op->precomp);
3599 if ($extended) {
3600 $re = re_uninterp_extended(escape_extended_re($unbacked));
3601 } else {
3602 $re = re_uninterp(escape_str(re_unback($op->precomp)));
3603 }
3604 } elsif ($kid->name ne 'regcomp') {
3605 Carp::cluck("found ".$kid->name." where regcomp expected");
6e90668e 3606 } else {
a9760014 3607 ($re, $quote) = $self->regcomp($kid, 1, $extended);
6e90668e
SM
3608 }
3609 my $flags = "";
3610 $flags .= "c" if $op->pmflags & PMf_CONTINUE;
3611 $flags .= "g" if $op->pmflags & PMf_GLOBAL;
3612 $flags .= "i" if $op->pmflags & PMf_FOLD;
3613 $flags .= "m" if $op->pmflags & PMf_MULTILINE;
3614 $flags .= "o" if $op->pmflags & PMf_KEEP;
3615 $flags .= "s" if $op->pmflags & PMf_SINGLELINE;
3616 $flags .= "x" if $op->pmflags & PMf_EXTENDED;
3617 $flags = $matchwords{$flags} if $matchwords{$flags};
3618 if ($op->pmflags & PMf_ONCE) { # only one kind of delimiter works here
3619 $re =~ s/\?/\\?/g;
9d2c6865 3620 $re = "?$re?";
a9760014 3621 } elsif ($quote) {
90be192f 3622 $re = single_delim($name, $delim, $re);
9d2c6865 3623 }
a9760014 3624 $re = $re . $flags if $quote;
9d2c6865
SM
3625 if ($binop) {
3626 return $self->maybe_parens("$var =~ $re", $cx, 20);
3627 } else {
3628 return $re;
6e90668e 3629 }
6e90668e
SM
3630}
3631
90be192f
SM
3632sub pp_match { matchop(@_, "m", "/") }
3633sub pp_pushre { matchop(@_, "m", "/") }
3634sub pp_qr { matchop(@_, "qr", "") }
6e90668e
SM
3635
3636sub pp_split {
3637 my $self = shift;