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a0d0e21e 1package Socket;
73c78b0a 2
e71d7b85 3use strict;
9dea6244 4{ use 5.006001; }
e71d7b85 5
d335a3e3 6our $VERSION = '2.006_001';
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7
8=head1 NAME
9
c2654555 10C<Socket> - networking constants and support functions
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11
12=head1 SYNOPSIS
13
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14C<Socket> a low-level module used by, among other things, the L<IO::Socket>
15family of modules. The following examples demonstrate some low-level uses but
16a practical program would likely use the higher-level API provided by
17C<IO::Socket> or similar instead.
18
19 use Socket qw(PF_INET SOCK_STREAM pack_sockaddr_in inet_aton);
20
21 socket(my $socket, PF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0)
22 or die "socket: $!";
23
24 my $port = getservbyname "echo", "tcp";
25 connect($socket, pack_sockaddr_in($port, inet_aton("localhost")))
26 or die "connect: $!";
27
28 print $socket "Hello, world!\n";
29 print <$socket>;
30
31See also the L</EXAMPLES> section.
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32
33=head1 DESCRIPTION
34
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35This module provides a variety of constants, structure manipulators and other
36functions related to socket-based networking. The values and functions
37provided are useful when used in conjunction with Perl core functions such as
38socket(), setsockopt() and bind(). It also provides several other support
39functions, mostly for dealing with conversions of network addresses between
40human-readable and native binary forms, and for hostname resolver operations.
3b35bae3 41
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42Some constants and functions are exported by default by this module; but for
43backward-compatibility any recently-added symbols are not exported by default
44and must be requested explicitly. When an import list is provided to the
45C<use Socket> line, the default exports are not automatically imported. It is
46therefore best practice to always to explicitly list all the symbols required.
fdb41d65 47
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48Also, some common socket "newline" constants are provided: the constants
49C<CR>, C<LF>, and C<CRLF>, as well as C<$CR>, C<$LF>, and C<$CRLF>, which map
50to C<\015>, C<\012>, and C<\015\012>. If you do not want to use the literal
51characters in your programs, then use the constants provided here. They are
52not exported by default, but can be imported individually, and with the
53C<:crlf> export tag:
fdb41d65 54
c2654555 55 use Socket qw(:DEFAULT :crlf);
8e07c86e 56
c2654555 57 $sock->print("GET / HTTP/1.0$CRLF");
2ae324a7 58
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59The entire getaddrinfo() subsystem can be exported using the tag C<:addrinfo>;
60this exports the getaddrinfo() and getnameinfo() functions, and all the
61C<AI_*>, C<NI_*>, C<NIx_*> and C<EAI_*> constants.
8e07c86e 62
c2654555 63=cut
8e07c86e 64
c2654555 65=head1 CONSTANTS
2528d3bc 66
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67In each of the following groups, there may be many more constants provided
68than just the ones given as examples in the section heading. If the heading
69ends C<...> then this means there are likely more; the exact constants
70provided will depend on the OS and headers found at compile-time.
8e07c86e 71
c2654555 72=cut
8e07c86e 73
c2654555 74=head2 PF_INET, PF_INET6, PF_UNIX, ...
8e07c86e 75
c2654555 76Protocol family constants to use as the first argument to socket() or the
eabcd9c8 77value of the C<SO_DOMAIN> or C<SO_FAMILY> socket option.
8e07c86e 78
c2654555 79=head2 AF_INET, AF_INET6, AF_UNIX, ...
8e07c86e 80
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81Address family constants used by the socket address structures, to pass to
82such functions as inet_pton() or getaddrinfo(), or are returned by such
83functions as sockaddr_family().
7e1af8bc 84
c2654555 85=head2 SOCK_STREAM, SOCK_DGRAM, SOCK_RAW, ...
7e1af8bc 86
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87Socket type constants to use as the second argument to socket(), or the value
88of the C<SO_TYPE> socket option.
7e1af8bc 89
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90=head2 SOCK_NONBLOCK. SOCK_CLOEXEC
91
92Linux-specific shortcuts to specify the C<O_NONBLOCK> and C<FD_CLOEXEC> flags
93during a C<socket(2)> call.
94
95 socket( my $sockh, PF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM|SOCK_NONBLOCK, 0 )
96
c2654555 97=head2 SOL_SOCKET
8e07c86e 98
c2654555 99Socket option level constant for setsockopt() and getsockopt().
8e07c86e 100
c2654555 101=head2 SO_ACCEPTCONN, SO_BROADCAST, SO_ERROR, ...
3b35bae3 102
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103Socket option name constants for setsockopt() and getsockopt() at the
104C<SOL_SOCKET> level.
8e07c86e 105
c2654555 106=head2 IP_OPTIONS, IP_TOS, IP_TTL, ...
8e07c86e 107
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108Socket option name constants for IPv4 socket options at the C<IPPROTO_IP>
109level.
8e07c86e 110
c2654555 111=head2 MSG_BCAST, MSG_OOB, MSG_TRUNC, ...
d3f248d3 112
c2654555 113Message flag constants for send() and recv().
d3f248d3 114
c2654555 115=head2 SHUT_RD, SHUT_RDWR, SHUT_WR
d3f248d3 116
c2654555 117Direction constants for shutdown().
d3f248d3 118
c2654555 119=head2 INADDR_ANY, INADDR_BROADCAST, INADDR_LOOPBACK, INADDR_NONE
2a84dff3 120
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121Constants giving the special C<AF_INET> addresses for wildcard, broadcast,
122local loopback, and invalid addresses.
123
124Normally equivalent to inet_aton('0.0.0.0'), inet_aton('255.255.255.255'),
125inet_aton('localhost') and inet_aton('255.255.255.255') respectively.
126
127=head2 IPPROTO_IP, IPPROTO_IPV6, IPPROTO_TCP, ...
128
129IP protocol constants to use as the third argument to socket(), the level
130argument to getsockopt() or setsockopt(), or the value of the C<SO_PROTOCOL>
131socket option.
132
133=head2 TCP_CORK, TCP_KEEPALIVE, TCP_NODELAY, ...
134
135Socket option name constants for TCP socket options at the C<IPPROTO_TCP>
136level.
137
138=head2 IN6ADDR_ANY, IN6ADDR_LOOPBACK
139
140Constants giving the special C<AF_INET6> addresses for wildcard and local
141loopback.
142
143Normally equivalent to inet_pton(AF_INET6, "::") and
144inet_pton(AF_INET6, "::1") respectively.
145
146=head2 IPV6_ADD_MEMBERSHIP, IPV6_MTU, IPV6_V6ONLY, ...
147
148Socket option name constants for IPv6 socket options at the C<IPPROTO_IPV6>
149level.
150
151=cut
152
153# Still undocumented: SCM_*, SOMAXCONN, IOV_MAX, UIO_MAXIOV
154
155=head1 STRUCTURE MANIPULATORS
156
157The following functions convert between lists of Perl values and packed binary
158strings representing structures.
159
160=cut
2a84dff3 161
c2654555 162=head2 $family = sockaddr_family $sockaddr
4633a7c4 163
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164Takes a packed socket address (as returned by pack_sockaddr_in(),
165pack_sockaddr_un() or the perl builtin functions getsockname() and
166getpeername()). Returns the address family tag. This will be one of the
167C<AF_*> constants, such as C<AF_INET> for a C<sockaddr_in> addresses or
168C<AF_UNIX> for a C<sockaddr_un>. It can be used to figure out what unpack to
169use for a sockaddr of unknown type.
4633a7c4 170
c2654555 171=head2 $sockaddr = pack_sockaddr_in $port, $ip_address
4633a7c4 172
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173Takes two arguments, a port number and an opaque string (as returned by
174inet_aton(), or a v-string). Returns the C<sockaddr_in> structure with those
175arguments packed in and C<AF_INET> filled in. For Internet domain sockets,
176this structure is normally what you need for the arguments in bind(),
177connect(), and send().
8e07c86e 178
c2654555 179=head2 ($port, $ip_address) = unpack_sockaddr_in $sockaddr
8e07c86e 180
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181Takes a C<sockaddr_in> structure (as returned by pack_sockaddr_in(),
182getpeername() or recv()). Returns a list of two elements: the port and an
183opaque string representing the IP address (you can use inet_ntoa() to convert
184the address to the four-dotted numeric format). Will croak if the structure
185does not represent an C<AF_INET> address.
8e07c86e 186
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187In scalar context will return just the IP address.
188
c2654555 189=head2 $sockaddr = sockaddr_in $port, $ip_address
4633a7c4 190
c2654555 191=head2 ($port, $ip_address) = sockaddr_in $sockaddr
4bc6101e 192
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193A wrapper of pack_sockaddr_in() or unpack_sockaddr_in(). In list context,
194unpacks its argument and returns a list consisting of the port and IP address.
195In scalar context, packs its port and IP address arguments as a C<sockaddr_in>
196and returns it.
4bc6101e 197
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198Provided largely for legacy compatibility; it is better to use
199pack_sockaddr_in() or unpack_sockaddr_in() explicitly.
4bc6101e 200
c2654555 201=head2 $sockaddr = pack_sockaddr_in6 $port, $ip6_address, [$scope_id, [$flowinfo]]
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202
203Takes two to four arguments, a port number, an opaque string (as returned by
204inet_pton()), optionally a scope ID number, and optionally a flow label
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205number. Returns the C<sockaddr_in6> structure with those arguments packed in
206and C<AF_INET6> filled in. IPv6 equivalent of pack_sockaddr_in().
207
208=head2 ($port, $ip6_address, $scope_id, $flowinfo) = unpack_sockaddr_in6 $sockaddr
209
210Takes a C<sockaddr_in6> structure. Returns a list of four elements: the port
211number, an opaque string representing the IPv6 address, the scope ID, and the
212flow label. (You can use inet_ntop() to convert the address to the usual
213string format). Will croak if the structure does not represent an C<AF_INET6>
214address.
215
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216In scalar context will return just the IP address.
217
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218=head2 $sockaddr = sockaddr_in6 $port, $ip6_address, [$scope_id, [$flowinfo]]
219
220=head2 ($port, $ip6_address, $scope_id, $flowinfo) = sockaddr_in6 $sockaddr
221
222A wrapper of pack_sockaddr_in6() or unpack_sockaddr_in6(). In list context,
223unpacks its argument according to unpack_sockaddr_in6(). In scalar context,
224packs its arguments according to pack_sockaddr_in6().
225
226Provided largely for legacy compatibility; it is better to use
227pack_sockaddr_in6() or unpack_sockaddr_in6() explicitly.
228
229=head2 $sockaddr = pack_sockaddr_un $path
230
231Takes one argument, a pathname. Returns the C<sockaddr_un> structure with that
232path packed in with C<AF_UNIX> filled in. For C<PF_UNIX> sockets, this
233structure is normally what you need for the arguments in bind(), connect(),
234and send().
235
236=head2 ($path) = unpack_sockaddr_un $sockaddr
237
238Takes a C<sockaddr_un> structure (as returned by pack_sockaddr_un(),
239getpeername() or recv()). Returns a list of one element: the pathname. Will
240croak if the structure does not represent an C<AF_UNIX> address.
c73aa44c 241
c2654555 242=head2 $sockaddr = sockaddr_un $path
c73aa44c 243
c2654555 244=head2 ($path) = sockaddr_un $sockaddr
c73aa44c 245
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246A wrapper of pack_sockaddr_un() or unpack_sockaddr_un(). In a list context,
247unpacks its argument and returns a list consisting of the pathname. In a
248scalar context, packs its pathname as a C<sockaddr_un> and returns it.
4633a7c4 249
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250Provided largely for legacy compatibility; it is better to use
251pack_sockaddr_un() or unpack_sockaddr_un() explicitly.
4633a7c4 252
1fef88e7 253These are only supported if your system has E<lt>F<sys/un.h>E<gt>.
4633a7c4 254
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255=head2 $ip_mreq = pack_ip_mreq $multiaddr, $interface
256
257Takes an IPv4 multicast address and optionally an interface address (or
258C<INADDR_ANY>). Returns the C<ip_mreq> structure with those arguments packed
259in. Suitable for use with the C<IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP> and C<IP_DROP_MEMBERSHIP>
260sockopts.
261
262=head2 ($multiaddr, $interface) = unpack_ip_mreq $ip_mreq
c2654555 263
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264Takes an C<ip_mreq> structure. Returns a list of two elements; the IPv4
265multicast address and interface address.
c2654555 266
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267=head2 $ip_mreq_source = pack_ip_mreq_source $multiaddr, $source, $interface
268
269Takes an IPv4 multicast address, source address, and optionally an interface
270address (or C<INADDR_ANY>). Returns the C<ip_mreq_source> structure with those
271arguments packed in. Suitable for use with the C<IP_ADD_SOURCE_MEMBERSHIP>
272and C<IP_DROP_SOURCE_MEMBERSHIP> sockopts.
273
274=head2 ($multiaddr, $source, $interface) = unpack_ip_mreq_source $ip_mreq
275
276Takes an C<ip_mreq_source> structure. Returns a list of three elements; the
277IPv4 multicast address, source address and interface address.
278
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279=head2 $ipv6_mreq = pack_ipv6_mreq $multiaddr6, $ifindex
280
281Takes an IPv6 multicast address and an interface number. Returns the
282C<ipv6_mreq> structure with those arguments packed in. Suitable for use with
283the C<IPV6_ADD_MEMBERSHIP> and C<IPV6_DROP_MEMBERSHIP> sockopts.
284
285=head2 ($multiaddr6, $ifindex) = unpack_ipv6_mreq $ipv6_mreq
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286
287Takes an C<ipv6_mreq> structure. Returns a list of two elements; the IPv6
288address and an interface number.
289
290=cut
291
292=head1 FUNCTIONS
293
294=cut
295
296=head2 $ip_address = inet_aton $string
297
298Takes a string giving the name of a host, or a textual representation of an IP
299address and translates that to an packed binary address structure suitable to
300pass to pack_sockaddr_in(). If passed a hostname that cannot be resolved,
301returns C<undef>. For multi-homed hosts (hosts with more than one address),
302the first address found is returned.
4633a7c4 303
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304For portability do not assume that the result of inet_aton() is 32 bits wide,
305in other words, that it would contain only the IPv4 address in network order.
4633a7c4 306
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307This IPv4-only function is provided largely for legacy reasons. Newly-written
308code should use getaddrinfo() or inet_pton() instead for IPv6 support.
4633a7c4 309
c2654555 310=head2 $string = inet_ntoa $ip_address
3b35bae3 311
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312Takes a packed binary address structure such as returned by
313unpack_sockaddr_in() (or a v-string representing the four octets of the IPv4
314address in network order) and translates it into a string of the form
315C<d.d.d.d> where the C<d>s are numbers less than 256 (the normal
316human-readable four dotted number notation for Internet addresses).
036d8bd4 317
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318This IPv4-only function is provided largely for legacy reasons. Newly-written
319code should use getnameinfo() or inet_ntop() instead for IPv6 support.
036d8bd4 320
c2654555 321=head2 $address = inet_pton $family, $string
d6896be3 322
c2654555 323Takes an address family (such as C<AF_INET> or C<AF_INET6>) and a string
23296748 324containing a textual representation of an address in that family and
c2654555 325translates that to an packed binary address structure.
036d8bd4 326
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327See also getaddrinfo() for a more powerful and flexible function to look up
328socket addresses given hostnames or textual addresses.
036d8bd4 329
c2654555 330=head2 $string = inet_ntop $family, $address
d6896be3 331
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332Takes an address family and a packed binary address structure and translates
333it into a human-readable textual representation of the address; typically in
334C<d.d.d.d> form for C<AF_INET> or C<hhhh:hhhh::hhhh> form for C<AF_INET6>.
e57a891d 335
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336See also getnameinfo() for a more powerful and flexible function to turn
337socket addresses into human-readable textual representations.
e57a891d 338
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339=head2 ($err, @result) = getaddrinfo $host, $service, [$hints]
340
341Given both a hostname and service name, this function attempts to resolve the
342host name into a list of network addresses, and the service name into a
343protocol and port number, and then returns a list of address structures
344suitable to connect() to it.
345
346Given just a host name, this function attempts to resolve it to a list of
347network addresses, and then returns a list of address structures giving these
348addresses.
349
350Given just a service name, this function attempts to resolve it to a protocol
351and port number, and then returns a list of address structures that represent
352it suitable to bind() to. This use should be combined with the C<AI_PASSIVE>
353flag; see below.
354
355Given neither name, it generates an error.
356
357If present, $hints should be a reference to a hash, where the following keys
358are recognised:
359
360=over 4
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361
362=item flags => INT
363
c2654555 364A bitfield containing C<AI_*> constants; see below.
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365
366=item family => INT
367
368Restrict to only generating addresses in this address family
369
370=item socktype => INT
371
372Restrict to only generating addresses of this socket type
373
374=item protocol => INT
375
376Restrict to only generating addresses for this protocol
377
378=back
379
380The return value will be a list; the first value being an error indication,
c2654555 381followed by a list of address structures (if no error occurred).
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382
383The error value will be a dualvar; comparable to the C<EI_*> error constants,
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384or printable as a human-readable error message string. If no error occurred it
385will be zero numerically and an empty string.
386
387Each value in the results list will be a hash reference containing the following
388fields:
e57a891d 389
c2654555 390=over 4
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391
392=item family => INT
393
c2654555 394The address family (e.g. C<AF_INET>)
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395
396=item socktype => INT
397
c2654555 398The socket type (e.g. C<SOCK_STREAM>)
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399
400=item protocol => INT
401
c2654555 402The protocol (e.g. C<IPPROTO_TCP>)
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403
404=item addr => STRING
405
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406The address in a packed string (such as would be returned by
407pack_sockaddr_in())
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408
409=item canonname => STRING
410
411The canonical name for the host if the C<AI_CANONNAME> flag was provided, or
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412C<undef> otherwise. This field will only be present on the first returned
413address.
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414
415=back
416
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417The following flag constants are recognised in the $hints hash. Other flag
418constants may exist as provided by the OS.
419
420=over 4
421
422=item AI_PASSIVE
e57a891d 423
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424Indicates that this resolution is for a local bind() for a passive (i.e.
425listening) socket, rather than an active (i.e. connecting) socket.
426
427=item AI_CANONNAME
428
429Indicates that the caller wishes the canonical hostname (C<canonname>) field
430of the result to be filled in.
431
432=item AI_NUMERICHOST
433
434Indicates that the caller will pass a numeric address, rather than a hostname,
435and that getaddrinfo() must not perform a resolve operation on this name. This
436flag will prevent a possibly-slow network lookup operation, and instead return
437an error if a hostname is passed.
438
439=back
440
441=head2 ($err, $hostname, $servicename) = getnameinfo $sockaddr, [$flags, [$xflags]]
442
443Given a packed socket address (such as from getsockname(), getpeername(), or
444returned by getaddrinfo() in a C<addr> field), returns the hostname and
445symbolic service name it represents. $flags may be a bitmask of C<NI_*>
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446constants, or defaults to 0 if unspecified.
447
448The return value will be a list; the first value being an error condition,
449followed by the hostname and service name.
450
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451The error value will be a dualvar; comparable to the C<EI_*> error constants,
452or printable as a human-readable error message string. The host and service
453names will be plain strings.
454
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455The following flag constants are recognised as $flags. Other flag constants may
456exist as provided by the OS.
457
458=over 4
459
460=item NI_NUMERICHOST
461
462Requests that a human-readable string representation of the numeric address be
463returned directly, rather than performing a name resolve operation that may
464convert it into a hostname. This will also avoid potentially-blocking network
465IO.
466
467=item NI_NUMERICSERV
468
469Requests that the port number be returned directly as a number representation
470rather than performing a name resolve operation that may convert it into a
471service name.
472
473=item NI_NAMEREQD
474
475If a name resolve operation fails to provide a name, then this flag will cause
476getnameinfo() to indicate an error, rather than returning the numeric
477representation as a human-readable string.
478
479=item NI_DGRAM
480
481Indicates that the socket address relates to a C<SOCK_DGRAM> socket, for the
482services whose name differs between TCP and UDP protocols.
483
2ae324a7
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484=back
485
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486The following constants may be supplied as $xflags.
487
488=over 4
4f5bb87f 489
c2654555 490=item NIx_NOHOST
4f5bb87f 491
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492Indicates that the caller is not interested in the hostname of the result, so
493it does not have to be converted. C<undef> will be returned as the hostname.
4f5bb87f 494
c2654555 495=item NIx_NOSERV
4f5bb87f 496
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497Indicates that the caller is not interested in the service name of the result,
498so it does not have to be converted. C<undef> will be returned as the service
499name.
500
501=back
502
503=head1 getaddrinfo() / getnameinfo() ERROR CONSTANTS
504
505The following constants may be returned by getaddrinfo() or getnameinfo().
506Others may be provided by the OS.
507
508=over 4
509
510=item EAI_AGAIN
511
512A temporary failure occurred during name resolution. The operation may be
513successful if it is retried later.
514
515=item EAI_BADFLAGS
516
517The value of the C<flags> hint to getaddrinfo(), or the $flags parameter to
518getnameinfo() contains unrecognised flags.
519
520=item EAI_FAMILY
521
522The C<family> hint to getaddrinfo(), or the family of the socket address
523passed to getnameinfo() is not supported.
524
525=item EAI_NODATA
526
527The host name supplied to getaddrinfo() did not provide any usable address
528data.
529
530=item EAI_NONAME
531
532The host name supplied to getaddrinfo() does not exist, or the address
533supplied to getnameinfo() is not associated with a host name and the
534C<NI_NAMEREQD> flag was supplied.
535
536=item EAI_SERVICE
537
538The service name supplied to getaddrinfo() is not available for the socket
539type given in the $hints.
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540
541=back
542
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543=cut
544
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545=head1 EXAMPLES
546
547=head2 Lookup for connect()
548
549The getaddrinfo() function converts a hostname and a service name into a list
550of structures, each containing a potential way to connect() to the named
551service on the named host.
552
553 use IO::Socket;
554 use Socket qw(SOCK_STREAM getaddrinfo);
555
556 my %hints = (socktype => SOCK_STREAM);
557 my ($err, @res) = getaddrinfo("localhost", "echo", \%hints);
558 die "Cannot getaddrinfo - $err" if $err;
559
560 my $sock;
561
562 foreach my $ai (@res) {
563 my $candidate = IO::Socket->new();
564
565 $candidate->socket($ai->{family}, $ai->{socktype}, $ai->{protocol})
566 or next;
567
568 $candidate->connect($ai->{addr})
569 or next;
570
571 $sock = $candidate;
572 last;
573 }
574
575 die "Cannot connect to localhost:echo" unless $sock;
576
577 $sock->print("Hello, world!\n");
578 print <$sock>;
579
580Because a list of potential candidates is returned, the C<while> loop tries
581each in turn until it it finds one that succeeds both the socket() and
582connect() calls.
583
584This function performs the work of the legacy functions gethostbyname(),
585getservbyname(), inet_aton() and pack_sockaddr_in().
586
587In practice this logic is better performed by L<IO::Socket::IP>.
588
589=head2 Making a human-readable string out of an address
590
591The getnameinfo() function converts a socket address, such as returned by
592getsockname() or getpeername(), into a pair of human-readable strings
593representing the address and service name.
594
595 use IO::Socket::IP;
596 use Socket qw(getnameinfo);
597
598 my $server = IO::Socket::IP->new(LocalPort => 12345, Listen => 1) or
599 die "Cannot listen - $@";
600
601 my $socket = $server->accept or die "accept: $!";
602
603 my ($err, $hostname, $servicename) = getnameinfo($socket->peername);
604 die "Cannot getnameinfo - $err" if $err;
605
606 print "The peer is connected from $hostname\n";
607
608Since in this example only the hostname was used, the redundant conversion of
609the port number into a service name may be omitted by passing the
610C<NIx_NOSERV> flag.
611
612 use Socket qw(getnameinfo NIx_NOSERV);
613
614 my ($err, $hostname) = getnameinfo($socket->peername, 0, NIx_NOSERV);
615
616This function performs the work of the legacy functions unpack_sockaddr_in(),
617inet_ntoa(), gethostbyaddr() and getservbyport().
618
619In practice this logic is better performed by L<IO::Socket::IP>.
620
621=head2 Resolving hostnames into IP addresses
622
623To turn a hostname into a human-readable plain IP address use getaddrinfo()
624to turn the hostname into a list of socket structures, then getnameinfo() on
625each one to make it a readable IP address again.
626
627 use Socket qw(:addrinfo SOCK_RAW);
628
629 my ($err, @res) = getaddrinfo($hostname, "", {socktype => SOCK_RAW});
630 die "Cannot getaddrinfo - $err" if $err;
631
632 while( my $ai = shift @res ) {
633 my ($err, $ipaddr) = getnameinfo($ai->{addr}, NI_NUMERICHOST, NIx_NOSERV);
634 die "Cannot getnameinfo - $err" if $err;
635
636 print "$ipaddr\n";
637 }
638
639The C<socktype> hint to getaddrinfo() filters the results to only include one
640socket type and protocol. Without this most OSes return three combinations,
641for C<SOCK_STREAM>, C<SOCK_DGRAM> and C<SOCK_RAW>, resulting in triplicate
642output of addresses. The C<NI_NUMERICHOST> flag to getnameinfo() causes it to
643return a string-formatted plain IP address, rather than reverse resolving it
644back into a hostname.
645
646This combination performs the work of the legacy functions gethostbyname()
647and inet_ntoa().
648
649=head2 Accessing socket options
650
651The many C<SO_*> and other constants provide the socket option names for
652getsockopt() and setsockopt().
653
654 use IO::Socket::INET;
655 use Socket qw(SOL_SOCKET SO_RCVBUF IPPROTO_IP IP_TTL);
656
657 my $socket = IO::Socket::INET->new(LocalPort => 0, Proto => 'udp')
658 or die "Cannot create socket: $@";
659
660 $socket->setsockopt(SOL_SOCKET, SO_RCVBUF, 64*1024) or
661 die "setsockopt: $!";
662
663 print "Receive buffer is ", $socket->getsockopt(SOL_SOCKET, SO_RCVBUF),
664 " bytes\n";
665
666 print "IP TTL is ", $socket->getsockopt(IPPROTO_IP, IP_TTL), "\n";
667
668As a convenience, L<IO::Socket>'s setsockopt() method will convert a number
669into a packed byte buffer, and getsockopt() will unpack a byte buffer of the
670correct size back into a number.
671
672=cut
673
674=head1 AUTHOR
675
676This module was originally maintained in Perl core by the Perl 5 Porters.
677
678It was extracted to dual-life on CPAN at version 1.95 by
679Paul Evans <leonerd@leonerd.org.uk>
680
681=cut
682
a0d0e21e 683use Carp;
d3a7d8c7 684use warnings::register;
a0d0e21e
LW
685
686require Exporter;
da4061d3 687require XSLoader;
c2654555 688our @ISA = qw(Exporter);
80531fbd
LB
689
690# <@Nicholas> you can't change @EXPORT without breaking the implicit API
691# Please put any new constants in @EXPORT_OK!
c2654555
CBW
692
693# List re-ordered to match documentation above. Try to keep the ordering
694# consistent so it's easier to see which ones are or aren't documented.
695our @EXPORT = qw(
696 PF_802 PF_AAL PF_APPLETALK PF_CCITT PF_CHAOS PF_CTF PF_DATAKIT
697 PF_DECnet PF_DLI PF_ECMA PF_GOSIP PF_HYLINK PF_IMPLINK PF_INET PF_INET6
698 PF_ISO PF_KEY PF_LAST PF_LAT PF_LINK PF_MAX PF_NBS PF_NIT PF_NS PF_OSI
699 PF_OSINET PF_PUP PF_ROUTE PF_SNA PF_UNIX PF_UNSPEC PF_USER PF_WAN
a0d0e21e 700 PF_X25
c2654555
CBW
701
702 AF_802 AF_AAL AF_APPLETALK AF_CCITT AF_CHAOS AF_CTF AF_DATAKIT
703 AF_DECnet AF_DLI AF_ECMA AF_GOSIP AF_HYLINK AF_IMPLINK AF_INET AF_INET6
704 AF_ISO AF_KEY AF_LAST AF_LAT AF_LINK AF_MAX AF_NBS AF_NIT AF_NS AF_OSI
705 AF_OSINET AF_PUP AF_ROUTE AF_SNA AF_UNIX AF_UNSPEC AF_USER AF_WAN
706 AF_X25
707
708 SOCK_DGRAM SOCK_RAW SOCK_RDM SOCK_SEQPACKET SOCK_STREAM
709
a0d0e21e 710 SOL_SOCKET
c2654555
CBW
711
712 SO_ACCEPTCONN SO_ATTACH_FILTER SO_BACKLOG SO_BROADCAST SO_CHAMELEON
eabcd9c8
A
713 SO_DEBUG SO_DETACH_FILTER SO_DGRAM_ERRIND SO_DOMAIN SO_DONTLINGER
714 SO_DONTROUTE SO_ERROR SO_FAMILY SO_KEEPALIVE SO_LINGER SO_OOBINLINE
715 SO_PASSCRED SO_PASSIFNAME SO_PEERCRED SO_PROTOCOL SO_PROTOTYPE
716 SO_RCVBUF SO_RCVLOWAT SO_RCVTIMEO SO_REUSEADDR SO_REUSEPORT
c2654555
CBW
717 SO_SECURITY_AUTHENTICATION SO_SECURITY_ENCRYPTION_NETWORK
718 SO_SECURITY_ENCRYPTION_TRANSPORT SO_SNDBUF SO_SNDLOWAT SO_SNDTIMEO
719 SO_STATE SO_TYPE SO_USELOOPBACK SO_XOPEN SO_XSE
720
721 IP_OPTIONS IP_HDRINCL IP_TOS IP_TTL IP_RECVOPTS IP_RECVRETOPTS
722 IP_RETOPTS
723
724 MSG_BCAST MSG_BTAG MSG_CTLFLAGS MSG_CTLIGNORE MSG_CTRUNC MSG_DONTROUTE
725 MSG_DONTWAIT MSG_EOF MSG_EOR MSG_ERRQUEUE MSG_ETAG MSG_FIN
726 MSG_MAXIOVLEN MSG_MCAST MSG_NOSIGNAL MSG_OOB MSG_PEEK MSG_PROXY MSG_RST
727 MSG_SYN MSG_TRUNC MSG_URG MSG_WAITALL MSG_WIRE
728
729 SHUT_RD SHUT_RDWR SHUT_WR
730
731 INADDR_ANY INADDR_BROADCAST INADDR_LOOPBACK INADDR_NONE
732
733 SCM_CONNECT SCM_CREDENTIALS SCM_CREDS SCM_RIGHTS SCM_TIMESTAMP
734
a0d0e21e 735 SOMAXCONN
c2654555
CBW
736
737 IOV_MAX
6b1016b5 738 UIO_MAXIOV
c2654555
CBW
739
740 sockaddr_family
741 pack_sockaddr_in unpack_sockaddr_in sockaddr_in
742 pack_sockaddr_in6 unpack_sockaddr_in6 sockaddr_in6
743 pack_sockaddr_un unpack_sockaddr_un sockaddr_un
744
745 inet_aton inet_ntoa
746);
747
748# List re-ordered to match documentation above. Try to keep the ordering
749# consistent so it's easier to see which ones are or aren't documented.
750our @EXPORT_OK = qw(
751 CR LF CRLF $CR $LF $CRLF
752
3be135d8
TC
753 SOCK_NONBLOCK SOCK_CLOEXEC
754
d4ada64a
SH
755 IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP IP_ADD_SOURCE_MEMBERSHIP IP_DROP_MEMBERSHIP
756 IP_DROP_SOURCE_MEMBERSHIP IP_MULTICAST_IF IP_MULTICAST_LOOP
757 IP_MULTICAST_TTL
3be135d8 758
c2654555
CBW
759 IPPROTO_IP IPPROTO_IPV6 IPPROTO_RAW IPPROTO_ICMP IPPROTO_TCP
760 IPPROTO_UDP
761
d4ada64a
SH
762 TCP_CONGESTION TCP_CONNECTIONTIMEOUT TCP_CORK TCP_DEFER_ACCEPT TCP_INFO
763 TCP_INIT_CWND TCP_KEEPALIVE TCP_KEEPCNT TCP_KEEPIDLE TCP_KEEPINTVL
764 TCP_LINGER2 TCP_MAXRT TCP_MAXSEG TCP_MD5SIG TCP_NODELAY TCP_NOOPT
765 TCP_NOPUSH TCP_QUICKACK TCP_SACK_ENABLE TCP_STDURG TCP_SYNCNT
766 TCP_WINDOW_CLAMP
c2654555
CBW
767
768 IN6ADDR_ANY IN6ADDR_LOOPBACK
769
d4ada64a
SH
770 IPV6_ADD_MEMBERSHIP IPV6_DROP_MEMBERSHIP IPV6_JOIN_GROUP
771 IPV6_LEAVE_GROUP IPV6_MTU IPV6_MTU_DISCOVER IPV6_MULTICAST_HOPS
772 IPV6_MULTICAST_IF IPV6_MULTICAST_LOOP IPV6_UNICAST_HOPS IPV6_V6ONLY
c2654555 773
d4ada64a 774 pack_ip_mreq unpack_ip_mreq pack_ip_mreq_source unpack_ip_mreq_source
3be135d8 775
c2654555
CBW
776 pack_ipv6_mreq unpack_ipv6_mreq
777
778 inet_pton inet_ntop
779
780 getaddrinfo getnameinfo
781
782 AI_ADDRCONFIG AI_ALL AI_CANONIDN AI_CANONNAME AI_IDN
783 AI_IDN_ALLOW_UNASSIGNED AI_IDN_USE_STD3_ASCII_RULES AI_NUMERICHOST
784 AI_NUMERICSERV AI_PASSIVE AI_V4MAPPED
785
786 NI_DGRAM NI_IDN NI_IDN_ALLOW_UNASSIGNED NI_IDN_USE_STD3_ASCII_RULES
787 NI_NAMEREQD NI_NOFQDN NI_NUMERICHOST NI_NUMERICSERV
788
789 NIx_NOHOST NIx_NOSERV
790
791 EAI_ADDRFAMILY EAI_AGAIN EAI_BADFLAGS EAI_BADHINTS EAI_FAIL EAI_FAMILY
792 EAI_NODATA EAI_NONAME EAI_PROTOCOL EAI_SERVICE EAI_SOCKTYPE EAI_SYSTEM
a0d0e21e
LW
793);
794
c2654555
CBW
795our %EXPORT_TAGS = (
796 crlf => [qw(CR LF CRLF $CR $LF $CRLF)],
797 addrinfo => [qw(getaddrinfo getnameinfo), grep m/^(?:AI|NI|NIx|EAI)_/, @EXPORT_OK],
798 all => [@EXPORT, @EXPORT_OK],
fdb41d65
CN
799);
800
801BEGIN {
802 sub CR () {"\015"}
803 sub LF () {"\012"}
804 sub CRLF () {"\015\012"}
c2654555
CBW
805
806 # These are not gni() constants; they're extensions for the perl API
807 # The definitions in Socket.pm and Socket.xs must match
808 sub NIx_NOHOST() {1 << 0}
809 sub NIx_NOSERV() {1 << 1}
fdb41d65
CN
810}
811
812*CR = \CR();
813*LF = \LF();
814*CRLF = \CRLF();
815
4633a7c4
LW
816sub sockaddr_in {
817 if (@_ == 6 && !wantarray) { # perl5.001m compat; use this && die
818 my($af, $port, @quad) = @_;
c2654555 819 warnings::warn "6-ARG sockaddr_in call is deprecated"
d3a7d8c7 820 if warnings::enabled();
4633a7c4
LW
821 pack_sockaddr_in($port, inet_aton(join('.', @quad)));
822 } elsif (wantarray) {
823 croak "usage: (port,iaddr) = sockaddr_in(sin_sv)" unless @_ == 1;
824 unpack_sockaddr_in(@_);
825 } else {
826 croak "usage: sin_sv = sockaddr_in(port,iaddr))" unless @_ == 2;
827 pack_sockaddr_in(@_);
828 }
829}
830
4bc6101e
PLE
831sub sockaddr_in6 {
832 if (wantarray) {
833 croak "usage: (port,in6addr,scope_id,flowinfo) = sockaddr_in6(sin6_sv)" unless @_ == 1;
834 unpack_sockaddr_in6(@_);
835 }
836 else {
837 croak "usage: sin6_sv = sockaddr_in6(port,in6addr,[scope_id,[flowinfo]])" unless @_ >= 2 and @_ <= 4;
838 pack_sockaddr_in6(@_);
839 }
840}
841
4633a7c4
LW
842sub sockaddr_un {
843 if (wantarray) {
844 croak "usage: (filename) = sockaddr_un(sun_sv)" unless @_ == 1;
845 unpack_sockaddr_un(@_);
846 } else {
37120919
AD
847 croak "usage: sun_sv = sockaddr_un(filename)" unless @_ == 1;
848 pack_sockaddr_un(@_);
4633a7c4
LW
849 }
850}
851
4c3d8e12 852XSLoader::load(__PACKAGE__, $VERSION);
a0d0e21e 853
c2219427
PLE
854my %errstr;
855
32b40adf
NC
856if( defined &getaddrinfo ) {
857 # These are not part of the API, nothing uses them, and deleting them
858 # reduces the size of %Socket:: by about 12K
859 delete $Socket::{fake_getaddrinfo};
860 delete $Socket::{fake_getnameinfo};
861} else {
0f41f5e2
PLE
862 require Scalar::Util;
863
864 *getaddrinfo = \&fake_getaddrinfo;
865 *getnameinfo = \&fake_getnameinfo;
866
867 # These numbers borrowed from GNU libc's implementation, but since
868 # they're only used by our emulation, it doesn't matter if the real
869 # platform's values differ
870 my %constants = (
871 AI_PASSIVE => 1,
872 AI_CANONNAME => 2,
873 AI_NUMERICHOST => 4,
0369a5a5
PLE
874 AI_V4MAPPED => 8,
875 AI_ALL => 16,
876 AI_ADDRCONFIG => 32,
0f41f5e2
PLE
877 # RFC 2553 doesn't define this but Linux does - lets be nice and
878 # provide it since we can
879 AI_NUMERICSERV => 1024,
880
881 EAI_BADFLAGS => -1,
882 EAI_NONAME => -2,
883 EAI_NODATA => -5,
884 EAI_FAMILY => -6,
885 EAI_SERVICE => -8,
886
887 NI_NUMERICHOST => 1,
888 NI_NUMERICSERV => 2,
0369a5a5 889 NI_NOFQDN => 4,
0f41f5e2
PLE
890 NI_NAMEREQD => 8,
891 NI_DGRAM => 16,
0369a5a5
PLE
892
893 # Constants we don't support. Export them, but croak if anyone tries to
894 # use them
895 AI_IDN => 64,
896 AI_CANONIDN => 128,
897 AI_IDN_ALLOW_UNASSIGNED => 256,
898 AI_IDN_USE_STD3_ASCII_RULES => 512,
899 NI_IDN => 32,
900 NI_IDN_ALLOW_UNASSIGNED => 64,
901 NI_IDN_USE_STD3_ASCII_RULES => 128,
902
903 # Error constants we'll never return, so it doesn't matter what value
904 # these have, nor that we don't provide strings for them
905 EAI_SYSTEM => -11,
906 EAI_BADHINTS => -1000,
907 EAI_PROTOCOL => -1001
0f41f5e2
PLE
908 );
909
910 foreach my $name ( keys %constants ) {
911 my $value = $constants{$name};
912
913 no strict 'refs';
914 defined &$name or *$name = sub () { $value };
915 }
916
917 %errstr = (
918 # These strings from RFC 2553
919 EAI_BADFLAGS() => "invalid value for ai_flags",
920 EAI_NONAME() => "nodename nor servname provided, or not known",
921 EAI_NODATA() => "no address associated with nodename",
922 EAI_FAMILY() => "ai_family not supported",
923 EAI_SERVICE() => "servname not supported for ai_socktype",
924 );
c2219427
PLE
925}
926
927# The following functions are used if the system does not have a
928# getaddrinfo(3) function in libc; and are used to emulate it for the AF_INET
929# family
930
c2219427
PLE
931# Borrowed from Regexp::Common::net
932my $REGEXP_IPv4_DECIMAL = qr/25[0-5]|2[0-4][0-9]|1?[0-9][0-9]{1,2}/;
933my $REGEXP_IPv4_DOTTEDQUAD = qr/$REGEXP_IPv4_DECIMAL\.$REGEXP_IPv4_DECIMAL\.$REGEXP_IPv4_DECIMAL\.$REGEXP_IPv4_DECIMAL/;
934
935sub fake_makeerr
936{
0f41f5e2
PLE
937 my ( $errno ) = @_;
938 my $errstr = $errno == 0 ? "" : ( $errstr{$errno} || $errno );
939 return Scalar::Util::dualvar( $errno, $errstr );
c2219427
PLE
940}
941
942sub fake_getaddrinfo
943{
0f41f5e2
PLE
944 my ( $node, $service, $hints ) = @_;
945
946 $node = "" unless defined $node;
947
948 $service = "" unless defined $service;
949
950 my ( $family, $socktype, $protocol, $flags ) = @$hints{qw( family socktype protocol flags )};
951
952 $family ||= Socket::AF_INET(); # 0 == AF_UNSPEC, which we want too
953 $family == Socket::AF_INET() or return fake_makeerr( EAI_FAMILY() );
954
955 $socktype ||= 0;
956
957 $protocol ||= 0;
958
959 $flags ||= 0;
960
961 my $flag_passive = $flags & AI_PASSIVE(); $flags &= ~AI_PASSIVE();
962 my $flag_canonname = $flags & AI_CANONNAME(); $flags &= ~AI_CANONNAME();
963 my $flag_numerichost = $flags & AI_NUMERICHOST(); $flags &= ~AI_NUMERICHOST();
964 my $flag_numericserv = $flags & AI_NUMERICSERV(); $flags &= ~AI_NUMERICSERV();
965
0369a5a5
PLE
966 # These constants don't apply to AF_INET-only lookups, so we might as well
967 # just ignore them. For AI_ADDRCONFIG we just presume the host has ability
968 # to talk AF_INET. If not we'd have to return no addresses at all. :)
969 $flags &= ~(AI_V4MAPPED()|AI_ALL()|AI_ADDRCONFIG());
970
971 $flags & (AI_IDN()|AI_CANONIDN()|AI_IDN_ALLOW_UNASSIGNED()|AI_IDN_USE_STD3_ASCII_RULES()) and
972 croak "Socket::getaddrinfo() does not support IDN";
973
0f41f5e2
PLE
974 $flags == 0 or return fake_makeerr( EAI_BADFLAGS() );
975
976 $node eq "" and $service eq "" and return fake_makeerr( EAI_NONAME() );
977
978 my $canonname;
979 my @addrs;
980 if( $node ne "" ) {
981 return fake_makeerr( EAI_NONAME() ) if( $flag_numerichost and $node !~ m/^$REGEXP_IPv4_DOTTEDQUAD$/ );
982 ( $canonname, undef, undef, undef, @addrs ) = gethostbyname( $node );
983 defined $canonname or return fake_makeerr( EAI_NONAME() );
984
985 undef $canonname unless $flag_canonname;
986 }
987 else {
988 $addrs[0] = $flag_passive ? Socket::inet_aton( "0.0.0.0" )
989 : Socket::inet_aton( "127.0.0.1" );
990 }
991
992 my @ports; # Actually ARRAYrefs of [ socktype, protocol, port ]
993 my $protname = "";
994 if( $protocol ) {
995 $protname = getprotobynumber( $protocol );
996 }
997
998 if( $service ne "" and $service !~ m/^\d+$/ ) {
999 return fake_makeerr( EAI_NONAME() ) if( $flag_numericserv );
1000 getservbyname( $service, $protname ) or return fake_makeerr( EAI_SERVICE() );
1001 }
1002
1003 foreach my $this_socktype ( Socket::SOCK_STREAM(), Socket::SOCK_DGRAM(), Socket::SOCK_RAW() ) {
1004 next if $socktype and $this_socktype != $socktype;
1005
1006 my $this_protname = "raw";
1007 $this_socktype == Socket::SOCK_STREAM() and $this_protname = "tcp";
1008 $this_socktype == Socket::SOCK_DGRAM() and $this_protname = "udp";
1009
1010 next if $protname and $this_protname ne $protname;
1011
1012 my $port;
1013 if( $service ne "" ) {
1014 if( $service =~ m/^\d+$/ ) {
1015 $port = "$service";
1016 }
1017 else {
1018 ( undef, undef, $port, $this_protname ) = getservbyname( $service, $this_protname );
1019 next unless defined $port;
1020 }
1021 }
1022 else {
1023 $port = 0;
1024 }
1025
1026 push @ports, [ $this_socktype, scalar getprotobyname( $this_protname ) || 0, $port ];
1027 }
1028
1029 my @ret;
1030 foreach my $addr ( @addrs ) {
1031 foreach my $portspec ( @ports ) {
1032 my ( $socktype, $protocol, $port ) = @$portspec;
1033 push @ret, {
1034 family => $family,
1035 socktype => $socktype,
1036 protocol => $protocol,
1037 addr => Socket::pack_sockaddr_in( $port, $addr ),
0cd14f2e 1038 canonname => undef,
0f41f5e2
PLE
1039 };
1040 }
1041 }
1042
0cd14f2e
PLE
1043 # Only supply canonname for the first result
1044 if( defined $canonname ) {
1045 $ret[0]->{canonname} = $canonname;
1046 }
1047
0f41f5e2 1048 return ( fake_makeerr( 0 ), @ret );
c2219427
PLE
1049}
1050
1051sub fake_getnameinfo
1052{
c2654555 1053 my ( $addr, $flags, $xflags ) = @_;
0f41f5e2
PLE
1054
1055 my ( $port, $inetaddr );
1056 eval { ( $port, $inetaddr ) = Socket::unpack_sockaddr_in( $addr ) }
1057 or return fake_makeerr( EAI_FAMILY() );
1058
1059 my $family = Socket::AF_INET();
1060
1061 $flags ||= 0;
1062
1063 my $flag_numerichost = $flags & NI_NUMERICHOST(); $flags &= ~NI_NUMERICHOST();
1064 my $flag_numericserv = $flags & NI_NUMERICSERV(); $flags &= ~NI_NUMERICSERV();
0369a5a5 1065 my $flag_nofqdn = $flags & NI_NOFQDN(); $flags &= ~NI_NOFQDN();
0f41f5e2
PLE
1066 my $flag_namereqd = $flags & NI_NAMEREQD(); $flags &= ~NI_NAMEREQD();
1067 my $flag_dgram = $flags & NI_DGRAM() ; $flags &= ~NI_DGRAM();
1068
0369a5a5
PLE
1069 $flags & (NI_IDN()|NI_IDN_ALLOW_UNASSIGNED()|NI_IDN_USE_STD3_ASCII_RULES()) and
1070 croak "Socket::getnameinfo() does not support IDN";
1071
0f41f5e2
PLE
1072 $flags == 0 or return fake_makeerr( EAI_BADFLAGS() );
1073
c2654555
CBW
1074 $xflags ||= 0;
1075
0f41f5e2 1076 my $node;
c2654555
CBW
1077 if( $xflags & NIx_NOHOST ) {
1078 $node = undef;
1079 }
1080 elsif( $flag_numerichost ) {
0f41f5e2
PLE
1081 $node = Socket::inet_ntoa( $inetaddr );
1082 }
1083 else {
1084 $node = gethostbyaddr( $inetaddr, $family );
1085 if( !defined $node ) {
1086 return fake_makeerr( EAI_NONAME() ) if $flag_namereqd;
1087 $node = Socket::inet_ntoa( $inetaddr );
1088 }
0369a5a5
PLE
1089 elsif( $flag_nofqdn ) {
1090 my ( $shortname ) = split m/\./, $node;
1091 my ( $fqdn ) = gethostbyname $shortname;
1092 $node = $shortname if defined $fqdn and $fqdn eq $node;
1093 }
0f41f5e2
PLE
1094 }
1095
1096 my $service;
c2654555
CBW
1097 if( $xflags & NIx_NOSERV ) {
1098 $service = undef;
1099 }
1100 elsif( $flag_numericserv ) {
0f41f5e2
PLE
1101 $service = "$port";
1102 }
1103 else {
1104 my $protname = $flag_dgram ? "udp" : "";
1105 $service = getservbyport( $port, $protname );
1106 if( !defined $service ) {
1107 $service = "$port";
1108 }
1109 }
1110
1111 return ( fake_makeerr( 0 ), $node, $service );
c2219427
PLE
1112}
1113
a0d0e21e 11141;