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1=encoding utf8
2
3=head1 NAME
4
e3c71926 5perldelta - what is new for perl v5.15.5
760696b8 6
5438d4b8 7=head1 DESCRIPTION
5cd408a2 8
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9This document describes differences between the 5.15.4 release and
10the 5.15.5 release.
5cd408a2 11
3432e5a1 12If you are upgrading from an earlier release such as 5.15.3, first read
e3c71926 13L<perl5154delta>, which describes differences between 5.15.3 and
3432e5a1 145.15.4.
062678b2 15
e3c71926 16=head1 Core Enhancements
6d110ad0 17
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18=head2 More consistent C<eval>
19
20The C<eval> operator sometimes treats a string argument as a sequence of
21characters and sometimes as a sequence of bytes, depending on the internal
22encoding. The internal encoding is not supposed to make any difference,
23but there is code that relies on this inconsistency.
24
25Under C<use v5.15> and higher, the C<unicode_eval> and C<evalbytes>
26features resolve this. The C<unicode_eval> feature causes C<eval $string>
27to treat the string always as Unicode. The C<evalbytes> features provides
28a function, itself called C<evalbytes>, which evaluates its argument always
29as a string of bytes.
30
31These features also fix oddities with source filters leaking to outer
32dynamic scopes.
33
34See L<feature> for more detail.
35
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36=head2 C<$[> is back
37
38The C<$[> variable is back again, but is now implemented as a module, so
39programs that do not mention it (i.e., most of them), will not incur any
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40run-time penalty. In a later release in the 5.15 branch it might be
41disabled in the scope of C<use v5.16>.
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42
43The new implementation has some bug fixes. See L<arybase>.
6d110ad0 44
e3c71926 45=head1 Security
6d110ad0 46
2e7ab03e 47=head2 Privileges are now set correctly when assigning to C<$(>
6d110ad0 48
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49A hypothetical bug (probably non-exploitable in practice) due to the
50incorrect setting of the effective group ID while setting C<$(> has been
51fixed. The bug would only have affected systems that have C<setresgid()>
52but not C<setregid()>, but no such systems are known of.
6d110ad0 53
e3c71926 54=head1 Incompatible Changes
6d110ad0 55
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56=head2 Certain deprecated Unicode properties are no longer supported by default
57
58Perl should never have exposed certain Unicode properties that are used
59by Unicode internally and not meant to be publicly available. Use of
60these has generated deprecated warning messages since Perl 5.12. The
61removed properties are Other_Alphabetic,
62Other_Default_Ignorable_Code_Point, Other_Grapheme_Extend,
63Other_ID_Continue, Other_ID_Start, Other_Lowercase, Other_Math, and
64Other_Uppercase.
65
66Perl may be recompiled to include any or all of them; instructions are
67given in
68L<perluniprops/Unicode character properties that are NOT accepted by Perl>.
69
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70=head2 Dereferencing IO thingies as typeglobs
71
72The C<*{...}> operator, when passed a reference to an IO thingy (as in
73C<*{*STDIN{IO}}>), creates a new typeglob containing just that IO object.
74
75Previously, it would stringify as an empty string, but some operators would
76treat it as undefined, producing an "uninitialized" warning.
77
78Having a typeglob appear as an empty string is a side effect of the
79implementation that has caused various bugs over the years.
80
81The solution was to make it stringify like a normal anonymous typeglob,
2e7ab03e 82like those produced by C<< open($foo->{bar}, ...) >> [perl #96326].
ad32999b 83
e3c71926 84=head1 Deprecations
6d110ad0 85
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86=head2 Don't read the Unicode data base files in F<lib/unicore>
87
88It is now deprecated to directly read the Unicode data base files.
89These are stored in the F<lib/unicore> directory. Instead, you should
90use the new functions in L<Unicode::UCD>. These provide a stable API,
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91and give complete information. (This API is, however, subject to change
92somewhat during the 5.15 development cycle, as we gain experience and
93get feedback from using it.)
94
95Perl may at some point in the future change or remove the files. The
96file most likely for applications to have used is F<lib/unicore/ToDigit.pl>.
97L<Unicode::UCD/prop_invmap()> can be used to get at its data instead.
ae92a9ae 98
e3c71926 99=head1 Performance Enhancements
6d110ad0 100
e3c71926 101=over 4
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102
103=item *
104
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105Due to changes in L<File::Glob>, Perl's C<glob> function and its
106C<< <...> >> equivalent are now much faster. The splitting of the pattern
107into words has been rewritten in C, resulting in speed-ups of 20% in some
108cases.
109
110This does not affect VMS, as it does not use File::Glob.
6d110ad0 111
e3c71926 112=back
6d110ad0 113
e3c71926 114=head1 Modules and Pragmata
6d110ad0 115
e3c71926 116=head2 New Modules and Pragmata
6d110ad0 117
e3c71926 118=over 4
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119
120=item *
121
a3f52e2e 122L<arybase> -- this new module implements the C<$[> variable.
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123
124=back
125
e3c71926 126=head2 Updated Modules and Pragmata
6d110ad0 127
e3c71926 128=over 4
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129
130=item *
131
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132L<Archive::Extract> has been upgraded from version 0.56 to version 0.58.
133
134=item *
135
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136L<B::Concise> has been upgraded from version 0.86 to version 0.87.
137
138=item *
139
140L<B::Deparse> has been upgraded from version 1.08 to version 1.09.
a3f52e2e 141
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142It now correctly deparses C<CORE::do>, C<CORE::glob> and slices of empty
143lists.
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144
145=item *
146
cc947deb 147L<CGI> has been upgraded from version 3.55 to version 3.58.
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148
149Use public and documented FCGI.pm API in CGI::Fast
150CGI::Fast was using an FCGI API that was deprecated and removed from
151documentation more than ten years ago. Usage of this deprecated API with
2e7ab03e 152FCGI E<gt>= 0.70 or FCGI E<lt>= 0.73 introduces a security issue.
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153L<https://rt.cpan.org/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=68380>
154L<http://web.nvd.nist.gov/view/vuln/detail?vulnId=CVE-2011-2766>
155
156=item *
157
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158L<charnames> has been upgraded from version 1.23 to version 1.24.
159
160=item *
161
a32349f5 162L<Compress::Raw::Bzip2> has been upgraded from version 2.037 to version 2.042.
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163
164=item *
165
54172f84 166L<Compress::Raw::Zlib> has been upgraded from version 2.037 to version 2.042.
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167
168=item *
169
aad9a0d9 170L<Compress::Zlib> has been upgraded from version 2.037 to version 2.042.
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171
172=item *
173
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174L<CPANPLUS> has been upgraded from version 0.9111 to version 0.9112.
175
176=item *
177
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178L<CPANPLUS::Dist::Build> has been upgraded from version 0.58 to version 0.60.
179
180=item *
181
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182L<Digest::SHA> has been upgraded from version 5.62 to version 5.63.
183
184Added code to allow very large data inputs all at once, which had previously been
185limited to several hundred megabytes at a time
186
187=item *
188
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189L<Errno> has been upgraded from version 1.14 to version 1.15.
190
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191Choosing an archname containing a @, $ or % character no longer results in
192unintended interpolation in Errno's architecture check.
193
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194=item *
195
f3640611 196L<ExtUtils::MakeMaker> has been upgraded from version 6.61_01 to version 6.63_02.
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197
198=item *
199
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200L<feature> has been upgraded from version 1.22 to version 1.23.
201
202=item *
203
204L<File::DosGlob> has been upgraded from version 1.05 to version 1.06.
205
206=item *
207
208L<File::Glob> has been upgraded from version 1.13 to version 1.14.
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209
210It has a new C<:bsd_glob> export tag, intended to replace C<:glob>. Like
211C<:glob> it overrides C<glob> with a function that does not split the glob
212pattern into words, but, unlike C<:glob>, it iterates properly in scalar
213context, instead of returning the last file.
214
215There are other changes affecting Perl's own C<glob> operator (which uses
216File::Glob internally, except on VMS). See L</Performance Enhancements>
217and L</Selected Bug Fixes>.
218
219=item *
220
6ce52845 221L<HTTP::Tiny> has been upgraded from version 0.013 to version 0.016.
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222
223Adds additional shorthand methods for all common HTTP verbs,
224a C<post_form()> method for POST-ing x-www-form-urlencoded data and
225a C<www_form_urlencode()> utility method.
6d110ad0 226
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227=item *
228
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229L<Module::CoreList> has been upgraded from version 2.57 to version 2.58.
230
231=item *
232
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233L<Opcode> has been upgraded from version 1.20 to version 1.21.
234
235=item *
236
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237L<perlfaq> has been upgraded from version 5.0150035 to version 5.0150036.
238
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239=item *
240
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241L<Socket> as been upgraded from version 1.94_01 to 1.94_02.
242
243It has new functions and constants for handling IPv6 sockets:
244
245 pack_ipv6_mreq
246 unpack_ipv6_mreq
247 IPV6_ADD_MEMBERSHIP
248 IPV6_DROP_MEMBERSHIP
249 IPV6_MTU
250 IPV6_MTU_DISCOVER
251 IPV6_MULTICAST_HOPS
252 IPV6_MULTICAST_IF
253 IPV6_MULTICAST_LOOP
254 IPV6_UNICAST_HOPS
255 IPV6_V6ONLY
256
257=item *
258
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259L<Storable> has been upgraded from version 2.32 to 2.33.
260
261The ability to add a fake entry to %INC to prevent Log::Agent from loading
262has been restored. In version 2.27 (included with perl 5.14.0), Storable
263starting producing an error instead.
264
265=item *
266
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267L<strict> has been upgraded from version 1.04 to version 1.05.
268
269=item *
270
46267efc 271L<Unicode::Collate> has been upgraded from version 0.80 to version 0.85.
a47fb3fe 272
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273Locales updated to CLDR 2.0: mk, mt, nb, nn, ro, ru, sk, sr, sv, uk,
274zh__pinyin, zh__stroke
275Newly supported locales: bn, fa, ml, mr, or, pa, sa, si, si__dictionary,
d88bd77a 276sr_Latn, sv__reformed, ta, te, th, ur, wae.
a47fb3fe 277
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278=item *
279
280L<Unicode::UCD> has been upgraded from version 0.36 to version 0.37.
6138a722 281
62b3b855 282This adds four new functions: C<prop_aliases()>, and
7ef25837 283C<prop_value_aliases()> which are used to find all the Unicode-approved
681d705c 284synonyms for property names, or to convert from one name to another;
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285C<prop_invlist> which returns all the code points matching a given
286Unicode binary property; and C<prop_invmap> which returns the complete
287specification of a given Unicode property.
7ef25837 288
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289=item *
290
6138a722 291L<UNIVERSAL> has been upgraded from version 1.09 to version 1.10.
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292
293=back
294
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295=head1 Diagnostics
296
297The following additions or changes have been made to diagnostic output,
298including warnings and fatal error messages. For the complete list of
299diagnostic messages, see L<perldiag>.
6d110ad0 300
e3c71926 301=head2 New Diagnostics
46dd4080 302
e3c71926 303=head3 New Errors
d6cf2367 304
63ac71b9 305=over 4
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306
307=item *
308
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309L<Source filters apply only to byte streams|perldiag/"Source filters apply only to byte streams">
310
311This new error occurs when you try to activate a source filter (usually by
312loading a source filter module) within a string passed to C<eval> under the
313C<unicode_eval> feature.
314
315=item *
316
317L<That use of $[ is unsupported|perldiag/"That use of $[ is unsupported">
318
319This previously removed error has been restored with the re-implementation
320of C<$[> as a module.
828d6195 321
3432e5a1 322=back
83307084 323
e3c71926 324=head3 New Warnings
d39de893 325
3432e5a1 326=over 4
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327
328=item *
329
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330L<length() used on %s|perldiag/length() used on %s>
331
332This new warning occurs when C<length> is used on an array or hash, instead
333of C<scalar(@array)> or C<scalar(keys %hash)>.
334
335=item *
336
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337L<$[ used in %s (did you mean $] ?)|perldiag/"$[ used in %s (did you mean $] ?)">
338
339This new warning exists to catch the mistaken use of C<$[> in version
340checks. C<$]>, not C<$[>, contains the version number. C<$[> in a numeric
341comparison is almost always wrong.
666c7ca6 342
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343=item *
344
2e7ab03e 345L<Use of assignment to $[ is deprecated|perldiag/"Use of assignment to $[ is deprecated">
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346
347This previously removed warning has been restored with the re-implementation
348of C<$[> as a module.
349
e3c71926 350=back
7b8e5ef0 351
e3c71926 352=head2 Changes to Existing Diagnostics
91710846 353
e3c71926 354=over 4
91710846
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355
356=item *
357
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358The uninitialized warning for C<y///r> when C<$_> is implicit and undefined
359now mentions the variable name, just like the non-/r variation of the
360operator.
a2fa999d 361
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362=item *
363
364The "Applying pattern match..." or similar warning produced when an array
365or hash is on the left-hand side of the C<=~> operator now mentions the
366name of the variable.
367
e3c71926 368=back
a2fa999d 369
6138a722 370=head1 Configuration and Compilation
bd65daab 371
e3c71926 372=over 4
bd65daab 373
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374=item *
375
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376F<pod/buildtoc>, used by the build process to build L<perltoc>, has been
377refactored and simplified. It now only contains code to build L<perltoc>;
378the code to regenerate Makefiles has been moved to F<Porting/pod_rules.pl>.
6138a722 379It's a bug if this change has any material effect on the build process.
b420b12a 380
3432e5a1 381=back
b420b12a 382
e3c71926 383=head1 Platform Support
b53e16ae 384
347e96f6 385=head2 Platform-Specific Notes
3432e5a1 386
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387=over 4
388
347e96f6 389=item GNU/Hurd
9cfd094e 390
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391Numerous build and test failures on GNU/Hurd have been resolved with hints
392for building DBM modules, detection of the library search path, and enabling
393of large file support.
e3c71926 394
347e96f6 395=item OpenVOS
9cfd094e 396
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397Perl is now built with dynamic linking on OpenVOS, the minimum supported
398version of which is now Release 17.1.0.
95f7e41f 399
347e96f6 400=item SunOS
95f7e41f 401
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402The CC workshop C++ compiler is now detected and used on systems that ship
403without cc.
df5b44bd 404
63ac71b9 405=back
310913d4 406
3432e5a1 407=head1 Internal Changes
d6cf2367 408
e3c71926 409=over 4
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410
411=item *
412
a3f52e2e 413C<PL_curstash> is now reference-counted.
b53e16ae 414
3432e5a1 415=back
60092ce4 416
3432e5a1 417=head1 Selected Bug Fixes
309aab3a 418
e3c71926 419=over 4
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420
421=item *
422
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423Perl now holds an extra reference count on the package that code is
424currently compiling in. This means that the following code no longer crashes [perl #101486]:
425
426 package Foo;
427 BEGIN {*Foo:: = *Bar::}
428 sub foo;
429
430=item *
431
432F<dumpvar.pl>, and consequently the C<x> command in the debugger, have been
433fixed to handle objects blessed into classes whose names contain "=". The
434contents of such objects used not to be dumped [perl #101814].
435
436=item *
437
438The C<x> repetition operator no longer crashes on 64-bit builds with large
2e7ab03e 439repeat counts [perl #94560].
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440
441=item *
442
443A fix to C<glob> under miniperl (used to configure modules when perl itself
444is built) in Perl 5.15.3 stopped C<< <~> >> from returning the home
445directory, because it cleared %ENV before calling csh. Now C<$ENV{HOME}>
446is preserved. This fix probably does not affect anything. If
447L<File::Glob> fails to load for some reason, Perl reverts to using csh.
448So it would apply in that case.
449
450=item *
451
452On OSes other than VMS, Perl's C<glob> operator (and the C<< <...> >> form)
453use L<File::Glob> underneath. L<File::Glob> splits the pattern into words,
454before feeding each word to its C<bsd_glob> function.
455
456There were several inconsistencies in the way the split was done. Now
457quotation marks (' and ") are always treated as shell-style word delimiters
458(that allow whitespace as part of a word) and backslashes are always
459preserved, unless they exist to escape quotation marks. Before, those
460would only sometimes be the case, depending on whether the pattern
461contained whitespace. Also, escaped whitespace at the end of the pattern
ad32999b 462is no longer stripped [perl #40470].
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463
464=item *
465
466C<CORE::glob> now works as a way to call the default globbing function. It
467used to respect overrides, despite the C<CORE::> prefix.
468
469=item *
470
471In 5.14, C</[[:lower:]]/i> and C</[[:upper:]]/i> no longer matched the
472opposite case. This has been fixed [perl #101970].
473
474=item *
475
476A regular expression match with an overloaded object on the right-hand side
477would in some cases stringify the object too many times.
478
479=item *
480
481The C-level C<pregcomp> function could become confused as to whether the
482pattern was in UTF8 if the pattern was an overloaded, tied, or otherwise
483magical scalar [perl #101940].
ca955add 484
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485=item *
486
487A regression has been fixed that was introduced in 5.14, in C</i>
488regular expression matching, in which a match improperly fails if the
489pattern is in UTF-8, the target string is not, and a Latin-1 character
490precedes a character in the string that should match the pattern. [perl
491#101710]
492
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493=item *
494
495C<@{"..."} = reverse ...> started crashing in 5.15.3. This has been fixed.
496
497=item *
498
499C<ref> in a tainted expression started producing an "sv_upgrade" error in
5005.15.4. This has been fixed.
501
502=item *
503
504Weak references to lexical hashes going out of scope were not going stale
505(becoming undefined), but continued to point to the hash.
506
507=item *
508
509Weak references to lexical variables going out of scope are now broken
510before any magical methods (e.g., DESTROY on a tie object) are called.
511This prevents such methods from modifying the variable that will be seen
512the next time the scope is entered.
513
514=item *
515
516A C<keys> optimisation in Perl 5.12.0 to make it faster on empty hashes
517caused C<each> not to reset the iterator if called after the last element
518was deleted. This has been fixed.
519
520=item *
521
522The C<#line 42 foo> directive used not to update the arrays of lines used
523by the debugger if it occurred in a string eval. This was partially fixed
524in 5.14, but it only worked for a single C<#line 42 foo> in each eval. Now
525it works for multiple.
526
527=item *
528
529String eval used not to localise C<%^H> when compiling its argument if it
530was empty at the time the C<eval> call itself was compiled. This could
531lead to scary side effects, like C<use re "/m"> enabling other flags that
532the surrounding code was trying to enable for its caller [perl #68750].
533
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534=item *
535
536Creating a BEGIN block from XS code (via C<newXS> or C<newATTRSUB>) would,
537on completion, make the hints of the current compiling code the current
538hints. This could cause warnings to occur in a non-warning scope.
539
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540=item *
541
542C<eval $string> and C<require> no longer localise hints (C<$^H> and C<%^H>)
543at run time, but only during compilation of the $string or required file.
544This makes C<BEGIN { $^H{foo}=7 }> equivalent to
545C<BEGIN { eval '$^H{foo}=7' }> [perl #70151].
546
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547=item *
548
549When subroutine calls are intercepted by the debugger, the name of the
550subroutine or a reference to it is stored in C<$DB::sub>, for the debugger
551to access. In some cases (such as C<$foo = *bar; undef *bar; &$foo>)
552C<$DB::sub> would be set to a name that could not be used to find the
553subroutine, and so the debugger's attempt to call it would fail. Now the
554check to see whether a reference is needed is more robust, so those
555problems should not happen anymore [rt.cpan.org #69862].
556
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557=item *
558
559Localising a tied scalar that returns a typeglob no longer stops it from
560being tied till the end of the scope.
561
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562=item *
563
564When C<open> is called with three arguments, the third being a file handle
565(as in C<< open $fh, ">&", $fh2 >>), if the third argument is tied or a
566reference to a tied variable, FETCH is now called exactly once, instead of
5670, 2, or 3 times (all of which could occur in various circumstances).
568
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569=item *
570
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571C<sort> no longer ignores FETCH when passed a reference to a tied glob for
572the comparison routine.
bf19b80e 573
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574=item *
575
576Warnings emitted by C<sort> when a custom comparison routine returns a
577non-numeric value now show the line number of the C<sort> operator, rather
578than the last line of the comparison routine. The warnings also occur now
579only if warnings are enabled in the scope where C<sort> occurs. Previously
580the warnings would occur if enabled in the comparison routine's scope.
581
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582=item *
583
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584C<Internals::SvREFCNT> now behaves consistently in 'get' and 'set' scenarios
585[perl #103222] and also treats the reference count as unsigned.
b53e16ae 586
7c864bb3
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587=item *
588
589Calling C<require> on an implicit C<$_> when C<*CORE::GLOBAL::require> has
590been overridden does not segfault anymore, and C<$_> is now passed to the
591overriding subroutine [perl #78260].
592
63ac71b9 593=back
bbc28bfc 594
e3c71926 595=head1 Acknowledgements
a777c865 596
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597Perl 5.15.5 represents approximately 1 month of development since Perl 5.15.4
598and contains approximately 28,000 lines of changes across 440 files from 29
599authors.
600
601Perl continues to flourish into its third decade thanks to a vibrant community
602of users and developers. The following people are known to have contributed the
603improvements that became Perl 5.15.5:
604
605Brian Fraser, Chris 'BinGOs' Williams, chromatic, Craig A. Berry, David Golden,
606Father Chrysostomos, Florian Ragwitz, H.Merijn Brand, Jilles Tjoelker, Jim
607Meyering, Karl Williamson, Laurent Dami, Leon Timmermans, Mark A. Stratman,
608Matthew Horsfall, Michael G Schwern, Moritz Lenz, Nicholas Clark, Paul Evans,
609Paul Green, Paul Johnson, Perlover, Pino Toscano, Reini Urban, Steve Hay, Tom
610Christiansen, Tony Cook, Vincent Pit, Zefram.
611
612The list above is almost certainly incomplete as it is automatically generated
613from version control history. In particular, it does not include the names of
614the (very much appreciated) contributors who reported issues to the Perl bug
615tracker.
616
617Many of the changes included in this version originated in the CPAN modules
618included in Perl's core. We're grateful to the entire CPAN community for
619helping Perl to flourish.
620
621For a more complete list of all of Perl's historical contributors, please see
622the F<AUTHORS> file in the Perl source distribution.
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624=head1 Reporting Bugs
625
626If you find what you think is a bug, you might check the articles
34dc2ec0 627recently posted to the comp.lang.perl.misc newsgroup and the perl
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628bug database at http://rt.perl.org/perlbug/ . There may also be
629information at http://www.perl.org/ , the Perl Home Page.
630
631If you believe you have an unreported bug, please run the L<perlbug>
632program included with your release. Be sure to trim your bug down
633to a tiny but sufficient test case. Your bug report, along with the
634output of C<perl -V>, will be sent off to perlbug@perl.org to be
635analysed by the Perl porting team.
636
637If the bug you are reporting has security implications, which make it
638inappropriate to send to a publicly archived mailing list, then please send
34dc2ec0 639it to perl5-security-report@perl.org. This points to a closed subscription
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640unarchived mailing list, which includes
641all the core committers, who will be able
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642to help assess the impact of issues, figure out a resolution, and help
643co-ordinate the release of patches to mitigate or fix the problem across all
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644platforms on which Perl is supported. Please only use this address for
645security issues in the Perl core, not for modules independently
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646distributed on CPAN.
647
648=head1 SEE ALSO
649
650The F<Changes> file for an explanation of how to view exhaustive details
651on what changed.
652
653The F<INSTALL> file for how to build Perl.
654
655The F<README> file for general stuff.
656
657The F<Artistic> and F<Copying> files for copyright information.
658
659=cut