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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
2It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is specially
3designed to be readable as is.
4
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5=head1 NAME
6
7Install - Build and Installation guide for perl5.
8
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9=head1 Reporting Problems
10
11Wherever possible please use the perlbug tool supplied with this Perl
12to report problems, as it automatically includes summary configuration
13information about your perl, which may help us track down problems far
14more quickly. But first you should read the advice in this file,
15carefully re-read the error message and check the relevant manual pages
16on your system, as these may help you find an immediate solution. If
17you are not sure whether what you are seeing is a bug, you can send a
18message describing the problem to the comp.lang.perl.misc newsgroup to
19get advice.
20
21The perlbug tool is installed along with perl, so after you have
22completed C<make install> it should be possible to run it with plain
23C<perlbug>. If the install fails, or you want to report problems with
24C<make test> without installing perl, then you can use C<make nok> to
25run perlbug to report the problem, or run it by hand from this source
26directory with C<./perl -Ilib utils/perlbug>
27
28If the build fails too early to run perlbug uninstalled, then please
29B<run> the C<./myconfig> shell script, and mail its output along with
30an accurate description of your problem to perlbug@perl.org
31
ce80d64e 32If Configure itself fails, and does not generate a config.sh file
40dd8381 33(needed to run C<./myconfig>), then please mail perlbug@perl.org the
ce80d64e 34description of how Configure fails along with details of your system
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35- for example the output from running C<uname -a>
36
37Please try to make your message brief but clear. Brief, clear bug
38reports tend to get answered more quickly. Please don't worry if your
39written English is not great - what matters is how well you describe
40the important technical details of the problem you have encountered,
41not whether your grammar and spelling is flawless.
42
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43Trim out unnecessary information. Do not include large files (such as
44config.sh or a complete Configure or make log) unless absolutely
45necessary. Do not include a complete transcript of your build
46session. Just include the failing commands, the relevant error
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47messages, and whatever preceding commands are necessary to give the
48appropriate context. Plain text should usually be sufficient--fancy
49attachments or encodings may actually reduce the number of people who
50read your message. Your message will get relayed to over 400
51subscribers around the world so please try to keep it brief but clear.
52
53If you are unsure what makes a good bug report please read "How to
54report Bugs Effectively" by Simon Tatham:
55http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/bugs.html
56
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57=head1 SYNOPSIS
58
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59First, make sure you have an up-to-date version of Perl. If you
60didn't get your Perl source from CPAN, check the latest version at
61http://www.cpan.org/src/. Perl uses a version scheme where even-numbered
62subreleases (like 5.6.x and 5.8.x) are stable maintenance releases and
63odd-numbered subreleases (like 5.7.x and 5.9.x) are unstable
64development releases. Development releases should not be used in
65production environments. Fixes and new features are first carefully
66tested in development releases and only if they prove themselves to be
67worthy will they be migrated to the maintenance releases.
3ce0d271 68
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69The basic steps to build and install perl5 on a Unix system with all
70the defaults are:
8e07c86e 71
dc45a647 72 rm -f config.sh Policy.sh
491517e0 73 sh Configure -de
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74 make
75 make test
76 make install
36477c24 77
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78Each of these is explained in further detail below.
79
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80The above commands will install Perl to /usr/local (or some other
81platform-specific directory -- see the appropriate file in hints/.)
ce80d64e 82If that's not okay with you, can run Configure interactively and use
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83
84 rm -f config.sh Policy.sh
85 sh Configure
86 make
87 make test
88 make install
89
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90 # You may also wish to add these:
91 (cd /usr/include && h2ph *.h sys/*.h)
92 (installhtml --help)
93 (cd pod && make tex && <process the latex files>)
adbebc0b 94
ce80d64e 95or you can use some of the Configure options described below.
7f678428 96
8d74ce1c 97If you have problems, corrections, or questions, please see
40dd8381 98L<"Reporting Problems"> above.
8d74ce1c 99
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100For information on what's new in this release, see the
101pod/perldelta.pod file. For more detailed information about specific
102changes, see the Changes file.
c3edaffb 103
1ec51d55 104=head1 DESCRIPTION
edb1cbcb 105
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106This document is written in pod format as an easy way to indicate its
107structure. The pod format is described in pod/perlpod.pod, but you can
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108read it as is with any pager or editor. Headings and items are marked
109by lines beginning with '='. The other mark-up used is
110
111 B<text> embolden text, used for switches, programs or commands
112 C<code> literal code
113 L<name> A link (cross reference) to name
ce80d64e 114 F<file> A filename
1ec51d55 115
c42e3e15 116Although most of the defaults are probably fine for most users,
ce80d64e 117you should probably at least skim through this document before
1ec51d55 118proceeding.
c3edaffb 119
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120In addition to this file, check if there is a README file specific to
121your operating system, since it may provide additional or different
122instructions for building Perl. If there is a hint file for your
123system (in the hints/ directory) you should also read that hint file
124for even more information. (Unixware users should use the svr4.sh or
125the svr5.sh hint file.)
c42e3e15 126
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127For additional information about porting Perl, see the section on
128L<"Porting information"> below, and look at the files in the Porting/
129directory.
d56c5707 130
ce80d64e 131=head1 PRELIMINARIES
c42e3e15 132
ce80d64e 133=head2 Changes and Incompatibilities
c42e3e15 134
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135Please see pod/perldelta.pod for a description of the changes and
136potential incompatibilities introduced with this release. A few of
137the most important issues are listed below, but you should refer
138to pod/perldelta.pod for more detailed information.
c42e3e15 139
ce80d64e 140=head3 WARNING: This version is not binary compatible with releases of
9a664500 141Perl prior to 5.9.0.
1b1c1ae2 142
cc65bb49 143If you have built extensions (i.e. modules that include C code)
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144using an earlier version of Perl, you will need to rebuild and reinstall
145those extensions.
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146
147Pure perl modules without XS or C code should continue to work fine
148without reinstallation. See the discussions below on
149L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> and
fe23a901 150L<"Upgrading from 5.005 or 5.6 to 5.8.0"> for more details.
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151
152The standard extensions supplied with Perl will be handled automatically.
153
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154On a related issue, old modules may possibly be affected by the changes
155in the Perl language in the current release. Please see
156pod/perldelta.pod for a description of what's changed. See your
157installed copy of the perllocal.pod file for a (possibly incomplete)
158list of locally installed modules. Also see CPAN::autobundle for one
159way to make a "bundle" of your currently installed modules.
16dc217a 160
ce80d64e 161=head2 Space Requirements
eed2e782 162
9a664500 163The complete perl5 source tree takes up about 60 MB of disk space.
8756f06c 164After completing make, it takes up roughly 100 MB, though the actual
d6baa268 165total is likely to be quite system-dependent. The installation
8756f06c 166directories need something on the order of 45 MB, though again that
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167value is system-dependent. A perl build with debug symbols and
168-DDEBUGGING will require something on the order of 10 MB extra.
8e07c86e 169
aa689395 170=head1 Start with a Fresh Distribution
8e07c86e 171
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172If you have built perl before, you should clean out the build directory
173with the command
174
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175 make distclean
176
177or
178
edb1cbcb 179 make realclean
c3edaffb 180
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181The only difference between the two is that make distclean also removes
182your old config.sh and Policy.sh files.
183
184The results of a Configure run are stored in the config.sh and Policy.sh
185files. If you are upgrading from a previous version of perl, or if you
186change systems or compilers or make other significant changes, or if
187you are experiencing difficulties building perl, you should probably
d6baa268 188not re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it
8e07c86e 189
d6baa268 190 rm -f config.sh
4633a7c4 191
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192If you wish to use your old config.sh, be especially attentive to the
193version and architecture-specific questions and answers. For example,
194the default directory for architecture-dependent library modules
195includes the version name. By default, Configure will reuse your old
196name (e.g. /opt/perl/lib/i86pc-solaris/5.003) even if you're running
197Configure for a different version, e.g. 5.004. Yes, Configure should
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198probably check and correct for this, but it doesn't. Similarly, if you
199used a shared libperl.so (see below) with version numbers, you will
200probably want to adjust them as well.
e57fd563 201
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202Also, be careful to check your architecture name. For example, some
203Linux distributions use i386, while others may use i486. If you build
204it yourself, Configure uses the output of the arch command, which
205might be i586 or i686 instead. If you pick up a precompiled binary, or
206compile extensions on different systems, they might not all agree on
207the architecture name.
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208
209In short, if you wish to use your old config.sh, I recommend running
210Configure interactively rather than blindly accepting the defaults.
8e07c86e 211
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212If your reason to reuse your old config.sh is to save your particular
213installation choices, then you can probably achieve the same effect by
214using the Policy.sh file. See the section on L<"Site-wide Policy
215settings"> below. If you wish to start with a fresh distribution, you
216also need to remove any old Policy.sh files you may have with
217
218 rm -f Policy.sh
dc45a647 219
aa689395 220=head1 Run Configure
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221
222Configure will figure out various things about your system. Some
223things Configure will figure out for itself, other things it will ask
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224you about. To accept the default, just press RETURN. The default is
225almost always okay. It is normal for some things to be "NOT found",
226since Configure often searches for many different ways of performing
227the same function.
228
ce80d64e 229At any Configure prompt, you can type &-d and Configure will use the
d6baa268 230defaults from then on.
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231
232After it runs, Configure will perform variable substitution on all the
1ec51d55 233*.SH files and offer to run make depend.
8e07c86e 234
ce80d64e 235=head2 Common Configure options
844fc9f4 236
ce80d64e 237Configure supports a number of useful options. Run
844fc9f4 238
ce80d64e 239 Configure -h
d6baa268 240
ce80d64e 241to get a listing. See the Porting/Glossary file for a complete list of
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242Configure variables you can set and their definitions.
243
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244=over 4
245
246=item gcc
247
248To compile with gcc you should run
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249
250 sh Configure -Dcc=gcc
251
252This is the preferred way to specify gcc (or another alternative
253compiler) so that the hints files can set appropriate defaults.
254
d6baa268 255=item Installation prefix
4633a7c4 256
8e07c86e 257By default, for most systems, perl will be installed in
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258/usr/local/{bin, lib, man}. (See L<"Installation Directories">
259and L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> below for
260further details.)
261
262You can specify a different 'prefix' for the default installation
ce80d64e 263directory when Configure prompts you, or by using the Configure command
8d74ce1c 264line option -Dprefix='/some/directory', e.g.
8e07c86e 265
25f94b33 266 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl
4633a7c4 267
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268If your prefix contains the string "perl", then the suggested
269directory structure is simplified. For example, if you use
270prefix=/opt/perl, then Configure will suggest /opt/perl/lib instead of
271/opt/perl/lib/perl5/. Again, see L<"Installation Directories"> below
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272for more details. Do not include a trailing slash, (i.e. /opt/perl/)
273or you may experience odd test failures.
8e07c86e 274
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275NOTE: You must not specify an installation directory that is the same
276as or below your perl source directory. If you do, installperl will
277attempt infinite recursion.
84902520 278
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279=item /usr/bin/perl
280
281It may seem obvious, but Perl is useful only when users can easily
282find it. It's often a good idea to have both /usr/bin/perl and
dd64f1c3 283/usr/local/bin/perl be symlinks to the actual binary. Be especially
d6baa268 284careful, however, not to overwrite a version of perl supplied by your
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285vendor unless you are sure you know what you are doing. If you insist
286on replacing your vendor's perl, useful information on how it was
287configured may be found with
288
289 perl -V:config_args
290
291(Check the output carefully, however, since this doesn't preserve
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292spaces in arguments to Configure. For that, you have to look carefully
293at config_arg1, config_arg2, etc.)
d6baa268 294
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295By default, Configure will not try to link /usr/bin/perl to the current
296version of perl. You can turn on that behavior by running
d6baa268 297
7d56c962 298 Configure -Dinstallusrbinperl
d6baa268 299
7d56c962 300or by answering 'yes' to the appropriate Configure prompt.
d6baa268 301
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302In any case, system administrators are strongly encouraged to put
303(symlinks to) perl and its accompanying utilities, such as perldoc,
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304into a directory typically found along a user's PATH, or in another
305obvious and convenient place.
306
ce80d64e 307=item Building a development release.
04d420f9 308
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309For development releases (odd subreleases, like 5.9.x) if you want to
310use Configure -d, you will also need to supply -Dusedevel to Configure,
311because the default answer to the question "do you really want to
312Configure a development version?" is "no". The -Dusedevel skips that
313sanity check.
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314
315=back
8e07c86e 316
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317If you are willing to accept all the defaults, and you want terse
318output, you can run
319
320 sh Configure -des
321
ce80d64e 322For example for my Solaris/x86 system, I usually use
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323
324 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl -Doptimize='-xpentium -xO4' -des
325
ce80d64e 326=head2 Altering config.sh variables for C compiler switches etc.
46bb10fb 327
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328For most users, most of the Configure defaults are fine, or can easily
329be set on the Configure command line. However, if Configure doesn't
330have an option to do what you want, you can change Configure variables
331after the platform hints have been run by using Configure's -A switch.
332For example, here's how to add a couple of extra flags to C compiler
333invocations:
46bb10fb 334
2db3864f 335 sh Configure -Accflags="-DPERL_EXTERNAL_GLOB -DPERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC"
46bb10fb 336
ce80d64e 337For more help on Configure switches, run
46bb10fb 338
ce80d64e 339 sh Configure -h
46bb10fb 340
ce80d64e 341=head2 Major Configure-time Build Options
46bb10fb 342
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343There are several different ways to Configure and build perl for your
344system. For most users, the defaults are sensible and will work.
345Some users, however, may wish to further customize perl. Here are
346some of the main things you can change.
46bb10fb 347
ce80d64e 348=head3 Threads
cc65bb49 349
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350On some platforms, perl can be compiled with support for threads. To
351enable this, run
4633a7c4 352
ce80d64e 353 sh Configure -Dusethreads
4633a7c4 354
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355Currently, you need to specify -Dusethreads on the Configure command
356line so that the hint files can make appropriate adjustments.
cc65bb49 357
ce80d64e 358The default is to compile without thread support.
cc65bb49 359
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360Perl has two different internal threads implementations. The current
361model (available internally since 5.6, and as a user-level module since
3625.8) is called interpreter-based implementation (ithreads), with one
363interpreter per thread, and explicit sharing of data. The 5.005
364version (5005threads) is considered obsolete, buggy, and unmaintained.
d6baa268 365
ce80d64e 366By default, Configure selects ithreads if -Dusethreads is specified.
d6baa268 367
ce80d64e 368However, if you insist, you can select the unsupported old 5005threads behavior
d6baa268 369
ce80d64e 370 sh Configure -Dusethreads -Duse5005threads
d6baa268 371
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372The 'threads' module is for use with the ithreads implementation. The
373'Thread' module offers an interface to either 5005threads or ithreads
374(whichever has been configured).
d6baa268 375
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376When using threads, perl uses a dynamically-sized buffer for some of
377the thread-safe library calls, such as those in the getpw*() family.
378This buffer starts small, but it will keep growing until the result
379fits. To get a fixed upper limit, you should compile Perl with
380PERL_REENTRANT_MAXSIZE defined to be the number of bytes you want. One
381way to do this is to run Configure with
382C<-Accflags=-DPERL_REENTRANT_MAXSIZE=65536>
d6baa268 383
ce80d64e 384=head3 Large file support.
b367e8b0 385
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386Since Perl 5.6.0, Perl has supported large files (files larger than
3872 gigabytes), and in many common platforms like Linux or Solaris this
388support is on by default.
d6baa268 389
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390This is both good and bad. It is good in that you can use large files,
391seek(), stat(), and -s them. It is bad in that if you are interfacing Perl
392using some extension, the components you are connecting to must also
393be large file aware: if Perl thinks files can be large but the other
394parts of the software puzzle do not understand the concept, bad things
395will happen. One popular extension suffering from this ailment is the
396Apache extension mod_perl.
d6baa268 397
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398There's also one known limitation with the current large files
399implementation: unless you also have 64-bit integers (see the next
400section), you cannot use the printf/sprintf non-decimal integer formats
401like C<%x> to print filesizes. You can use C<%d>, though.
d6baa268 402
ce80d64e 403=head3 64 bit support.
d6baa268 404
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405If your platform does not have run natively at 64 bits, but can
406simulate them with compiler flags and/or C<long long> or C<int64_t>,
407you can build a perl that uses 64 bits.
d6baa268 408
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409There are actually two modes of 64-bitness: the first one is achieved
410using Configure -Duse64bitint and the second one using Configure
411-Duse64bitall. The difference is that the first one is minimal and
412the second one maximal. The first works in more places than the second.
d6baa268 413
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414The C<use64bitint> option does only as much as is required to get
41564-bit integers into Perl (this may mean, for example, using "long
416longs") while your memory may still be limited to 2 gigabytes (because
417your pointers could still be 32-bit). Note that the name C<64bitint>
418does not imply that your C compiler will be using 64-bit C<int>s (it
419might, but it doesn't have to). The C<use64bitint> simply means that
420you will be able to have 64 bit-wide scalar values.
d6baa268 421
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422The C<use64bitall> option goes all the way by attempting to switch
423integers (if it can), longs (and pointers) to being 64-bit. This may
424create an even more binary incompatible Perl than -Duse64bitint: the
425resulting executable may not run at all in a 32-bit box, or you may
426have to reboot/reconfigure/rebuild your operating system to be 64-bit
427aware.
d6baa268 428
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429Natively 64-bit systems like Alpha and Cray need neither -Duse64bitint
430nor -Duse64bitall.
d6baa268 431
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432 NOTE: 64-bit support is still experimental on most platforms.
433 Existing support only covers the LP64 data model. In particular, the
434 LLP64 data model is not yet supported. 64-bit libraries and system
435 APIs on many platforms have not stabilized--your mileage may vary.
d6baa268 436
ce80d64e 437=head3 Long doubles
d6baa268 438
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439In some systems you may be able to use long doubles to enhance the
440range and precision of your double precision floating point numbers
441(that is, Perl's numbers). Use Configure -Duselongdouble to enable
442this support (if it is available).
d6baa268 443
ce80d64e 444=head3 "more bits"
b367e8b0 445
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446You can "Configure -Dusemorebits" to turn on both the 64-bit support
447and the long double support.
b367e8b0 448
ce80d64e 449=head3 Selecting File IO mechanisms
d6baa268 450
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451Executive summary: as of Perl 5.8, you should use the default "PerlIO"
452as the IO mechanism unless you have a good reason not to.
273cf8d1 453
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454In more detail: previous versions of perl used the standard IO
455mechanisms as defined in stdio.h. Versions 5.003_02 and later of perl
456introduced alternate IO mechanisms via a "PerlIO" abstraction, but up
457until and including Perl 5.6, the stdio mechanism was still the default
458and the only supported mechanism.
d6baa268 459
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460Starting from Perl 5.8, the default mechanism is to use the PerlIO
461abstraction, because it allows better control of I/O mechanisms,
462instead of having to work with (often, work around) vendors' I/O
463implementations.
46bb10fb 464
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465This PerlIO abstraction can be (but again, unless you know what you
466are doing, should not be) disabled either on the Configure command
467line with
46bb10fb 468
6d5328bc 469 sh Configure -Uuseperlio
46bb10fb 470
6d5328bc 471or interactively at the appropriate Configure prompt.
46bb10fb 472
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473With the PerlIO abstraction layer, there is another possibility for
474the underlying IO calls, AT&T's "sfio". This has superior performance
475to stdio.h in many cases, and is extensible by the use of "discipline"
476modules ("Native" PerlIO has them too). Sfio currently only builds on
477a subset of the UNIX platforms perl supports. Because the data
478structures are completely different from stdio, perl extension modules
479or external libraries may not work. This configuration exists to
480allow these issues to be worked on.
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481
482This option requires the 'sfio' package to have been built and installed.
1b9c9cf5 483The latest sfio is available from http://www.research.att.com/sw/tools/sfio/
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484
485You select this option by
486
487 sh Configure -Duseperlio -Dusesfio
488
489If you have already selected -Duseperlio, and if Configure detects
490that you have sfio, then sfio will be the default suggested by
491Configure.
492
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493Note: On some systems, sfio's iffe configuration script fails to
494detect that you have an atexit function (or equivalent). Apparently,
495this is a problem at least for some versions of Linux and SunOS 4.
496Configure should detect this problem and warn you about problems with
497_exit vs. exit. If you have this problem, the fix is to go back to
498your sfio sources and correct iffe's guess about atexit.
33e6ee5f 499
ce80d64e 500=head3 Algorithmic Complexity Attacks on Hashes
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501
502In Perls 5.8.0 and earlier it was easy to create degenerate hashes.
503Processing such hashes would consume large amounts of CPU time,
3debabd9 504enabling a "Denial of Service" attack against Perl. Such hashes may be
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505a problem for example for mod_perl sites, sites with Perl CGI scripts
506and web services, that process data originating from external sources.
507
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508In Perl 5.8.1 a security feature was introduced to make it harder to
509create such degenerate hashes. A visible side effect of this was that
510the keys(), values(), and each() functions may return the hash elements
511in different order between different runs of Perl even with the same
512data. It also had unintended binary incompatibility issues with
513certain modules compiled against Perl 5.8.0.
514
515In Perl 5.8.2 an improved scheme was introduced. Hashes will return
516elements in the same order as Perl 5.8.0 by default. On a hash by hash
517basis, if pathological data is detected during a hash key insertion,
518then that hash will switch to an alternative random hash seed. As
519adding keys can always dramatically change returned hash element order,
520existing programs will not be affected by this, unless they
521specifically test for pre-recorded hash return order for contrived
522data. (eg the list of keys generated by C<map {"\0"x$_} 0..15> trigger
523randomisation) In effect the new implementation means that 5.8.1 scheme
524is only being used on hashes which are under attack.
525
526One can still revert to the old guaranteed repeatable order (and be
527vulnerable to attack by wily crackers) by setting the environment
528variable PERL_HASH_SEED, see L<perlrun/PERL_HASH_SEED>. Another option
529is to add -DUSE_HASH_SEED_EXPLICIT to the compilation flags (for
f80da78e 530example by using C<Configure -Accflags=-DUSE_HASH_SEED_EXPLICIT>), in
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531which case one has to explicitly set the PERL_HASH_SEED environment
532variable to enable the security feature, or by adding -DNO_HASH_SEED to
533the compilation flags to completely disable the randomisation feature.
504f80c1 534
3debabd9 535B<Perl has never guaranteed any ordering of the hash keys>, and the
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536ordering has already changed several times during the lifetime of Perl
5375. Also, the ordering of hash keys has always been, and continues to
538be, affected by the insertion order. It is likely that Perl 5.10 and
539Perl 6 will randomise all hashes. Note that because of this
540randomisation for example the Data::Dumper results will be different
541between different runs of Perl since Data::Dumper by default dumps
542hashes "unordered". The use of the Data::Dumper C<Sortkeys> option is
543recommended.
504f80c1 544
ce80d64e 545=head3 SOCKS
1b9c9cf5
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546
547Perl can be configured to be 'socksified', that is, to use the SOCKS
548TCP/IP proxy protocol library. SOCKS is used to give applications
549access to transport layer network proxies. Perl supports only SOCKS
550Version 5. You can find more about SOCKS from http://www.socks.nec.com/
551
ce80d64e 552=head3 Dynamic Loading
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553
554By default, Configure will compile perl to use dynamic loading if
555your system supports it. If you want to force perl to be compiled
556statically, you can either choose this when Configure prompts you or
557you can use the Configure command line option -Uusedl.
558
ce80d64e 559=head3 Building a shared Perl library
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560
561Currently, for most systems, the main perl executable is built by
562linking the "perl library" libperl.a with perlmain.o, your static
563extensions (usually just DynaLoader.a) and various extra libraries,
564such as -lm.
565
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566On some systems that support dynamic loading, it may be possible to
567replace libperl.a with a shared libperl.so. If you anticipate building
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568several different perl binaries (e.g. by embedding libperl into
569different programs, or by using the optional compiler extension), then
9d67150a 570you might wish to build a shared libperl.so so that all your binaries
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571can share the same library.
572
573The disadvantages are that there may be a significant performance
9d67150a 574penalty associated with the shared libperl.so, and that the overall
aa689395 575mechanism is still rather fragile with respect to different versions
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576and upgrades.
577
578In terms of performance, on my test system (Solaris 2.5_x86) the perl
9d67150a 579test suite took roughly 15% longer to run with the shared libperl.so.
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580Your system and typical applications may well give quite different
581results.
582
583The default name for the shared library is typically something like
ce80d64e 584libperl.so.6.2 (for Perl 5.6.2), or libperl.so.602, or simply
9d67150a 585libperl.so. Configure tries to guess a sensible naming convention
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586based on your C library name. Since the library gets installed in a
587version-specific architecture-dependent directory, the exact name
588isn't very important anyway, as long as your linker is happy.
589
590For some systems (mostly SVR4), building a shared libperl is required
591for dynamic loading to work, and hence is already the default.
592
593You can elect to build a shared libperl by
594
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595 sh Configure -Duseshrplib
596
597To build a shared libperl, the environment variable controlling shared
598library search (LD_LIBRARY_PATH in most systems, DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH for
599NeXTSTEP/OPENSTEP/Darwin, LIBRARY_PATH for BeOS, LD_LIBRARY_PATH/SHLIB_PATH
600for HP-UX, LIBPATH for AIX, PATH for Cygwin) must be set up to include
601the Perl build directory because that's where the shared libperl will
602be created. Configure arranges makefile to have the correct shared
603library search settings. You can find the name of the environment
604variable Perl thinks works in your your system by
605
606 grep ldlibpthname config.sh
607
608However, there are some special cases where manually setting the
609shared library path might be required. For example, if you want to run
610something like the following with the newly-built but not-yet-installed
611./perl:
612
613 cd t; ./perl misc/failing_test.t
614or
615 ./perl -Ilib ~/my_mission_critical_test
616
617then you need to set up the shared library path explicitly.
618You can do this with
619
620 LD_LIBRARY_PATH=`pwd`:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH; export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
621
622for Bourne-style shells, or
623
624 setenv LD_LIBRARY_PATH `pwd`
625
626for Csh-style shells. (This procedure may also be needed if for some
627unexpected reason Configure fails to set up makefile correctly.) (And
628again, it may be something other than LD_LIBRARY_PATH for you, see above.)
629
630You can often recognize failures to build/use a shared libperl from error
631messages complaining about a missing libperl.so (or libperl.sl in HP-UX),
632for example:
63318126:./miniperl: /sbin/loader: Fatal Error: cannot map libperl.so
634
635There is also an potential problem with the shared perl library if you
636want to have more than one "flavor" of the same version of perl (e.g.
637with and without -DDEBUGGING). For example, suppose you build and
638install a standard Perl 5.8.0 with a shared library. Then, suppose you
639try to build Perl 5.8.0 with -DDEBUGGING enabled, but everything else
640the same, including all the installation directories. How can you
641ensure that your newly built perl will link with your newly built
642libperl.so.8 rather with the installed libperl.so.8? The answer is
643that you might not be able to. The installation directory is encoded
644in the perl binary with the LD_RUN_PATH environment variable (or
645equivalent ld command-line option). On Solaris, you can override that
646with LD_LIBRARY_PATH; on Linux, you can only override at runtime via
647LD_PRELOAD, specifying the exact filename you wish to be used; and on
648Digital Unix, you can override LD_LIBRARY_PATH by setting the
649_RLD_ROOT environment variable to point to the perl build directory.
650
651In other words, it is generally not a good idea to try to build a perl
652with a shared library if $archlib/CORE/$libperl already exists from a
653previous build.
654
655A good workaround is to specify a different directory for the
656architecture-dependent library for your -DDEBUGGING version of perl.
657You can do this by changing all the *archlib* variables in config.sh to
658point to your new architecture-dependent library.
659
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660=head3 Environment access
661
662Perl often needs to write to the program's environment, such as when C<%ENV>
663is assigned to. Many implementations of the C library function C<putenv()>
664leak memory, so where possible perl will manipulate the environment directly
665to avoid these leaks. The default is now to perform direct manipulation
666whenever perl is running as a stand alone interpreter, and to call the safe
667but potentially leaky C<putenv()> function when the perl interpreter is
668embedded in another application. You can force perl to always use C<putenv()>
669by compiling with -DPERL_USE_SAVE_PUTENV. You can force an embedded perl to
670use direct manipulation by setting C<PL_use_safe_putenv = 0;> after the
671C<perl_construct()> call.
672
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673=head2 Installation Directories
674
675The installation directories can all be changed by answering the
676appropriate questions in Configure. For convenience, all the
677installation questions are near the beginning of Configure.
678Do not include trailing slashes on directory names.
679
680I highly recommend running Configure interactively to be sure it puts
681everything where you want it. At any point during the Configure
682process, you can answer a question with &-d and Configure will use
683the defaults from then on. Alternatively, you can
684
685 grep '^install' config.sh
686
687after Configure has run to verify the installation paths.
688
689The defaults are intended to be reasonable and sensible for most
690people building from sources. Those who build and distribute binary
691distributions or who export perl to a range of systems will probably
692need to alter them. If you are content to just accept the defaults,
693you can safely skip the next section.
694
695The directories set up by Configure fall into three broad categories.
696
697=over 4
698
699=item Directories for the perl distribution
700
701By default, Configure will use the following directories for 5.9.0.
702$version is the full perl version number, including subversion, e.g.
7035.9.0 or 5.9.1, and $archname is a string like sun4-sunos,
704determined by Configure. The full definitions of all Configure
705variables are in the file Porting/Glossary.
706
707 Configure variable Default value
708 $prefixexp /usr/local
709 $binexp $prefixexp/bin
710 $scriptdirexp $prefixexp/bin
711 $privlibexp $prefixexp/lib/perl5/$version
712 $archlibexp $prefixexp/lib/perl5/$version/$archname
713 $man1direxp $prefixexp/man/man1
714 $man3direxp $prefixexp/man/man3
715 $html1direxp (none)
716 $html3direxp (none)
717
718$prefixexp is generated from $prefix, with ~ expansion done to convert home
719directories into absolute paths. Similarly for the other variables listed. As
720file system calls do not do this, you should always reference the ...exp
721variables, to support users who build perl in their home directory.
722
723Actually, Configure recognizes the SVR3-style
724/usr/local/man/l_man/man1 directories, if present, and uses those
725instead. Also, if $prefix contains the string "perl", the library
726directories are simplified as described below. For simplicity, only
727the common style is shown here.
728
729=item Directories for site-specific add-on files
730
731After perl is installed, you may later wish to add modules (e.g. from
732CPAN) or scripts. Configure will set up the following directories to
733be used for installing those add-on modules and scripts.
734
735 Configure variable Default value
736 $siteprefixexp $prefixexp
737 $sitebinexp $siteprefixexp/bin
738 $sitescriptexp $siteprefixexp/bin
739 $sitelibexp $siteprefixexp/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version
740 $sitearchexp $siteprefixexp/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version/$archname
741 $siteman1direxp $siteprefixexp/man/man1
742 $siteman3direxp $siteprefixexp/man/man3
743 $sitehtml1direxp (none)
744 $sitehtml3direxp (none)
745
746By default, ExtUtils::MakeMaker will install architecture-independent
747modules into $sitelib and architecture-dependent modules into $sitearch.
748
749=item Directories for vendor-supplied add-on files
750
751Lastly, if you are building a binary distribution of perl for
752distribution, Configure can optionally set up the following directories
753for you to use to distribute add-on modules.
754
755 Configure variable Default value
756 $vendorprefixexp (none)
757 (The next ones are set only if vendorprefix is set.)
758 $vendorbinexp $vendorprefixexp/bin
759 $vendorscriptexp $vendorprefixexp/bin
760 $vendorlibexp
761 $vendorprefixexp/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version
762 $vendorarchexp
763 $vendorprefixexp/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version/$archname
764 $vendorman1direxp $vendorprefixexp/man/man1
765 $vendorman3direxp $vendorprefixexp/man/man3
766 $vendorhtml1direxp (none)
767 $vendorhtml3direxp (none)
768
769These are normally empty, but may be set as needed. For example,
770a vendor might choose the following settings:
771
772 $prefix /usr
773 $siteprefix /usr/local
774 $vendorprefix /usr
775
776This would have the effect of setting the following:
777
778 $binexp /usr/bin
779 $scriptdirexp /usr/bin
780 $privlibexp /usr/lib/perl5/$version
781 $archlibexp /usr/lib/perl5/$version/$archname
782 $man1direxp /usr/man/man1
783 $man3direxp /usr/man/man3
784
785 $sitebinexp /usr/local/bin
786 $sitescriptexp /usr/local/bin
787 $sitelibexp /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version
788 $sitearchexp /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version/$archname
789 $siteman1direxp /usr/local/man/man1
790 $siteman3direxp /usr/local/man/man3
791
792 $vendorbinexp /usr/bin
793 $vendorscriptexp /usr/bin
794 $vendorlibexp /usr/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version
795 $vendorarchexp /usr/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version/$archname
796 $vendorman1direxp /usr/man/man1
797 $vendorman3direxp /usr/man/man3
798
799Note how in this example, the vendor-supplied directories are in the
800/usr hierarchy, while the directories reserved for the end-user are in
801the /usr/local hierarchy.
802
803The entire installed library hierarchy is installed in locations with
804version numbers, keeping the installations of different versions distinct.
805However, later installations of Perl can still be configured to search the
806installed libraries corresponding to compatible earlier versions.
807See L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> below for more details
808on how Perl can be made to search older version directories.
809
810Of course you may use these directories however you see fit. For
811example, you may wish to use $siteprefix for site-specific files that
812are stored locally on your own disk and use $vendorprefix for
813site-specific files that are stored elsewhere on your organization's
814network. One way to do that would be something like
815
816 sh Configure -Dsiteprefix=/usr/local -Dvendorprefix=/usr/share/perl
817
818=item otherlibdirs
819
820As a final catch-all, Configure also offers an $otherlibdirs
821variable. This variable contains a colon-separated list of additional
822directories to add to @INC. By default, it will be empty.
823Perl will search these directories (including architecture and
824version-specific subdirectories) for add-on modules and extensions.
825
826For example, if you have a bundle of perl libraries from a previous
827installation, perhaps in a strange place:
828
829 Configure -Dotherlibdirs=/usr/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.1
830
831=item APPLLIB_EXP
832
833There is one other way of adding paths to @INC at perl build time, and
834that is by setting the APPLLIB_EXP C pre-processor token to a colon-
835separated list of directories, like this
836
837 sh Configure -Accflags='-DAPPLLIB_EXP=\"/usr/libperl\"'
838
839The directories defined by APPLLIB_EXP get added to @INC I<first>,
840ahead of any others, and so provide a way to override the standard perl
841modules should you, for example, want to distribute fixes without
842touching the perl distribution proper. And, like otherlib dirs,
843version and architecture specific subdirectories are also searched, if
844present, at run time. Of course, you can still search other @INC
845directories ahead of those in APPLLIB_EXP by using any of the standard
846run-time methods: $PERLLIB, $PERL5LIB, -I, use lib, etc.
847
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848=item USE_SITECUSTOMIZE
849
850Run-time customization of @INC can be enabled with:
851
36de116d 852 sh Configure -Dusesitecustomize
20ef40cf 853
36de116d 854Which will define USE_SITECUSTOMIZE and $Config{usesitecustomize}.
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855When enabled, make perl run F<$sitelibexp/sitecustomize.pl> before
856anything else. This script can then be set up to add additional
857entries to @INC.
858
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859=item Man Pages
860
861In versions 5.005_57 and earlier, the default was to store module man
862pages in a version-specific directory, such as
863/usr/local/lib/perl5/$version/man/man3. The default for 5.005_58 and
864after is /usr/local/man/man3 so that most users can find the man pages
865without resetting MANPATH.
866
867You can continue to use the old default from the command line with
868
869 sh Configure -Dman3dir=/usr/local/lib/perl5/5.9.0/man/man3
870
871Some users also prefer to use a .3pm suffix. You can do that with
872
873 sh Configure -Dman3ext=3pm
874
875Again, these are just the defaults, and can be changed as you run
876Configure.
877
878=item HTML pages
879
880Currently, the standard perl installation does not do anything with
881HTML documentation, but that may change in the future. Further, some
882add-on modules may wish to install HTML documents. The html Configure
883variables listed above are provided if you wish to specify where such
884documents should be placed. The default is "none", but will likely
885eventually change to something useful based on user feedback.
886
887=back
888
889Some users prefer to append a "/share" to $privlib and $sitelib
890to emphasize that those directories can be shared among different
891architectures.
892
893Note that these are just the defaults. You can actually structure the
894directories any way you like. They don't even have to be on the same
895filesystem.
c3edaffb 896
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897Further details about the installation directories, maintenance and
898development subversions, and about supporting multiple versions are
899discussed in L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> below.
10c7e831 900
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901If you specify a prefix that contains the string "perl", then the
902library directory structure is slightly simplified. Instead of
903suggesting $prefix/lib/perl5/, Configure will suggest $prefix/lib.
2bf2710f 904
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905Thus, for example, if you Configure with
906-Dprefix=/opt/perl, then the default library directories for 5.9.0 are
2bf2710f 907
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908 Configure variable Default value
909 $privlib /opt/perl/lib/5.9.0
910 $archlib /opt/perl/lib/5.9.0/$archname
911 $sitelib /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/5.9.0
912 $sitearch /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/5.9.0/$archname
2bf2710f 913
ce80d64e 914=head2 Changing the installation directory
c3edaffb 915
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916Configure distinguishes between the directory in which perl (and its
917associated files) should be installed and the directory in which it
918will eventually reside. For most sites, these two are the same; for
919sites that use AFS, this distinction is handled automatically.
920However, sites that use software such as depot to manage software
921packages, or users building binary packages for distribution may also
922wish to install perl into a different directory and use that
923management software to move perl to its final destination. This
924section describes how to do that.
c3edaffb 925
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926Suppose you want to install perl under the /tmp/perl5 directory. You
927could edit config.sh and change all the install* variables to point to
928/tmp/perl5 instead of /usr/local, or you could simply use the
929following command line:
c3edaffb 930
ce80d64e 931 sh Configure -Dinstallprefix=/tmp/perl5
c3edaffb 932
ce80d64e 933(replace /tmp/perl5 by a directory of your choice).
2bf2710f 934
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935Beware, though, that if you go to try to install new add-on
936modules, they too will get installed in under '/tmp/perl5' if you
937follow this example. The next section shows one way of dealing with
938that problem.
c3edaffb 939
ce80d64e 940=head2 Creating an installable tar archive
9d67150a 941
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942If you need to install perl on many identical systems, it is convenient
943to compile it once and create an archive that can be installed on
944multiple systems. Suppose, for example, that you want to create an
945archive that can be installed in /opt/perl. One way to do that is by
946using the DESTDIR variable during C<make install>. The DESTDIR is
947automatically prepended to all the installation paths. Thus you
948simply do:
830717a7 949
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950 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl -des
951 make
952 make test
953 make install DESTDIR=/tmp/perl5
954 cd /tmp/perl5/opt/perl
955 tar cvf /tmp/perl5-archive.tar .
9d67150a 956
ce80d64e 957=head2 Site-wide Policy settings
55479bb6 958
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959After Configure runs, it stores a number of common site-wide "policy"
960answers (such as installation directories and the local perl contact
961person) in the Policy.sh file. If you want to build perl on another
962system using the same policy defaults, simply copy the Policy.sh file
963to the new system and Configure will use it along with the appropriate
964hint file for your system.
55479bb6 965
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966Alternatively, if you wish to change some or all of those policy
967answers, you should
c3edaffb 968
ce80d64e 969 rm -f Policy.sh
aa689395 970
ce80d64e 971to ensure that Configure doesn't re-use them.
2ae324a7 972
ce80d64e 973Further information is in the Policy_sh.SH file itself.
aa689395 974
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975If the generated Policy.sh file is unsuitable, you may freely edit it
976to contain any valid shell commands. It will be run just after the
977platform-specific hints files.
aa689395 978
ce80d64e 979=head2 Disabling older versions of Perl
aa689395 980
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981Configure will search for binary compatible versions of previously
982installed perl binaries in the tree that is specified as target tree
983and these will be used by the perl being built.
984See L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> for more details.
86058a2d 985
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986To disable this use of older perl modules, even completely valid pure perl
987modules, you can specify to not include the paths found:
b2a6d19e 988
ce80d64e 989 sh Configure -Dinc_version_list=none ...
d6baa268 990
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991When using the newer perl, you can add these paths again in the
992$PERL5LIB environment variable or with perl's -I runtime option.
86058a2d 993
ce80d64e 994=head2 Building Perl outside of the source directory
86058a2d 995
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996Sometimes it is desirable to build Perl in a directory different from
997where the sources are, for example if you want to keep your sources
998read-only, or if you want to share the sources between different binary
999architectures. You can do this (if your file system supports symbolic
1000links) by
06c896bb 1001
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1002 mkdir /tmp/perl/build/directory
1003 cd /tmp/perl/build/directory
1004 sh /path/to/perl/source/Configure -Dmksymlinks ...
06c896bb 1005
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1006This will create in /tmp/perl/build/directory a tree of symbolic links
1007pointing to files in /path/to/perl/source. The original files are left
1008unaffected. After Configure has finished you can just say
06c896bb 1009
ce80d64e 1010 make
06c896bb 1011
ce80d64e 1012as usual, and Perl will be built in /tmp/perl/build/directory.
aa689395 1013
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1014=head2 Building a debugging perl
1015
1016You can run perl scripts under the perl debugger at any time with
3fe9a6f1 1017B<perl -d your_script>. If, however, you want to debug perl itself,
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1018you probably want to do
1019
1020 sh Configure -Doptimize='-g'
1021
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1022This will do two independent things: First, it will force compilation
1023to use cc -g so that you can use your system's debugger on the
1024executable. (Note: Your system may actually require something like
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1025cc -g2. Check your man pages for cc(1) and also any hint file for
1026your system.) Second, it will add -DDEBUGGING to your ccflags
1027variable in config.sh so that you can use B<perl -D> to access perl's
1028internal state. (Note: Configure will only add -DDEBUGGING by default
1029if you are not reusing your old config.sh. If you want to reuse your
1030old config.sh, then you can just edit it and change the optimize and
1031ccflags variables by hand and then propagate your changes as shown in
1032L<"Propagating your changes to config.sh"> below.)
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1033
1034You can actually specify -g and -DDEBUGGING independently, but usually
1035it's convenient to have both.
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1036
1037If you are using a shared libperl, see the warnings about multiple
a522f097 1038versions of perl under L<Building a shared Perl library>.
3bf462b8 1039
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1040=head2 Extensions
1041
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1042Perl ships with a number of standard extensions. These are contained
1043in the ext/ subdirectory.
1044
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1045By default, Configure will offer to build every extension which appears
1046to be supported. For example, Configure will offer to build GDBM_File
1047only if it is able to find the gdbm library. (See examples below.)
8d74ce1c 1048Configure does not contain code to test for POSIX compliance, so POSIX
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1049is always built by default. If you wish to skip POSIX, you can
1050set the Configure variable useposix=false from the Configure command line.
8d74ce1c 1051
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1052If you unpack any additional extensions in the ext/ directory before
1053running Configure, then Configure will offer to build those additional
1054extensions as well. Most users probably shouldn't have to do this --
1055it is usually easier to build additional extensions later after perl
1056has been installed. However, if you wish to have those additional
1057extensions statically linked into the perl binary, then this offers a
1058convenient way to do that in one step. (It is not necessary, however;
1059you can build and install extensions just fine even if you don't have
1060dynamic loading. See lib/ExtUtils/MakeMaker.pm for more details.)
1061
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1062If you have dynamic loading, another way of specifying extra modules
1063is described in L<"Adding extra modules to the build"> below.
1064
c42e3e15 1065You can learn more about each of the supplied extensions by consulting the
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1066documentation in the individual .pm modules, located under the
1067ext/ subdirectory.
1068
1069Even if you do not have dynamic loading, you must still build the
1070DynaLoader extension; you should just build the stub dl_none.xs
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1071version. Configure will suggest this as the default.
1072
1073To disable certain extensions so that they are not built, use the
1074-Dnoextensions=... and -Donlyextensions=... options. They both accept
1075a space-separated list of extensions. The extensions listed in
1076C<noextensions> are removed from the list of extensions to build, while
1077the C<onlyextensions> is rather more severe and builds only the listed
1078extensions. The latter should be used with extreme caution since
1079certain extensions are used by many other extensions and modules:
1080examples of such modules include Fcntl and IO. The order of processing
1081these options is first C<only> (if present), then C<no> (if present).
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1082
1083Of course, you may always run Configure interactively and select only
1084the extensions you want.
1085
1086Note: The DB_File module will only work with version 1.x of Berkeley
1087DB or newer releases of version 2. Configure will automatically detect
1088this for you and refuse to try to build DB_File with earlier
1089releases of version 2.
1090
1091If you re-use your old config.sh but change your system (e.g. by
1092adding libgdbm) Configure will still offer your old choices of extensions
1093for the default answer, but it will also point out the discrepancy to
1094you.
1095
80c1f5de 1096Finally, if you have dynamic loading (most modern systems do)
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1097remember that these extensions do not increase the size of your perl
1098executable, nor do they impact start-up time, so you probably might as
1099well build all the ones that will work on your system.
1100
1101=head2 Including locally-installed libraries
1102
1103Perl5 comes with interfaces to number of database extensions, including
1104dbm, ndbm, gdbm, and Berkeley db. For each extension, if
1105Configure can find the appropriate header files and libraries, it will
1106automatically include that extension. The gdbm and db libraries
1107are not included with perl. See the library documentation for
1108how to obtain the libraries.
1109
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1110If your database header (.h) files are not in a directory normally
1111searched by your C compiler, then you will need to include the
1112appropriate -I/your/directory option when prompted by Configure. If
ce80d64e 1113your database libraries are not in a directory normally
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1114searched by your C compiler and linker, then you will need to include
1115the appropriate -L/your/directory option when prompted by Configure.
1116See the examples below.
8d74ce1c 1117
ce80d64e 1118=head3 Examples
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1119
1120=over 4
1121
1122=item gdbm in /usr/local
1123
1124Suppose you have gdbm and want Configure to find it and build the
d6baa268 1125GDBM_File extension. This example assumes you have gdbm.h
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1126installed in /usr/local/include/gdbm.h and libgdbm.a installed in
1127/usr/local/lib/libgdbm.a. Configure should figure all the
1128necessary steps out automatically.
1129
1130Specifically, when Configure prompts you for flags for
1131your C compiler, you should include -I/usr/local/include.
1132
1133When Configure prompts you for linker flags, you should include
1134-L/usr/local/lib.
1135
1136If you are using dynamic loading, then when Configure prompts you for
1137linker flags for dynamic loading, you should again include
1138-L/usr/local/lib.
1139
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1140Again, this should all happen automatically. This should also work if
1141you have gdbm installed in any of (/usr/local, /opt/local, /usr/gnu,
1142/opt/gnu, /usr/GNU, or /opt/GNU).
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1143
1144=item gdbm in /usr/you
1145
1146Suppose you have gdbm installed in some place other than /usr/local/,
1147but you still want Configure to find it. To be specific, assume you
1148have /usr/you/include/gdbm.h and /usr/you/lib/libgdbm.a. You
1149still have to add -I/usr/you/include to cc flags, but you have to take
1150an extra step to help Configure find libgdbm.a. Specifically, when
1151Configure prompts you for library directories, you have to add
1152/usr/you/lib to the list.
1153
1154It is possible to specify this from the command line too (all on one
1155line):
1156
d6baa268 1157 sh Configure -de \
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1158 -Dlocincpth="/usr/you/include" \
1159 -Dloclibpth="/usr/you/lib"
1160
1161locincpth is a space-separated list of include directories to search.
1162Configure will automatically add the appropriate -I directives.
1163
1164loclibpth is a space-separated list of library directories to search.
1165Configure will automatically add the appropriate -L directives. If
1166you have some libraries under /usr/local/ and others under
1167/usr/you, then you have to include both, namely
1168
d6baa268 1169 sh Configure -de \
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1170 -Dlocincpth="/usr/you/include /usr/local/include" \
1171 -Dloclibpth="/usr/you/lib /usr/local/lib"
1172
1173=back
1174
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1175=head2 Building DB, NDBM, and ODBM interfaces with Berkeley DB 3
1176
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1177A Perl interface for DB3 is part of Berkeley DB, but if you want to
1178compile the standard Perl DB/ODBM/NDBM interfaces, you must follow
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1179following instructions.
1180
1181Berkeley DB3 from Sleepycat Software is by default installed without
ce80d64e 1182DB1 compatibility code (needed for the DB_File interface) and without
bb636fa4 1183links to compatibility files. So if you want to use packages written
ce80d64e 1184for the DB/ODBM/NDBM interfaces, you need to configure DB3 with
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1185--enable-compat185 (and optionally with --enable-dump185) and create
1186additional references (suppose you are installing DB3 with
1187--prefix=/usr):
1188
1189 ln -s libdb-3.so /usr/lib/libdbm.so
1190 ln -s libdb-3.so /usr/lib/libndbm.so
f1300be0 1191 echo '#define DB_DBM_HSEARCH 1' >dbm.h
bb636fa4 1192 echo '#include <db.h>' >>dbm.h
f1300be0 1193 install -m 0644 dbm.h /usr/include/dbm.h
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1194 install -m 0644 dbm.h /usr/include/ndbm.h
1195
1196Optionally, if you have compiled with --enable-compat185 (not needed
1197for ODBM/NDBM):
1198
1199 ln -s libdb-3.so /usr/lib/libdb1.so
1200 ln -s libdb-3.so /usr/lib/libdb.so
1201
1202ODBM emulation seems not to be perfect, but is quite usable,
1203using DB 3.1.17:
1204
1205 lib/odbm.............FAILED at test 9
1206 Failed 1/64 tests, 98.44% okay
1207
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1208=head2 Overriding an old config.sh
1209
1210If you want to use your old config.sh but override some of the items
1211with command line options, you need to use B<Configure -O>.
1212
1213=head2 GNU-style configure
1214
1215If you prefer the GNU-style configure command line interface, you can
1216use the supplied configure.gnu command, e.g.
1217
1218 CC=gcc ./configure.gnu
1219
1220The configure.gnu script emulates a few of the more common configure
1221options. Try
1222
1223 ./configure.gnu --help
1224
1225for a listing.
1226
1227(The file is called configure.gnu to avoid problems on systems
1228that would not distinguish the files "Configure" and "configure".)
1229
1230See L<Cross-compilation> below for information on cross-compiling.
1231
1232=head2 Malloc Issues
1233
1234Perl relies heavily on malloc(3) to grow data structures as needed,
1235so perl's performance can be noticeably affected by the performance of
1236the malloc function on your system. The perl source is shipped with a
1237version of malloc that has been optimized for the typical requests from
1238perl, so there's a chance that it may be both faster and use less memory
1239than your system malloc.
1240
1241However, if your system already has an excellent malloc, or if you are
1242experiencing difficulties with extensions that use third-party libraries
1243that call malloc, then you should probably use your system's malloc.
1244(Or, you might wish to explore the malloc flags discussed below.)
1245
1246=over 4
1247
1248=item Using the system malloc
1249
1250To build without perl's malloc, you can use the Configure command
1251
1252 sh Configure -Uusemymalloc
1253
1254or you can answer 'n' at the appropriate interactive Configure prompt.
1255
1256=item -DPERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC
1257
1258NOTE: This flag is enabled automatically on some platforms if you just
1259run Configure to accept all the defaults on those platforms.
1260
1261Perl's malloc family of functions are normally called Perl_malloc(),
1262Perl_realloc(), Perl_calloc() and Perl_mfree().
1263These names do not clash with the system versions of these functions.
1264
1265If this flag is enabled, however, Perl's malloc family of functions
1266will have the same names as the system versions. This may be required
1267sometimes if you have libraries that like to free() data that may have
1268been allocated by Perl_malloc() and vice versa.
1269
1270Note that enabling this option may sometimes lead to duplicate symbols
1271from the linker for malloc et al. In such cases, the system probably
1272does not allow its malloc functions to be fully replaced with custom
1273versions.
1274
1275=item -DPERL_DEBUGGING_MSTATS
1276
1277This flag enables debugging mstats, which is required to use the
1278Devel::Peek::mstat() function. You cannot enable this unless you are
1279using Perl's malloc, so a typical Configure command would be
1280
1281 sh Configure -Accflags=-DPERL_DEBUGGING_MSTATS -Dusemymalloc='y'
1282
1283to enable this option.
1284
1285=back
1286
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1287=head2 What if it doesn't work?
1288
8d74ce1c 1289If you run into problems, try some of the following ideas.
40dd8381 1290If none of them help, then see L<"Reporting Problems"> above.
8d74ce1c 1291
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1292=over 4
1293
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1294=item Running Configure Interactively
1295
1296If Configure runs into trouble, remember that you can always run
1297Configure interactively so that you can check (and correct) its
1298guesses.
1299
1300All the installation questions have been moved to the top, so you don't
aa689395 1301have to wait for them. Once you've handled them (and your C compiler and
1ec51d55 1302flags) you can type &-d at the next Configure prompt and Configure
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1303will use the defaults from then on.
1304
1305If you find yourself trying obscure command line incantations and
1306config.over tricks, I recommend you run Configure interactively
1307instead. You'll probably save yourself time in the long run.
1308
aa689395 1309=item Hint files
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1310
1311The perl distribution includes a number of system-specific hints files
1312in the hints/ directory. If one of them matches your system, Configure
1313will offer to use that hint file.
1314
1315Several of the hint files contain additional important information.
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1316If you have any problems, it is a good idea to read the relevant hint file
1317for further information. See hints/solaris_2.sh for an extensive example.
1318More information about writing good hints is in the hints/README.hints
1319file.
8e07c86e 1320
edb1cbcb
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1321=item *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
1322
1323Occasionally, Configure makes a wrong guess. For example, on SunOS
13244.1.3, Configure incorrectly concludes that tzname[] is in the
1325standard C library. The hint file is set up to correct for this. You
1326will see a message:
1327
1328 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
1329 The recommended value for $d_tzname on this machine was "undef"!
1330 Keep the recommended value? [y]
1331
1332You should always keep the recommended value unless, after reading the
1333relevant section of the hint file, you are sure you want to try
1334overriding it.
1335
1336If you are re-using an old config.sh, the word "previous" will be
1337used instead of "recommended". Again, you will almost always want
1338to keep the previous value, unless you have changed something on your
1339system.
1340
1341For example, suppose you have added libgdbm.a to your system
1342and you decide to reconfigure perl to use GDBM_File. When you run
1343Configure again, you will need to add -lgdbm to the list of libraries.
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1344Now, Configure will find your gdbm include file and library and will
1345issue a message:
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1346
1347 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
1348 The previous value for $i_gdbm on this machine was "undef"!
1349 Keep the previous value? [y]
1350
1ec51d55 1351In this case, you do not want to keep the previous value, so you
c3edaffb 1352should answer 'n'. (You'll also have to manually add GDBM_File to
edb1cbcb
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1353the list of dynamic extensions to build.)
1354
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1355=item Changing Compilers
1356
1357If you change compilers or make other significant changes, you should
1ec51d55 1358probably not re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it or
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1359rename it, e.g. mv config.sh config.sh.old. Then rerun Configure
1360with the options you want to use.
1361
1ec51d55
CS
1362This is a common source of problems. If you change from cc to
1363gcc, you should almost always remove your old config.sh.
8e07c86e 1364
c3edaffb 1365=item Propagating your changes to config.sh
8e07c86e 1366
1ec51d55
CS
1367If you make any changes to config.sh, you should propagate
1368them to all the .SH files by running
1369
1370 sh Configure -S
1371
1372You will then have to rebuild by running
9d67150a
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1373
1374 make depend
1375 make
8e07c86e 1376
48370efc
JH
1377=item config.over and config.arch
1378
1379You can also supply a shell script config.over to over-ride
1380Configure's guesses. It will get loaded up at the very end, just
1381before config.sh is created. You have to be careful with this,
1382however, as Configure does no checking that your changes make sense.
1383This file is usually good for site-specific customizations.
1384
1385There is also another file that, if it exists, is loaded before the
1386config.over, called config.arch. This file is intended to be per
1387architecture, not per site, and usually it's the architecture-specific
1388hints file that creates the config.arch.
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1389
1390=item config.h
1391
1ec51d55
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1392Many of the system dependencies are contained in config.h.
1393Configure builds config.h by running the config_h.SH script.
1394The values for the variables are taken from config.sh.
8e07c86e 1395
1ec51d55
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1396If there are any problems, you can edit config.h directly. Beware,
1397though, that the next time you run Configure, your changes will be
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1398lost.
1399
1400=item cflags
1401
1402If you have any additional changes to make to the C compiler command
1ec51d55
CS
1403line, they can be made in cflags.SH. For instance, to turn off the
1404optimizer on toke.c, find the line in the switch structure for
1405toke.c and put the command optimize='-g' before the ;; . You
1406can also edit cflags directly, but beware that your changes will be
1407lost the next time you run Configure.
8e07c86e 1408
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1409To explore various ways of changing ccflags from within a hint file,
1410see the file hints/README.hints.
1411
1412To change the C flags for all the files, edit config.sh and change either
1413$ccflags or $optimize, and then re-run
1ec51d55
CS
1414
1415 sh Configure -S
1416 make depend
8e07c86e 1417
aa689395 1418=item No sh
8e07c86e 1419
c42e3e15
GS
1420If you don't have sh, you'll have to copy the sample file
1421Porting/config.sh to config.sh and edit your config.sh to reflect your
1422system's peculiarities. See Porting/pumpkin.pod for more information.
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1423You'll probably also have to extensively modify the extension building
1424mechanism.
1425
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1426=item Digital UNIX/Tru64 UNIX and BIN_SH
1427
1428In Digital UNIX/Tru64 UNIX, Configure might abort with
1429
1430Build a threading Perl? [n]
1431Configure[2437]: Syntax error at line 1 : `config.sh' is not expected.
1432
1433This indicates that Configure is being run with a broken Korn shell
1434(even though you think you are using a Bourne shell by using
1435"sh Configure" or "./Configure"). The Korn shell bug has been reported
1436to Compaq as of February 1999 but in the meanwhile, the reason ksh is
1437being used is that you have the environment variable BIN_SH set to
1438'xpg4'. This causes /bin/sh to delegate its duties to /bin/posix/sh
1439(a ksh). Unset the environment variable and rerun Configure.
1440
1441=item HP-UX 11, pthreads, and libgdbm
1442
1443If you are running Configure with -Dusethreads in HP-UX 11, be warned
1444that POSIX threads and libgdbm (the GNU dbm library) compiled before
1445HP-UX 11 do not mix. This will cause a basic test run by Configure to
1446fail
1447
1448Pthread internal error: message: __libc_reinit() failed, file: ../pthreads/pthread.c, line: 1096
1449Return Pointer is 0xc082bf33
1450sh: 5345 Quit(coredump)
1451
1452and Configure will give up. The cure is to recompile and install
1453libgdbm under HP-UX 11.
1454
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1455=item Porting information
1456
e6f03d26 1457Specific information for the OS/2, Plan 9, VMS and Win32 ports is in the
1ec51d55
CS
1458corresponding README files and subdirectories. Additional information,
1459including a glossary of all those config.sh variables, is in the Porting
ce80d64e 1460subdirectory. Porting/Glossary should especially come in handy.
c3edaffb 1461
7f678428 1462Ports for other systems may also be available. You should check out
468f45d5 1463http://www.cpan.org/ports for current information on ports to
7f678428
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1464various other operating systems.
1465
ce80d64e 1466If you plan to port Perl to a new architecture, study carefully the
491517e0
JA
1467section titled "Philosophical Issues in Patching and Porting Perl"
1468in the file Porting/pumpkin.pod and the file Porting/patching.pod.
1469Study also how other non-UNIX ports have solved problems.
1470
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1471=back
1472
ce80d64e 1473=head2 Adding extra modules to the build
fadf0ef5
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1474
1475You can specify extra modules or module bundles to be fetched from the
1476CPAN and installed as part of the Perl build. Either use the -Dextras=...
1477command line parameter to Configure, for example like this:
1478
1479 Configure -Dextras="Compress::Zlib Bundle::LWP DBI"
1480
1481or answer first 'y' to the question 'Install any extra modules?' and
1482then answer "Compress::Zlib Bundle::LWP DBI" to the 'Extras?' question.
1483The module or the bundle names are as for the CPAN module 'install' command.
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1484This will only work if those modules are to be built as dynamic
1485extensions. If you wish to include those extra modules as static
1486extensions, see L<"Extensions"> above.
fadf0ef5
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1487
1488Notice that because the CPAN module will be used to fetch the extra
1489modules, you will need access to the CPAN, either via the Internet,
1490or via a local copy such as a CD-ROM or a local CPAN mirror. If you
1491do not, using the extra modules option will die horribly.
1492
1493Also notice that you yourself are responsible for satisfying any extra
1494dependencies such as external headers or libraries BEFORE trying the build.
1495For example: you will need to have the zlib.h header and the libz
1496library installed for the Compress::Zlib, or the Foo database specific
1497headers and libraries installed for the DBD::Foo module. The Configure
1498process or the Perl build process will not help you with these.
1499
ce80d64e 1500=head2 suidperl
03739d21 1501
ce80d64e
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1502suidperl is an optional component, which is normally neither built
1503nor installed by default. From perlfaq1:
03739d21
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1504
1505 On some systems, setuid and setgid scripts (scripts written
1506 in the C shell, Bourne shell, or Perl, for example, with the
1507 set user or group ID permissions enabled) are insecure due to
1508 a race condition in the kernel. For those systems, Perl versions
1509 5 and 4 attempt to work around this vulnerability with an optional
1510 component, a special program named suidperl, also known as sperl.
1511 This program attempts to emulate the set-user-ID and set-group-ID
1512 features of the kernel.
1513
1514Because of the buggy history of suidperl, and the difficulty
1515of properly security auditing as large and complex piece of
1516software as Perl, we cannot recommend using suidperl and the feature
1517should be considered deprecated.
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1518Instead, use a tool specifically designed to handle changes in
1519privileges, such as B<sudo>, http://www.courtesan.com/sudo/ .
03739d21 1520
8e07c86e
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1521=head1 make depend
1522
bfb7748a
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1523This will look for all the includes. The output is stored in makefile.
1524The only difference between Makefile and makefile is the dependencies at
1525the bottom of makefile. If you have to make any changes, you should edit
ce80d64e 1526makefile, not Makefile, since the Unix make command reads makefile first.
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1527(On non-Unix systems, the output may be stored in a different file.
1528Check the value of $firstmakefile in your config.sh if in doubt.)
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1529
1530Configure will offer to do this step for you, so it isn't listed
1531explicitly above.
1532
1533=head1 make
1534
1535This will attempt to make perl in the current directory.
1536
8d410bc4
YST
1537=head2 Expected errors
1538
1539These errors are normal, and can be ignored:
1540
1541 ...
1542 make: [extra.pods] Error 1 (ignored)
1543 ...
1544 make: [extras.make] Error 1 (ignored)
1545
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1546=head2 What if it doesn't work?
1547
8e07c86e 1548If you can't compile successfully, try some of the following ideas.
7f678428 1549If none of them help, and careful reading of the error message and
8d74ce1c 1550the relevant manual pages on your system doesn't help,
40dd8381 1551then see L<"Reporting Problems"> above.
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1552
1553=over 4
1554
1ec51d55 1555=item hints
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1556
1557If you used a hint file, try reading the comments in the hint file
1558for further tips and information.
1559
1ec51d55 1560=item extensions
8e07c86e 1561
1ec51d55 1562If you can successfully build miniperl, but the process crashes
ce80d64e 1563during the building of extensions, run
c3edaffb 1564
3a6175e1 1565 make minitest
c3edaffb
PP
1566
1567to test your version of miniperl.
1568
e57fd563
PP
1569=item locale
1570
bfb7748a
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1571If you have any locale-related environment variables set, try unsetting
1572them. I have some reports that some versions of IRIX hang while
1573running B<./miniperl configpm> with locales other than the C locale.
1574See the discussion under L<"make test"> below about locales and the
1575whole L<"Locale problems"> section in the file pod/perllocale.pod.
3e6e419a
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1576The latter is especially useful if you see something like this
1577
1578 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
1579 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
1580 LC_ALL = "En_US",
1581 LANG = (unset)
1582 are supported and installed on your system.
1583 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
1584
1585at Perl startup.
e57fd563 1586
7f678428 1587=item varargs
c3edaffb
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1588
1589If you get varargs problems with gcc, be sure that gcc is installed
bfb7748a
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1590correctly and that you are not passing -I/usr/include to gcc. When using
1591gcc, you should probably have i_stdarg='define' and i_varargs='undef'
ce80d64e 1592in config.sh. The problem is usually solved by installing gcc
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1593correctly. If you do change config.sh, don't forget to propagate
1594your changes (see L<"Propagating your changes to config.sh"> below).
7f678428 1595See also the L<"vsprintf"> item below.
c3edaffb 1596
bfb7748a 1597=item util.c
c3edaffb
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1598
1599If you get error messages such as the following (the exact line
bfb7748a 1600numbers and function name may vary in different versions of perl):
c3edaffb 1601
bfb7748a
AD
1602 util.c: In function `Perl_form':
1603 util.c:1107: number of arguments doesn't match prototype
1604 proto.h:125: prototype declaration
c3edaffb
PP
1605
1606it might well be a symptom of the gcc "varargs problem". See the
7f678428 1607previous L<"varargs"> item.
c3edaffb 1608
1ec51d55 1609=item LD_LIBRARY_PATH
c3edaffb
PP
1610
1611If you run into dynamic loading problems, check your setting of
aa689395
PP
1612the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable. If you're creating a static
1613Perl library (libperl.a rather than libperl.so) it should build
c3edaffb
PP
1614fine with LD_LIBRARY_PATH unset, though that may depend on details
1615of your local set-up.
1616
aa689395 1617=item nm extraction
c3edaffb
PP
1618
1619If Configure seems to be having trouble finding library functions,
1620try not using nm extraction. You can do this from the command line
1621with
1622
1623 sh Configure -Uusenm
1624
1625or by answering the nm extraction question interactively.
1ec51d55 1626If you have previously run Configure, you should not reuse your old
c3edaffb
PP
1627config.sh.
1628
bfb7748a
AD
1629=item umask not found
1630
1631If the build processes encounters errors relating to umask(), the problem
1632is probably that Configure couldn't find your umask() system call.
1633Check your config.sh. You should have d_umask='define'. If you don't,
1634this is probably the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above. Also,
1635try reading the hints file for your system for further information.
1636
7f678428 1637=item vsprintf
c3edaffb
PP
1638
1639If you run into problems with vsprintf in compiling util.c, the
1640problem is probably that Configure failed to detect your system's
1641version of vsprintf(). Check whether your system has vprintf().
1642(Virtually all modern Unix systems do.) Then, check the variable
1643d_vprintf in config.sh. If your system has vprintf, it should be:
1644
1645 d_vprintf='define'
1646
1647If Configure guessed wrong, it is likely that Configure guessed wrong
bfb7748a
AD
1648on a number of other common functions too. This is probably
1649the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above.
c3edaffb 1650
3fe9a6f1
PP
1651=item do_aspawn
1652
1653If you run into problems relating to do_aspawn or do_spawn, the
1654problem is probably that Configure failed to detect your system's
bfb7748a
AD
1655fork() function. Follow the procedure in the previous item
1656on L<"nm extraction">.
3fe9a6f1 1657
84902520
TB
1658=item __inet_* errors
1659
1660If you receive unresolved symbol errors during Perl build and/or test
1661referring to __inet_* symbols, check to see whether BIND 8.1 is
1662installed. It installs a /usr/local/include/arpa/inet.h that refers to
1663these symbols. Versions of BIND later than 8.1 do not install inet.h
1664in that location and avoid the errors. You should probably update to a
6d240721
JH
1665newer version of BIND (and remove the files the old one left behind).
1666If you can't, you can either link with the updated resolver library provided
1667with BIND 8.1 or rename /usr/local/bin/arpa/inet.h during the Perl build and
1668test process to avoid the problem.
1669
1670=item *_r() prototype NOT found
1671
1672On a related note, if you see a bunch of complaints like the above about
1673reentrant functions - specifically networking-related ones - being present
1674but without prototypes available, check to see if BIND 8.1 (or possibly
1675other BIND 8 versions) is (or has been) installed. They install
1676header files such as netdb.h into places such as /usr/local/include (or into
1677another directory as specified at build/install time), at least optionally.
f1300be0 1678Remove them or put them in someplace that isn't in the C preprocessor's
6d240721
JH
1679header file include search path (determined by -I options plus defaults,
1680normally /usr/include).
84902520 1681
d6baa268
JH
1682=item #error "No DATAMODEL_NATIVE specified"
1683
1684This is a common error when trying to build perl on Solaris 2.6 with a
1685gcc installation from Solaris 2.5 or 2.5.1. The Solaris header files
1686changed, so you need to update your gcc installation. You can either
1687rerun the fixincludes script from gcc or take the opportunity to
1688update your gcc installation.
1689
aa689395 1690=item Optimizer
c3edaffb 1691
9d67150a 1692If you can't compile successfully, try turning off your compiler's
aa689395 1693optimizer. Edit config.sh and change the line
9d67150a
PP
1694
1695 optimize='-O'
1696
bfb7748a 1697to
9d67150a
PP
1698
1699 optimize=' '
1700
1701then propagate your changes with B<sh Configure -S> and rebuild
1702with B<make depend; make>.
1703
4bbc1586 1704=item Missing functions and Undefined symbols
9d67150a 1705
4bbc1586
AD
1706If the build of miniperl fails with a long list of missing functions or
1707undefined symbols, check the libs variable in the config.sh file. It
1708should look something like
1709
1710 libs='-lsocket -lnsl -ldl -lm -lc'
1711
1712The exact libraries will vary from system to system, but you typically
1713need to include at least the math library -lm. Normally, Configure
1714will suggest the correct defaults. If the libs variable is empty, you
1715need to start all over again. Run
1716
1717 make distclean
1718
1719and start from the very beginning. This time, unless you are sure of
1720what you are doing, accept the default list of libraries suggested by
1721Configure.
1722
1723If the libs variable looks correct, you might have the
1724L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above.
1725
1726If you stil have missing routines or undefined symbols, you probably
1727need to add some library or other, or you need to undefine some feature
1728that Configure thought was there but is defective or incomplete. If
1729you used a hint file, see if it has any relevant advice. You can also
1730look through through config.h for likely suspects.
8e07c86e 1731
1ec51d55 1732=item toke.c
8e07c86e 1733
1ec51d55
CS
1734Some compilers will not compile or optimize the larger files (such as
1735toke.c) without some extra switches to use larger jump offsets or
1736allocate larger internal tables. You can customize the switches for
1737each file in cflags. It's okay to insert rules for specific files into
1738makefile since a default rule only takes effect in the absence of a
8e07c86e
AD
1739specific rule.
1740
7f678428 1741=item Missing dbmclose
8e07c86e 1742
c3edaffb
PP
1743SCO prior to 3.2.4 may be missing dbmclose(). An upgrade to 3.2.4
1744that includes libdbm.nfs (which includes dbmclose()) may be available.
8e07c86e 1745
f3d9a6ba 1746=item Note (probably harmless): No library found for -lsomething
7f678428
PP
1747
1748If you see such a message during the building of an extension, but
1749the extension passes its tests anyway (see L<"make test"> below),
1750then don't worry about the warning message. The extension
1751Makefile.PL goes looking for various libraries needed on various
aa689395 1752systems; few systems will need all the possible libraries listed.
7f678428
PP
1753For example, a system may have -lcposix or -lposix, but it's
1754unlikely to have both, so most users will see warnings for the one
f3d9a6ba
CS
1755they don't have. The phrase 'probably harmless' is intended to
1756reassure you that nothing unusual is happening, and the build
1757process is continuing.
7f678428
PP
1758
1759On the other hand, if you are building GDBM_File and you get the
1760message
1761
f3d9a6ba 1762 Note (probably harmless): No library found for -lgdbm
7f678428
PP
1763
1764then it's likely you're going to run into trouble somewhere along
1765the line, since it's hard to see how you can use the GDBM_File
1766extension without the -lgdbm library.
1767
1768It is true that, in principle, Configure could have figured all of
1769this out, but Configure and the extension building process are not
1770quite that tightly coordinated.
1771
aa689395
PP
1772=item sh: ar: not found
1773
1774This is a message from your shell telling you that the command 'ar'
1775was not found. You need to check your PATH environment variable to
1776make sure that it includes the directory with the 'ar' command. This
1ec51d55 1777is a common problem on Solaris, where 'ar' is in the /usr/ccs/bin
aa689395
PP
1778directory.
1779
1780=item db-recno failure on tests 51, 53 and 55
1781
1782Old versions of the DB library (including the DB library which comes
1783with FreeBSD 2.1) had broken handling of recno databases with modified
1784bval settings. Upgrade your DB library or OS.
1785
6087ac44
JH
1786=item Bad arg length for semctl, is XX, should be ZZZ
1787
11906ba0 1788If you get this error message from the ext/IPC/SysV/t/sem test, your System
6087ac44
JH
1789V IPC may be broken. The XX typically is 20, and that is what ZZZ
1790also should be. Consider upgrading your OS, or reconfiguring your OS
1791to include the System V semaphores.
1792
11906ba0 1793=item ext/IPC/SysV/t/sem........semget: No space left on device
220f3621
GS
1794
1795Either your account or the whole system has run out of semaphores. Or
1796both. Either list the semaphores with "ipcs" and remove the unneeded
1797ones (which ones these are depends on your system and applications)
1798with "ipcrm -s SEMAPHORE_ID_HERE" or configure more semaphores to your
1799system.
1800
d6baa268
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1801=item GNU binutils
1802
1803If you mix GNU binutils (nm, ld, ar) with equivalent vendor-supplied
1804tools you may be in for some trouble. For example creating archives
1805with an old GNU 'ar' and then using a new current vendor-supplied 'ld'
1806may lead into linking problems. Either recompile your GNU binutils
1807under your current operating system release, or modify your PATH not
1808to include the GNU utils before running Configure, or specify the
1809vendor-supplied utilities explicitly to Configure, for example by
1810Configure -Dar=/bin/ar.
1811
16dc217a
GS
1812=item THIS PACKAGE SEEMS TO BE INCOMPLETE
1813
1814The F<Configure> program has not been able to find all the files which
1815make up the complete Perl distribution. You may have a damaged source
1816archive file (in which case you may also have seen messages such as
1817C<gzip: stdin: unexpected end of file> and C<tar: Unexpected EOF on
1818archive file>), or you may have obtained a structurally-sound but
1819incomplete archive. In either case, try downloading again from the
1820official site named at the start of this document. If you do find
1821that any site is carrying a corrupted or incomplete source code
1822archive, please report it to the site's maintainer.
1823
16dc217a
GS
1824=item invalid token: ##
1825
ce80d64e
AD
1826You are using a non-ANSI-compliant C compiler. To compile Perl, you
1827need to use a compiler that supports ANSI C. If there is a README
1828file for your system, it may have further details on your compiler
1829options.
16dc217a 1830
1ec51d55 1831=item Miscellaneous
8e07c86e
AD
1832
1833Some additional things that have been reported for either perl4 or perl5:
1834
1835Genix may need to use libc rather than libc_s, or #undef VARARGS.
1836
1837NCR Tower 32 (OS 2.01.01) may need -W2,-Sl,2000 and #undef MKDIR.
1838
9ede5bc8 1839UTS may need one or more of -K or -g, and undef LSTAT.
8e07c86e 1840
11906ba0 1841FreeBSD can fail the ext/IPC/SysV/t/sem.t test if SysV IPC has not been
5cda700b 1842configured in the kernel. Perl tries to detect this, though, and
ce80d64e 1843you will get a message telling you what to do.
6087ac44 1844
d6baa268
JH
1845HP-UX 11 Y2K patch "Y2K-1100 B.11.00.B0125 HP-UX Core OS Year 2000
1846Patch Bundle" has been reported to break the io/fs test #18 which
1847tests whether utime() can change timestamps. The Y2K patch seems to
1848break utime() so that over NFS the timestamps do not get changed
1849(on local filesystems utime() still works).
1850
6c8d78fb
HS
1851Building Perl on a system that has also BIND (headers and libraries)
1852installed may run into troubles because BIND installs its own netdb.h
1853and socket.h, which may not agree with the operating system's ideas of
1854the same files. Similarly, including -lbind may conflict with libc's
1855view of the world. You may have to tweak -Dlocincpth and -Dloclibpth
1856to avoid the BIND.
1857
8e07c86e
AD
1858=back
1859
58a21a9b
JH
1860=head2 Cross-compilation
1861
ce80d64e 1862Starting from version 5.8, Perl has the beginnings of cross-compilation
58a21a9b
JH
1863support. What is known to work is running Configure in a
1864cross-compilation environment and building the miniperl executable.
65090350 1865What is known not to work is building the perl executable because
58a21a9b
JH
1866that would require building extensions: Dynaloader statically and
1867File::Glob dynamically, for extensions one needs MakeMaker and
1868MakeMaker is not yet cross-compilation aware, and neither is
1869the main Makefile.
1870
93bc48fa
JH
1871Since the functionality is so lacking, it must be considered
1872highly experimental. It is so experimental that it is not even
c80c8d62 1873mentioned during an interactive Configure session, a direct command
93bc48fa
JH
1874line invocation (detailed shortly) is required to access the
1875functionality.
1876
58a21a9b 1877 NOTE: Perl is routinely built using cross-compilation
6a809565
JH
1878 in the EPOC environment, in the WinCE, and in the OpenZaurus
1879 project, but all those use something slightly different setup
1880 than what described here. For the WinCE setup, read the
1881 wince/README.compile. For the OpenZaurus setup, read the
1882 Cross/README.
1883
1884The one environment where this cross-compilation setup has
1885successfully been used as of this writing is the Compaq iPAQ running
1886ARM Linux. The build host was Intel Linux, the networking setup was
1887PPP + SSH. The exact setup details are beyond the scope of this
1888document, see http://www.handhelds.org/ for more information.
58a21a9b
JH
1889
1890To run Configure in cross-compilation mode the basic switch is
1891C<-Dusecrosscompile>.
1892
1893 sh ./Configure -des -Dusecrosscompile -D...
1894
1895This will make the cpp symbol USE_CROSS_COMPILE and the %Config
1896symbol C<usecrosscompile> available.
1897
1898During the Configure and build, certain helper scripts will be created
1899into the Cross/ subdirectory. The scripts are used to execute a
1900cross-compiled executable, and to transfer files to and from the
1901target host. The execution scripts are named F<run-*> and the
1902transfer scripts F<to-*> and F<from-*>. The part after the dash is
1903the method to use for remote execution and transfer: by default the
1904methods are B<ssh> and B<scp>, thus making the scripts F<run-ssh>,
1905F<to-scp>, and F<from-scp>.
1906
1907To configure the scripts for a target host and a directory (in which
1908the execution will happen and which is to and from where the transfer
1909happens), supply Configure with
1910
1911 -Dtargethost=so.me.ho.st -Dtargetdir=/tar/get/dir
1912
1913The targethost is what e.g. ssh will use as the hostname, the targetdir
93bc48fa
JH
1914must exist (the scripts won't create it), the targetdir defaults to /tmp.
1915You can also specify a username to use for ssh/rsh logins
58a21a9b
JH
1916
1917 -Dtargetuser=luser
1918
1919but in case you don't, "root" will be used.
1920
93bc48fa
JH
1921Because this is a cross-compilation effort, you will also need to specify
1922which target environment and which compilation environment to use.
1923This includes the compiler, the header files, and the libraries.
1924In the below we use the usual settings for the iPAQ cross-compilation
1925environment:
58a21a9b
JH
1926
1927 -Dtargetarch=arm-linux
1928 -Dcc=arm-linux-gcc
1929 -Dusrinc=/skiff/local/arm-linux/include
1930 -Dincpth=/skiff/local/arm-linux/include
1931 -Dlibpth=/skiff/local/arm-linux/lib
1932
1933If the name of the C<cc> has the usual GNU C semantics for cross
1934compilers, that is, CPU-OS-gcc, the names of the C<ar>, C<nm>, and
1935C<ranlib> will also be automatically chosen to be CPU-OS-ar and so on.
93bc48fa
JH
1936(The C<ld> requires more thought and will be chosen later by Configure
1937as appropriate.) Also, in this case the incpth, libpth, and usrinc
1938will be guessed by Configure (unless explicitly set to something else,
1939in which case Configure's guesses with be appended).
58a21a9b
JH
1940
1941In addition to the default execution/transfer methods you can also
1942choose B<rsh> for execution, and B<rcp> or B<cp> for transfer,
1943for example:
1944
1945 -Dtargetrun=rsh -Dtargetto=rcp -Dtargetfrom=cp
1946
1947Putting it all together:
1948
1949 sh ./Configure -des -Dusecrosscompile \
93bc48fa
JH
1950 -Dtargethost=so.me.ho.st \
1951 -Dtargetdir=/tar/get/dir \
58a21a9b
JH
1952 -Dtargetuser=root \
1953 -Dtargetarch=arm-linux \
1954 -Dcc=arm-linux-gcc \
1955 -Dusrinc=/skiff/local/arm-linux/include \
1956 -Dincpth=/skiff/local/arm-linux/include \
1957 -Dlibpth=/skiff/local/arm-linux/lib \
1958 -D...
1959
93bc48fa
JH
1960or if you are happy with the defaults
1961
1962 sh ./Configure -des -Dusecrosscompile \
1963 -Dtargethost=so.me.ho.st \
1964 -Dcc=arm-linux-gcc \
1965 -D...
1966
8e07c86e
AD
1967=head1 make test
1968
d6baa268
JH
1969This will run the regression tests on the perl you just made. If
1970'make test' doesn't say "All tests successful" then something went
1971wrong. See the file t/README in the t subdirectory.
84902520 1972
84902520 1973Note that you can't run the tests in background if this disables
fb73857a
PP
1974opening of /dev/tty. You can use 'make test-notty' in that case but
1975a few tty tests will be skipped.
c3edaffb 1976
c4f23d77
AD
1977=head2 What if make test doesn't work?
1978
1ec51d55
CS
1979If make test bombs out, just cd to the t directory and run ./TEST
1980by hand to see if it makes any difference. If individual tests
c3edaffb 1981bomb, you can run them by hand, e.g.,
8e07c86e
AD
1982
1983 ./perl op/groups.t
1984
aa689395 1985Another way to get more detailed information about failed tests and
1ec51d55 1986individual subtests is to cd to the t directory and run
aa689395
PP
1987
1988 ./perl harness
1989
fb73857a 1990(this assumes that most basic tests succeed, since harness uses
10c7e831
JH
1991complicated constructs). For extension and library tests you
1992need a little bit more: you need to setup your environment variable
1993PERL_CORE to a true value (like "1"), and you need to supply the
1994right Perl library path:
1995
1996 setenv PERL_CORE 1
1997 ./perl -I../lib ../ext/Socket/Socket.t
1998 ./perl -I../lib ../lib/less.t
aa689395 1999
5cda700b 2000(For csh-like shells on UNIX; adjust appropriately for other platforms.)
fb73857a 2001You should also read the individual tests to see if there are any helpful
10c7e831
JH
2002comments that apply to your system. You may also need to setup your
2003shared library path if you get errors like:
2004
2005 /sbin/loader: Fatal Error: cannot map libperl.so
2006
2007See L</"Building a shared Perl library"> earlier in this document.
c3edaffb 2008
c4f23d77
AD
2009=over 4
2010
2011=item locale
2012
1ec51d55 2013Note: One possible reason for errors is that some external programs
c07a80fd 2014may be broken due to the combination of your environment and the way
3fe9a6f1 2015B<make test> exercises them. For example, this may happen if you have
1ec51d55
CS
2016one or more of these environment variables set: LC_ALL LC_CTYPE
2017LC_COLLATE LANG. In some versions of UNIX, the non-English locales
e57fd563
PP
2018are known to cause programs to exhibit mysterious errors.
2019
2020If you have any of the above environment variables set, please try
aa689395
PP
2021
2022 setenv LC_ALL C
2023
2024(for C shell) or
2025
2026 LC_ALL=C;export LC_ALL
2027
1ec51d55
CS
2028for Bourne or Korn shell) from the command line and then retry
2029make test. If the tests then succeed, you may have a broken program that
aa689395 2030is confusing the testing. Please run the troublesome test by hand as
e57fd563 2031shown above and see whether you can locate the program. Look for
1ec51d55
CS
2032things like: exec, `backquoted command`, system, open("|...") or
2033open("...|"). All these mean that Perl is trying to run some
e57fd563 2034external program.
eed2e782 2035
0740bb5b
AD
2036=item Timing problems
2037
c29923ff
JH
2038Several tests in the test suite check timing functions, such as
2039sleep(), and see if they return in a reasonable amount of time.
9341413f
JH
2040If your system is quite busy and doesn't respond quickly enough,
2041these tests might fail. If possible, try running the tests again
2042with the system under a lighter load. These timing-sensitive
2043and load-sensitive tests include F<t/op/alarm.t>,
2044F<ext/Time/HiRes/HiRes.t>, F<lib/Benchmark.t>,
2045F<lib/Memoize/t/expmod_t.t>, and F<lib/Memoize/t/speed.t>.
0740bb5b 2046
c4f23d77
AD
2047=item Out of memory
2048
2049On some systems, particularly those with smaller amounts of RAM, some
2050of the tests in t/op/pat.t may fail with an "Out of memory" message.
7970f296
GS
2051For example, on my SparcStation IPC with 12 MB of RAM, in perl5.5.670,
2052test 85 will fail if run under either t/TEST or t/harness.
c4f23d77
AD
2053
2054Try stopping other jobs on the system and then running the test by itself:
2055
2056 cd t; ./perl op/pat.t
2057
2058to see if you have any better luck. If your perl still fails this
2059test, it does not necessarily mean you have a broken perl. This test
2060tries to exercise the regular expression subsystem quite thoroughly,
2061and may well be far more demanding than your normal usage.
2062
4f76e5ba
AD
2063=item Failures from lib/File/Temp/t/security saying "system possibly insecure"
2064
2065First, such warnings are not necessarily serious or indicative of a
2066real security threat. That being said, they bear investigating.
2067
2068Note that each of the tests is run twice. The first time is in the
2069directory returned by File::Spec->tmpdir() (often /tmp on Unix
2070systems), and the second time in the directory from which the test was
2071run (usually the 't' directory, if the test was run as part of 'make
2072test').
2073
2074The tests may fail for the following reasons:
2075
2076(1) If the directory the tests are being run in is owned by somebody
2077other than the user running the tests, or by root (uid 0).
2078
2079This failure can happen if the Perl source code distribution is
2080unpacked in such a way that the user ids in the distribution package
2081are used as-is. Some tar programs do this.
2082
2083(2) If the directory the tests are being run in is writable by group or
2084by others, and there is no sticky bit set for the directory. (With
2085UNIX/POSIX semantics, write access to a directory means the right to
2086add or remove files in that directory. The 'sticky bit' is a feature
2087used in some UNIXes to give extra protection to files: if the bit is
2088set for a directory, no one but the owner (or root) can remove that
2089file even if the permissions would otherwise allow file removal by
2090others.)
2091
2092This failure may or may not be a real problem: it depends on the
2093permissions policy used on this particular system. This failure can
2094also happen if the system either doesn't support the sticky bit (this
2095is the case with many non-UNIX platforms: in principle File::Temp
2096should know about these platforms and skip the tests), or if the system
2097supports the sticky bit but for some reason or reasons it is not being
2098used. This is, for example, the case with HP-UX: as of HP-UX release
209911.00, the sticky bit is very much supported, but HP-UX doesn't use it
2100on its /tmp directory as shipped. Also, as with the permissions, some
2101local policy might dictate that the stickiness is not used.
781948c1 2102
b2b23189
JH
2103(3) If the system supports the POSIX 'chown giveaway' feature and if
2104any of the parent directories of the temporary file back to the root
2105directory are 'unsafe', using the definitions given above in (1) and
4f76e5ba
AD
2106(2). For Unix systems, this is usually not an issue if you are
2107building on a local disk. See the documentation for the File::Temp
2108module for more information about 'chown giveaway'.
781948c1
JH
2109
2110See the documentation for the File::Temp module for more information
4f76e5ba 2111about the various security aspects of temporary files.
781948c1 2112
c4f23d77
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2113=back
2114
8e07c86e
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2115=head1 make install
2116
2117This will put perl into the public directory you specified to
1ec51d55 2118Configure; by default this is /usr/local/bin. It will also try
8e07c86e 2119to put the man pages in a reasonable place. It will not nroff the man
aa689395 2120pages, however. You may need to be root to run B<make install>. If you
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2121are not root, you must still have permission to install into the directories
2122in question and you should ignore any messages about chown not working.
2123
2124If "make install" just says "`install' is up to date" or something
2125similar, you may be on a case-insensitive filesystems such as Mac's HFS+,
2126and you should say "make install-all". (This confusion is brought to you
2127by the Perl distribution having a file called INSTALL.)
8e07c86e 2128
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2129=head2 Installing perl under different names
2130
2131If you want to install perl under a name other than "perl" (for example,
2132when installing perl with special features enabled, such as debugging),
2133indicate the alternate name on the "make install" line, such as:
2134
2135 make install PERLNAME=myperl
2136
beb13193
RS
2137You can separately change the base used for versioned names (like
2138"perl5.005") by setting PERLNAME_VERBASE, like
2139
2140 make install PERLNAME=perl5 PERLNAME_VERBASE=perl
2141
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2142This can be useful if you have to install perl as "perl5" (e.g. to
2143avoid conflicts with an ancient version in /usr/bin supplied by your vendor).
2144Without this the versioned binary would be called "perl55.005".
beb13193 2145
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2146=head2 Installing perl under a different directory
2147
2148You can install perl under a different destination directory by using
2149the DESTDIR variable during C<make install>, with a command like
2150
2151 make install DESTDIR=/tmp/perl5
2152
2153DESTDIR is automatically prepended to all the installation paths. See
2154the example in L<"Creating an installable tar archive"> above.
2155
2156
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2157=head2 Installed files
2158
8e07c86e
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2159If you want to see exactly what will happen without installing
2160anything, you can run
4633a7c4 2161
8e07c86e
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2162 ./perl installperl -n
2163 ./perl installman -n
2164
1ec51d55 2165make install will install the following:
8e07c86e 2166
d56c5707
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2167 binaries
2168
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2169 perl,
2170 perl5.nnn where nnn is the current release number. This
2171 will be a link to perl.
2172 suidperl,
2173 sperl5.nnn If you requested setuid emulation.
2174 a2p awk-to-perl translator
d56c5707
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2175
2176 scripts
2177
8e07c86e
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2178 cppstdin This is used by perl -P, if your cc -E can't
2179 read from stdin.
2180 c2ph, pstruct Scripts for handling C structures in header files.
2181 s2p sed-to-perl translator
2182 find2perl find-to-perl translator
aa689395 2183 h2ph Extract constants and simple macros from C headers
8e07c86e 2184 h2xs Converts C .h header files to Perl extensions.
24b3df7f 2185 perlbug Tool to report bugs in Perl.
8e07c86e 2186 perldoc Tool to read perl's pod documentation.
aa689395 2187 pl2pm Convert Perl 4 .pl files to Perl 5 .pm modules
8e07c86e 2188 pod2html, Converters from perl's pod documentation format
aa689395 2189 pod2latex, to other useful formats.
d56c5707
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2190 pod2man,
2191 pod2text,
2192 pod2checker,
2193 pod2select,
2194 pod2usage
aa689395 2195 splain Describe Perl warnings and errors
95667ae4 2196 dprofpp Perl code profile post-processor
8e07c86e 2197
d56c5707
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2198 library files
2199
2200 in $privlib and $archlib specified to
8e07c86e 2201 Configure, usually under /usr/local/lib/perl5/.
d56c5707
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2202
2203 documentation
2204
d6baa268
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2205 man pages in $man1dir, usually /usr/local/man/man1.
2206 module man
2207 pages in $man3dir, usually /usr/local/man/man3.
8e07c86e
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2208 pod/*.pod in $privlib/pod/.
2209
d6baa268
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2210Installperl will also create the directories listed above
2211in L<"Installation Directories">.
4633a7c4 2212
d56c5707 2213Perl's *.h header files and the libperl library are also installed
d6baa268 2214under $archlib so that any user may later build new modules, run the
56c6f531
JH
2215optional Perl compiler, or embed the perl interpreter into another
2216program even if the Perl source is no longer available.
8e07c86e 2217
d56c5707
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2218Sometimes you only want to install the version-specific parts of the perl
2219installation. For example, you may wish to install a newer version of
2220perl alongside an already installed production version of perl without
2221disabling installation of new modules for the production version.
2222To only install the version-specific parts of the perl installation, run
2223
2224 Configure -Dversiononly
2225
2226or answer 'y' to the appropriate Configure prompt. Alternatively,
2227you can just manually run
2228
2229 ./perl installperl -v
2230
2231and skip installman altogether.
2232See also L<"Maintaining completely separate versions"> for another
2233approach.
2234
aa689395 2235=head1 Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5
4633a7c4 2236
9a664500 2237Perl 5.9 is not binary compatible with earlier versions of Perl.
cc65bb49 2238In other words, you will have to recompile your XS modules.
14eee2f1 2239
693762b4 2240In general, you can usually safely upgrade from one version of Perl (e.g.
9a664500 22415.8.0) to another similar version (e.g. 5.8.2) without re-compiling
693762b4
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2242all of your add-on extensions. You can also safely leave the old version
2243around in case the new version causes you problems for some reason.
2244For example, if you want to be sure that your script continues to run
9a664500 2245with 5.8.2, simply replace the '#!/usr/local/bin/perl' line at the
693762b4 2246top of the script with the particular version you want to run, e.g.
9a664500 2247#!/usr/local/bin/perl5.8.2.
693762b4 2248
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2249Usually, most extensions will probably not need to be recompiled to use
2250with a newer version of Perl Here is how it is supposed to work.
2251(These examples assume you accept all the Configure defaults.)
693762b4 2252
d6baa268
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2253Suppose you already have version 5.005_03 installed. The directories
2254searched by 5.005_03 are
2255
2256 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.00503/$archname
2257 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.00503
2258 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/$archname
2259 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
2260
0a08c020
GS
2261Beginning with 5.6.0 the version number in the site libraries are
2262fully versioned. Now, suppose you install version 5.6.0. The directories
2263searched by version 5.6.0 will be
d6baa268 2264
0a08c020
GS
2265 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.6.0/$archname
2266 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.6.0
2267 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6.0/$archname
2268 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6.0
d6baa268
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2269
2270 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/$archname
2271 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
c42e3e15 2272 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/
bfb7748a 2273
c42e3e15 2274Notice the last three entries -- Perl understands the default structure
d6baa268
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2275of the $sitelib directories and will look back in older, compatible
2276directories. This way, modules installed under 5.005_03 will continue
0a08c020 2277to be usable by 5.005_03 but will also accessible to 5.6.0. Further,
d6baa268 2278suppose that you upgrade a module to one which requires features
0a08c020
GS
2279present only in 5.6.0. That new module will get installed into
2280/usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6.0 and will be available to 5.6.0,
d6baa268 2281but will not interfere with the 5.005_03 version.
bfb7748a 2282
c42e3e15 2283The last entry, /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/, is there so that
fe23a901 22845.6.0 and above will look for 5.004-era pure perl modules.
d6baa268 2285
cc65bb49
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2286Lastly, suppose you now install 5.8.0, which is not binary compatible
2287with 5.6.0. The directories searched by 5.8.0 (if you don't change the
fe23a901
RF
2288Configure defaults) will be:
2289
2290 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.8.0/$archname
2291 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.8.0
2292 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.0/$archname
2293 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.0
d6baa268 2294
0a08c020 2295 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6.0
d6baa268 2296
d6baa268 2297 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
fe23a901 2298
d6baa268 2299 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/
bfb7748a 2300
cc65bb49
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2301Note that the earlier $archname entries are now gone, but pure perl
2302modules from earlier versions will still be found.
2303
0a08c020 2304Assuming the users in your site are still actively using perl 5.6.0 and
fe23a901 23055.005 after you installed 5.8.0, you can continue to install add-on
cc65bb49
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2306extensions using any of perl 5.8.0, 5.6.0, or 5.005. The installations
2307of these different versions remain distinct, but remember that the
2308newer versions of perl are automatically set up to search the
2309compatible site libraries of the older ones. This means that
2310installing a new XS extension with 5.005 will make it visible to both
23115.005 and 5.6.0, but not to 5.8.0. Installing a pure perl module with
23125.005 will make it visible to all three versions. Later, if you
2313install the same extension using, say, perl 5.8.0, it will override the
23145.005-installed version, but only for perl 5.8.0.
0a08c020
GS
2315
2316This way, you can choose to share compatible extensions, but also upgrade
2317to a newer version of an extension that may be incompatible with earlier
2318versions, without breaking the earlier versions' installations.
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2319
2320=head2 Maintaining completely separate versions
4633a7c4 2321
1ec51d55 2322Many users prefer to keep all versions of perl in completely
d6baa268 2323separate directories. This guarantees that an update to one version
0a08c020
GS
2324won't interfere with another version. (The defaults guarantee this for
2325libraries after 5.6.0, but not for executables. TODO?) One convenient
2326way to do this is by using a separate prefix for each version, such as
d52d4e46 2327
9a664500 2328 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl5.8.2
d52d4e46 2329
9a664500 2330and adding /opt/perl5.8.2/bin to the shell PATH variable. Such users
d52d4e46
PP
2331may also wish to add a symbolic link /usr/local/bin/perl so that
2332scripts can still start with #!/usr/local/bin/perl.
2333
693762b4 2334Others might share a common directory for maintenance sub-versions
cc65bb49 2335(e.g. 5.8 for all 5.8.x versions), but change directory with
693762b4
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2336each major version.
2337
6877a1cf
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2338If you are installing a development subversion, you probably ought to
2339seriously consider using a separate directory, since development
2340subversions may not have all the compatibility wrinkles ironed out
2341yet.
2342
e655887d 2343=head2 Upgrading from 5.005 or 5.6 to 5.8.0
693762b4 2344
9a664500 2345B<Perl 5.9.0 is binary incompatible with Perl 5.8.x, Perl 5.6.x, 5.005,
e655887d
CB
2346and any earlier Perl release.> Perl modules having binary parts
2347(meaning that a C compiler is used) will have to be recompiled to be
9a664500
AMS
2348used with 5.9.0. If you find you do need to rebuild an extension with
23495.9.0, you may safely do so without disturbing the older
e655887d
CB
2350installations. (See L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5">
2351above.)
c42e3e15
GS
2352
2353See your installed copy of the perllocal.pod file for a (possibly
2354incomplete) list of locally installed modules. Note that you want
cc65bb49 2355perllocal.pod, not perllocale.pod, for installed module information.
693762b4 2356
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2357=head1 Coexistence with perl4
2358
2359You can safely install perl5 even if you want to keep perl4 around.
2360
1ec51d55
CS
2361By default, the perl5 libraries go into /usr/local/lib/perl5/, so
2362they don't override the perl4 libraries in /usr/local/lib/perl/.
8e07c86e
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2363
2364In your /usr/local/bin directory, you should have a binary named
1ec51d55 2365perl4.036. That will not be touched by the perl5 installation
8e07c86e
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2366process. Most perl4 scripts should run just fine under perl5.
2367However, if you have any scripts that require perl4, you can replace
d6baa268 2368the #! line at the top of them by #!/usr/local/bin/perl4.036 (or
4dc3e0af 2369whatever the appropriate pathname is). See L<perltrap> for
d6baa268 2370possible problems running perl4 scripts under perl5.
8e07c86e 2371
aa689395
PP
2372=head1 cd /usr/include; h2ph *.h sys/*.h
2373
d6baa268
JH
2374Some perl scripts need to be able to obtain information from the
2375system header files. This command will convert the most commonly used
1ec51d55 2376header files in /usr/include into files that can be easily interpreted
d6baa268
JH
2377by perl. These files will be placed in the architecture-dependent
2378library ($archlib) directory you specified to Configure.
aa689395 2379
d6baa268
JH
2380Note: Due to differences in the C and perl languages, the conversion
2381of the header files is not perfect. You will probably have to
2382hand-edit some of the converted files to get them to parse correctly.
2383For example, h2ph breaks spectacularly on type casting and certain
2384structures.
aa689395 2385
fb73857a 2386=head1 installhtml --help
aa689395 2387
3e3baf6d
TB
2388Some sites may wish to make perl documentation available in HTML
2389format. The installhtml utility can be used to convert pod
fb73857a 2390documentation into linked HTML files and install them.
aa689395 2391
d6baa268
JH
2392Currently, the supplied ./installhtml script does not make use of the
2393html Configure variables. This should be fixed in a future release.
2394
fb73857a 2395The following command-line is an example of one used to convert
3e3baf6d 2396perl documentation:
aa689395 2397
3e3baf6d
TB
2398 ./installhtml \
2399 --podroot=. \
2400 --podpath=lib:ext:pod:vms \
2401 --recurse \
2402 --htmldir=/perl/nmanual \
2403 --htmlroot=/perl/nmanual \
2404 --splithead=pod/perlipc \
2405 --splititem=pod/perlfunc \
2406 --libpods=perlfunc:perlguts:perlvar:perlrun:perlop \
2407 --verbose
2408
2409See the documentation in installhtml for more details. It can take
2410many minutes to execute a large installation and you should expect to
2411see warnings like "no title", "unexpected directive" and "cannot
2412resolve" as the files are processed. We are aware of these problems
2413(and would welcome patches for them).
aa689395 2414
fb73857a
PP
2415You may find it helpful to run installhtml twice. That should reduce
2416the number of "cannot resolve" warnings.
2417
aa689395
PP
2418=head1 cd pod && make tex && (process the latex files)
2419
2420Some sites may also wish to make the documentation in the pod/ directory
2421available in TeX format. Type
2422
2423 (cd pod && make tex && <process the latex files>)
2424
8ebf57cf
JH
2425=head1 Minimizing the Perl installation
2426
2427The following section is meant for people worrying about squeezing the
2428Perl installation into minimal systems (for example when installing
2429operating systems, or in really small filesystems).
2430
c8214fdf 2431Leaving out as many extensions as possible is an obvious way:
5cda700b
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2432Encode, with its big conversion tables, consumes a lot of
2433space. On the other hand, you cannot throw away everything. The
2434Fcntl module is pretty essential. If you need to do network
c8214fdf
JH
2435programming, you'll appreciate the Socket module, and so forth: it all
2436depends on what do you need to do.
2437
8ebf57cf
JH
2438In the following we offer two different slimmed down installation
2439recipes. They are informative, not normative: the choice of files
2440depends on what you need.
2441
2442Firstly, the bare minimum to run this script
2443
2444 use strict;
2445 use warnings;
2446 foreach my $f (</*>) {
2447 print("$f\n");
2448 }
2449
2450in Solaris is as follows (under $Config{prefix}):
2451
2452 ./bin/perl
2453 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/auto/DynaLoader/autosplit.ix
2454 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/auto/DynaLoader/dl_expandspec.al
2455 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/auto/DynaLoader/dl_find_symbol_anywhere.al
2456 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/auto/DynaLoader/dl_findfile.al
2457 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/auto/File/Glob/Glob.so
2458 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/auto/File/Glob/autosplit.ix
2459 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/Config.pm
2460 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/XSLoader.pm
2461 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/DynaLoader.pm
2462 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/CORE/libperl.so
2463 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/strict.pm
2464 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/warnings.pm
2465 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/Carp.pm
2466 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/Exporter.pm
2467 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/File/Glob.pm
2468 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/AutoLoader.pm
2469 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/vars.pm
2470 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/warnings/register.pm
2471 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/Carp/Heavy.pm
2472 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/Exporter/Heavy.pm
2473
2474Secondly, Debian perl-base package contains the following files,
2475size about 1.2MB in its i386 version:
2476
2477 /usr/share/doc/perl/Documentation
2478 /usr/share/doc/perl/README.Debian
2479 /usr/share/doc/perl/copyright
2480 /usr/share/doc/perl/AUTHORS.gz
2481 /usr/share/doc/perl/changelog.Debian.gz
2482 /usr/share/man/man1/perl.1.gz
2483 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/AutoLoader.pm
2484 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/Carp.pm
2485 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/Carp/Heavy.pm
2486 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/Cwd.pm
2487 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/Exporter.pm
2488 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/Exporter/Heavy.pm
2489 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/File/Spec.pm
2490 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/File/Spec/Unix.pm
2491 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/FileHandle.pm
2492 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/Getopt/Long.pm
2493 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/IO/Socket/INET.pm
2494 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/IO/Socket/UNIX.pm
2495 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/IPC/Open2.pm
2496 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/IPC/Open3.pm
2497 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/SelectSaver.pm
2498 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/Symbol.pm
2499 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/Text/Tabs.pm
2500 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/Text/Wrap.pm
2501 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/attributes.pm
2502 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/auto/Getopt/Long/GetOptions.al
2503 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/auto/Getopt/Long/FindOption.al
2504 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/auto/Getopt/Long/Configure.al
2505 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/auto/Getopt/Long/config.al
2506 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/auto/Getopt/Long/Croak.al
2507 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/auto/Getopt/Long/autosplit.ix
2508 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/base.pm
2509 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/constant.pm
2510 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/fields.pm
2511 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/integer.pm
2512 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/lib.pm
2513 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/locale.pm
2514 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/overload.pm
2515 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/strict.pm
2516 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/vars.pm
2517 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/warnings.pm
2518 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/warnings/register.pm
2519 /usr/bin/perl
2520 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/Config.pm
2521 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/Data/Dumper.pm
2522 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/DynaLoader.pm
2523 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/Errno.pm
2524 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/Fcntl.pm
2525 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/File/Glob.pm
2526 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/IO.pm
2527 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/IO/File.pm
2528 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/IO/Handle.pm
2529 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/IO/Pipe.pm
2530 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/IO/Seekable.pm
2531 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/IO/Select.pm
2532 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/IO/Socket.pm
2533 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/POSIX.pm
2534 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/Socket.pm
2535 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/XSLoader.pm
2536 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/Data/Dumper/Dumper.so
2537 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/Data/Dumper/Dumper.bs
2538 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/DynaLoader/dl_findfile.al
2539 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/DynaLoader/dl_expandspec.al
2540 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/DynaLoader/dl_find_symbol_anywhere.al
2541 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/DynaLoader/autosplit.ix
2542 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/DynaLoader/DynaLoader.a
2543 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/DynaLoader/extralibs.ld
2544 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/Fcntl/Fcntl.so
2545 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/Fcntl/Fcntl.bs
2546 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/File/Glob/Glob.bs
2547 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/File/Glob/Glob.so
2548 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/File/Glob/autosplit.ix
2549 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/IO/IO.so
2550 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/IO/IO.bs
2551 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/POSIX/POSIX.bs
2552 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/POSIX/POSIX.so
2553 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/POSIX/autosplit.ix
2554 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/POSIX/load_imports.al
2555 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/Socket/Socket.so
2556 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/Socket/Socket.bs
2557
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2558=head1 DOCUMENTATION
2559
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2560Read the manual entries before running perl. The main documentation
2561is in the pod/ subdirectory and should have been installed during the
8e07c86e 2562build process. Type B<man perl> to get started. Alternatively, you
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2563can type B<perldoc perl> to use the supplied perldoc script. This is
2564sometimes useful for finding things in the library modules.
8e07c86e 2565
1ec51d55 2566Under UNIX, you can produce a documentation book in postscript form,
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2567along with its table of contents, by going to the pod/ subdirectory and
2568running (either):
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RM
2569
2570 ./roffitall -groff # If you have GNU groff installed
aa689395 2571 ./roffitall -psroff # If you have psroff
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RM
2572
2573This will leave you with two postscript files ready to be printed.
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2574(You may need to fix the roffitall command to use your local troff
2575set-up.)
34a2a22e 2576
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2577Note that you must have performed the installation already before running
2578the above, since the script collects the installed files to generate
2579the documentation.
34a2a22e 2580
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2581=head1 AUTHOR
2582
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2583Original author: Andy Dougherty doughera@lafayette.edu , borrowing very
2584heavily from the original README by Larry Wall, with lots of helpful
2585feedback and additions from the perl5-porters@perl.org folks.
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2587If you have problems, corrections, or questions, please see
2588L<"Reporting Problems"> above.
2589
2590=head1 REDISTRIBUTION
2591
2592This document is part of the Perl package and may be distributed under
d6baa268 2593the same terms as perl itself, with the following additional request:
f5b3b617 2594If you are distributing a modified version of perl (perhaps as part of
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2595a larger package) please B<do> modify these installation instructions
2596and the contact information to match your distribution.