This is a live mirror of the Perl 5 development currently hosted at https://github.com/perl/perl5
Hashed out a prose description of the (largely existing) branching and topic branch...
[perl5.git] / pod / perlrepository.pod
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1=for comment
2Consistent formatting of this file is achieved with:
3 perl ./Porting/podtidy pod/perlrepository.pod
4
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5=head1 NAME
6
7perlrepository - Using the Perl source repository
8
9=head1 SYNOPSIS
10
dc3c3040 11All of Perl's source code is kept centrally in a Git repository at
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12I<perl5.git.perl.org>. The repository contains many Perl revisions from
13Perl 1 onwards and all the revisions from Perforce, the version control
14system we were using previously. This repository is accessible in
15different ways.
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16
17The full repository takes up about 80MB of disk space. A check out of
7f4ffa9d 18the blead branch (that is, the main development branch, which contains
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19bleadperl, the development version of perl 5) takes up about 160MB of
20disk space (including the repository). A build of bleadperl takes up
21about 200MB (including the repository and the check out).
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22
23=head1 GETTING ACCESS TO THE REPOSITORY
24
25=head2 READ ACCESS VIA THE WEB
26
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27You may access the repository over the web. This allows you to browse
28the tree, see recent commits, subscribe to RSS feeds for the changes,
29search for particular commits and more. You may access it at:
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30
31 http://perl5.git.perl.org/perl.git
32
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33A mirror of the repository is found at:
34
35 http://github.com/github/perl
36
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37=head2 READ ACCESS VIA GIT
38
39You will need a copy of Git for your computer. You can fetch a copy of
40the repository using the Git protocol (which uses port 9418):
41
3b8a5fb0 42 git clone git://perl5.git.perl.org/perl.git perl-git
d7dd28b6 43
f755e97d 44This clones the repository and makes a local copy in the F<perl-git>
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45directory.
46
47If your local network does not allow you to use port 9418, then you can
572f57ba 48fetch a copy of the repository over HTTP (this is slower):
d7dd28b6 49
3b8a5fb0 50 git clone http://perl5.git.perl.org/perl.git perl-http
d7dd28b6 51
f755e97d 52This clones the repository and makes a local copy in the F<perl-http>
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53directory.
54
55=head2 WRITE ACCESS TO THE REPOSITORY
56
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57If you are a committer, then you can fetch a copy of the repository
58that you can push back on with:
d7dd28b6 59
3b8a5fb0 60 git clone ssh://perl5.git.perl.org/gitroot/perl.git perl-ssh
d7dd28b6 61
8f718e95 62This clones the repository and makes a local copy in the F<perl-ssh>
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63directory.
64
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65If you cloned using the git protocol, which is faster than ssh, then
66you will need to modify your config in order to enable pushing. Edit
67F<.git/config> where you will see something like:
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68
69 [remote "origin"]
70 url = git://perl5.git.perl.org/perl.git
71
72change that to something like this:
73
74 [remote "origin"]
75 url = ssh://perl5.git.perl.org/gitroot/perl.git
76
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77NOTE: there are symlinks set up so that the /gitroot is optional and
78since SSH is the default protocol you can actually shorten the "url" to
79C<perl5.git.perl.org:/perl.git>.
d7dd28b6 80
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81You can also set up your user name and e-mail address. For example
82
83 % git config user.name "Leon Brocard"
84 % git config user.email acme@astray.com
85
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86It is also possible to keep C<origin> as a git remote, and add a new
87remote for ssh access:
f6c12373 88
dc3c3040 89 % git remote add camel perl5.git.perl.org:/perl.git
f6c12373 90
6acba58e 91This allows you to update your local repository by pulling from
f755e97d 92C<origin>, which is faster and doesn't require you to authenticate, and
6acba58e 93to push your changes back with the C<camel> remote:
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94
95 % git fetch camel
96 % git push camel
97
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98The C<fetch> command just updates the C<camel> refs, as the objects
99themselves should have been fetched when pulling from C<origin>.
f6c12373 100
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101The committers have access to 2 servers that serve perl5.git.perl.org.
102One is camel.booking.com, which is the 'master' repository. The
103perl5.git.perl.org IP address also lives on this machine. The second
104one is dromedary.booking.com, which can be used for general testing and
105development. Dromedary syncs the git tree from camel every few minutes,
106you should not push there. Both machines also have a full CPAN mirror.
107To share files with the general public, dromedary serves your
108~/public_html/ as http://users.perl5.git.perl.org/~yourlogin/
b47aa495 109
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110=head1 OVERVIEW OF THE REPOSITORY
111
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112Once you have changed into the repository directory, you can inspect
113it.
d7dd28b6 114
39219fd3 115After a clone the repository will contain a single local branch, which
50eca761 116will be the current branch as well, as indicated by the asterisk.
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117
118 % git branch
119 * blead
120
f755e97d 121Using the -a switch to C<branch> will also show the remote tracking
6acba58e 122branches in the repository:
39219fd3 123
d9847473 124 % git branch -a
09081495 125 * blead
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126 origin/HEAD
127 origin/blead
128 ...
129
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130The branches that begin with "origin" correspond to the "git remote"
131that you cloned from (which is named "origin"). Each branch on the
132remote will be exactly tracked by theses branches. You should NEVER do
133work on these remote tracking branches. You only ever do work in a
134local branch. Local branches can be configured to automerge (on pull)
135from a designated remote tracking branch. This is the case with the
136default branch C<blead> which will be configured to merge from the
137remote tracking branch C<origin/blead>.
39219fd3 138
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139You can see recent commits:
140
c2cf2042 141 % git log
d7dd28b6 142
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143And pull new changes from the repository, and update your local
144repository (must be clean first)
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145
146 % git pull
09081495 147
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148Assuming we are on the branch C<blead> immediately after a pull, this
149command would be more or less equivalent to:
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150
151 % git fetch
152 % git merge origin/blead
153
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154In fact if you want to update your local repository without touching
155your working directory you do:
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156
157 % git fetch
158
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159And if you want to update your remote-tracking branches for all defined
160remotes simultaneously you can do
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161
162 % git remote update
163
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164Neither of these last two commands will update your working directory,
165however both will update the remote-tracking branches in your
166repository.
39219fd3 167
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168To switch to another branch:
169
170 % git checkout origin/maint-5.8-dor
171
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172To make a local branch of a remote branch:
173
174 % git checkout -b maint-5.10 origin/maint-5.10
175
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176To switch back to blead:
177
178 % git checkout blead
c2cf2042 179
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180=head2 FINDING OUT YOUR STATUS
181
182The most common git command you will use will probably be
183
184 % git status
185
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186This command will produce as output a description of the current state
187of the repository, including modified files and unignored untracked
188files, and in addition it will show things like what files have been
189staged for the next commit, and usually some useful information about
190how to change things. For instance the following:
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191
192 $ git status
193 # On branch blead
194 # Your branch is ahead of 'origin/blead' by 1 commit.
195 #
196 # Changes to be committed:
197 # (use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage)
198 #
199 # modified: pod/perlrepository.pod
200 #
201 # Changed but not updated:
202 # (use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed)
203 #
204 # modified: pod/perlrepository.pod
205 #
206 # Untracked files:
207 # (use "git add <file>..." to include in what will be committed)
208 #
209 # deliberate.untracked
210
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211This shows that there were changes to this document staged for commit,
212and that there were further changes in the working directory not yet
213staged. It also shows that there was an untracked file in the working
214directory, and as you can see shows how to change all of this. It also
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215shows that there is one commit on the working branch C<blead> which has
216not been pushed to the C<origin> remote yet. B<NOTE>: that this output
217is also what you see as a template if you do not provide a message to
218C<git commit>.
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219
220Assuming we commit all the mentioned changes above:
221
222 % git commit -a -m'explain git status and stuff about remotes'
223 Created commit daf8e63: explain git status and stuff about remotes
224 1 files changed, 83 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-)
225
226We can re-run git status and see something like this:
227
228 % git status
229 # On branch blead
230 # Your branch is ahead of 'origin/blead' by 2 commits.
231 #
232 # Untracked files:
233 # (use "git add <file>..." to include in what will be committed)
234 #
235 # deliberate.untracked
236 nothing added to commit but untracked files present (use "git add" to track)
237
39219fd3 238
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239When in doubt, before you do anything else, check your status and read
240it carefully, many questions are answered directly by the git status
241output.
39219fd3 242
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243=head1 SUBMITTING A PATCH
244
245If you have a patch in mind for Perl, you should first get a copy of
246the repository:
247
248 % git clone git://perl5.git.perl.org/perl.git perl-git
249
250Then change into the directory:
251
252 % cd perl-git
253
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254Alternatively, if you already have a Perl repository, you should ensure
255that you're on the I<blead> branch, and your repository is up to date:
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256
257 % git checkout blead
258 % git pull
259
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260It's preferable to patch against the latest blead version, since this
261is where new development occurs for all changes other than critical bug
262fixes. Critical bug fix patches should be made against the relevant
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263maint branches, or should be submitted with a note indicating all the
264branches where the fix should be applied.
a44f43ac 265
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266Now that we have everything up to date, we need to create a temporary
267new branch for these changes and switch into it:
b1fccde5 268
a9b05323 269 % git checkout -b orange
23f8d33e 270
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271which is the short form of
272
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273 % git branch orange
274 % git checkout orange
275
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276Then make your changes. For example, if Leon Brocard changes his name
277to Orange Brocard, we should change his name in the AUTHORS file:
278
279 % perl -pi -e 's{Leon Brocard}{Orange Brocard}' AUTHORS
280
281You can see what files are changed:
282
283 % git status
f755e97d 284 # On branch orange
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285 # Changes to be committed:
286 # (use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage)
287 #
288 # modified: AUTHORS
289 #
290
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291And you can see the changes:
292
293 % git diff
294 diff --git a/AUTHORS b/AUTHORS
295 index 293dd70..722c93e 100644
296 --- a/AUTHORS
297 +++ b/AUTHORS
7df2e4bc 298 @@ -541,7 +541,7 @@ Lars Hecking <lhecking@nmrc.ucc.ie>
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299 Laszlo Molnar <laszlo.molnar@eth.ericsson.se>
300 Leif Huhn <leif@hale.dkstat.com>
301 Len Johnson <lenjay@ibm.net>
302 -Leon Brocard <acme@astray.com>
303 +Orange Brocard <acme@astray.com>
304 Les Peters <lpeters@aol.net>
305 Lesley Binks <lesley.binks@gmail.com>
306 Lincoln D. Stein <lstein@cshl.org>
307
308Now commit your change locally:
309
dc3c3040 310 % git commit -a -m 'Rename Leon Brocard to Orange Brocard'
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311 Created commit 6196c1d: Rename Leon Brocard to Orange Brocard
312 1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 1 deletions(-)
313
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314You can examine your last commit with:
315
316 % git show HEAD
317
318and if you are not happy with either the description or the patch
c26da522 319itself you can fix it up by editing the files once more and then issue:
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320
321 % git commit -a --amend
322
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323Now you should create a patch file for all your local changes:
324
2af192ee 325 % git format-patch origin
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326 0001-Rename-Leon-Brocard-to-Orange-Brocard.patch
327
328You should now send an email to perl5-porters@perl.org with a
dc3c3040 329description of your changes, and include this patch file as an
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330attachment. (See the next section for how to configure and use
331git to send these emails for you.)
c2cf2042 332
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333If you want to delete your temporary branch, you may do so with:
334
335 % git checkout blead
336 % git branch -d orange
337 error: The branch 'orange' is not an ancestor of your current HEAD.
338 If you are sure you want to delete it, run 'git branch -D orange'.
339 % git branch -D orange
340 Deleted branch orange.
7df2e4bc 341
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342=head2 Using git to send patch emails
343
344In your ~/git/perl repository, set the destination email to the perl5-porters
345mailing list.
346
347 $ git config sendemail.to perl5-porters@perl.org
348
349Then you can use git directly to send your patch emails:
350
351 $ git send-email 0001-Rename-Leon-Brocard-to-Orange-Brocard.patch
352
353You may need to set some configuration variables for your particular email
354service provider. For example, to set your global git config to send email via
355a gmail account:
356
357 $ git config --global sendemail.smtpserver smtp.gmail.com
358 $ git config --global sendemail.smtpssl 1
359 $ git config --global sendemail.smtpuser YOURUSERNAME@gmail.com
360
361With this configuration, you will be prompted for your gmail password when you
362run 'git send-email'. You can also configure C<sendemail.smtppass> with your
363password if you don't care about having your password in the .gitconfig file.
364
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365=head2 A note on derived files
366
367Be aware that many files in the distribution are derivative--avoid
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368patching them, because git won't see the changes to them, and the build
369process will overwrite them. Patch the originals instead. Most
370utilities (like perldoc) are in this category, i.e. patch
371utils/perldoc.PL rather than utils/perldoc. Similarly, don't create
372patches for files under $src_root/ext from their copies found in
373$install_root/lib. If you are unsure about the proper location of a
374file that may have gotten copied while building the source
375distribution, consult the C<MANIFEST>.
a44f43ac 376
6e2cec71 377=for XXX
a44f43ac 378
6e2cec71 379What should we recommend about binary files now? Do we need anything?
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380
381=head2 Getting your patch accepted
382
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383The first thing you should include with your patch is a description of
384the problem that the patch corrects. If it is a code patch (rather
385than a documentation patch) you should also include a small test case
386that illustrates the bug (a patch to an existing test file is
387preferred).
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388
389If you are submitting a code patch there are several other things that
390you need to do.
391
392=over 4
393
394=item Comments, Comments, Comments
395
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396Be sure to adequately comment your code. While commenting every line
397is unnecessary, anything that takes advantage of side effects of
a44f43ac 398operators, that creates changes that will be felt outside of the
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399function being patched, or that others may find confusing should be
400documented. If you are going to err, it is better to err on the side
401of adding too many comments than too few.
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402
403=item Style
404
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405In general, please follow the particular style of the code you are
406patching.
a44f43ac 407
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408In particular, follow these general guidelines for patching Perl
409sources:
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410
411 8-wide tabs (no exceptions!)
412 4-wide indents for code, 2-wide indents for nested CPP #defines
413 try hard not to exceed 79-columns
414 ANSI C prototypes
415 uncuddled elses and "K&R" style for indenting control constructs
416 no C++ style (//) comments
417 mark places that need to be revisited with XXX (and revisit often!)
418 opening brace lines up with "if" when conditional spans multiple
419 lines; should be at end-of-line otherwise
420 in function definitions, name starts in column 0 (return value is on
421 previous line)
422 single space after keywords that are followed by parens, no space
423 between function name and following paren
424 avoid assignments in conditionals, but if they're unavoidable, use
425 extra paren, e.g. "if (a && (b = c)) ..."
426 "return foo;" rather than "return(foo);"
427 "if (!foo) ..." rather than "if (foo == FALSE) ..." etc.
428
429=item Testsuite
430
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431When submitting a patch you should make every effort to also include an
432addition to perl's regression tests to properly exercise your patch.
433Your testsuite additions should generally follow these guidelines
434(courtesy of Gurusamy Sarathy <gsar@activestate.com>):
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435
436 Know what you're testing. Read the docs, and the source.
437 Tend to fail, not succeed.
438 Interpret results strictly.
439 Use unrelated features (this will flush out bizarre interactions).
440 Use non-standard idioms (otherwise you are not testing TIMTOWTDI).
441 Avoid using hardcoded test numbers whenever possible (the
442 EXPECTED/GOT found in t/op/tie.t is much more maintainable,
443 and gives better failure reports).
444 Give meaningful error messages when a test fails.
445 Avoid using qx// and system() unless you are testing for them. If you
446 do use them, make sure that you cover _all_ perl platforms.
447 Unlink any temporary files you create.
448 Promote unforeseen warnings to errors with $SIG{__WARN__}.
449 Be sure to use the libraries and modules shipped with the version
450 being tested, not those that were already installed.
451 Add comments to the code explaining what you are testing for.
452 Make updating the '1..42' string unnecessary. Or make sure that
453 you update it.
454 Test _all_ behaviors of a given operator, library, or function:
455 - All optional arguments
456 - Return values in various contexts (boolean, scalar, list, lvalue)
457 - Use both global and lexical variables
458 - Don't forget the exceptional, pathological cases.
459
460=back
461
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462=head1 ACCEPTING A PATCH
463
464If you have received a patch file generated using the above section,
465you should try out the patch.
466
467First we need to create a temporary new branch for these changes and
468switch into it:
469
a9b05323 470 % git checkout -b experimental
7df2e4bc 471
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472Patches that were formatted by C<git format-patch> are applied with
473C<git am>:
7df2e4bc 474
2af192ee 475 % git am 0001-Rename-Leon-Brocard-to-Orange-Brocard.patch
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476 Applying Rename Leon Brocard to Orange Brocard
477
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478If just a raw diff is provided, it is also possible use this two-step
479process:
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480
481 % git apply bugfix.diff
dc3c3040 482 % git commit -a -m "Some fixing" --author="That Guy <that.guy@internets.com>"
09645c26 483
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484Now we can inspect the change:
485
dc3c3040 486 % git show HEAD
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487 commit b1b3dab48344cff6de4087efca3dbd63548ab5e2
488 Author: Leon Brocard <acme@astray.com>
489 Date: Fri Dec 19 17:02:59 2008 +0000
490
491 Rename Leon Brocard to Orange Brocard
7df2e4bc 492
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493 diff --git a/AUTHORS b/AUTHORS
494 index 293dd70..722c93e 100644
495 --- a/AUTHORS
496 +++ b/AUTHORS
497 @@ -541,7 +541,7 @@ Lars Hecking <lhecking@nmrc.ucc.ie>
498 Laszlo Molnar <laszlo.molnar@eth.ericsson.se>
499 Leif Huhn <leif@hale.dkstat.com>
500 Len Johnson <lenjay@ibm.net>
501 -Leon Brocard <acme@astray.com>
502 +Orange Brocard <acme@astray.com>
503 Les Peters <lpeters@aol.net>
504 Lesley Binks <lesley.binks@gmail.com>
505 Lincoln D. Stein <lstein@cshl.org>
506
507If you are a committer to Perl and you think the patch is good, you can
75fb7651 508then merge it into blead then push it out to the main repository:
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509
510 % git checkout blead
d9847473 511 % git merge experimental
75fb7651 512 % git push
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513
514If you want to delete your temporary branch, you may do so with:
515
516 % git checkout blead
517 % git branch -d experimental
518 error: The branch 'experimental' is not an ancestor of your current HEAD.
519 If you are sure you want to delete it, run 'git branch -D experimental'.
520 % git branch -D experimental
521 Deleted branch experimental.
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522
523=head1 CLEANING A WORKING DIRECTORY
524
6acba58e 525The command C<git clean> can with varying arguments be used as a
dc3c3040 526replacement for C<make clean>.
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527
528To reset your working directory to a pristine condition you can do:
529
530 git clean -dxf
531
532However, be aware this will delete ALL untracked content. You can use
533
534 git clean -Xf
535
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536to remove all ignored untracked files, such as build and test
537byproduct, but leave any manually created files alone.
b0d36535 538
0549aefb 539If you only want to cancel some uncommitted edits, you can use C<git
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540checkout> and give it a list of files to be reverted, or C<git checkout
541-f> to revert them all.
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542
543If you want to cancel one or several commits, you can use C<git reset>.
544
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545=head1 BISECTING
546
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547C<git> provides a built-in way to determine, with a binary search in
548the history, which commit should be blamed for introducing a given bug.
d82a90c1 549
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550Suppose that we have a script F<~/testcase.pl> that exits with C<0>
551when some behaviour is correct, and with C<1> when it's faulty. We need
552an helper script that automates building C<perl> and running the
553testcase:
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554
555 % cat ~/run
556 #!/bin/sh
557 git clean -dxf
558 # If you can use ccache, add -Dcc=ccache\ gcc -Dld=gcc to the Configure line
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559 sh Configure -des -Dusedevel -Doptimize="-g"
560 test -f config.sh || exit 125
561 # Correct makefile for newer GNU gcc
562 perl -ni -we 'print unless /<(?:built-in|command)/' makefile x2p/makefile
563 # if you just need miniperl, replace test_prep with miniperl
564 make -j4 test_prep
68814ba4 565 [ -x ./perl ] || exit 125
d82a90c1 566 ./perl -Ilib ~/testcase.pl
c0d1ef72 567 ret=$?
7930c68b 568 [ $ret -gt 127 ] && ret=127
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569 git clean -dxf
570 exit $ret
d82a90c1 571
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572This script may return C<125> to indicate that the corresponding commit
573should be skipped. Otherwise, it returns the status of
574F<~/testcase.pl>.
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575
576We first enter in bisect mode with:
577
578 % git bisect start
579
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580For example, if the bug is present on C<HEAD> but wasn't in 5.10.0,
581C<git> will learn about this when you enter:
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582
583 % git bisect bad
584 % git bisect good perl-5.10.0
585 Bisecting: 853 revisions left to test after this
586
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587This results in checking out the median commit between C<HEAD> and
588C<perl-5.10.0>. We can then run the bisecting process with:
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589
590 % git bisect run ~/run
591
592When the first bad commit is isolated, C<git bisect> will tell you so:
593
594 ca4cfd28534303b82a216cfe83a1c80cbc3b9dc5 is first bad commit
595 commit ca4cfd28534303b82a216cfe83a1c80cbc3b9dc5
596 Author: Dave Mitchell <davem@fdisolutions.com>
597 Date: Sat Feb 9 14:56:23 2008 +0000
598
9469eb4a 599 [perl #49472] Attributes + Unknown Error
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600 ...
601
602 bisect run success
603
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604You can peek into the bisecting process with C<git bisect log> and
605C<git bisect visualize>. C<git bisect reset> will get you out of bisect
606mode.
d82a90c1 607
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608Please note that the first C<good> state must be an ancestor of the
609first C<bad> state. If you want to search for the commit that I<solved>
610some bug, you have to negate your test case (i.e. exit with C<1> if OK
611and C<0> if not) and still mark the lower bound as C<good> and the
612upper as C<bad>. The "first bad commit" has then to be understood as
613the "first commit where the bug is solved".
d82a90c1 614
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615C<git help bisect> has much more information on how you can tweak your
616binary searches.
9d68b7ed 617
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618=head1 SUBMITTING A PATCH VIA GITHUB
619
620GitHub is a website that makes it easy to fork and publish projects
621with Git. First you should set up a GitHub account and log in.
622
623Perl's git repository is mirrored on GitHub at this page:
624
625 http://github.com/github/perl/tree/blead
626
627Visit the page and click the "fork" button. This clones the Perl git
628repository for you and provides you with "Your Clone URL" from which
629you should clone:
630
631 % git clone git@github.com:USERNAME/perl.git perl-github
632
633We shall make the same patch as above, creating a new branch:
634
635 % cd perl-github
636 % git remote add upstream git://github.com/github/perl.git
637 % git pull upstream blead
638 % git checkout -b orange
639 % perl -pi -e 's{Leon Brocard}{Orange Brocard}' AUTHORS
dc3c3040 640 % git commit -a -m 'Rename Leon Brocard to Orange Brocard'
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641 % git push origin orange
642
643The orange branch has been pushed to GitHub, so you should now send an
644email to perl5-porters@perl.org with a description of your changes and
645the following information:
646
647 http://github.com/USERNAME/perl/tree/orange
648 git@github.com:USERNAME/perl.git branch orange
649
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650=head1 MERGING FROM A BRANCH VIA GITHUB
651
652If someone has provided a branch via GitHub and you are a committer,
5c9c28c6 653you should use the following in your perl-ssh directory:
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654
655 % git remote add dandv git://github.com/dandv/perl.git
656 % git fetch
657
658Now you can see the differences between the branch and blead:
659
660 % git diff dandv/blead
661
662And you can see the commits:
663
664 % git log dandv/blead
665
666If you approve of a specific commit, you can cherry pick it:
667
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668 % git cherry-pick 3adac458cb1c1d41af47fc66e67b49c8dec2323f
669
670Or you could just merge the whole branch if you like it all:
671
672 % git merge dandv/blead
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673
674And then push back to the repository:
675
676 % git push
677
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678
679=head1 TOPIC BRANCHES AND REWRITING HISTORY
680
681Individual committers should create topic branches under
682B<yourname>/B<some_descriptive_name>. Other committers should check with
683a topic branch's creator before making any change to it.
684
685If you are not the creator of B<yourname>/B<some_descriptive_name>, you
686might sometimes find that the original author has edited the branch's
687history. There are lots of good reasons for this. Sometimes, an author
688might simply be rebasing the branch onto a newer source point. Sometimes,
689an author might have found an error in an early commit which they wanted
690to fix before merging the branch to blead.
691
692Currently the master repository is configured to forbid non-fast-forward
693merges. This means that the branches within can not be rebased and
694pushed as a single step.
695
696The only way you will ever be allowed to rebase or modify the history of a
697pushed branch is to delete it and push it as a new branch under the same
698name. Please think carefully about this, you may want to sequentially
699name your branches so that it is easier for others working with you to
700cherry-pick their local changes.
701
702If you want to rebase a personal topic branch, you will have to delete
703your existing topic branch and push as a new version of it.
704
705B<DO NOT, UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES, SO MUCH AS THINK ABOUT TRYING THIS
706ON BLEAD OR MAINT>
707
708We don't edit the history of the blead and maint-* branches. If a
709typo (or worse) sneaks into a commit to blead or maint-*, we'll fix
710it in another commit.
711
712Tags in the canonical perl.git repository will never be deleted or
713modified. Think long and hard about whether you want to push a local
714tag to perl.git before doing so.
715
9469eb4a 716=head1 COMMITTING TO MAINTENANCE VERSIONS
9d68b7ed 717
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718Maintenance versions should only be altered to add critical bug fixes.
719
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720To commit to a maintenance version of perl, you need to create a local
721tracking branch:
722
723 % git checkout --track -b maint-5.005 origin/maint-5.005
724
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725This creates a local branch named C<maint-5.005>, which tracks the
726remote branch C<origin/maint-5.005>. Then you can pull, commit, merge
727and push as before.
b0d36535 728
f755e97d 729You can also cherry-pick commits from blead and another branch, by
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730using the C<git cherry-pick> command. It is recommended to use the
731B<-x> option to C<git cherry-pick> in order to record the SHA1 of the
732original commit in the new commit message.
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734=head1 GRAFTS
735
736The perl history contains one mistake which was not caught in the
737conversion -- a merge was recorded in the history between blead and
738maint-5.10 where no merge actually occurred. Due to the nature of
739git, this is now impossible to fix in the public repository. You can
740remove this mis-merge locally by adding the following line to your
741C<.git/info/grafts> file:
742
743 296f12bbbbaa06de9be9d09d3dcf8f4528898a49 434946e0cb7a32589ed92d18008aaa1d88515930
744
745It is particularly important to have this graft line if any bisecting
746is done in the area of the "merge" in question.
747
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748=head1 SEE ALSO
749
750The git documentation, accessible via C<git help command>.
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