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perlrun.pod: fix -i examples
[perl5.git] / locale.c
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1/* locale.c
2 *
be3c0a43 3 * Copyright (c) 2001-2002, Larry Wall
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4 *
5 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
6 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
7 *
8 */
9
10/*
11 * A Elbereth Gilthoniel,
12 * silivren penna míriel
13 * o menel aglar elenath!
14 * Na-chaered palan-díriel
15 * o galadhremmin ennorath,
16 * Fanuilos, le linnathon
17 * nef aear, si nef aearon!
18 */
19
20#include "EXTERN.h"
21#define PERL_IN_LOCALE_C
22#include "perl.h"
23
24#ifdef I_LOCALE
25# include <locale.h>
26#endif
27
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28#ifdef I_LANGINFO
29# include <langinfo.h>
30#endif
31
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32#include "reentr.h"
33
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34/*
35 * Standardize the locale name from a string returned by 'setlocale'.
36 *
37 * The standard return value of setlocale() is either
38 * (1) "xx_YY" if the first argument of setlocale() is not LC_ALL
39 * (2) "xa_YY xb_YY ..." if the first argument of setlocale() is LC_ALL
40 * (the space-separated values represent the various sublocales,
41 * in some unspecificed order)
42 *
43 * In some platforms it has a form like "LC_SOMETHING=Lang_Country.866\n",
44 * which is harmful for further use of the string in setlocale().
45 *
46 */
47STATIC char *
48S_stdize_locale(pTHX_ char *locs)
49{
50 char *s;
51 bool okay = TRUE;
52
53 if ((s = strchr(locs, '='))) {
54 char *t;
55
56 okay = FALSE;
57 if ((t = strchr(s, '.'))) {
58 char *u;
59
60 if ((u = strchr(t, '\n'))) {
61
62 if (u[1] == 0) {
63 STRLEN len = u - s;
64 Move(s + 1, locs, len, char);
65 locs[len] = 0;
66 okay = TRUE;
67 }
68 }
69 }
70 }
71
72 if (!okay)
73 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't fix broken locale name \"%s\"", locs);
74
75 return locs;
76}
77
78void
79Perl_set_numeric_radix(pTHX)
80{
81#ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
82# ifdef HAS_LOCALECONV
83 struct lconv* lc;
84
85 lc = localeconv();
86 if (lc && lc->decimal_point) {
87 if (lc->decimal_point[0] == '.' && lc->decimal_point[1] == 0) {
88 SvREFCNT_dec(PL_numeric_radix_sv);
89 PL_numeric_radix_sv = Nullsv;
90 }
91 else {
92 if (PL_numeric_radix_sv)
93 sv_setpv(PL_numeric_radix_sv, lc->decimal_point);
94 else
95 PL_numeric_radix_sv = newSVpv(lc->decimal_point, 0);
96 }
97 }
98 else
99 PL_numeric_radix_sv = Nullsv;
100# endif /* HAS_LOCALECONV */
101#endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
102}
103
104/*
105 * Set up for a new numeric locale.
106 */
107void
108Perl_new_numeric(pTHX_ char *newnum)
109{
110#ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
111
112 if (! newnum) {
113 if (PL_numeric_name) {
114 Safefree(PL_numeric_name);
115 PL_numeric_name = NULL;
116 }
117 PL_numeric_standard = TRUE;
118 PL_numeric_local = TRUE;
119 return;
120 }
121
122 if (! PL_numeric_name || strNE(PL_numeric_name, newnum)) {
123 Safefree(PL_numeric_name);
124 PL_numeric_name = stdize_locale(savepv(newnum));
125 PL_numeric_standard = (strEQ(newnum, "C") || strEQ(newnum, "POSIX"));
126 PL_numeric_local = TRUE;
127 set_numeric_radix();
128 }
129
130#endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
131}
132
133void
134Perl_set_numeric_standard(pTHX)
135{
136#ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
137
138 if (! PL_numeric_standard) {
139 setlocale(LC_NUMERIC, "C");
140 PL_numeric_standard = TRUE;
141 PL_numeric_local = FALSE;
142 set_numeric_radix();
143 }
144
145#endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
146}
147
148void
149Perl_set_numeric_local(pTHX)
150{
151#ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
152
153 if (! PL_numeric_local) {
154 setlocale(LC_NUMERIC, PL_numeric_name);
155 PL_numeric_standard = FALSE;
156 PL_numeric_local = TRUE;
157 set_numeric_radix();
158 }
159
160#endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
161}
162
163/*
164 * Set up for a new ctype locale.
165 */
166void
167Perl_new_ctype(pTHX_ char *newctype)
168{
169#ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
170
171 int i;
172
173 for (i = 0; i < 256; i++) {
174 if (isUPPER_LC(i))
175 PL_fold_locale[i] = toLOWER_LC(i);
176 else if (isLOWER_LC(i))
177 PL_fold_locale[i] = toUPPER_LC(i);
178 else
179 PL_fold_locale[i] = i;
180 }
181
182#endif /* USE_LOCALE_CTYPE */
183}
184
185/*
186 * Set up for a new collation locale.
187 */
188void
189Perl_new_collate(pTHX_ char *newcoll)
190{
191#ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
192
193 if (! newcoll) {
194 if (PL_collation_name) {
195 ++PL_collation_ix;
196 Safefree(PL_collation_name);
197 PL_collation_name = NULL;
198 }
199 PL_collation_standard = TRUE;
200 PL_collxfrm_base = 0;
201 PL_collxfrm_mult = 2;
202 return;
203 }
204
205 if (! PL_collation_name || strNE(PL_collation_name, newcoll)) {
206 ++PL_collation_ix;
207 Safefree(PL_collation_name);
208 PL_collation_name = stdize_locale(savepv(newcoll));
209 PL_collation_standard = (strEQ(newcoll, "C") || strEQ(newcoll, "POSIX"));
210
211 {
212 /* 2: at most so many chars ('a', 'b'). */
213 /* 50: surely no system expands a char more. */
214#define XFRMBUFSIZE (2 * 50)
215 char xbuf[XFRMBUFSIZE];
216 Size_t fa = strxfrm(xbuf, "a", XFRMBUFSIZE);
217 Size_t fb = strxfrm(xbuf, "ab", XFRMBUFSIZE);
218 SSize_t mult = fb - fa;
219 if (mult < 1)
220 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "strxfrm() gets absurd");
eb160463 221 PL_collxfrm_base = (fa > (Size_t)mult) ? (fa - mult) : 0;
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222 PL_collxfrm_mult = mult;
223 }
224 }
225
226#endif /* USE_LOCALE_COLLATE */
227}
228
229/*
230 * Initialize locale awareness.
231 */
232int
233Perl_init_i18nl10n(pTHX_ int printwarn)
234{
235 int ok = 1;
236 /* returns
237 * 1 = set ok or not applicable,
238 * 0 = fallback to C locale,
239 * -1 = fallback to C locale failed
240 */
241
242#if defined(USE_LOCALE)
243
244#ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
245 char *curctype = NULL;
246#endif /* USE_LOCALE_CTYPE */
247#ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
248 char *curcoll = NULL;
249#endif /* USE_LOCALE_COLLATE */
250#ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
251 char *curnum = NULL;
252#endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
253#ifdef __GLIBC__
254 char *language = PerlEnv_getenv("LANGUAGE");
255#endif
256 char *lc_all = PerlEnv_getenv("LC_ALL");
257 char *lang = PerlEnv_getenv("LANG");
258 bool setlocale_failure = FALSE;
259
260#ifdef LOCALE_ENVIRON_REQUIRED
261
262 /*
263 * Ultrix setlocale(..., "") fails if there are no environment
264 * variables from which to get a locale name.
265 */
266
267 bool done = FALSE;
268
269#ifdef LC_ALL
270 if (lang) {
271 if (setlocale(LC_ALL, ""))
272 done = TRUE;
273 else
274 setlocale_failure = TRUE;
275 }
276 if (!setlocale_failure) {
277#ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
278 if (! (curctype =
279 setlocale(LC_CTYPE,
280 (!done && (lang || PerlEnv_getenv("LC_CTYPE")))
281 ? "" : Nullch)))
282 setlocale_failure = TRUE;
283 else
284 curctype = savepv(curctype);
285#endif /* USE_LOCALE_CTYPE */
286#ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
287 if (! (curcoll =
288 setlocale(LC_COLLATE,
289 (!done && (lang || PerlEnv_getenv("LC_COLLATE")))
290 ? "" : Nullch)))
291 setlocale_failure = TRUE;
292 else
293 curcoll = savepv(curcoll);
294#endif /* USE_LOCALE_COLLATE */
295#ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
296 if (! (curnum =
297 setlocale(LC_NUMERIC,
298 (!done && (lang || PerlEnv_getenv("LC_NUMERIC")))
299 ? "" : Nullch)))
300 setlocale_failure = TRUE;
301 else
302 curnum = savepv(curnum);
303#endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
304 }
305
306#endif /* LC_ALL */
307
308#endif /* !LOCALE_ENVIRON_REQUIRED */
309
310#ifdef LC_ALL
311 if (! setlocale(LC_ALL, ""))
312 setlocale_failure = TRUE;
313#endif /* LC_ALL */
314
315 if (!setlocale_failure) {
316#ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
317 if (! (curctype = setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "")))
318 setlocale_failure = TRUE;
319 else
320 curctype = savepv(curctype);
321#endif /* USE_LOCALE_CTYPE */
322#ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
323 if (! (curcoll = setlocale(LC_COLLATE, "")))
324 setlocale_failure = TRUE;
325 else
326 curcoll = savepv(curcoll);
327#endif /* USE_LOCALE_COLLATE */
328#ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
329 if (! (curnum = setlocale(LC_NUMERIC, "")))
330 setlocale_failure = TRUE;
331 else
332 curnum = savepv(curnum);
333#endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
334 }
335
336 if (setlocale_failure) {
337 char *p;
338 bool locwarn = (printwarn > 1 ||
339 (printwarn &&
340 (!(p = PerlEnv_getenv("PERL_BADLANG")) || atoi(p))));
341
342 if (locwarn) {
343#ifdef LC_ALL
344
345 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
346 "perl: warning: Setting locale failed.\n");
347
348#else /* !LC_ALL */
349
350 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
351 "perl: warning: Setting locale failed for the categories:\n\t");
352#ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
353 if (! curctype)
354 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log, "LC_CTYPE ");
355#endif /* USE_LOCALE_CTYPE */
356#ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
357 if (! curcoll)
358 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log, "LC_COLLATE ");
359#endif /* USE_LOCALE_COLLATE */
360#ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
361 if (! curnum)
362 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log, "LC_NUMERIC ");
363#endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
364 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log, "\n");
365
366#endif /* LC_ALL */
367
368 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
369 "perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:\n");
370
371#ifdef __GLIBC__
372 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
373 "\tLANGUAGE = %c%s%c,\n",
374 language ? '"' : '(',
375 language ? language : "unset",
376 language ? '"' : ')');
377#endif
378
379 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
380 "\tLC_ALL = %c%s%c,\n",
381 lc_all ? '"' : '(',
382 lc_all ? lc_all : "unset",
383 lc_all ? '"' : ')');
384
385#if defined(USE_ENVIRON_ARRAY)
386 {
387 char **e;
388 for (e = environ; *e; e++) {
389 if (strnEQ(*e, "LC_", 3)
390 && strnNE(*e, "LC_ALL=", 7)
391 && (p = strchr(*e, '=')))
392 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log, "\t%.*s = \"%s\",\n",
393 (int)(p - *e), *e, p + 1);
394 }
395 }
396#else
397 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
398 "\t(possibly more locale environment variables)\n");
399#endif
400
401 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
402 "\tLANG = %c%s%c\n",
403 lang ? '"' : '(',
404 lang ? lang : "unset",
405 lang ? '"' : ')');
406
407 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
408 " are supported and installed on your system.\n");
409 }
410
411#ifdef LC_ALL
412
413 if (setlocale(LC_ALL, "C")) {
414 if (locwarn)
415 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
416 "perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale (\"C\").\n");
417 ok = 0;
418 }
419 else {
420 if (locwarn)
421 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
422 "perl: warning: Failed to fall back to the standard locale (\"C\").\n");
423 ok = -1;
424 }
425
426#else /* ! LC_ALL */
427
428 if (0
429#ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
430 || !(curctype || setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "C"))
431#endif /* USE_LOCALE_CTYPE */
432#ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
433 || !(curcoll || setlocale(LC_COLLATE, "C"))
434#endif /* USE_LOCALE_COLLATE */
435#ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
436 || !(curnum || setlocale(LC_NUMERIC, "C"))
437#endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
438 )
439 {
440 if (locwarn)
441 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
442 "perl: warning: Cannot fall back to the standard locale (\"C\").\n");
443 ok = -1;
444 }
445
446#endif /* ! LC_ALL */
447
448#ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
449 curctype = savepv(setlocale(LC_CTYPE, Nullch));
450#endif /* USE_LOCALE_CTYPE */
451#ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
452 curcoll = savepv(setlocale(LC_COLLATE, Nullch));
453#endif /* USE_LOCALE_COLLATE */
454#ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
455 curnum = savepv(setlocale(LC_NUMERIC, Nullch));
456#endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
457 }
458 else {
459
460#ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
461 new_ctype(curctype);
462#endif /* USE_LOCALE_CTYPE */
463
464#ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
465 new_collate(curcoll);
466#endif /* USE_LOCALE_COLLATE */
467
468#ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
469 new_numeric(curnum);
470#endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
b310b053 471
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472 }
473
474#endif /* USE_LOCALE */
475
ec71e770 476#ifdef USE_PERLIO
b310b053 477 {
fca394fc 478 /* Set PL_wantutf8 to TRUE if using PerlIO _and_
ec71e770 479 any of the following are true:
085a54d9 480 - nl_langinfo(CODESET) contains /^utf-?8/i
61de9fb5 481 - $ENV{LC_ALL} contains /^utf-?8/i
085a54d9 482 - $ENV{LC_CTYPE} contains /^utf-?8/i
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483 - $ENV{LANG} contains /^utf-?8/i
484 The LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LANG obey the usual override
485 hierarchy of locale environment variables. (LANGUAGE
486 affects only LC_MESSAGES only under glibc.) (If present,
487 it overrides LC_MESSAGES for GNU gettext, and it also
488 can have more than one locale, separated by spaces,
489 in case you need to know.)
fca394fc 490 If PL_wantutf8 is true, perl.c:S_parse_body()
085a54d9
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491 will turn on the PerlIO :utf8 discipline on STDIN, STDOUT,
492 STDERR, _and_ the default open discipline.
493 */
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494 bool wantutf8 = FALSE;
495 char *codeset = NULL;
496#if defined(HAS_NL_LANGINFO) && defined(CODESET)
497 codeset = nl_langinfo(CODESET);
498#endif
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499 if (codeset)
500 wantutf8 = (ibcmp(codeset, "UTF-8", 5) == 0 ||
501 ibcmp(codeset, "UTF8", 4) == 0);
077a72a9 502#if defined(USE_LOCALE)
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503 else { /* nl_langinfo(CODESET) is supposed to correctly
504 * interpret the locale environment variables,
505 * but just in case it fails, let's do this manually. */
506 if (lang)
507 wantutf8 = (ibcmp(lang, "UTF-8", 5) == 0 ||
508 ibcmp(lang, "UTF8", 4) == 0);
b310b053 509#ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
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510 if (curctype)
511 wantutf8 = (ibcmp(curctype, "UTF-8", 5) == 0 ||
512 ibcmp(curctype, "UTF8", 4) == 0);
b310b053 513#endif
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514 if (lc_all)
515 wantutf8 = (ibcmp(lc_all, "UTF-8", 5) == 0 ||
516 ibcmp(lc_all, "UTF8", 4) == 0);
077a72a9 517#endif /* USE_LOCALE */
61de9fb5 518 }
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519 if (wantutf8)
520 PL_wantutf8 = TRUE;
521 }
ec71e770 522#endif
b310b053 523
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524#ifdef USE_LOCALE_CTYPE
525 if (curctype != NULL)
526 Safefree(curctype);
527#endif /* USE_LOCALE_CTYPE */
528#ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
529 if (curcoll != NULL)
530 Safefree(curcoll);
531#endif /* USE_LOCALE_COLLATE */
532#ifdef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
533 if (curnum != NULL)
534 Safefree(curnum);
535#endif /* USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC */
536 return ok;
537}
538
539/* Backwards compatibility. */
540int
541Perl_init_i18nl14n(pTHX_ int printwarn)
542{
543 return init_i18nl10n(printwarn);
544}
545
546#ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
547
548/*
549 * mem_collxfrm() is a bit like strxfrm() but with two important
550 * differences. First, it handles embedded NULs. Second, it allocates
551 * a bit more memory than needed for the transformed data itself.
552 * The real transformed data begins at offset sizeof(collationix).
553 * Please see sv_collxfrm() to see how this is used.
554 */
555char *
556Perl_mem_collxfrm(pTHX_ const char *s, STRLEN len, STRLEN *xlen)
557{
558 char *xbuf;
559 STRLEN xAlloc, xin, xout; /* xalloc is a reserved word in VC */
560
561 /* the first sizeof(collationix) bytes are used by sv_collxfrm(). */
562 /* the +1 is for the terminating NUL. */
563
564 xAlloc = sizeof(PL_collation_ix) + PL_collxfrm_base + (PL_collxfrm_mult * len) + 1;
565 New(171, xbuf, xAlloc, char);
566 if (! xbuf)
567 goto bad;
568
569 *(U32*)xbuf = PL_collation_ix;
570 xout = sizeof(PL_collation_ix);
571 for (xin = 0; xin < len; ) {
572 SSize_t xused;
573
574 for (;;) {
575 xused = strxfrm(xbuf + xout, s + xin, xAlloc - xout);
576 if (xused == -1)
577 goto bad;
eb160463 578 if ((STRLEN)xused < xAlloc - xout)
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579 break;
580 xAlloc = (2 * xAlloc) + 1;
581 Renew(xbuf, xAlloc, char);
582 if (! xbuf)
583 goto bad;
584 }
585
586 xin += strlen(s + xin) + 1;
587 xout += xused;
588
589 /* Embedded NULs are understood but silently skipped
590 * because they make no sense in locale collation. */
591 }
592
593 xbuf[xout] = '\0';
594 *xlen = xout - sizeof(PL_collation_ix);
595 return xbuf;
596
597 bad:
598 Safefree(xbuf);
599 *xlen = 0;
600 return NULL;
601}
602
603#endif /* USE_LOCALE_COLLATE */
604