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Rewrap one perldiag entry for better splain output
[perl5.git] / pod / perldiag.pod
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
466416ed 23below. E.g. C<(W closed)> means a warning in the C<closed> category.
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24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
fa816bf3 26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
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27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
de42a5a9 53=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
04f74579 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s in %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
7c7af292 88(S ambiguous) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
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89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
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92=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
93
7c7af292 94(S ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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95bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
96(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
97like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
98assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
99clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
100really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 101
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102=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
103
104(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
105asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
106named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
1cecf2c0 107the variable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
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108function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
109and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
110
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111=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s[...]} resolved to %c%s[...]
112
113=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s{...}} resolved to %c%s{...}
4da60377 114
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115(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo represents
116the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for element number
1172 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write C<$foo[2]>, or you
118might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to the function named
119foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it returns. If you meant
120that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
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121
122In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
123to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
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124C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length> followed
125by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what you
126want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/> to the
127unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to something
128that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by simply turning
129off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 130
bdac9d71 131=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
397d0f13 132
7c7af292 133(S ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
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134string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
135the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
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136write C<-foo()>.
137
6df41af2 138=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 139
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140(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
141redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
142redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 143
6df41af2 144=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 145
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146(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
147redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
148into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
149though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
150which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 151
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152 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
153 while (<STDIN>) {
154 print;
155 print OUT;
156 }
157 close OUT;
c9f97d15 158
6df41af2 159=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 160
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161(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
162transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 163one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 164a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
165hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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166you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
167alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 168
6df41af2 169=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 170
6df41af2 171(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 172
f86702cc 173=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 174
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175(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
176that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
177will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 178
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179=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
180
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181(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O
182system you forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers
183take care of transforming data between external and internal
184representations.) Perl stopped parsing the layer list at this
185point and did not attempt to push this layer. If your program
186didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be the
187result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
b4581f09 188
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189=item Argument "%s" treated as 0 in increment (++)
190
191(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to the C<++>
192operator which expects either a number or a string matching
193C</^[a-zA-Z]*[0-9]*\z/>. See L<perlop/Auto-increment and
194Auto-decrement> for details.
195
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196=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
197
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198(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
199spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 200
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201=item A sequence of multiple spaces in a charnames alias definition is deprecated
202
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203(D deprecated) You defined a character name which had multiple space
204characters in a row. Change them to single spaces. Usually these
205names are defined in the C<:alias> import argument to C<use charnames>, but
206they could be defined by a translator installed into C<$^H{charnames}>.
207See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
bd299e29 208
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209=item assertion botched: %s
210
21b5e840 211(X) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
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212
213=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
214
21b5e840 215(X) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
a0d0e21e 216
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217=item Assigning non-zero to $[ is no longer possible
218
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219(F) When the "array_base" feature is disabled (e.g., under C<use v5.16;>)
220the special variable C<$[>, which is deprecated, is now a fixed zero value.
82122228 221
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222=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
223
224(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
225must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
226know which context to supply to the right side.
227
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228=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
229
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230(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily
231the main thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
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232Usually it's a good idea first to collect the return values of the
233created threads by joining them, and only then to exit from the main
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234thread. See L<threads>.
235
2393f1b9 236=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 237
49293501 238(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 239the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 240
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241=item Attempt to bless into a freed package
242
243(F) You wrote C<bless $foo> with one argument after somehow causing
244the current package to be freed. Perl cannot figure out what to
245do, so it throws up in hands in despair.
246
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247=item Attempt to bless into a reference
248
249(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
57dedab9 250the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
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251supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
252
253 bless $self, $proto;
254
255when you intended
256
257 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
258
259If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
260of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
261example by:
262
263 bless $self, "$proto";
264
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265=item Attempt to clear deleted array
266
267(S debugging) An array was assigned to when it was being freed.
268Freed values are not supposed to be visible to Perl code. This
269can also happen if XS code calls C<av_clear> from a custom magic
270callback on the array.
271
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272=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
273
274(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
275which is not in its key set.
276
277=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
278
279(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
280declared readonly from a restricted hash.
281
de42a5a9 282=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 283
f84fe999 284(S internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
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285that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
286outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 287
12578ffb 288=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string '%s'%s
bbce6d69 289
f84fe999 290(S internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
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291strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
292strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
293of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 294
7d5b40b4 295=item Attempt to free temp prematurely: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 296
f84fe999 297(S debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
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298free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
299SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
300free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
301try to free it.
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302
303=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
304
f84fe999 305(S internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
a0d0e21e 306
7d5b40b4 307=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 308
8f7e4d2c 309(S internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
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310see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
311earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
312This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
313that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
314mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
315corrupted.
a0d0e21e 316
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317=item Attempt to join self
318
319(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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320impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
321to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 322
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323=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
324
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325(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
326function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
327means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
328invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
329literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
330avoid this warning.
84902520 331
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332=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
333
334(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
335compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
336unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
337L<perlvar/%INC>.
338
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339=item Attempt to set length of freed array
340
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341(W misc) You tried to set the length of an array which has
342been freed. You can do this by storing a reference to the
343scalar representing the last index of an array and later
344assigning through that reference. For example
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345
346 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
347 $$r = 503
348
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349=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
350
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351(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
352used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
353dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 354
c32124fe
NC
355=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
356
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357(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the
358"locked" attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is
359obsolete, has had no effect since 5005 threads were removed, and
360will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
c32124fe 361
f1a3ce43
NC
362=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
363
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FC
364(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify
365the "unique" attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference.
366The :unique attribute has had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and
367will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
f1a3ce43 368
ccce04a4
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369=item av_reify called on tied array
370
371(S debugging) This indicates that something went wrong and Perl got I<very>
372confused about C<@_> or C<@DB::args> being tied.
373
de42a5a9 374=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 375
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376(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
377or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 378S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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379S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
380
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381=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
382
496a33f5 383(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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384substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
385most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
386
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387=item Bad filehandle: %s
388
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389(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
390symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
391open(), or did it in another package.
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392
393=item Bad free() ignored
394
be771a83 395(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
fa816bf3 396been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 397setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 398
9ea8bc6d 399This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
6903afa2 400dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
be771a83 401which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 402
aa689395
PP
403=item Bad hash
404
405(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
406
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407=item Badly placed ()'s
408
409(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
410of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
411Perl yourself.
412
a7cb8dae 413=item Bad name after %s
a0d0e21e 414
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415(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
416didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
417of quotes, so
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418
419 $var = 'myvar';
420 $sym = mypack::$var;
421
422is not the same as
423
424 $var = 'myvar';
425 $sym = "mypack::$var";
426
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427=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
428
429(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
430plugin API.
431
4ad56ec9
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432=item Bad realloc() ignored
433
6903afa2
FC
434(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that
435had never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can
436be disabled by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 437
a0d0e21e
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438=item Bad symbol for array
439
440(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
441wasn't a symbol table entry.
442
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SP
443=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
444
445(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
446that wasn't a symbol table entry.
447
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448=item Bad symbol for filehandle
449
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450(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
451that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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LW
452
453=item Bad symbol for hash
454
455(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
456wasn't a symbol table entry.
457
34d09196
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458=item Bareword found in conditional
459
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460(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
461conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
462of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
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463
464 open FOO || die;
465
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466It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
467a bareword:
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GS
468
469 use constant TYPO => 1;
470 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
471
472The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
473
6df41af2
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474=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
475
476(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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477subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
478symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
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479
480=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
481
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482(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
483compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
484you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 485
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486=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
487
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488(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
489subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
490exited.
a0d0e21e 491
68dc0745
PP
492=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
493
494(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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495implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
496occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
497be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
498depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 499
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500=item \1 better written as $1
501
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502(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
503The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
504substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
505because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
506there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 507
252aa082
JH
508=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
509
e476b1b5 510(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
511(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
512L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 513
69282e91 514=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 515
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516(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
517check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 518
c289d2f7
JH
519=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
520
521(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 522Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 523
d7bb0749 524=item "\b{" is deprecated; use "\b\{" or "\b[{]" instead in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
f866a7cd 525
d7bb0749 526=item "\B{" is deprecated; use "\B\{" or "\B[{]" instead in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
f866a7cd 527
3c664d1a 528(D deprecated) Use of an unescaped "{" immediately following
a38411bc
FC
529a C<\b> or C<\B> is now deprecated so as to reserve its use for Perl
530itself in a future release. You can either precede the brace
531with a backslash, or enclose it in square brackets; the latter
532is the way to go if the pattern delimiters are C<{}>.
f866a7cd 533
c5a0f51a
JH
534=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
535
e476b1b5 536(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 537
043c750c 538=item Bizarre copy of %s
4633a7c4 539
be771a83 540(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
ab830aa0 541copiable.
4633a7c4 542
5a25739d
FC
543=item Bizarre SvTYPE [%d]
544
434f489b 545(P) When starting a new thread or returning values from a thread, Perl
5a25739d
FC
546encountered an invalid data type.
547
f675dbe5
CB
548=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
549
be771a83
GS
550(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
551iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
552which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 553
a0d0e21e
LW
554=item Callback called exit
555
4929bf7b 556(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
557exited by calling exit.
558
6df41af2 559=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 560
be771a83
GS
561(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
562parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
563that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
564early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
565subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
566checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
567function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
568the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 569
49704364 570=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
571
572(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
573compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
574attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
575See L<perlfunc/pack>.
576
49704364 577=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
578
579(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
580format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
581
5c1f4d79
NC
582=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
583
6903afa2
FC
584(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference
585in it, then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax.
586The access triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is
587no legal conversion from that type of reference to a typeglob.
5c1f4d79 588
4040665a 589=item Cannot copy to %s
ba2fdce6
NC
590
591(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 592be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 593
b5d97229
RGS
594=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
595
596(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
597either with open() or binmode().
598
7355df7e
FC
599=item Cannot set tied @DB::args
600
601(F) C<caller> tried to set C<@DB::args>, but found it tied. Tying C<@DB::args>
602is not supported. (Before this error was added, it used to crash.)
603
ce65bc73
FC
604=item Cannot tie unreifiable array
605
606(P) You somehow managed to call C<tie> on an array that does not
607keep a reference count on its arguments and cannot be made to
608do so. Such arrays are not even supposed to be accessible to
609Perl code, but are only used internally.
610
96ebfdd7
RK
611=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
612
613(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
614integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
615to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
616
a0d0e21e
LW
617=item Can't bless non-reference value
618
619(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
620encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
621
dc57907a
RGS
622=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
623
0d863452 624(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
6903afa2 625a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
0d863452
RH
626
627=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 628
0d863452
RH
629(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
630
6df41af2
GS
631=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
632
633(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
634object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
635like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
636
637 $BADREF = undef;
638 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
639 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
640
a0d0e21e
LW
641=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
642
54310121 643(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
644ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
645didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
646object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
647
648=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
649
650(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
651object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
652defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
653Something like this will reproduce the error:
654
655 $BADREF = 42;
656 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
657 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
658
dfe378f1
FC
659=item Can't call mro_isa_changed_in() on anonymous symbol table
660
661(P) Perl got confused as to whether a hash was a plain hash or a
662symbol table hash when trying to update @ISA caches.
663
2bf7e7b2
FC
664=item Can't call mro_method_changed_in() on anonymous symbol table
665
666(F) An XS module tried to call C<mro_method_changed_in> on a hash that was
667not attached to the symbol table.
668
a0d0e21e
LW
669=item Can't chdir to %s
670
f703fc96 671(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but F</foo/bar> is not a directory
a0d0e21e
LW
672that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
673
0545a864 674=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 675
be771a83
GS
676(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
677nosuid.
104d25b7 678
22e74366 679=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
680
681(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 682(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
683say things like:
684
685 *foo += 1;
686
687You CAN say
688
689 $foo = *foo;
690 $foo += 1;
691
692but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
693
0d863452 694=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 695
0d863452
RH
696(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
697or C<default> block.
698
a0d0e21e
LW
699=item Can't create pipe mailbox
700
be771a83
GS
701(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
702quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 703
eb64745e
GS
704=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
705
30c282f6
NC
706(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
707"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 708
fc7debfb
FC
709=item Can't "default" outside a topicalizer
710
711(F) You have used a C<default> block that is neither inside a
712C<foreach> loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is
713issued on exit from the C<default> block, so you won't get the
714error if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
715
6df41af2
GS
716=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
717
be771a83 718(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
df7075a8 719a file in /dev, a FIFO or an uneditable directory. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 720
a0d0e21e
LW
721=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
722
be771a83
GS
723(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
724reason.
a0d0e21e 725
54310121 726=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 727
be771a83
GS
728(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
729reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
730C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 731
10f9c03d 732=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 733
e476b1b5 734(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
735characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
736inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 737
a0d0e21e
LW
738=item Can't do waitpid with flags
739
be771a83
GS
740(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
741waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 742
a0d0e21e
LW
743=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
744
be771a83
GS
745(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
746point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
747line.
a0d0e21e 748
1109a392
MHM
749=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
750
751(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
752or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
753little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
754See L<perlfunc/pack>.
755
a0d0e21e
LW
756=item Can't exec "%s": %s
757
d1be9408 758(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
759named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
760permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
761C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
762architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
763can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
764#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
765
766=item Can't exec %s
767
be771a83
GS
768(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
769that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
770need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
771
772=item Can't execute %s
773
be771a83
GS
774(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
775found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 776
6df41af2 777=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 778
be771a83
GS
779(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
780is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 781
56ca2fc0
JH
782=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
783
784(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
6903afa2 785could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
e1b711da 786See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
9b73678d 787for a complete list of available official properties.
56ca2fc0 788
6df41af2
GS
789=item Can't find label %s
790
be771a83
GS
791(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
792possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
793
794=item Can't find %s on PATH
795
be771a83
GS
796(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
797found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 798
6df41af2 799=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 800
be771a83
GS
801(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
802found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
803script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
804
805=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
806
be771a83
GS
807(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
808that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
809nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 810
fb73857a
PP
811 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
812
97b3d10f 813If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
b6b8cb97
FC
814included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag or there
815may not be a linebreak after it. A good programmer's editor will have
816a way to help you find these characters (or lack of characters). See
817L<perlop> for the full details on here-documents.
a0d0e21e 818
660a4616
ST
819=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
820
5f8ad6b6
FC
821(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode
822property (for example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase
fa816bf3 823letters). If you did mean to use a Unicode property, see
e1b711da 824L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
6903afa2 825for a complete list of available properties. If you didn't
fa816bf3
FC
826mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either by
827C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, or
5f8ad6b6 828until C<\E>).
660a4616 829
b3647a36 830=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 831
be771a83
GS
832(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
833pipeline.
a0d0e21e 834
b3647a36
SR
835=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
836
c973c02e 837(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
838after five seconds.
839
748a9306
LW
840=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
841
be771a83
GS
842(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
843between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
844Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
845the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
846account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
847the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
2fe2bdfd 848the access-checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
be771a83
GS
849the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
850if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
851because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
2fe2bdfd
FC
852appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-checking routine gave up
853and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access-checking
be771a83
GS
854routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
855shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
856only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 857
a0d0e21e
LW
858=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
859
be771a83
GS
860(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
861pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
862
863=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
864
748a9306
LW
865(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
866mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 867
6df41af2 868=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 869
be771a83
GS
870(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
871loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
872
873=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
874
be771a83
GS
875(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
876a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
877you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
878See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 879
5a25739d
FC
880=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
881
882(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
883"string" or block.
884
9850bf21 885=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 886
9850bf21
RH
887(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
888comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
889as the reduce() function in List::Util).
890
6df41af2
GS
891=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
892
be771a83
GS
893(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
894subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
895cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
896routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 897
0b5b802d
GS
898=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
899
be771a83
GS
900(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
901signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
902signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
903processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
904situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
905may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 906
e2c0f81f
DG
907=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
908
909(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
910attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
911process identifier.
912
6df41af2 913=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 914
6df41af2 915(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
916except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
917block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
918block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
919usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
920inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
921L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 922
2c7d6b9c
RGS
923=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
924
925(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
926package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
927
b8170e59
JB
928=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
929
6903afa2
FC
930(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension.
931This may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one
932that is incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known
933to happen between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your
934dynamic extension was built against an older version of the library
935that is installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old
936dynamic extensions.
b8170e59 937
748a9306
LW
938=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
939
2ba9eb46 940(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
b7e4ecc1
FC
941lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you
942want to localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with
943the package name.
748a9306 944
6df41af2 945=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 946
6df41af2
GS
947(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
948handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 949pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 950that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 951
ea071790 952=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a 953
fa816bf3
FC
954(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be found.
955Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC, unless
956the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
957to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the
958extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
be771a83
GS
959to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
960L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 961
6df41af2
GS
962=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
963
be771a83
GS
964(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
965autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
966are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
967the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 968
b8170e59
JB
969=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
970
971(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
d70d8e57 972for example, F<foo.so> or F<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
b8170e59
JB
973unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
974
a0d0e21e
LW
975=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
976
977(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
978functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 979method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
980
981=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
982
be771a83
GS
983(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
984doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 985
2f7da168
RK
986=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
987
988(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
989e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
990
f4ad53f4 991=item Can't make list assignment to %ENV on this system
3e3baf6d 992
be771a83
GS
993(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
994VMS.
3e3baf6d 995
cd40cd58
NC
996=item Can't make loaded symbols global on this platform while loading %s
997
ff9c1ae8 998(S) A module passed the flag 0x01 to DynaLoader::dl_load_file() to request
cd40cd58
NC
999that symbols from the stated file are made available globally within the
1000process, but that functionality is not available on this platform. Whilst
1001the module likely will still work, this may prevent the perl interpreter
1002from loading other XS-based extensions which need to link directly to
1003functions defined in the C or XS code in the stated file.
1004
a0d0e21e
LW
1005=item Can't modify %s in %s
1006
be771a83
GS
1007(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
1008to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 1009
54310121 1010=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
1011
1012(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
1013a NULL.
1014
6df41af2
GS
1015=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
1016
1017(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
2fe2bdfd 1018such. See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
6df41af2 1019
5f05dabc 1020=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 1021
5f05dabc 1022(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
1023buffer.
1024
6df41af2
GS
1025=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
1026
1027(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
1028there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
1029count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
1030grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1031though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
1032once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 1033
46fa9b26
FC
1034=item Can't open %s
1035
1036(F) You tried to run a perl built with MAD support with
1037the PERL_XMLDUMP environment variable set, but the file
1038named by that variable could not be opened.
1039
a0d0e21e
LW
1040=item Can't open %s: %s
1041
c47ff5f1 1042(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e 1043filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
46fa9b26
FC
1044switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually
1045this is because you don't have read permission for a file which
1046you named on the command line.
1047
1048(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-e> switch, but F</dev/null> (or
1049your operating system's equivalent) could not be opened.
a0d0e21e 1050
9a869a14
RGS
1051=item Can't open a reference
1052
1053(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
2fe2bdfd 1054using the 3-arg open() syntax:
9a869a14
RGS
1055
1056 open FH, '>', $ref;
1057
1058but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1059open is not supported.
1060
a0d0e21e
LW
1061=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1062
be771a83
GS
1063(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1064You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1065as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1066">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1067
748a9306
LW
1068=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1069
be771a83
GS
1070(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1071redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1072the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1073
1074=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1075
be771a83
GS
1076(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1077redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1078command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1079
1080=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1081
be771a83
GS
1082(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1083redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1084the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1085
1086=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1087
be771a83
GS
1088(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1089redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1090for stdout.
748a9306 1091
3b1cf97d 1092=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1093
1094(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1095
fa3aa65a
JC
1096If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1097shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1098you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1099
6df41af2
GS
1100=item Can't read CRTL environ
1101
1102(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1103from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1104missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1105or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1106searched.
6df41af2 1107
6df41af2
GS
1108=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1109
1110(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1111there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1112count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1113or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1114though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1115loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1116
64977eb6 1117=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1118
be771a83
GS
1119(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1120file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1121the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1122
a0d0e21e
LW
1123=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1124
e476b1b5 1125(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1126probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1127
748a9306
LW
1128=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1129
be771a83
GS
1130(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1131to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1132
4f12ec0e
FC
1133=item Can't reset %ENV on this system
1134
1135(F) You called C<reset('E')> or similar, which tried to reset
1136all variables in the current package beginning with "E". In
1137the main package, that includes %ENV. Resetting %ENV is not
1138supported on some systems, notably VMS.
1139
fe13d51d 1140=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1141
1fa582fa
FC
1142(F)(P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1143opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1144package. If the method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1145
cd06dffe
GS
1146=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1147
be771a83
GS
1148(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1149temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1150is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1151
96ebfdd7
RK
1152=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1153
1154(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1155there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1156
78f9721b
SM
1157=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1158
6903afa2
FC
1159(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue
1160subroutine, but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl
1161think you meant to return only one value. You probably meant to
1162write parentheses around the call to the subroutine, which tell
1163Perl that the call should be in list context.
78f9721b 1164
a0d0e21e
LW
1165=item Can't stat script "%s"
1166
be771a83
GS
1167(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1168open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1169
a0d0e21e
LW
1170=item Can't take log of %g
1171
fb73857a 1172(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
6903afa2 1173negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1174standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1175negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1176
1177=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1178
1179(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1180negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1181with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1182
1183=item Can't undef active subroutine
1184
1185(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1186however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1187redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1188
c81225bc 1189=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1190
be771a83
GS
1191(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1192into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1193specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1194indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1195
6651ba0b
FC
1196=item Can't use '%c' after -mname
1197
1198(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-m> switch, but you put something
1199other than "=" after the module name.
1200
1db89ea5
BS
1201=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1202
e27ad1f2 1203(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1204table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1205for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1206
96ebfdd7
RK
1207=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1208
1209(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1210be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1211
6df41af2
GS
1212=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1213
be771a83
GS
1214(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1215references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1216
90b75b61 1217=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63 1218
20561843 1219(F) The first time the C<%!> hash is used, perl automatically loads the
6903afa2 1220Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1d2dff63
GS
1221provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1222
1109a392
MHM
1223=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1224
1225(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1226byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1227allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1228
6df41af2
GS
1229=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1230
be771a83
GS
1231(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1232foreach.
6df41af2 1233
aab6a793 1234=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1235
be771a83
GS
1236(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1237is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1238(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1239have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1240weren't.
1241
6d3b25aa
RGS
1242=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1243
1244(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1245that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1246For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1247is inside a big-endian group.
1248
c07a80fd
PP
1249=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1250
1251(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1252You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1253and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1254Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1255lexical variable.
1256
a0d0e21e
LW
1257=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1258
1259(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1260reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1261test the type of the reference, if need be.
1262
748a9306 1263=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1264
5e634d20
FC
1265=item Can't use string ("%s"...) as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1266
b41bf23f
FC
1267(F) You've told Perl to dereference a string, something which
1268C<use strict> blocks to prevent it happening accidentally. See
1269L<perlref/"Symbolic references">. This can be triggered by an C<@> or C<$>
1270in a double-quoted string immediately before interpolating a variable,
1271for example in C<"user @$twitter_id">, which says to treat the contents
1272of C<$twitter_id> as an array reference; use a C<\> to have a literal C<@>
1273symbol followed by the contents of C<$twitter_id>: C<"user \@$twitter_id">.
a0d0e21e 1274
748a9306
LW
1275=item Can't use subscript on %s
1276
1277(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1278subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1279didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1280
6df41af2
GS
1281=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1282
75b44862
GS
1283(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1284creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1285backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1286expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1287value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1288instead.
6df41af2 1289
810b8aa5
GS
1290=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1291
1292(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1293references can be weakened.
1294
fc7debfb
FC
1295=item Can't "when" outside a topicalizer
1296
1297(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1298loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1299from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1300or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1301
5f05dabc 1302=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1303
be771a83
GS
1304(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1305with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1306Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1307
4a68bf9d 1308=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529 1309
3c664d1a 1310(F)(D deprecated, syntax) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
675fa9ff
FC
1311It is planned to make this fatal in all instances in Perl v5.20. In
1312the cases where it isn't fatal, the character this evaluates to is
17a3df4c
KW
1313derived by exclusive or'ing the code point of this character with 0x40.
1314
c9faaf04
KW
1315Note that non-alphabetic ASCII characters are discouraged here as well,
1316and using non-printable ones will be deprecated starting in v5.18.
f9d13529 1317
f337b084 1318=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1319
1320(W pack) You said
1321
1322 pack("C", $x)
1323
1324where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1325only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1326and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1327
1328 pack("C", $x & 255)
1329
1330If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1331instead.
1332
f337b084 1333=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1334
1335(W pack) You said
1336
1337 pack("c", $x)
1338
1339where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1340is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1341and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1342
1343 pack("c", $x & 255);
1344
1345If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1346instead.
1347
f337b084
TH
1348=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1349
1350(W unpack) You tried something like
1351
1352 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1353
1a147d38 1354where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
6903afa2
FC
1355below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the
1356value modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
f337b084
TH
1357
1358 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1359
5a25739d
FC
1360=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1361
1362(W pack) You said
1363
1364 pack("U0W", $x)
1365
1366where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode
1367expects all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved
1368as if you meant:
1369
1370 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1371
f337b084
TH
1372=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1373
1374(W pack) You tried something like
1375
1376 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1377
1a147d38 1378where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1379value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1380uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1381
1382 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1383
1384=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1385
1386(W unpack) You tried something like
1387
1388 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1389
1a147d38 1390where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1391value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1392uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1393
1394 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1395
f866a7cd
FC
1396=item "\c{" is deprecated and is more clearly written as ";"
1397
1398(D deprecated, syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way
1399to specify non-printable characters. You used it with a "{" which
1400evaluates to ";", which is printable. It is planned to remove the
c9faaf04 1401ability to specify a semi-colon this way in Perl 5.20. Just use a
f866a7cd
FC
1402semi-colon or a backslash-semi-colon without the "\c".
1403
1404=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
1405
1406(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
1407non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1408written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
1409characters.
1410
6651ba0b
FC
1411=item Cloning substitution context is unimplemented
1412
1413(F) Creating a new thread inside the C<s///> operator is not supported.
1414
abc7ecad
SP
1415=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1416
1417(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1418a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1419
5a25739d
FC
1420=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1421
1422(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1423
541ed3a9
FC
1424=item Closure prototype called
1425
1426(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1427handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1428This subroutine cannot be called.
1429
49704364
LW
1430=item Code missing after '/'
1431
6903afa2
FC
1432(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be
1433another template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 1434
6fbc9859
MH
1435=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, all \p{} matches fail; all \P{} matches
1436succeed
9ae3ac1a 1437
5a25739d
FC
1438=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1439
e2f4a215 1440(S utf8, non_unicode) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum
1b64326b
FC
1441of U+10FFFF.
1442
1443Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code points, up
1444to the limit of what is storable in an unsigned integer on your system,
1445but these may not be accepted by other languages/systems. At one time,
1446it was legal in some standards to have code points up to 0x7FFF_FFFF,
1447but not higher. Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require larger than a
144832 bit word.
0876b9a0 1449
9ae3ac1a
KW
1450None of the Unicode or Perl-defined properties will match a non-Unicode
1451code point. For example,
1452
1453 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\p{Any}/
1454
1455will not match, because the code point is not in Unicode. But
1456
1457 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\P{Any}/
1458
1459will match.
1460
94b42e47
KW
1461This may be counterintuitive at times, as both these fail:
1462
f9d4ccdc
FC
1463 chr(0x110000) =~ /\p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True}/ # Fails.
1464 chr(0x110000) =~ /\p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False}/ # Also fails!
94b42e47
KW
1465
1466and both these succeed:
1467
f9d4ccdc
FC
1468 chr(0x110000) =~ /\P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True}/ # Succeeds.
1469 chr(0x110000) =~ /\P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False}/ # Also succeeds!
94b42e47 1470
6df41af2
GS
1471=item %s: Command not found
1472
a892b81a
FC
1473(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> or another shell
1474shell instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
1475into Perl yourself. The #! line at the top of your file could look like
8f721816
MM
1476
1477 #!/usr/bin/perl -w
6df41af2 1478
7a2e2cd6
PP
1479=item Compilation failed in require
1480
1481(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1482Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1483encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1484
c3464db5
DD
1485=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1486
be771a83
GS
1487(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1488situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1489to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1490arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1491recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1492under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1493in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1494that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1495on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1496
38875929
DM
1497=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1498
6903afa2
FC
1499(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to
1500call cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked.
1501The cond_broadcast() function is used to wake up another thread
1502that is waiting in a cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't
1503sent before the other thread has a chance to enter the wait, it
1504is usual for the signaling thread first to wait for a lock on
1505variable. This lock attempt will only succeed after the other
1506thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the lock.
38875929 1507
38875929
DM
1508=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1509
6903afa2
FC
1510(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to
1511call cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The
1512cond_signal() function is used to wake up another thread that
1513is waiting in a cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't
1514sent before the other thread has a chance to enter the wait, it
1515is usual for the signaling thread first to wait for a lock on
1516variable. This lock attempt will only succeed after the other
1517thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the lock.
38875929 1518
69282e91 1519=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1520
be771a83
GS
1521(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1522to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1523L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1524
e21e7c6a
FC
1525=item Constant(%s): Call to &{$^H{%s}} did not return a defined value
1526
1527(F) The subroutine registered to handle constant overloading
1528(see L<overload>) or a custom charnames handler (see
1529L<charnames/CUSTOM TRANSLATORS>) returned an undefined value.
1530
1531=item Constant(%s): $^H{%s} is not defined
1532
1533(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to define an
1534overloaded constant. Perhaps you forgot to load the corresponding
1535L<overload> pragma?.
1536
779c5bc9
GS
1537=item Constant is not %s reference
1538
1539(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83 1540is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
6903afa2 1541The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
be771a83 1542usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1543See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1544
4cee8e80
CS
1545=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1546
aeb94125
FC
1547(W redefine)(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously
1548been eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions">
1549for commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1550
9607fc9c
PP
1551=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1552
be771a83
GS
1553(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1554for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1555workarounds.
9607fc9c 1556
5a25739d
FC
1557=item Constant(%s) unknown
1558
1559(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting
1560to define an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the
1561character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1562forgot to load the corresponding L<overload> pragma?.
1563
e7ea3e70
IZ
1564=item Copy method did not return a reference
1565
6903afa2 1566(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1567L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1568
4aaa4757
FC
1569=item &CORE::%s cannot be called directly
1570
1571(F) You tried to call a subroutine in the C<CORE::> namespace
8d605c0d 1572with C<&foo> syntax or through a reference. Some subroutines
4aaa4757
FC
1573in this package cannot yet be called that way, but must be
1574called as barewords. Something like this will work:
1575
1576 BEGIN { *shove = \&CORE::push; }
1577 shove @array, 1,2,3; # pushes on to @array
1578
6798c92b
GS
1579=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1580
1581(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1582
675fa9ff
FC
1583=item Corrupted regexp opcode %d > %d
1584
1585(P) This is either an error in Perl, or, if you're using
1586one, your L<custom regular expression engine|perlreapi>. If not the
1587latter, report the problem through the L<perlbug> utility.
1588
a0d0e21e
LW
1589=item corrupted regexp pointers
1590
1591(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1592expression compiler gave it.
1593
1594=item corrupted regexp program
1595
be771a83
GS
1596(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1597valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1598
de42a5a9 1599=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1600
1601(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1602
49704364
LW
1603=item Count after length/code in unpack
1604
1605(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1606you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1607L<perlfunc/pack>.
1608
6651ba0b
FC
1609=item Deep recursion on anonymous subroutine
1610
a0d0e21e
LW
1611=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1612
be771a83
GS
1613(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1614100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1615infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1616which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1617
aad1d01f
NC
1618This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1619setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1620
f10b0346 1621=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1622
be771a83
GS
1623(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1624checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1625array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1626
f10b0346 1627=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1628
f0ec9725
KR
1629(D deprecated) C<defined()> is not usually right on hashes and has been
1630discouraged since 5.004.
1631
1632Although C<defined %hash> is false on a plain not-yet-used hash, it
1633becomes true in several non-obvious circumstances, including iterators,
1634weak references, stash names, even remaining true after C<undef %hash>.
1635These things make C<defined %hash> fairly useless in practice.
1636
1637If a check for non-empty is what you wanted then just put it in boolean
1638context (see L<perldata/Scalar values>):
16546e45
KR
1639
1640 if (%hash) {
1641 # not empty
1642 }
1643
f0ec9725
KR
1644If you had C<defined %Foo::Bar::QUUX> to check whether such a package
1645variable exists then that's never really been reliable, and isn't
1646a good way to enquire about the features of a package, or whether
1647it's loaded, etc.
1648
69794302 1649
6fbc9859
MH
1650=item (?(DEFINE)....) does not allow branches in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
1651m/%s/
bcb95744 1652
6903afa2 1653(F) You used something like C<(?(DEFINE)...|..)> which is illegal. The
bcb95744
FC
1654most likely cause of this error is that you left out a parenthesis inside
1655of the C<....> part.
1656
9e3ec65c 1657The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
bcb95744
FC
1658discovered.
1659
62658f4d
PM
1660=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1661
1662(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1663there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1664
36447869
FC
1665=item delete argument is index/value array slice, use array slice
1666
1667(F) You used index/value array slice syntax (C<%array[...]>) as
1668the argument to C<delete>. You probably meant C<@array[...]> with
1669an @ symbol instead.
1670
1671=item delete argument is key/value hash slice, use hash slice
1672
1673(F) You used key/value hash slice syntax (C<%hash{...}>) as the argument to
1674C<delete>. You probably meant C<@hash{...}> with an @ symbol instead.
1675
0ffcbc25
FC
1676=item delete argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
1677
4a0af295 1678(F) The argument to C<delete> must be either a hash or array element,
0ffcbc25
FC
1679such as:
1680
1681 $foo{$bar}
1682 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
1683
1684or a hash or array slice, such as:
1685
1686 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
1687 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
1688
fc36a67e
PP
1689=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1690
be771a83
GS
1691(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1692long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1693that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1694
6d3b25aa
RGS
1695=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1696
fa816bf3
FC
1697(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>. There
1698has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
6d3b25aa 1699not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
6903afa2 1700conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
fa816bf3 1701static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
6903afa2 1702relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
6d3b25aa 1703declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1704
6d3b25aa
RGS
1705 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1706
1707becomes
1708
1709 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1710
fa816bf3
FC
1711Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to have
1712lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
36fb85f3
RGS
1713
1714 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1715
500ab966
RGS
1716=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1717
1718(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
6903afa2
FC
1719just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather
1720than to create a dangling reference.
500ab966 1721
3cdd684c
TP
1722=item Did not produce a valid header
1723
1724See Server error.
1725
6df41af2
GS
1726=item %s did not return a true value
1727
1728(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1729it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1730traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1731do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1732
cc507455 1733=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1734
413ff9f6
FC
1735(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1736some such.
4633a7c4 1737
cc507455 1738=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1739
be771a83
GS
1740(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1741variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1742seems superfluous.
33633739 1743
cc507455 1744=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1745
be771a83
GS
1746(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1747@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1748carried away.
748a9306 1749
7e1af8bc 1750=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1751
1752(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
075b00aa 1753you called it with no args and C<$@> was empty.
5f05dabc 1754
3cdd684c
TP
1755=item Document contains no data
1756
1757See Server error.
1758
62658f4d
PM
1759=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1760
1761(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
943fc58e 1762define a C<$VERSION>.
62658f4d 1763
49704364
LW
1764=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1765
1766(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1767See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1768
4021c788 1769=item Don't know how to handle magic of type \%o
a0d0e21e
LW
1770
1771(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1772
1773=item do_study: out of memory
1774
1775(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1776
6df41af2
GS
1777=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1778
56da5a46
RGS
1779(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1780"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1781name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1782because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1783"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1784something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1785subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1786"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1787
ac206dc8
RGS
1788=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1789
1790(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1791qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1792
84d78eb7
YO
1793=item dump is not supported
1794
1795(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1796
a0d0e21e
LW
1797=item Duplicate free() ignored
1798
be771a83
GS
1799(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1800already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1801
1109a392
MHM
1802=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1803
35f0cd76
FC
1804(W unpack) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a
1805type in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1109a392 1806
4633a7c4
LW
1807=item elseif should be elsif
1808
fa816bf3
FC
1809(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks
1810it's ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1811named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1812unlikely to be what you want.
1813
c608e803 1814=item Empty \%c{} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
ab13f0c7 1815
af6f566e 1816(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
6903afa2 1817described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
af6f566e 1818a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1819
85ab1d1d 1820=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1821
85ab1d1d 1822(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1823effective uids or gids failed.
1824
c038024b
RGS
1825=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1826
1827(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1828aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
6903afa2 1829program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
c038024b 1830
748a9306
LW
1831=item Error converting file specification %s
1832
5f05dabc 1833(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1834specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1835single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1836an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1837conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1838
ff56e4f1
KW
1839=item Escape literal pattern white space under /x
1840
1841(D deprecated) You compiled a regular expression pattern with C</x> to
1842ignore white space, and you used, as a literal, one of the characters
1843that Perl plans to eventually treat as white space. The character must
1844be escaped somehow, or it will work differently on a future Perl that
1845does treat it as white space. The easiest way is to insert a backslash
1846immediately before it, or to enclose it with square brackets. This
1847change is to bring Perl into conformance with Unicode recommendations.
1848Here are the five characters that generate this warning:
1849U+0085 NEXT LINE,
1850U+200E LEFT-TO-RIGHT MARK,
1851U+200F RIGHT-TO-LEFT MARK,
1852U+2028 LINE SEPARATOR,
1853and
1854U+2029 PARAGRAPH SEPARATOR.
1855
ad19ef22 1856=item Eval-group in insecure regular expression
e4d48cc9 1857
be771a83
GS
1858(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1859expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1860is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1861
ad19ef22 1862=item Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
e4d48cc9 1863
be771a83
GS
1864(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1865C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
f11307f5
FC
1866pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk,
1867it is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by using the
1868C<re 'eval'> pragma or by explicitly building the pattern from an
1869interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval(). See
1870L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1871
ad19ef22 1872=item Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
6df41af2 1873
be771a83
GS
1874(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1875assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1876pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1877
6fbc9859
MH
1878=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
1879m/%s/
1a147d38
YO
1880
1881(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
6903afa2 1882any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1a147d38 1883
9e3ec65c 1884The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
1a147d38
YO
1885discovered.
1886
fc36a67e
PP
1887=item Excessively long <> operator
1888
1889(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1890Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1891filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1892variable and glob that.
1893
ed9aa3b7
SG
1894=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1895
af8bb25a 1896(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented on some systems, e.g., Symbian
6903afa2 1897OS. See L<perlport>.
ed9aa3b7 1898
fe13d51d 1899=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1900
1901(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1902
0ffcbc25
FC
1903=item exists argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
1904
4a0af295 1905(F) The argument to C<exists> must be a hash or array element or a
0ffcbc25
FC
1906subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
1907
1908 $foo{$bar}
1909 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
1910 &do_something
1911
1912=item exists argument is not a subroutine name
1913
ccfc2567
FC
1914(F) The argument to C<exists> for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine name,
1915and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this error.
0ffcbc25 1916
a0d0e21e
LW
1917=item Exiting eval via %s
1918
be771a83
GS
1919(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1920goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1921
1922=item Exiting format via %s
1923
9a2ff54b 1924(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1925goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1926
0a753a76
PP
1927=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1928
be771a83
GS
1929(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1930sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1931loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1932
a0d0e21e
LW
1933=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1934
be771a83
GS
1935(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1936as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1937
1938=item Exiting substitution via %s
1939
be771a83
GS
1940(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1941as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1942
c608e803
KW
1943=item Expecting close bracket in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1944
675fa9ff 1945(F) You wrote something like
c608e803
KW
1946
1947 (?13
1948
1949to denote a capturing group of the form
1950L<C<(?I<PARNO>)>|perlre/(?PARNO) (?-PARNO) (?+PARNO) (?R) (?0)>,
1951but omitted the C<")">.
1952
27350048
FC
1953=item Expecting '(?flags:(?[...' in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1954
8b6fbf55
FC
1955(F) The C<(?[...])> extended character class regular expression construct
1956only allows character classes (including character class escapes like
1957C<\d>), operators, and parentheses. The one exception is C<(?flags:...)>
1958containing at least one flag and exactly one C<(?[...])> construct.
27350048
FC
1959This allows a regular expression containing just C<(?[...])> to be
1960interpolated. If you see this error message, then you probably
1961have some other C<(?...)> construct inside your character class. See
1962L<perlrecharclass/Extended Bracketed Character Classes>.
1963
e7d0b801
FC
1964=item Experimental "%s" subs not enabled
1965
1966(F) To use lexical subs, you must first enable them:
1967
f1d34ca8 1968 no warnings 'experimental::lexical_subs';
e7d0b801
FC
1969 use feature 'lexical_subs';
1970 my sub foo { ... }
1971
7b8d334a
GS
1972=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1973
be771a83
GS
1974(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1975the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1976usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1977e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1978
6df41af2
GS
1979=item %s: Expression syntax
1980
be771a83
GS
1981(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1982Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1983
1984=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1985
3c10abe3
AG
1986(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1987CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1988queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1989
7253e4e3 1990=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1991
4f2e2aa2 1992(W regexp)(F) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3 1993character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
3c6ca74a
FC
1994in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". In a C<(?[...])>
1995construct, this is an error, rather than a warning. Consider quoting
1996the "-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression
1997the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1998
1b1ee2ef 1999=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 2000
be771a83
GS
2001(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
2002system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
2003details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
2004you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2005
2006=item fcntl is not implemented
2007
2008(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
2009PDP-11 or something?
2010
22846ab4
AB
2011=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
2012
2013(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
2014is not possible.
2015
f337b084
TH
2016=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
2017
d8b5cc61 2018(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string starts with a length indicator
6903afa2
FC
2019which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
2020a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
5c96f6f7 2021C<u63> as the format.
f337b084 2022
af8c498a 2023=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 2024
6c8d78fb
HS
2025(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
2026it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
2027"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
2028write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 2029
af8c498a 2030=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 2031
6c8d78fb
HS
2032(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
2033you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
89a1bda8
FC
2034with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with ">". If you intended only to
2035read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>. Another possibility
2036is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for
2037output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
2038
2039=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
2040
2041(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
6903afa2 2042as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
2043previously.
2044
2045=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
2046
2047(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
fa816bf3 2048as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
2049
2050=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
2051
2052(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
2053a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
2054happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
2055name.
a0d0e21e 2056
56e90b21
GS
2057=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
2058
be771a83 2059(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 2060some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
2061filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
2062same name?
56e90b21 2063
6df41af2
GS
2064=item Format not terminated
2065
2066(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
2067to the end of your file without finding such a line.
2068
a0d0e21e
LW
2069=item Format %s redefined
2070
e476b1b5 2071(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
2072
2073 {
271595cc 2074 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
2075 eval "format NAME =...";
2076 }
2077
a0d0e21e
LW
2078=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
2079
e476b1b5 2080(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
2081
2082 if ($foo = 123)
2083
2084when you meant
2085
2086 if ($foo == 123)
2087
2088(or something like that).
2089
6df41af2
GS
2090=item %s found where operator expected
2091
56da5a46
RGS
2092(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
2093If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
2094operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
2095operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 2096
a0d0e21e
LW
2097=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
2098
2099(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
2100
2101=item gethostent not implemented
2102
2103(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
2104because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
2105on the Internet.
2106
69282e91 2107=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2108
be771a83
GS
2109(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
2110socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 2111
748a9306
LW
2112=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
2113
2114(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
2115C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
2116
6df41af2
GS
2117=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
2118
be771a83
GS
2119(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
2120forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
2121L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
2122
0f539b13
BF
2123=item given is experimental
2124
675fa9ff
FC
2125(S experimental::smartmatch) C<given> depends on smartmatch, which
2126is experimental, so its behavior may change or even be removed
2127in any future release of perl. See the explanation under
2128L<perlsyn/Experimental Details on given and when>.
0f539b13 2129
6df41af2
GS
2130=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
2131
a4edf47d 2132(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 2133that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
2134declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
2135which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 2136
e476b1b5
GS
2137=item glob failed (%s)
2138
5ead438e 2139(S glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used
73c4e9dc
FC
2140for C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
2141pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
be771a83 2142nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
73c4e9dc
FC
2143resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell)
2144is broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables
2145in config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as
2146if it were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them
2147all empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
be771a83 2148think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 2149C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 2150
a0d0e21e
LW
2151=item Glob not terminated
2152
2153(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
2154a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
2155not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
2156earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 2157
bcd05b94 2158=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2159
e9200be3 2160(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was larger than
fc003d4b 2161it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
6903afa2 2162date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2163not-a-number value).
2164
bcd05b94 2165=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2166
e9200be3 2167(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was smaller than
e7a1a147 2168it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2169
6df41af2 2170=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 2171
6df41af2
GS
2172(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
2173version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
2174
2175=item goto must have label
2176
2177(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
2178unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2179
6651ba0b
FC
2180=item Goto undefined subroutine%s
2181
2182(F) You tried to call a subroutine with C<goto &sub> syntax, but
2183the indicated subroutine hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2184has since been undefined.
2185
6fbc9859
MH
2186=item Group name must start with a non-digit word character in regex; marked by
2187<-- HERE in m/%s/
1f4f6bf1
YO
2188
2189(F) Group names must follow the rules for perl identifiers, meaning
f26c79ba
FC
2190they must start with a non-digit word character. A common cause of
2191this error is using (?&0) instead of (?0). See L<perlre>.
1f4f6bf1 2192
5a25739d
FC
2193=item ()-group starts with a count
2194
2195(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is supposed to follow
2196something: a template character or a ()-group. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2197
fe13d51d 2198=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
2199
2200(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
2201
a0d0e21e
LW
2202=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
2203
be771a83
GS
2204(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
2205to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
2206created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
2207
2208=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
2209
be771a83
GS
2210(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
2211spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 2212
6df41af2
GS
2213=item %s has too many errors
2214
2215(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
2216Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
2217
252aa082
JH
2218=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2219
e476b1b5 2220(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2221(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2222L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2223
8903cb82
PP
2224=item Identifier too long
2225
2226(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2227about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2228names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2229of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2230
b33c0c71 2231=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
fc8cd66c 2232
b5e3739b
FC
2233(W regexp) Named Unicode character escapes C<(\N{...})> may return a
2234zero-length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class
2235its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
2236been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
2237
6df41af2 2238=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2239
6df41af2 2240(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2241
6df41af2 2242=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2243
be771a83
GS
2244(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2245binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2246offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2247
6597eb22
FC
2248=item Illegal character after '_' in prototype for %s : %s
2249
e4d150f1
FC
2250(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype
2251declaration. The '_' in a prototype must be followed by a ';',
2252indicating the rest of the parameters are optional, or one of '@'
2253or '%', since those two will accept 0 or more final parameters.
6597eb22 2254
78d0fecf 2255=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2256
d5898338 2257(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2258would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2259when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2260version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2261to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2262
d37a9538
ST
2263=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2264
197afce1 2265(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2e9cc7ef 2266Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
d37a9538 2267
904d85c5
RGS
2268=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2269
2270(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
6903afa2 2271you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
904d85c5 2272
8e742a20
MHM
2273=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2274
6903afa2 2275(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
8e742a20 2276
a0d0e21e
LW
2277=item Illegal division by zero
2278
be771a83
GS
2279(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2280your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2281meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2282
6df41af2
GS
2283=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2284
be771a83
GS
2285(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2286A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2287number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2288
a0d0e21e
LW
2289=item Illegal modulus zero
2290
be771a83
GS
2291(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2292numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2293
6df41af2 2294=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2295
6df41af2
GS
2296(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2297two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2298
2299=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2300
d1be9408 2301(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2302
399388f4 2303=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2304
d1be9408 2305(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2306Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2307
c608e803
KW
2308=item Illegal pattern in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2309
675fa9ff 2310(F) You wrote something like
c608e803
KW
2311
2312 (?+foo)
2313
2314The C<"+"> is valid only when followed by digits, indicating a
2315capturing group. See
2316L<C<(?I<PARNO>)>|perlre/(?PARNO) (?-PARNO) (?+PARNO) (?R) (?0)>.
2317
fe13d51d 2318=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2319
6df41af2 2320(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2321following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2322
6df41af2 2323=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2324
75b44862 2325(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2326internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2327delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2328
6df41af2 2329=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2330
be771a83
GS
2331(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2332name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2333didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2334ignored.
54310121 2335
6df41af2 2336=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2337
be771a83
GS
2338(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2339the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2340system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2341times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2342would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2343
be771a83
GS
2344Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2345also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2346
0d0b4b3b
KW
2347=item Incomplete expression within '(?[ ])' in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2348
675fa9ff 2349(F) There was a syntax error within the C<(?[ ])>. This can happen if the
0d0b4b3b
KW
2350expression inside the construct was completely empty, or if there are
2351too many or few operands for the number of operators. Perl is not smart
2352enough to give you a more precise indication as to what is wrong.
2353
6fbc9859
MH
2354=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on
2355parent '%s'
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2356
2357(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2358C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2359documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2360
979699d9
JH
2361=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2362
2363(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2364Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2365encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2366
6a2ed79a 2367=item Infinite recursion in regex
1a147d38
YO
2368
2369(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
6903afa2 2370text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
1a147d38
YO
2371either consume text or fail.
2372
6dbe9451
NC
2373=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2374
6903afa2
FC
2375(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the
2376initialization of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write
2377C<state ($a) = 42> as C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar
2378context. Constructions such as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be
2379supported in a future perl release.
6dbe9451 2380
a0d0e21e
LW
2381=item Insecure dependency in %s
2382
8b1a09fc 2383(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2384The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2385setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2386tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2387from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2388such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2389L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2390
2391=item Insecure directory in %s
2392
be771a83
GS
2393(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2394setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2395the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2396See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2397
62f468fc 2398=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2399
2400(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2401setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2402C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2403supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2404the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2405
0e9be77f
DM
2406=item Insecure user-defined property %s
2407
2408(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2409expression that contains a call to a user-defined character property
2410function, i.e. C<\p{IsFoo}> or C<\p{InFoo}>.
2411See L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties> and L<perlsec>.
2412
675fa9ff
FC
2413=item In '(?...)', splitting the initial '(?' is deprecated in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2414
2415(D regexp, deprecated) The two-character sequence C<"(?"> in
2416this context in a regular expression pattern should be an
2417indivisible token, with nothing intervening between the C<"(">
2418and the C<"?">, but you separated them. Due to an accident of
2419implementation, this prohibition was not enforced, but we do
2420plan to forbid it in a future Perl version. This message
2421serves as giving you fair warning of this pending change.
2422
b9ef414d
FC
2423=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2424
2425(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2426or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2427integers for your architecture.
2428
a7ae9550
GS
2429=item Integer overflow in %s number
2430
35928bc5 2431(S overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2432either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2433your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2434On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2435representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
24360b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2437transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2438internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2439operations.
bbce6d69 2440
fc89ca81
FC
2441=item Integer overflow in srand
2442
2443(S overflow) The number you have passed to srand is too big to fit
2444in your architecture's integer representation. The number has been
2445replaced with the largest integer supported (0xFFFFFFFF on 32-bit
2446architectures). This means you may be getting less randomness than
2447you expect, because different random seeds above the maximum will
2448return the same sequence of random numbers.
2449
46314c13
JP
2450=item Integer overflow in version
2451
18da5252
FC
2452=item Integer overflow in version %d
2453
784d71ed
FC
2454(W overflow) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for
2455the size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
f084e84f 2456because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use an
784d71ed
FC
2457element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by trying
2458to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like 100/9.
46314c13 2459
7253e4e3 2460=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2461
2462(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
9e3ec65c 2463The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2464discovered.
2465
748a9306
LW
2466=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2467
be771a83
GS
2468(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2469you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2470to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2471L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2472Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2473terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2474
870978ae
FC
2475=item internal %<num>p might conflict with future printf extensions
2476
2477(S internal) Perl's internal routine that handles C<printf> and C<sprintf>
2478formatting follows a slightly different set of rules when called from
2479C or XS code. Specifically, formats consisting of digits followed
2480by "p" (e.g., "%7p") are reserved for future use. If you see this
2481message, then an XS module tried to call that routine with one such
2482reserved format.
2483
7253e4e3 2484=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2485
fa816bf3 2486(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
9e3ec65c 2487<-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
7253e4e3 2488discovered.
a0d0e21e 2489
6df41af2
GS
2490=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2491
75b44862 2492(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2493followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2494operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2495L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2496
09bef843
SB
2497=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2498
a4a4c9e2 2499(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2500by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2501
2502=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2503
a4a4c9e2 2504(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2505recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2506
225fb84f
KW
2507=item Invalid character in charnames alias definition; marked by <-- HERE in '%s
2508
2509(F) You tried to create a custom alias for a character name, with
2510the C<:alias> option to C<use charnames> and the specified character in
2511the indicated name isn't valid. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2512
c8028aa6
TC
2513=item Invalid \0 character in %s for %s: %s\0%s
2514
fa3234e3
FC
2515(W syscalls) Embedded \0 characters in pathnames or other system call
2516arguments produce a warning as of 5.20. The parts after the \0 were
2517formerly ignored by system calls.
c8028aa6 2518
a690c7c4
FC
2519=item Invalid character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s}
2520
2521(F) Only certain characters are valid for character names. The
2522indicated one isn't. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2523
c635e13b
PP
2524=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2525
be771a83
GS
2526(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2527L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2528
6fbc9859
MH
2529=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
2530m/%s/
9e08bc66
ST
2531
2532(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2533didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2534from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2535The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
9e3ec65c 2536The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
9e08bc66
ST
2537escape was discovered.
2538
8149aa9f
FC
2539=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
2540
6fbc9859
MH
2541=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
2542m/%s/
aec0ef10 2543
8149aa9f 2544(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
74f8e9e3
FC
2545number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than
25460 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
8149aa9f 2547
6651ba0b
FC
2548=item Invalid module name %s with -%c option: contains single ':'
2549
2550(F) The module argument to perl's B<-m> and B<-M> command-line options
2551cannot contain single colons in the module name, but only in the
2552arguments after "=". In other words, B<-MFoo::Bar=:baz> is ok, but
2553B<-MFoo:Bar=baz> is not.
2554
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2555=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2556
162a3e34
FC
2557(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")> or C<use mro 'foo'>,
2558where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO). Currently,
2559the only valid ones supported are C<dfs> and C<c3>, unless you have loaded
2560a module that is a MRO plugin. See L<mro> and L<perlmroapi>.
2c7d6b9c 2561
40e4140b
FC
2562=item Invalid negative number (%s) in chr
2563
2564(W utf8) You passed a negative number to C<chr>. Negative numbers are
2565not valid characters numbers, so it return the Unicode replacement
2566character (U+FFFD).
2567
6651ba0b
FC
2568=item invalid option -D%c, use -D'' to see choices
2569
8ff21bfe
FC
2570(S debugging) Perl was called with invalid debugger flags. Call perl
2571with the B<-D> option with no flags to see the list of acceptable values.
982c4ecb 2572See also L<perlrun/-Dletters>.
6651ba0b 2573
7253e4e3 2574=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2575
2576(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2577greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2578C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
9e3ec65c 2579up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
7253e4e3 2580problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2581
d1573ac7 2582=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2583
2584(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2585character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2586
09bef843
SB
2587=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2588
0120eecf 2589(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2590elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2591parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2592See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2593
b4581f09
JH
2594=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2595
2bfc5f71
FC
2596(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other
2597than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
b4581f09
JH
2598If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2599list was terminated too soon.
2600
2c86d456
DG
2601=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2602
fa816bf3 2603(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2604A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2605decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2606v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2607The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2608See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2609
49704364 2610=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2611
49704364
LW
2612(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2613See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6728c851 2614
49704364 2615(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2616silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2617
2c86d456
DG
2618=item Invalid version format (%s)
2619
fa816bf3 2620(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2621A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2622decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
fa816bf3
FC
2623v-string. If the v-string has fewer than three components, it
2624must have a leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is
2625optional. Both decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a
2626trailing "alpha" component separated by an underscore character
2627after a fractional or dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized
2628text indicates which criteria were not met. See the L<version> module
2629for more details on allowed version formats.
46314c13 2630
798ae1b7
DG
2631=item Invalid version object
2632
fa816bf3
FC
2633(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid.
2634Perhaps the internals were modified directly in some way or
2635an arbitrary reference was blessed into the "version" class.
798ae1b7 2636
675fa9ff
FC
2637=item In '(*VERB...)', splitting the initial '(*' is deprecated in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2638
2639(D regexp, deprecated) The two-character sequence C<"(*"> in
2640this context in a regular expression pattern should be an
2641indivisible token, with nothing intervening between the C<"(">
f26c79ba 2642and the C<"*">, but you separated them. Due to an accident of
675fa9ff
FC
2643implementation, this prohibition was not enforced, but we do
2644plan to forbid it in a future Perl version. This message
2645serves as giving you fair warning of this pending change.
2646
a0d0e21e
LW
2647=item ioctl is not implemented
2648
2649(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2650strange for a machine that supports C.
2651
c289d2f7
JH
2652=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2653
2654(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
34b6fd5e 2655Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 2656
fe13d51d 2657=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2658
2659(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
34b6fd5e 2660you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO, Perl must be configured
363c40c4
SB
2661with 'useperlio'.
2662
80cbd5ad
JH
2663=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2664
2665(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
34b6fd5e 2666neither as a system call nor an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
80cbd5ad 2667
4f650b80 2668=item $* is no longer supported
b4581f09 2669
4f650b80
NC
2670(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older
2671perls, has been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In
2672previous versions of perl the use of C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line
2673matching within a string.
4fd19576
B
2674
2675Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
6903afa2
FC
2676modifiers. You can enable C</m> for a lexical scope (even a whole file)
2677with C<use re '/m'>. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value
570dedd4 2678then all regular expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2679
8ae1fe26
RGS
2680=item $# is no longer supported
2681
a58ac25e 2682(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older
6903afa2 2683perls, has been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You
a58ac25e 2684should use the printf/sprintf functions instead.
8ae1fe26 2685
ccf3535a 2686=item '%s' is not a code reference
6ad11d81 2687
6903afa2
FC
2688(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of
2689overload::constant needs to be a code reference. Either
2690an anonymous subroutine, or a reference to a subroutine.
6ad11d81 2691
ccf3535a 2692=item '%s' is not an overloadable type
6ad11d81 2693
04a80ee0
RGS
2694(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2695unaware of.
6ad11d81 2696
5a25739d
FC
2697=item -i used with no filenames on the command line, reading from STDIN
2698
2699(S inplace) The C<-i> option was passed on the command line, indicating
2700that the script is intended to edit files in place, but no files were
2701given. This is usually a mistake, since editing STDIN in place doesn't
2702make sense, and can be confusing because it can make perl look like
2703it is hanging when it is really just trying to read from STDIN. You
2704should either pass a filename to edit, or remove C<-i> from the command
2705line. See L<perlrun> for more details.
2706
aec0ef10 2707=item Junk on end of regexp in regex m/%s/
a0d0e21e
LW
2708
2709(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2710
2711=item Label not found for "last %s"
2712
be771a83
GS
2713(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2714of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2715L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2716
2717=item Label not found for "next %s"
2718
2719(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2720that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2721L<perlfunc/last>.
2722
2723=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2724
2725(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2726that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2727L<perlfunc/last>.
2728
85ab1d1d 2729=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2730
85ab1d1d 2731(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2732effective uids or gids failed.
2733
49704364
LW
2734=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2735
d7f8936a 2736(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
6903afa2
FC
2737length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2738an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 2739
25e26107 2740=item length() used on %s (did you mean "scalar(%s)"?)
e508c8a4 2741
0d46a4e7
FC
2742(W syntax) You used length() on either an array or a hash when you
2743probably wanted a count of the items.
e508c8a4
MH
2744
2745Array size can be obtained by doing:
2746
2747 scalar(@array);
2748
2749The number of items in a hash can be obtained by doing:
2750
2751 scalar(keys %hash);
2752
f0e67a1d
Z
2753=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2754
d4fe7078
RS
2755(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
2756(using L<lex_stuff_pvn|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn> or similar), but tried to insert a character that
2757couldn't be part of the current input. This is an inherent pitfall
2758of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the reasons to avoid it. Where
6903afa2 2759it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only plain ASCII is recommended.
f0e67a1d
Z
2760
2761=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2762
2763(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2764detectable way.
2765
69282e91 2766=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2767
be771a83
GS
2768(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2769to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2770L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2771
6651ba0b
FC
2772=item List form of piped open not implemented
2773
2774(F) On some platforms, notably Windows, the three-or-more-arguments
2775form of C<open> does not support pipes, such as C<open($pipe, '|-', @args)>.
2776Use the two-argument C<open($pipe, '|prog arg1 arg2...')> form instead.
2777
bcd05b94 2778=item localtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2779
e9200be3 2780(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was larger
fc003d4b 2781than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
6903afa2 2782wrong date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2783not-a-number value).
2784
bcd05b94 2785=item localtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2786
e9200be3 2787(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was smaller
fc003d4b 2788than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
e7a1a147 2789wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2790
58e23c8d 2791=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2792
2793(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
6903afa2 2794handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2795
b88df990
NC
2796=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2797
e63e8a91
FC
2798(W imprecision) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one
2799is too large for the underlying floating point representation to store
2800accurately, hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this
2801warning because it has already switched from integers to floating point
2802when values are too large for integers, and now even floating point is
2803insufficient. You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
b88df990 2804
93fad930 2805=item lstat() on filehandle%s
2f7da168
RK
2806
2807(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2808by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2809instead on the filehandle.)
2810
345d70e3 2811=item lvalue attribute %s already-defined subroutine
bb3abb05 2812
345d70e3
FC
2813(W misc) Although L<attributes.pm|attributes> allows this, turning the lvalue
2814attribute on or off on a Perl subroutine that is already defined
2815does not always work properly. It may or may not do what you
2816want, depending on what code is inside the subroutine, with exact
2817details subject to change between Perl versions. Only do this
2818if you really know what you are doing.
bb3abb05 2819
885ef6f5
GG
2820=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2821
345d70e3
FC
2822(W misc) Using the C<:lvalue> declarative syntax to make a Perl
2823subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined is
2824not permitted. To make the subroutine an lvalue subroutine,
2825add the lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the C<sub
2826foo :lvalue;> declaration before the definition.
2827
2828See also L<attributes.pm|attributes>.
885ef6f5 2829
6f1b3ab0
FC
2830=item Magical list constants are not supported
2831
2832(F) You assigned a magical array to a stash element, and then tried
2833to use the subroutine from the same slot. You are asking Perl to do
2834something it cannot do, details subject to change between Perl versions.
2835
2db62bbc 2836=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
49704364 2837
2db62bbc 2838(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2839are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2840
2841=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2842
2db62bbc 2843(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2844are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2845
6df41af2
GS
2846=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2847
2848(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2849
2850 prefix1;prefix2
2851
2852or
6df41af2
GS
2853 prefix1 prefix2
2854
be771a83
GS
2855with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2856a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2857appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2858"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2859
2f758a16
ST
2860=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2861
d37a9538
ST
2862(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2863syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2864obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2865when the function is called.
2f758a16 2866
ba210ebe
JH
2867=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2868
4d6f11e5 2869(S utf8)(F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2575c402 2870encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2871
2575c402
JW
2872One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2873you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
6903afa2 28748-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2575c402
JW
2875
2876If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2877sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2878set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2879message.
2880
2881See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2882
107160e2
KW
2883=item Malformed UTF-8 character immediately after '%s'
2884
2885(F) You said C<use utf8>, but the program file doesn't comply with UTF-8
2886encoding rules. The message prints out the properly encoded characters
2887just before the first bad one. If C<utf8> warnings are enabled, a
2888warning is generated that gives more details about the type of
2889malformation.
2890
bde9e88d 2891=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N{%s} immediately after '%s'
ff3f963a
KW
2892
2893(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2894
4a5d3a93
FC
2895=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2896
2897(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2898rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2899
f337b084
TH
2900=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2901
2902(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2903rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2904
2905=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2906
2907(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2908rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2909
4a5d3a93 2910=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
f337b084 2911
4a5d3a93
FC
2912(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
2913doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2914
2915=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2916
2917(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
2918regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
9e3ec65c 2919shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
4a5d3a93 2920See L<perlre>.
f337b084 2921
de42a5a9 2922=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 2923
6903afa2 2924(F) Perl aborted due to too high a number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2925usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2926too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2927resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
6903afa2 2928safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2563cec5 2929
25f58aea
PN
2930=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2931
2932(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2933interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2934"use" or "my".
2935
0d2487cd 2936=item '%' may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2937
2938(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2939checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2940See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2941
a0d0e21e
LW
2942=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2943
2944(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2945doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2946
3cdd684c
TP
2947=item Method %s not permitted
2948
2949See Server error.
2950
a0d0e21e
LW
2951=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2952
2953(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2954by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2955ended earlier on the current line.
2956
2957=item Misplaced _ in number
2958
d4ced10d
JH
2959(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2960separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2961
7baa4690
HS
2962=item Missing argument in %s
2963
2964(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2965supplied.
2966
9e81e6a1
RGS
2967=item Missing argument to -%c
2968
2969(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2970immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2971
ff3f963a 2972=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2973
aec0ef10
FC
2974=item Missing braces on \N{} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2975
4a2d328f 2976(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
532cb70d
FC
2977double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space
2978(or comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2979This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately
2980follow the C<\N>.
423cee85 2981
f0a2b745
KW
2982=item Missing braces on \o{}
2983
2984(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2985
a0d0e21e
LW
2986=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2987
2988(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2989"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2990
06eaf0bc
GS
2991=item Missing command in piped open
2992
be771a83
GS
2993(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2994C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2995blank.
06eaf0bc 2996
961ce445
RGS
2997=item Missing control char name in \c
2998
2999(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
3000character name.
3001
8767b1ab 3002=item Missing name in "%s sub"
6df41af2 3003
be771a83
GS
3004(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
3005they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
3006
3007=item Missing $ on loop variable
3008
be771a83
GS
3009(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
3010are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
3011can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 3012
50278ed0
PM
3013=item Missing ']' in prototype for %s : %s
3014
3015(W illegalproto) A grouping was started with C<[> but never closed with
3016C<]>.
3017
cc507455 3018=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 3019
56da5a46
RGS
3020(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
3021"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 3022
aec0ef10 3023=item Missing right brace on \%c{} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
ab13f0c7 3024
ff3f963a
KW
3025(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
3026
4a68bf9d 3027=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 3028
d32207c9
FC
3029(F) C<\N> has two meanings.
3030
3031The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed in braces,
3032meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that
fa816bf3 3033name. Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
d32207c9
FC
3034double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns,
3035it doesn't have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
3036
3037Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only)
3038in patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short
3039for C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
3040
3041This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately
3042by a left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if the braces
3043form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes that this
3044means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
30453; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a
3046C<\N{> and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
3047
3048However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was
3049mistakenly omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and raises this error.
3050If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant the latter,
3051escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 3052
d98d5fff 3053=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 3054
be771a83
GS
3055(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
3056ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
3057were last editing.
a0d0e21e 3058
6df41af2
GS
3059=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
3060
56da5a46
RGS
3061(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
3062"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
3063the previous line just because you saw this message.
3064
a0d0e21e
LW
3065=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
3066
3067(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 3068constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
3069catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
3070
3071 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
3072 mod(2);
3073
3074Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
3075
c5674021
PDF
3076Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
3077is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
3078
b7e4ecc1
FC
3079 $x = 1;
3080 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
3081 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to
3082 } # modify the 2
c5674021 3083
7a4340ed 3084=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
3085
3086(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
3087subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
3088backwards.
3089
7a4340ed 3090=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 3091
be771a83
GS
3092(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
3093couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
3094
3095=item Module name must be constant
3096
3097(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
3098
be98fb35 3099=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 3100
be98fb35
GS
3101(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
3102you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
3103about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 3104
fe13d51d 3105=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7 3106
6903afa2 3107(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
ed9aa3b7
SG
3108can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
3109list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
3110See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
3111
92951bce
FC
3112=item mprotect for %p %u failed with %d
3113
3114=item mprotect RW for %p %u failed with %d
3115
3116(S) You compiled perl with B<-D>PERL_DEBUG_READONLY_OPS (see
3117L<perlhacktips>), but an op tree could not be made read-only, or a
3118read-only op tree could not be made mutable before freeing the ops.
3119
a0d0e21e
LW
3120=item msg%s not implemented
3121
3122(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
3123
3124=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
3125
75b44862
GS
3126(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
3127They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 3128
49704364 3129=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 3130
49704364
LW
3131(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
3132follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
3133See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
3134
3135=item "my sub" not yet implemented
3136
be771a83
GS
3137(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
3138that yet.
6df41af2 3139
5a25739d
FC
3140=item "my %s" used in sort comparison
3141
3142(W syntax) The package variables $a and $b are used for sort comparisons.
3143You used $a or $b in as an operand to the C<< <=> >> or C<cmp> operator inside a
3144sort comparison block, and the variable had earlier been declared as a
3145lexical variable. Either qualify the sort variable with the package
3146name, or rename the lexical variable.
3147
fd1b7234 3148=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 3149
be771a83
GS
3150(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
3151sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
3152local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 3153
8149aa9f
FC
3154=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
3155
3156(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
3157If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
db20b640
FC
3158again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is provided
3159for this purpose.
8149aa9f
FC
3160
3161NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
3162%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
3163the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
9ec237a1
RS
3164will not trigger this warning. Symbols beginning with an underscore and
3165symbols using special identifiers (q.v. L<perldata>) are exempt from this
3166warning.
8149aa9f 3167
0d0b4b3b
KW
3168=item Need exactly 3 octal digits in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3169
3170(F) Within S<C<(?[ ])>>, all constants interpreted as octal need to be
3171exactly 3 digits long. This helps catch some ambiguities. If your
3172constant is too short, add leading zeros, like
3173
3174 (?[ [ \078 ] ]) # Syntax error!
3175 (?[ [ \0078 ] ]) # Works
3176 (?[ [ \007 8 ] ]) # Clearer
3177
3178The maximum number this construct can express is C<\777>. If you
675fa9ff
FC
3179need a larger one, you need to use L<\o{}|perlrebackslash/Octal escapes> instead. If you meant
3180two separate things, you need to separate them:
0d0b4b3b
KW
3181
3182 (?[ [ \7776 ] ]) # Syntax error!
3183 (?[ [ \o{7776} ] ]) # One meaning
3184 (?[ [ \777 6 ] ]) # Another meaning
3185 (?[ [ \777 \006 ] ]) # Still another
3186
49704364
LW
3187=item Negative '/' count in unpack
3188
3189(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
3190negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3191
a0d0e21e
LW
3192=item Negative length
3193
be771a83
GS
3194(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
3195length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 3196
ed9aa3b7
SG
3197=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
3198
3199(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
3200greater than or equal to zero.
3201
7253e4e3 3202=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 3203
6903afa2 3204(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses.
9e3ec65c
FC
3205So things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows
3206whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 3207
7253e4e3 3208Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 3209C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3210
6df41af2 3211=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 3212
be771a83
GS
3213(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
3214scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 3215
2c7d6b9c
RGS
3216=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
3217
3218(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
3219real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
3220See L<mro>.
3221
5a25739d
FC
3222=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...} in regex;
3223marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3224
3225(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in
3226a bracketed character class, for the same reason that C<.> in
3227a character class loses its specialness: it matches almost
3228everything, which is probably not what you want.
3229
3230=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3231
3232(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or
3233sequence was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that
3234bypass the lexer, such as using single-quotish context, or an extra
3235backslash in double-quotish:
3236
3237 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
3238 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
3239 /$re/;
3240
3241Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
3242
3243 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
3244 /$re/;
3245
3246The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
3247components:
3248
3249 $re = '\N';
3250 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
3251
3252It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and
3253it doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
3254
3255Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
3256C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
3257
3258 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
3259 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
3260
a0d0e21e
LW
3261=item No %s allowed while running setuid
3262
be771a83
GS
3263(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
3264setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
3265will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
3266securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 3267
6651ba0b
FC
3268=item No code specified for -%c
3269
3270(F) Perl's B<-e> and B<-E> command-line options require an argument. If
3271you want to run an empty program, pass the empty string as a separate
3272argument or run a program consisting of a single 0 or 1:
3273
3274 perl -e ""
3275 perl -e0
3276 perl -e1
3277
a0d0e21e
LW
3278=item No comma allowed after %s
3279
6903afa2
FC
3280(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is
3281not allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
a0d0e21e
LW
3282Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
3283
6903afa2
FC
3284One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported
3285a constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
3286importing took place, it may for example be that your operating
3287system does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did
3288use an explicit import list for the constants you expect to see;
3289please see L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an
3290explicit import list would probably have caught this error earlier
3291it naturally does not remedy the fact that your operating system
3292still does not support that constant. Maybe you have a typo in
3293the constants of the symbol import list of B<use> or B<import> or in the
3294constant name at the line where this error was triggered?
0a753a76 3295
748a9306
LW
3296=item No command into which to pipe on command line
3297
be771a83
GS
3298(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3299redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
3300doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 3301
a0d0e21e
LW
3302=item No DB::DB routine defined
3303
be771a83 3304(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
f7af5ce1 3305for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
ccafdc96
RGS
3306module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
3307statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
3308
3309=item No dbm on this machine
3310
3311(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 3312supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 3313
ccafdc96 3314=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 3315
ccafdc96
RGS
3316(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
3317for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
3318module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
3319of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 3320
6651ba0b
FC