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a0ed51b3
LW
1/* utf8.c
2 *
1129b882 3 * Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008
b94e2f88 4 * by Larry Wall and others
a0ed51b3
LW
5 *
6 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
7 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
8 *
9 */
10
11/*
4ac71550
TC
12 * 'What a fix!' said Sam. 'That's the one place in all the lands we've ever
13 * heard of that we don't want to see any closer; and that's the one place
14 * we're trying to get to! And that's just where we can't get, nohow.'
15 *
cdad3b53 16 * [p.603 of _The Lord of the Rings_, IV/I: "The Taming of Sméagol"]
a0ed51b3
LW
17 *
18 * 'Well do I understand your speech,' he answered in the same language;
19 * 'yet few strangers do so. Why then do you not speak in the Common Tongue,
4ac71550 20 * as is the custom in the West, if you wish to be answered?'
cdad3b53 21 * --Gandalf, addressing Théoden's door wardens
4ac71550
TC
22 *
23 * [p.508 of _The Lord of the Rings_, III/vi: "The King of the Golden Hall"]
a0ed51b3
LW
24 *
25 * ...the travellers perceived that the floor was paved with stones of many
26 * hues; branching runes and strange devices intertwined beneath their feet.
4ac71550
TC
27 *
28 * [p.512 of _The Lord of the Rings_, III/vi: "The King of the Golden Hall"]
a0ed51b3
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29 */
30
31#include "EXTERN.h"
864dbfa3 32#define PERL_IN_UTF8_C
a0ed51b3 33#include "perl.h"
81e983c1 34#include "inline_invlist.c"
a0ed51b3 35
a0c21aa1 36#ifndef EBCDIC
970ea3cb 37/* Separate prototypes needed because in ASCII systems these are
a0c21aa1
JH
38 * usually macros but they still are compiled as code, too. */
39PERL_CALLCONV UV Perl_utf8n_to_uvchr(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN curlen, STRLEN *retlen, U32 flags);
6dd9dce9 40PERL_CALLCONV UV Perl_valid_utf8_to_uvchr(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen);
a0c21aa1
JH
41PERL_CALLCONV U8* Perl_uvchr_to_utf8(pTHX_ U8 *d, UV uv);
42#endif
43
27da23d5
JH
44static const char unees[] =
45 "Malformed UTF-8 character (unexpected end of string)";
901b21bf 46
48ef279e 47/*
ccfc67b7 48=head1 Unicode Support
a0ed51b3 49
166f8a29
DM
50This file contains various utility functions for manipulating UTF8-encoded
51strings. For the uninitiated, this is a method of representing arbitrary
61296642 52Unicode characters as a variable number of bytes, in such a way that
56da48f7
DM
53characters in the ASCII range are unmodified, and a zero byte never appears
54within non-zero characters.
166f8a29 55
eaf7a4d2
CS
56=cut
57*/
58
59/*
60=for apidoc is_ascii_string
61
a1433954 62Returns true if the first C<len> bytes of the string C<s> are the same whether
970ea3cb
KW
63or not the string is encoded in UTF-8 (or UTF-EBCDIC on EBCDIC machines). That
64is, if they are invariant. On ASCII-ish machines, only ASCII characters
65fit this definition, hence the function's name.
eaf7a4d2 66
9f7e3d64
MH
67If C<len> is 0, it will be calculated using C<strlen(s)>.
68
a1433954 69See also L</is_utf8_string>(), L</is_utf8_string_loclen>(), and L</is_utf8_string_loc>().
eaf7a4d2
CS
70
71=cut
72*/
73
74bool
668b6d8d 75Perl_is_ascii_string(const U8 *s, STRLEN len)
eaf7a4d2
CS
76{
77 const U8* const send = s + (len ? len : strlen((const char *)s));
78 const U8* x = s;
79
80 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_ASCII_STRING;
eaf7a4d2
CS
81
82 for (; x < send; ++x) {
83 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*x))
84 break;
85 }
86
87 return x == send;
88}
89
90/*
87cea99e 91=for apidoc uvuni_to_utf8_flags
eebe1485 92
6ee84de2
KW
93Adds the UTF-8 representation of the code point C<uv> to the end
94of the string C<d>; C<d> should have at least C<UTF8_MAXBYTES+1> free
eebe1485 95bytes available. The return value is the pointer to the byte after the
9041c2e3 96end of the new character. In other words,
eebe1485 97
b851fbc1
JH
98 d = uvuni_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, flags);
99
100or, in most cases,
101
9041c2e3 102 d = uvuni_to_utf8(d, uv);
eebe1485 103
b851fbc1
JH
104(which is equivalent to)
105
106 d = uvuni_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, 0);
107
949cf498 108This is the recommended Unicode-aware way of saying
eebe1485
SC
109
110 *(d++) = uv;
111
949cf498
KW
112This function will convert to UTF-8 (and not warn) even code points that aren't
113legal Unicode or are problematic, unless C<flags> contains one or more of the
a1433954
KW
114following flags:
115
949cf498
KW
116If C<uv> is a Unicode surrogate code point and UNICODE_WARN_SURROGATE is set,
117the function will raise a warning, provided UTF8 warnings are enabled. If instead
118UNICODE_DISALLOW_SURROGATE is set, the function will fail and return NULL.
119If both flags are set, the function will both warn and return NULL.
120
121The UNICODE_WARN_NONCHAR and UNICODE_DISALLOW_NONCHAR flags correspondingly
122affect how the function handles a Unicode non-character. And, likewise for the
123UNICODE_WARN_SUPER and UNICODE_DISALLOW_SUPER flags, and code points that are
124above the Unicode maximum of 0x10FFFF. Code points above 0x7FFF_FFFF (which are
125even less portable) can be warned and/or disallowed even if other above-Unicode
126code points are accepted by the UNICODE_WARN_FE_FF and UNICODE_DISALLOW_FE_FF
127flags.
128
129And finally, the flag UNICODE_WARN_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE selects all four of the
130above WARN flags; and UNICODE_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE selects all four
131DISALLOW flags.
132
133
eebe1485
SC
134=cut
135*/
136
dfe13c55 137U8 *
b851fbc1 138Perl_uvuni_to_utf8_flags(pTHX_ U8 *d, UV uv, UV flags)
a0ed51b3 139{
7918f24d
NC
140 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UVUNI_TO_UTF8_FLAGS;
141
979f77b6
KW
142 /* The first problematic code point is the first surrogate */
143 if (uv >= UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST
144 && ckWARN4_d(WARN_UTF8, WARN_SURROGATE, WARN_NON_UNICODE, WARN_NONCHAR))
145 {
949cf498
KW
146 if (UNICODE_IS_SURROGATE(uv)) {
147 if (flags & UNICODE_WARN_SURROGATE) {
8457b38f 148 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_SURROGATE),
949cf498
KW
149 "UTF-16 surrogate U+%04"UVXf, uv);
150 }
151 if (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_SURROGATE) {
152 return NULL;
153 }
154 }
155 else if (UNICODE_IS_SUPER(uv)) {
156 if (flags & UNICODE_WARN_SUPER
157 || (UNICODE_IS_FE_FF(uv) && (flags & UNICODE_WARN_FE_FF)))
158 {
8457b38f 159 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NON_UNICODE),
949cf498
KW
160 "Code point 0x%04"UVXf" is not Unicode, may not be portable", uv);
161 }
162 if (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_SUPER
163 || (UNICODE_IS_FE_FF(uv) && (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_FE_FF)))
164 {
165 return NULL;
166 }
167 }
168 else if (UNICODE_IS_NONCHAR(uv)) {
169 if (flags & UNICODE_WARN_NONCHAR) {
8457b38f 170 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NONCHAR),
949cf498
KW
171 "Unicode non-character U+%04"UVXf" is illegal for open interchange",
172 uv);
173 }
174 if (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_NONCHAR) {
175 return NULL;
176 }
177 }
507b9800 178 }
c4d5f83a 179 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(uv)) {
eb160463 180 *d++ = (U8)UTF_TO_NATIVE(uv);
a0ed51b3
LW
181 return d;
182 }
2d331972 183#if defined(EBCDIC)
1d72bdf6
NIS
184 else {
185 STRLEN len = UNISKIP(uv);
186 U8 *p = d+len-1;
187 while (p > d) {
eb160463 188 *p-- = (U8)UTF_TO_NATIVE((uv & UTF_CONTINUATION_MASK) | UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK);
1d72bdf6
NIS
189 uv >>= UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT;
190 }
eb160463 191 *p = (U8)UTF_TO_NATIVE((uv & UTF_START_MASK(len)) | UTF_START_MARK(len));
1d72bdf6
NIS
192 return d+len;
193 }
194#else /* Non loop style */
a0ed51b3 195 if (uv < 0x800) {
eb160463
GS
196 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 6) | 0xc0);
197 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
198 return d;
199 }
200 if (uv < 0x10000) {
eb160463
GS
201 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 12) | 0xe0);
202 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
203 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
204 return d;
205 }
206 if (uv < 0x200000) {
eb160463
GS
207 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 18) | 0xf0);
208 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
209 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
210 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
211 return d;
212 }
213 if (uv < 0x4000000) {
eb160463
GS
214 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 24) | 0xf8);
215 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 18) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
216 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
217 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
218 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
219 return d;
220 }
221 if (uv < 0x80000000) {
eb160463
GS
222 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 30) | 0xfc);
223 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 24) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
224 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 18) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
225 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
226 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
227 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
228 return d;
229 }
6b8eaf93 230#ifdef HAS_QUAD
d7578b48 231 if (uv < UTF8_QUAD_MAX)
a0ed51b3
LW
232#endif
233 {
eb160463
GS
234 *d++ = 0xfe; /* Can't match U+FEFF! */
235 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 30) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
236 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 24) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
237 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 18) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
238 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
239 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
240 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
241 return d;
242 }
6b8eaf93 243#ifdef HAS_QUAD
a0ed51b3 244 {
eb160463
GS
245 *d++ = 0xff; /* Can't match U+FFFE! */
246 *d++ = 0x80; /* 6 Reserved bits */
247 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 60) & 0x0f) | 0x80); /* 2 Reserved bits */
248 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 54) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
249 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 48) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
250 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 42) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
251 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 36) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
252 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 30) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
253 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 24) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
254 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 18) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
255 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
256 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
257 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
258 return d;
259 }
260#endif
1d72bdf6 261#endif /* Loop style */
a0ed51b3 262}
9041c2e3 263
646ca15d
JH
264/*
265
f7d739d1 266Tests if the first C<len> bytes of string C<s> form a valid UTF-8
646ca15d 267character. Note that an INVARIANT (i.e. ASCII) character is a valid
f7d739d1 268UTF-8 character. The number of bytes in the UTF-8 character
646ca15d
JH
269will be returned if it is valid, otherwise 0.
270
271This is the "slow" version as opposed to the "fast" version which is
272the "unrolled" IS_UTF8_CHAR(). E.g. for t/uni/class.t the speed
273difference is a factor of 2 to 3. For lengths (UTF8SKIP(s)) of four
274or less you should use the IS_UTF8_CHAR(), for lengths of five or more
275you should use the _slow(). In practice this means that the _slow()
276will be used very rarely, since the maximum Unicode code point (as of
277Unicode 4.1) is U+10FFFF, which encodes in UTF-8 to four bytes. Only
278the "Perl extended UTF-8" (the infamous 'v-strings') will encode into
279five bytes or more.
280
281=cut */
c053b435 282STATIC STRLEN
5f66b61c 283S_is_utf8_char_slow(const U8 *s, const STRLEN len)
646ca15d 284{
cd7e6c88 285 dTHX; /* The function called below requires thread context */
646ca15d 286
cd7e6c88 287 STRLEN actual_len;
646ca15d 288
cd7e6c88 289 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_CHAR_SLOW;
646ca15d 290
cd7e6c88 291 utf8n_to_uvuni(s, len, &actual_len, UTF8_CHECK_ONLY);
646ca15d 292
cd7e6c88 293 return (actual_len == (STRLEN) -1) ? 0 : actual_len;
646ca15d 294}
9041c2e3
NIS
295
296/*
492a624f
KW
297=for apidoc is_utf8_char_buf
298
299Returns the number of bytes that comprise the first UTF-8 encoded character in
300buffer C<buf>. C<buf_end> should point to one position beyond the end of the
301buffer. 0 is returned if C<buf> does not point to a complete, valid UTF-8
302encoded character.
303
304Note that an INVARIANT character (i.e. ASCII on non-EBCDIC
305machines) is a valid UTF-8 character.
306
307=cut */
308
309STRLEN
310Perl_is_utf8_char_buf(const U8 *buf, const U8* buf_end)
311{
312
313 STRLEN len;
314
315 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_CHAR_BUF;
316
317 if (buf_end <= buf) {
318 return 0;
319 }
320
321 len = buf_end - buf;
322 if (len > UTF8SKIP(buf)) {
323 len = UTF8SKIP(buf);
324 }
325
326#ifdef IS_UTF8_CHAR
327 if (IS_UTF8_CHAR_FAST(len))
328 return IS_UTF8_CHAR(buf, len) ? len : 0;
329#endif /* #ifdef IS_UTF8_CHAR */
330 return is_utf8_char_slow(buf, len);
331}
332
333/*
87cea99e 334=for apidoc is_utf8_char
eebe1485 335
76848387
KW
336DEPRECATED!
337
5da9da9e 338Tests if some arbitrary number of bytes begins in a valid UTF-8
2bbc8d55
SP
339character. Note that an INVARIANT (i.e. ASCII on non-EBCDIC machines)
340character is a valid UTF-8 character. The actual number of bytes in the UTF-8
341character will be returned if it is valid, otherwise 0.
9041c2e3 342
76848387 343This function is deprecated due to the possibility that malformed input could
a1433954 344cause reading beyond the end of the input buffer. Use L</is_utf8_char_buf>
76848387 345instead.
e0328548 346
82686b01 347=cut */
76848387 348
067a85ef 349STRLEN
668b6d8d 350Perl_is_utf8_char(const U8 *s)
386d01d6 351{
7918f24d 352 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_CHAR;
492a624f 353
76848387 354 /* Assumes we have enough space, which is why this is deprecated */
492a624f 355 return is_utf8_char_buf(s, s + UTF8SKIP(s));
386d01d6
GS
356}
357
eaf7a4d2 358
6662521e 359/*
87cea99e 360=for apidoc is_utf8_string
6662521e 361
a1433954 362Returns true if the first C<len> bytes of string C<s> form a valid
9f7e3d64 363UTF-8 string, false otherwise. If C<len> is 0, it will be calculated
e0328548
KW
364using C<strlen(s)> (which means if you use this option, that C<s> has to have a
365terminating NUL byte). Note that all characters being ASCII constitute 'a
366valid UTF-8 string'.
6662521e 367
a1433954 368See also L</is_ascii_string>(), L</is_utf8_string_loclen>(), and L</is_utf8_string_loc>().
768c67ee 369
6662521e
GS
370=cut
371*/
372
8e84507e 373bool
668b6d8d 374Perl_is_utf8_string(const U8 *s, STRLEN len)
6662521e 375{
35da51f7 376 const U8* const send = s + (len ? len : strlen((const char *)s));
7fc63493 377 const U8* x = s;
067a85ef 378
7918f24d 379 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_STRING;
1aa99e6b 380
6662521e 381 while (x < send) {
1acdb0da 382 /* Inline the easy bits of is_utf8_char() here for speed... */
e0328548
KW
383 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*x)) {
384 x++;
385 }
1acdb0da
JH
386 else {
387 /* ... and call is_utf8_char() only if really needed. */
e0328548
KW
388 const STRLEN c = UTF8SKIP(x);
389 const U8* const next_char_ptr = x + c;
390
391 if (next_char_ptr > send) {
392 return FALSE;
393 }
394
768c67ee
JH
395 if (IS_UTF8_CHAR_FAST(c)) {
396 if (!IS_UTF8_CHAR(x, c))
e0328548 397 return FALSE;
3c614e38 398 }
e0328548
KW
399 else if (! is_utf8_char_slow(x, c)) {
400 return FALSE;
401 }
402 x = next_char_ptr;
1acdb0da 403 }
6662521e 404 }
768c67ee 405
067a85ef 406 return TRUE;
6662521e
GS
407}
408
67e989fb 409/*
814fafa7
NC
410Implemented as a macro in utf8.h
411
87cea99e 412=for apidoc is_utf8_string_loc
814fafa7 413
a1433954
KW
414Like L</is_utf8_string> but stores the location of the failure (in the
415case of "utf8ness failure") or the location C<s>+C<len> (in the case of
814fafa7
NC
416"utf8ness success") in the C<ep>.
417
a1433954 418See also L</is_utf8_string_loclen>() and L</is_utf8_string>().
814fafa7 419
87cea99e 420=for apidoc is_utf8_string_loclen
81cd54e3 421
a1433954
KW
422Like L</is_utf8_string>() but stores the location of the failure (in the
423case of "utf8ness failure") or the location C<s>+C<len> (in the case of
768c67ee
JH
424"utf8ness success") in the C<ep>, and the number of UTF-8
425encoded characters in the C<el>.
426
a1433954 427See also L</is_utf8_string_loc>() and L</is_utf8_string>().
81cd54e3
JH
428
429=cut
430*/
431
432bool
668b6d8d 433Perl_is_utf8_string_loclen(const U8 *s, STRLEN len, const U8 **ep, STRLEN *el)
81cd54e3 434{
35da51f7 435 const U8* const send = s + (len ? len : strlen((const char *)s));
7fc63493 436 const U8* x = s;
81cd54e3 437 STRLEN c;
3ebfea28 438 STRLEN outlen = 0;
7918f24d
NC
439
440 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_STRING_LOCLEN;
81cd54e3 441
81cd54e3 442 while (x < send) {
e0328548
KW
443 const U8* next_char_ptr;
444
81cd54e3
JH
445 /* Inline the easy bits of is_utf8_char() here for speed... */
446 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*x))
e0328548 447 next_char_ptr = x + 1;
81cd54e3 448 else {
768c67ee 449 /* ... and call is_utf8_char() only if really needed. */
768c67ee 450 c = UTF8SKIP(x);
e0328548
KW
451 next_char_ptr = c + x;
452 if (next_char_ptr > send) {
453 goto out;
454 }
768c67ee
JH
455 if (IS_UTF8_CHAR_FAST(c)) {
456 if (!IS_UTF8_CHAR(x, c))
457 c = 0;
458 } else
459 c = is_utf8_char_slow(x, c);
768c67ee
JH
460 if (!c)
461 goto out;
81cd54e3 462 }
e0328548 463 x = next_char_ptr;
3ebfea28 464 outlen++;
81cd54e3 465 }
768c67ee
JH
466
467 out:
3ebfea28
AL
468 if (el)
469 *el = outlen;
470
768c67ee
JH
471 if (ep)
472 *ep = x;
3ebfea28 473 return (x == send);
81cd54e3
JH
474}
475
476/*
768c67ee 477
87cea99e 478=for apidoc utf8n_to_uvuni
67e989fb 479
9041c2e3 480Bottom level UTF-8 decode routine.
746afd53
KW
481Returns the code point value of the first character in the string C<s>,
482which is assumed to be in UTF-8 (or UTF-EBCDIC) encoding, and no longer than
483C<curlen> bytes; C<*retlen> (if C<retlen> isn't NULL) will be set to
484the length, in bytes, of that character.
949cf498
KW
485
486The value of C<flags> determines the behavior when C<s> does not point to a
487well-formed UTF-8 character. If C<flags> is 0, when a malformation is found,
524080c4
KW
488zero is returned and C<*retlen> is set so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>) is the
489next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed character.
490Also, if UTF-8 warnings haven't been lexically disabled, a warning is raised.
949cf498
KW
491
492Various ALLOW flags can be set in C<flags> to allow (and not warn on)
493individual types of malformations, such as the sequence being overlong (that
494is, when there is a shorter sequence that can express the same code point;
495overlong sequences are expressly forbidden in the UTF-8 standard due to
496potential security issues). Another malformation example is the first byte of
497a character not being a legal first byte. See F<utf8.h> for the list of such
524080c4
KW
498flags. For allowed 0 length strings, this function returns 0; for allowed
499overlong sequences, the computed code point is returned; for all other allowed
500malformations, the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is returned, as these have no
501determinable reasonable value.
949cf498
KW
502
503The UTF8_CHECK_ONLY flag overrides the behavior when a non-allowed (by other
504flags) malformation is found. If this flag is set, the routine assumes that
505the caller will raise a warning, and this function will silently just set
d088425d
KW
506C<retlen> to C<-1> (cast to C<STRLEN>) and return zero.
507
508Note that this API requires disambiguation between successful decoding a NUL
509character, and an error return (unless the UTF8_CHECK_ONLY flag is set), as
510in both cases, 0 is returned. To disambiguate, upon a zero return, see if the
511first byte of C<s> is 0 as well. If so, the input was a NUL; if not, the input
512had an error.
949cf498
KW
513
514Certain code points are considered problematic. These are Unicode surrogates,
746afd53 515Unicode non-characters, and code points above the Unicode maximum of 0x10FFFF.
949cf498 516By default these are considered regular code points, but certain situations
5eafe189 517warrant special handling for them. If C<flags> contains
949cf498
KW
518UTF8_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE, all three classes are treated as
519malformations and handled as such. The flags UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE,
520UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR, and UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER (meaning above the legal Unicode
521maximum) can be set to disallow these categories individually.
522
523The flags UTF8_WARN_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE, UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE,
524UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR, and UTF8_WARN_SUPER will cause warning messages to be raised
525for their respective categories, but otherwise the code points are considered
526valid (not malformations). To get a category to both be treated as a
527malformation and raise a warning, specify both the WARN and DISALLOW flags.
528(But note that warnings are not raised if lexically disabled nor if
529UTF8_CHECK_ONLY is also specified.)
530
531Very large code points (above 0x7FFF_FFFF) are considered more problematic than
532the others that are above the Unicode legal maximum. There are several
eb83ed87
KW
533reasons: they requre at least 32 bits to represent them on ASCII platforms, are
534not representable at all on EBCDIC platforms, and the original UTF-8
535specification never went above this number (the current 0x10FFFF limit was
536imposed later). (The smaller ones, those that fit into 32 bits, are
537representable by a UV on ASCII platforms, but not by an IV, which means that
538the number of operations that can be performed on them is quite restricted.)
539The UTF-8 encoding on ASCII platforms for these large code points begins with a
540byte containing 0xFE or 0xFF. The UTF8_DISALLOW_FE_FF flag will cause them to
541be treated as malformations, while allowing smaller above-Unicode code points.
542(Of course UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER will treat all above-Unicode code points,
543including these, as malformations.) Similarly, UTF8_WARN_FE_FF acts just like
544the other WARN flags, but applies just to these code points.
949cf498
KW
545
546All other code points corresponding to Unicode characters, including private
547use and those yet to be assigned, are never considered malformed and never
548warn.
67e989fb 549
ec5f19d0 550Most code should use L</utf8_to_uvchr_buf>() rather than call this directly.
9041c2e3 551
37607a96
PK
552=cut
553*/
67e989fb 554
a0ed51b3 555UV
7fc63493 556Perl_utf8n_to_uvuni(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN curlen, STRLEN *retlen, U32 flags)
a0ed51b3 557{
97aff369 558 dVAR;
d4c19fe8 559 const U8 * const s0 = s;
eb83ed87 560 U8 overflow_byte = '\0'; /* Save byte in case of overflow */
0b8d30e8 561 U8 * send;
eb83ed87
KW
562 UV uv = *s;
563 STRLEN expectlen;
949cf498 564 SV* sv = NULL;
eb83ed87
KW
565 UV outlier_ret = 0; /* return value when input is in error or problematic
566 */
567 UV pack_warn = 0; /* Save result of packWARN() for later */
568 bool unexpected_non_continuation = FALSE;
569 bool overflowed = FALSE;
2f8f112e 570 bool do_overlong_test = TRUE; /* May have to skip this test */
a0dbb045 571
eb83ed87 572 const char* const malformed_text = "Malformed UTF-8 character";
7918f24d 573
eb83ed87 574 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8N_TO_UVUNI;
a0dbb045 575
eb83ed87
KW
576 /* The order of malformation tests here is important. We should consume as
577 * few bytes as possible in order to not skip any valid character. This is
578 * required by the Unicode Standard (section 3.9 of Unicode 6.0); see also
579 * http://unicode.org/reports/tr36 for more discussion as to why. For
580 * example, once we've done a UTF8SKIP, we can tell the expected number of
581 * bytes, and could fail right off the bat if the input parameters indicate
582 * that there are too few available. But it could be that just that first
583 * byte is garbled, and the intended character occupies fewer bytes. If we
584 * blindly assumed that the first byte is correct, and skipped based on
585 * that number, we could skip over a valid input character. So instead, we
586 * always examine the sequence byte-by-byte.
587 *
588 * We also should not consume too few bytes, otherwise someone could inject
589 * things. For example, an input could be deliberately designed to
590 * overflow, and if this code bailed out immediately upon discovering that,
591 * returning to the caller *retlen pointing to the very next byte (one
592 * which is actually part of of the overflowing sequence), that could look
593 * legitimate to the caller, which could discard the initial partial
594 * sequence and process the rest, inappropriately */
595
596 /* Zero length strings, if allowed, of necessity are zero */
b5b9af04 597 if (UNLIKELY(curlen == 0)) {
eb83ed87
KW
598 if (retlen) {
599 *retlen = 0;
600 }
a0dbb045 601
eb83ed87
KW
602 if (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_EMPTY) {
603 return 0;
604 }
605 if (! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
606 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (empty string)", malformed_text));
607 }
0c443dc2
JH
608 goto malformed;
609 }
610
eb83ed87
KW
611 expectlen = UTF8SKIP(s);
612
613 /* A well-formed UTF-8 character, as the vast majority of calls to this
614 * function will be for, has this expected length. For efficiency, set
615 * things up here to return it. It will be overriden only in those rare
616 * cases where a malformation is found */
617 if (retlen) {
618 *retlen = expectlen;
619 }
620
621 /* An invariant is trivially well-formed */
1d72bdf6 622 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(uv)) {
c4d5f83a 623 return (UV) (NATIVE_TO_UTF(*s));
a0ed51b3 624 }
67e989fb 625
eb83ed87 626 /* A continuation character can't start a valid sequence */
b5b9af04 627 if (UNLIKELY(UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(uv))) {
eb83ed87
KW
628 if (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_CONTINUATION) {
629 if (retlen) {
630 *retlen = 1;
631 }
632 return UNICODE_REPLACEMENT;
633 }
ba210ebe 634
eb83ed87
KW
635 if (! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
636 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (unexpected continuation byte 0x%02x, with no preceding start byte)", malformed_text, *s0));
637 }
638 curlen = 1;
ba210ebe
JH
639 goto malformed;
640 }
9041c2e3 641
1d72bdf6 642#ifdef EBCDIC
75383841 643 uv = NATIVE_TO_UTF(uv);
1d72bdf6
NIS
644#endif
645
eb83ed87
KW
646 /* Here is not a continuation byte, nor an invariant. The only thing left
647 * is a start byte (possibly for an overlong) */
ba210ebe 648
eb83ed87
KW
649 /* Remove the leading bits that indicate the number of bytes in the
650 * character's whole UTF-8 sequence, leaving just the bits that are part of
651 * the value */
652 uv &= UTF_START_MASK(expectlen);
ba210ebe 653
eb83ed87
KW
654 /* Now, loop through the remaining bytes in the character's sequence,
655 * accumulating each into the working value as we go. Be sure to not look
656 * past the end of the input string */
0b8d30e8
KW
657 send = (U8*) s0 + ((expectlen <= curlen) ? expectlen : curlen);
658
eb83ed87 659 for (s = s0 + 1; s < send; s++) {
b5b9af04 660 if (LIKELY(UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(*s))) {
eb83ed87
KW
661#ifndef EBCDIC /* Can't overflow in EBCDIC */
662 if (uv & UTF_ACCUMULATION_OVERFLOW_MASK) {
663
664 /* The original implementors viewed this malformation as more
665 * serious than the others (though I, khw, don't understand
666 * why, since other malformations also give very very wrong
667 * results), so there is no way to turn off checking for it.
668 * Set a flag, but keep going in the loop, so that we absorb
669 * the rest of the bytes that comprise the character. */
670 overflowed = TRUE;
671 overflow_byte = *s; /* Save for warning message's use */
672 }
673#endif
8850bf83 674 uv = UTF8_ACCUMULATE(uv, *s);
eb83ed87
KW
675 }
676 else {
677 /* Here, found a non-continuation before processing all expected
678 * bytes. This byte begins a new character, so quit, even if
679 * allowing this malformation. */
680 unexpected_non_continuation = TRUE;
681 break;
682 }
683 } /* End of loop through the character's bytes */
684
685 /* Save how many bytes were actually in the character */
686 curlen = s - s0;
687
688 /* The loop above finds two types of malformations: non-continuation and/or
689 * overflow. The non-continuation malformation is really a too-short
690 * malformation, as it means that the current character ended before it was
691 * expected to (being terminated prematurely by the beginning of the next
692 * character, whereas in the too-short malformation there just are too few
693 * bytes available to hold the character. In both cases, the check below
694 * that we have found the expected number of bytes would fail if executed.)
695 * Thus the non-continuation malformation is really unnecessary, being a
696 * subset of the too-short malformation. But there may be existing
697 * applications that are expecting the non-continuation type, so we retain
698 * it, and return it in preference to the too-short malformation. (If this
699 * code were being written from scratch, the two types might be collapsed
700 * into one.) I, khw, am also giving priority to returning the
701 * non-continuation and too-short malformations over overflow when multiple
702 * ones are present. I don't know of any real reason to prefer one over
703 * the other, except that it seems to me that multiple-byte errors trumps
704 * errors from a single byte */
b5b9af04 705 if (UNLIKELY(unexpected_non_continuation)) {
eb83ed87
KW
706 if (!(flags & UTF8_ALLOW_NON_CONTINUATION)) {
707 if (! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
708 if (curlen == 1) {
709 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (unexpected non-continuation byte 0x%02x, immediately after start byte 0x%02x)", malformed_text, *s, *s0));
710 }
711 else {
712 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (unexpected non-continuation byte 0x%02x, %d bytes after start byte 0x%02x, expected %d bytes)", malformed_text, *s, (int) curlen, *s0, (int)expectlen));
a0dbb045
JH
713 }
714 }
eb83ed87
KW
715 goto malformed;
716 }
717 uv = UNICODE_REPLACEMENT;
2f8f112e
KW
718
719 /* Skip testing for overlongs, as the REPLACEMENT may not be the same
720 * as what the original expectations were. */
721 do_overlong_test = FALSE;
eb83ed87
KW
722 if (retlen) {
723 *retlen = curlen;
724 }
725 }
b5b9af04 726 else if (UNLIKELY(curlen < expectlen)) {
eb83ed87
KW
727 if (! (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_SHORT)) {
728 if (! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
729 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (%d byte%s, need %d, after start byte 0x%02x)", malformed_text, (int)curlen, curlen == 1 ? "" : "s", (int)expectlen, *s0));
a0dbb045 730 }
eb83ed87
KW
731 goto malformed;
732 }
733 uv = UNICODE_REPLACEMENT;
2f8f112e 734 do_overlong_test = FALSE;
eb83ed87
KW
735 if (retlen) {
736 *retlen = curlen;
737 }
738 }
739
740#ifndef EBCDIC /* EBCDIC allows FE, FF, can't overflow */
2f8f112e 741 if ((*s0 & 0xFE) == 0xFE /* matches both FE, FF */
eb83ed87
KW
742 && (flags & (UTF8_WARN_FE_FF|UTF8_DISALLOW_FE_FF)))
743 {
744 /* By adding UTF8_CHECK_ONLY to the test, we avoid unnecessary
745 * generation of the sv, since no warnings are raised under CHECK */
746 if ((flags & (UTF8_WARN_FE_FF|UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) == UTF8_WARN_FE_FF
747 && ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8))
748 {
42303544
KW
749 /* This message is deliberately not of the same syntax as the other
750 * messages for malformations, for backwards compatibility in the
751 * unlikely event that code is relying on its precise earlier text
752 */
eb83ed87
KW
753 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s Code point beginning with byte 0x%02X is not Unicode, and not portable", malformed_text, *s0));
754 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
755 }
756 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_FE_FF) {
757 goto malformed;
ba210ebe 758 }
ba210ebe 759 }
b5b9af04 760 if (UNLIKELY(overflowed)) {
ba210ebe 761
eb83ed87
KW
762 /* If the first byte is FF, it will overflow a 32-bit word. If the
763 * first byte is FE, it will overflow a signed 32-bit word. The
764 * above preserves backward compatibility, since its message was used
765 * in earlier versions of this code in preference to overflow */
766 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (overflow at byte 0x%02x, after start byte 0x%02x)", malformed_text, overflow_byte, *s0));
ba210ebe 767 goto malformed;
eb83ed87
KW
768 }
769#endif
770
2f8f112e
KW
771 if (do_overlong_test
772 && expectlen > (STRLEN)UNISKIP(uv)
773 && ! (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_LONG))
774 {
eb83ed87
KW
775 /* The overlong malformation has lower precedence than the others.
776 * Note that if this malformation is allowed, we return the actual
777 * value, instead of the replacement character. This is because this
778 * value is actually well-defined. */
779 if (! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
780 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (%d byte%s, need %d, after start byte 0x%02x)", malformed_text, (int)expectlen, expectlen == 1 ? "": "s", UNISKIP(uv), *s0));
781 }
782 goto malformed;
783 }
784
785 /* Here, the input is considered to be well-formed , but could be a
786 * problematic code point that is not allowed by the input parameters. */
787 if (uv >= UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST /* isn't problematic if < this */
788 && (flags & (UTF8_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE
789 |UTF8_WARN_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE)))
790 {
949cf498 791 if (UNICODE_IS_SURROGATE(uv)) {
eb83ed87
KW
792 if ((flags & (UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE|UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) == UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE
793 && ckWARN2_d(WARN_UTF8, WARN_SURROGATE))
794 {
111d382d 795 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "UTF-16 surrogate U+%04"UVXf"", uv));
eb83ed87 796 pack_warn = packWARN2(WARN_UTF8, WARN_SURROGATE);
949cf498
KW
797 }
798 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE) {
799 goto disallowed;
800 }
801 }
949cf498 802 else if ((uv > PERL_UNICODE_MAX)) {
eb83ed87
KW
803 if ((flags & (UTF8_WARN_SUPER|UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) == UTF8_WARN_SUPER
804 && ckWARN2_d(WARN_UTF8, WARN_NON_UNICODE))
805 {
111d382d 806 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "Code point 0x%04"UVXf" is not Unicode, may not be portable", uv));
eb83ed87 807 pack_warn = packWARN2(WARN_UTF8, WARN_NON_UNICODE);
949cf498
KW
808 }
809 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER) {
810 goto disallowed;
811 }
812 }
4190d317
KW
813 else if (UNICODE_IS_NONCHAR(uv)) {
814 if ((flags & (UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR|UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) == UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR
815 && ckWARN2_d(WARN_UTF8, WARN_NONCHAR))
816 {
817 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "Unicode non-character U+%04"UVXf" is illegal for open interchange", uv));
818 pack_warn = packWARN2(WARN_UTF8, WARN_NONCHAR);
819 }
820 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR) {
821 goto disallowed;
822 }
823 }
949cf498 824
eb83ed87
KW
825 if (sv) {
826 outlier_ret = uv;
827 goto do_warn;
828 }
829
949cf498
KW
830 /* Here, this is not considered a malformed character, so drop through
831 * to return it */
a0ed51b3 832 }
ba210ebe 833
a0ed51b3 834 return uv;
ba210ebe 835
eb83ed87
KW
836 /* There are three cases which get to beyond this point. In all 3 cases:
837 * <sv> if not null points to a string to print as a warning.
838 * <curlen> is what <*retlen> should be set to if UTF8_CHECK_ONLY isn't
839 * set.
840 * <outlier_ret> is what return value to use if UTF8_CHECK_ONLY isn't set.
841 * This is done by initializing it to 0, and changing it only
842 * for case 1).
843 * The 3 cases are:
844 * 1) The input is valid but problematic, and to be warned about. The
845 * return value is the resultant code point; <*retlen> is set to
846 * <curlen>, the number of bytes that comprise the code point.
847 * <pack_warn> contains the result of packWARN() for the warning
848 * types. The entry point for this case is the label <do_warn>;
849 * 2) The input is a valid code point but disallowed by the parameters to
850 * this function. The return value is 0. If UTF8_CHECK_ONLY is set,
851 * <*relen> is -1; otherwise it is <curlen>, the number of bytes that
852 * comprise the code point. <pack_warn> contains the result of
853 * packWARN() for the warning types. The entry point for this case is
854 * the label <disallowed>.
855 * 3) The input is malformed. The return value is 0. If UTF8_CHECK_ONLY
856 * is set, <*relen> is -1; otherwise it is <curlen>, the number of
857 * bytes that comprise the malformation. All such malformations are
858 * assumed to be warning type <utf8>. The entry point for this case
859 * is the label <malformed>.
860 */
949cf498 861
ba210ebe
JH
862malformed:
863
eb83ed87
KW
864 if (sv && ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8)) {
865 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
866 }
867
868disallowed:
869
fcc8fcf6 870 if (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY) {
ba210ebe 871 if (retlen)
10edeb5d 872 *retlen = ((STRLEN) -1);
ba210ebe
JH
873 return 0;
874 }
875
eb83ed87 876do_warn:
5b311467 877
eb83ed87
KW
878 if (pack_warn) { /* <pack_warn> was initialized to 0, and changed only
879 if warnings are to be raised. */
f555bc63 880 const char * const string = SvPVX_const(sv);
a0dbb045 881
f555bc63
KW
882 if (PL_op)
883 Perl_warner(aTHX_ pack_warn, "%s in %s", string, OP_DESC(PL_op));
884 else
885 Perl_warner(aTHX_ pack_warn, "%s", string);
a0dbb045
JH
886 }
887
eb83ed87
KW
888 if (retlen) {
889 *retlen = curlen;
890 }
ba210ebe 891
eb83ed87 892 return outlier_ret;
a0ed51b3
LW
893}
894
8e84507e 895/*
ec5f19d0
KW
896=for apidoc utf8_to_uvchr_buf
897
898Returns the native code point of the first character in the string C<s> which
899is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; C<send> points to 1 beyond the end of C<s>.
524080c4 900C<*retlen> will be set to the length, in bytes, of that character.
ec5f19d0 901
524080c4
KW
902If C<s> does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character and UTF8 warnings are
903enabled, zero is returned and C<*retlen> is set (if C<retlen> isn't
904NULL) to -1. If those warnings are off, the computed value if well-defined (or
905the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, if not) is silently returned, and C<*retlen>
906is set (if C<retlen> isn't NULL) so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>) is the
907next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed character.
908See L</utf8n_to_uvuni> for details on when the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is returned.
ec5f19d0
KW
909
910=cut
911*/
912
913
914UV
915Perl_utf8_to_uvchr_buf(pTHX_ const U8 *s, const U8 *send, STRLEN *retlen)
916{
917 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_UVCHR_BUF;
918
919 assert(s < send);
920
921 return utf8n_to_uvchr(s, send - s, retlen,
922 ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) ? 0 : UTF8_ALLOW_ANY);
923}
924
27d6c58a 925/* Like L</utf8_to_uvchr_buf>(), but should only be called when it is known that
3986bb7c 926 * there are no malformations in the input UTF-8 string C<s>. surrogates,
6dd9dce9
KW
927 * non-character code points, and non-Unicode code points are allowed. A macro
928 * in utf8.h is used to normally avoid this function wrapper */
27d6c58a
KW
929
930UV
931Perl_valid_utf8_to_uvchr(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)
932{
3986bb7c
KW
933 const UV uv = valid_utf8_to_uvuni(s, retlen);
934
27d6c58a
KW
935 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_VALID_UTF8_TO_UVCHR;
936
3986bb7c 937 return UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv);
27d6c58a
KW
938}
939
ec5f19d0 940/*
87cea99e 941=for apidoc utf8_to_uvchr
9041c2e3 942
977c1d31
KW
943DEPRECATED!
944
6ee84de2 945Returns the native code point of the first character in the string C<s>
1e54db1a 946which is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; C<retlen> will be set to the
9041c2e3
NIS
947length, in bytes, of that character.
948
4b88fb76 949Some, but not all, UTF-8 malformations are detected, and in fact, some
977c1d31
KW
950malformed input could cause reading beyond the end of the input buffer, which
951is why this function is deprecated. Use L</utf8_to_uvchr_buf> instead.
4b88fb76 952
524080c4
KW
953If C<s> points to one of the detected malformations, and UTF8 warnings are
954enabled, zero is returned and C<*retlen> is set (if C<retlen> isn't
955NULL) to -1. If those warnings are off, the computed value if well-defined (or
956the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, if not) is silently returned, and C<*retlen>
957is set (if C<retlen> isn't NULL) so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>) is the
958next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed character.
959See L</utf8n_to_uvuni> for details on when the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is returned.
9041c2e3
NIS
960
961=cut
962*/
963
964UV
7fc63493 965Perl_utf8_to_uvchr(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)
9041c2e3 966{
7918f24d
NC
967 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_UVCHR;
968
2ff6c191 969 return utf8_to_uvchr_buf(s, s + UTF8_MAXBYTES, retlen);
9041c2e3
NIS
970}
971
972/*
ec5f19d0
KW
973=for apidoc utf8_to_uvuni_buf
974
975Returns the Unicode code point of the first character in the string C<s> which
976is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; C<send> points to 1 beyond the end of C<s>.
977C<retlen> will be set to the length, in bytes, of that character.
978
979This function should only be used when the returned UV is considered
980an index into the Unicode semantic tables (e.g. swashes).
981
524080c4
KW
982If C<s> does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character and UTF8 warnings are
983enabled, zero is returned and C<*retlen> is set (if C<retlen> isn't
984NULL) to -1. If those warnings are off, the computed value if well-defined (or
985the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, if not) is silently returned, and C<*retlen>
986is set (if C<retlen> isn't NULL) so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>) is the
987next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed character.
988See L</utf8n_to_uvuni> for details on when the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is returned.
ec5f19d0
KW
989
990=cut
991*/
992
993UV
994Perl_utf8_to_uvuni_buf(pTHX_ const U8 *s, const U8 *send, STRLEN *retlen)
995{
996 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_UVUNI_BUF;
997
998 assert(send > s);
999
1000 /* Call the low level routine asking for checks */
1001 return Perl_utf8n_to_uvuni(aTHX_ s, send -s, retlen,
1002 ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) ? 0 : UTF8_ALLOW_ANY);
1003}
1004
27d6c58a 1005/* Like L</utf8_to_uvuni_buf>(), but should only be called when it is known that
2114036c 1006 * there are no malformations in the input UTF-8 string C<s>. Surrogates,
3986bb7c 1007 * non-character code points, and non-Unicode code points are allowed */
27d6c58a
KW
1008
1009UV
1010Perl_valid_utf8_to_uvuni(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)
1011{
3986bb7c
KW
1012 UV expectlen = UTF8SKIP(s);
1013 const U8* send = s + expectlen;
1014 UV uv = NATIVE_TO_UTF(*s);
1015
27d6c58a
KW
1016 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_VALID_UTF8_TO_UVUNI;
1017
3986bb7c
KW
1018 if (retlen) {
1019 *retlen = expectlen;
1020 }
1021
1022 /* An invariant is trivially returned */
1023 if (expectlen == 1) {
1024 return uv;
1025 }
1026
1027 /* Remove the leading bits that indicate the number of bytes, leaving just
1028 * the bits that are part of the value */
1029 uv &= UTF_START_MASK(expectlen);
1030
1031 /* Now, loop through the remaining bytes, accumulating each into the
08bc774e
KW
1032 * working total as we go. (I khw tried unrolling the loop for up to 4
1033 * bytes, but there was no performance improvement) */
3986bb7c
KW
1034 for (++s; s < send; s++) {
1035 uv = UTF8_ACCUMULATE(uv, *s);
1036 }
1037
1038 return uv;
27d6c58a
KW
1039}
1040
ec5f19d0 1041/*
87cea99e 1042=for apidoc utf8_to_uvuni
9041c2e3 1043
977c1d31
KW
1044DEPRECATED!
1045
9041c2e3 1046Returns the Unicode code point of the first character in the string C<s>
1e54db1a 1047which is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; C<retlen> will be set to the
9041c2e3
NIS
1048length, in bytes, of that character.
1049
39e518fd
KW
1050This function should only be used when the returned UV is considered
1051an index into the Unicode semantic tables (e.g. swashes).
1052
4b88fb76 1053Some, but not all, UTF-8 malformations are detected, and in fact, some
977c1d31
KW
1054malformed input could cause reading beyond the end of the input buffer, which
1055is why this function is deprecated. Use L</utf8_to_uvuni_buf> instead.
9041c2e3 1056
524080c4
KW
1057If C<s> points to one of the detected malformations, and UTF8 warnings are
1058enabled, zero is returned and C<*retlen> is set (if C<retlen> doesn't point to
1059NULL) to -1. If those warnings are off, the computed value if well-defined (or
1060the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, if not) is silently returned, and C<*retlen>
1061is set (if C<retlen> isn't NULL) so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>) is the
1062next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed character.
1063See L</utf8n_to_uvuni> for details on when the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is returned.
8e84507e
NIS
1064
1065=cut
1066*/
1067
1068UV
7fc63493 1069Perl_utf8_to_uvuni(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)
8e84507e 1070{
7918f24d
NC
1071 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_UVUNI;
1072
4b88fb76 1073 return valid_utf8_to_uvuni(s, retlen);
8e84507e
NIS
1074}
1075
b76347f2 1076/*
87cea99e 1077=for apidoc utf8_length
b76347f2
JH
1078
1079Return the length of the UTF-8 char encoded string C<s> in characters.
02eb7b47
JH
1080Stops at C<e> (inclusive). If C<e E<lt> s> or if the scan would end
1081up past C<e>, croaks.
b76347f2
JH
1082
1083=cut
1084*/
1085
1086STRLEN
35a4481c 1087Perl_utf8_length(pTHX_ const U8 *s, const U8 *e)
b76347f2 1088{
97aff369 1089 dVAR;
b76347f2
JH
1090 STRLEN len = 0;
1091
7918f24d
NC
1092 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_LENGTH;
1093
8850bf83
JH
1094 /* Note: cannot use UTF8_IS_...() too eagerly here since e.g.
1095 * the bitops (especially ~) can create illegal UTF-8.
1096 * In other words: in Perl UTF-8 is not just for Unicode. */
1097
a3b680e6
AL
1098 if (e < s)
1099 goto warn_and_return;
b76347f2 1100 while (s < e) {
4cbf4130 1101 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
8e91ec7f
AV
1102 len++;
1103 }
1104
1105 if (e != s) {
1106 len--;
1107 warn_and_return:
9b387841
NC
1108 if (PL_op)
1109 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
1110 "%s in %s", unees, OP_DESC(PL_op));
1111 else
61a12c31 1112 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8), "%s", unees);
b76347f2
JH
1113 }
1114
1115 return len;
1116}
1117
b06226ff 1118/*
87cea99e 1119=for apidoc utf8_distance
b06226ff 1120
1e54db1a 1121Returns the number of UTF-8 characters between the UTF-8 pointers C<a>
b06226ff
JH
1122and C<b>.
1123
1124WARNING: use only if you *know* that the pointers point inside the
1125same UTF-8 buffer.
1126
37607a96
PK
1127=cut
1128*/
a0ed51b3 1129
02eb7b47 1130IV
35a4481c 1131Perl_utf8_distance(pTHX_ const U8 *a, const U8 *b)
a0ed51b3 1132{
7918f24d
NC
1133 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_DISTANCE;
1134
bf1665bc 1135 return (a < b) ? -1 * (IV) utf8_length(a, b) : (IV) utf8_length(b, a);
a0ed51b3
LW
1136}
1137
b06226ff 1138/*
87cea99e 1139=for apidoc utf8_hop
b06226ff 1140
8850bf83
JH
1141Return the UTF-8 pointer C<s> displaced by C<off> characters, either
1142forward or backward.
b06226ff
JH
1143
1144WARNING: do not use the following unless you *know* C<off> is within
8850bf83
JH
1145the UTF-8 data pointed to by C<s> *and* that on entry C<s> is aligned
1146on the first byte of character or just after the last byte of a character.
b06226ff 1147
37607a96
PK
1148=cut
1149*/
a0ed51b3
LW
1150
1151U8 *
4373e329 1152Perl_utf8_hop(pTHX_ const U8 *s, I32 off)
a0ed51b3 1153{
7918f24d
NC
1154 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_HOP;
1155
96a5add6 1156 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
8850bf83
JH
1157 /* Note: cannot use UTF8_IS_...() too eagerly here since e.g
1158 * the bitops (especially ~) can create illegal UTF-8.
1159 * In other words: in Perl UTF-8 is not just for Unicode. */
1160
a0ed51b3
LW
1161 if (off >= 0) {
1162 while (off--)
1163 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
1164 }
1165 else {
1166 while (off++) {
1167 s--;
8850bf83
JH
1168 while (UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(*s))
1169 s--;
a0ed51b3
LW
1170 }
1171 }
4373e329 1172 return (U8 *)s;
a0ed51b3
LW
1173}
1174
6940069f 1175/*
fed3ba5d
NC
1176=for apidoc bytes_cmp_utf8
1177
a1433954
KW
1178Compares the sequence of characters (stored as octets) in C<b>, C<blen> with the
1179sequence of characters (stored as UTF-8) in C<u>, C<ulen>. Returns 0 if they are
fed3ba5d
NC
1180equal, -1 or -2 if the first string is less than the second string, +1 or +2
1181if the first string is greater than the second string.
1182
1183-1 or +1 is returned if the shorter string was identical to the start of the
1184longer string. -2 or +2 is returned if the was a difference between characters
1185within the strings.
1186
1187=cut
1188*/
1189
1190int
1191Perl_bytes_cmp_utf8(pTHX_ const U8 *b, STRLEN blen, const U8 *u, STRLEN ulen)
1192{
1193 const U8 *const bend = b + blen;
1194 const U8 *const uend = u + ulen;
1195
1196 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_BYTES_CMP_UTF8;
1197
1198 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
1199
1200 while (b < bend && u < uend) {
1201 U8 c = *u++;
1202 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
1203 if (UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(c)) {
1204 if (u < uend) {
1205 U8 c1 = *u++;
1206 if (UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(c1)) {
356979f4 1207 c = UNI_TO_NATIVE(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(c, c1));
fed3ba5d
NC
1208 } else {
1209 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
1210 "Malformed UTF-8 character "
1211 "(unexpected non-continuation byte 0x%02x"
1212 ", immediately after start byte 0x%02x)"
1213 /* Dear diag.t, it's in the pod. */
1214 "%s%s", c1, c,
1215 PL_op ? " in " : "",
1216 PL_op ? OP_DESC(PL_op) : "");
1217 return -2;
1218 }
1219 } else {
1220 if (PL_op)
1221 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
1222 "%s in %s", unees, OP_DESC(PL_op));
1223 else
61a12c31 1224 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8), "%s", unees);
fed3ba5d
NC
1225 return -2; /* Really want to return undef :-) */
1226 }
1227 } else {
1228 return -2;
1229 }
1230 }
1231 if (*b != c) {
1232 return *b < c ? -2 : +2;
1233 }
1234 ++b;
1235 }
1236
1237 if (b == bend && u == uend)
1238 return 0;
1239
1240 return b < bend ? +1 : -1;
1241}
1242
1243/*
87cea99e 1244=for apidoc utf8_to_bytes
6940069f 1245
2bbc8d55 1246Converts a string C<s> of length C<len> from UTF-8 into native byte encoding.
a1433954
KW
1247Unlike L</bytes_to_utf8>, this over-writes the original string, and
1248updates C<len> to contain the new length.
67e989fb 1249Returns zero on failure, setting C<len> to -1.
6940069f 1250
a1433954 1251If you need a copy of the string, see L</bytes_from_utf8>.
95be277c 1252
6940069f
GS
1253=cut
1254*/
1255
1256U8 *
37607a96 1257Perl_utf8_to_bytes(pTHX_ U8 *s, STRLEN *len)
6940069f 1258{
d4c19fe8
AL
1259 U8 * const save = s;
1260 U8 * const send = s + *len;
6940069f 1261 U8 *d;
246fae53 1262
7918f24d
NC
1263 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_BYTES;
1264
1e54db1a 1265 /* ensure valid UTF-8 and chars < 256 before updating string */
d4c19fe8 1266 while (s < send) {
dcad2880
JH
1267 U8 c = *s++;
1268
1d72bdf6
NIS
1269 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c) &&
1270 (!UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(c) || (s >= send)
1271 || !(c = *s++) || !UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(c))) {
10edeb5d 1272 *len = ((STRLEN) -1);
dcad2880
JH
1273 return 0;
1274 }
246fae53 1275 }
dcad2880
JH
1276
1277 d = s = save;
6940069f 1278 while (s < send) {
ed646e6e 1279 STRLEN ulen;
4b88fb76 1280 *d++ = (U8)utf8_to_uvchr_buf(s, send, &ulen);
ed646e6e 1281 s += ulen;
6940069f
GS
1282 }
1283 *d = '\0';
246fae53 1284 *len = d - save;
6940069f
GS
1285 return save;
1286}
1287
1288/*
87cea99e 1289=for apidoc bytes_from_utf8
f9a63242 1290
2bbc8d55 1291Converts a string C<s> of length C<len> from UTF-8 into native byte encoding.
a1433954 1292Unlike L</utf8_to_bytes> but like L</bytes_to_utf8>, returns a pointer to
ef9edfd0
JH
1293the newly-created string, and updates C<len> to contain the new
1294length. Returns the original string if no conversion occurs, C<len>
1295is unchanged. Do nothing if C<is_utf8> points to 0. Sets C<is_utf8> to
2bbc8d55
SP
12960 if C<s> is converted or consisted entirely of characters that are invariant
1297in utf8 (i.e., US-ASCII on non-EBCDIC machines).
f9a63242 1298
37607a96
PK
1299=cut
1300*/
f9a63242
JH
1301
1302U8 *
e1ec3a88 1303Perl_bytes_from_utf8(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *len, bool *is_utf8)
f9a63242 1304{
f9a63242 1305 U8 *d;
e1ec3a88
AL
1306 const U8 *start = s;
1307 const U8 *send;
f9a63242
JH
1308 I32 count = 0;
1309
7918f24d
NC
1310 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_BYTES_FROM_UTF8;
1311
96a5add6 1312 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
f9a63242 1313 if (!*is_utf8)
73d840c0 1314 return (U8 *)start;
f9a63242 1315
1e54db1a 1316 /* ensure valid UTF-8 and chars < 256 before converting string */
f9a63242 1317 for (send = s + *len; s < send;) {
e1ec3a88 1318 U8 c = *s++;
1d72bdf6 1319 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
db42d148
NIS
1320 if (UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(c) && s < send &&
1321 (c = *s++) && UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(c))
1322 count++;
1323 else
73d840c0 1324 return (U8 *)start;
db42d148 1325 }
f9a63242
JH
1326 }
1327
35da51f7 1328 *is_utf8 = FALSE;
f9a63242 1329
212542aa 1330 Newx(d, (*len) - count + 1, U8);
ef9edfd0 1331 s = start; start = d;
f9a63242
JH
1332 while (s < send) {
1333 U8 c = *s++;
c4d5f83a
NIS
1334 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
1335 /* Then it is two-byte encoded */
356979f4 1336 c = UNI_TO_NATIVE(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(c, *s++));
c4d5f83a
NIS
1337 }
1338 *d++ = c;
f9a63242
JH
1339 }
1340 *d = '\0';
1341 *len = d - start;
73d840c0 1342 return (U8 *)start;
f9a63242
JH
1343}
1344
1345/*
87cea99e 1346=for apidoc bytes_to_utf8
6940069f 1347
ff97e5cf
KW
1348Converts a string C<s> of length C<len> bytes from the native encoding into
1349UTF-8.
6662521e 1350Returns a pointer to the newly-created string, and sets C<len> to
ff97e5cf 1351reflect the new length in bytes.
6940069f 1352
2bbc8d55
SP
1353A NUL character will be written after the end of the string.
1354
1355If you want to convert to UTF-8 from encodings other than
1356the native (Latin1 or EBCDIC),
a1433954 1357see L</sv_recode_to_utf8>().
c9ada85f 1358
497711e7 1359=cut
6940069f
GS
1360*/
1361
c682ebef
FC
1362/* This logic is duplicated in sv_catpvn_flags, so any bug fixes will
1363 likewise need duplication. */
1364
6940069f 1365U8*
35a4481c 1366Perl_bytes_to_utf8(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *len)
6940069f 1367{
35a4481c 1368 const U8 * const send = s + (*len);
6940069f
GS
1369 U8 *d;
1370 U8 *dst;
7918f24d
NC
1371
1372 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_BYTES_TO_UTF8;
96a5add6 1373 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
6940069f 1374
212542aa 1375 Newx(d, (*len) * 2 + 1, U8);
6940069f
GS
1376 dst = d;
1377
1378 while (s < send) {
35a4481c 1379 const UV uv = NATIVE_TO_ASCII(*s++);
c4d5f83a 1380 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(uv))
eb160463 1381 *d++ = (U8)UTF_TO_NATIVE(uv);
6940069f 1382 else {
eb160463
GS
1383 *d++ = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(uv);
1384 *d++ = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(uv);
6940069f
GS
1385 }
1386 }
1387 *d = '\0';
6662521e 1388 *len = d-dst;
6940069f
GS
1389 return dst;
1390}
1391
a0ed51b3 1392/*
dea0fc0b 1393 * Convert native (big-endian) or reversed (little-endian) UTF-16 to UTF-8.
a0ed51b3
LW
1394 *
1395 * Destination must be pre-extended to 3/2 source. Do not use in-place.
1396 * We optimize for native, for obvious reasons. */
1397
1398U8*
dea0fc0b 1399Perl_utf16_to_utf8(pTHX_ U8* p, U8* d, I32 bytelen, I32 *newlen)
a0ed51b3 1400{
dea0fc0b
JH
1401 U8* pend;
1402 U8* dstart = d;
1403
7918f24d
NC
1404 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF16_TO_UTF8;
1405
dea0fc0b 1406 if (bytelen & 1)
f5992bc4 1407 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: utf16_to_utf8: odd bytelen %"UVuf, (UV)bytelen);
dea0fc0b
JH
1408
1409 pend = p + bytelen;
1410
a0ed51b3 1411 while (p < pend) {
dea0fc0b
JH
1412 UV uv = (p[0] << 8) + p[1]; /* UTF-16BE */
1413 p += 2;
a0ed51b3 1414 if (uv < 0x80) {
e294cc5d
JH
1415#ifdef EBCDIC
1416 *d++ = UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv);
1417#else
eb160463 1418 *d++ = (U8)uv;
e294cc5d 1419#endif
a0ed51b3
LW
1420 continue;
1421 }
1422 if (uv < 0x800) {
eb160463
GS
1423 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 6) | 0xc0);
1424 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
1425 continue;
1426 }
52b9aa85 1427 if (uv >= 0xd800 && uv <= 0xdbff) { /* surrogates */
01ea242b 1428 if (p >= pend) {
dea0fc0b 1429 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Malformed UTF-16 surrogate");
01ea242b
NC
1430 } else {
1431 UV low = (p[0] << 8) + p[1];
1432 p += 2;
52b9aa85 1433 if (low < 0xdc00 || low > 0xdfff)
01ea242b
NC
1434 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Malformed UTF-16 surrogate");
1435 uv = ((uv - 0xd800) << 10) + (low - 0xdc00) + 0x10000;
1436 }
dbde1951
NC
1437 } else if (uv >= 0xdc00 && uv <= 0xdfff) {
1438 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Malformed UTF-16 surrogate");
a0ed51b3
LW
1439 }
1440 if (uv < 0x10000) {
eb160463
GS
1441 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 12) | 0xe0);
1442 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
1443 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
1444 continue;
1445 }
1446 else {
eb160463
GS
1447 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 18) | 0xf0);
1448 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
1449 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
1450 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
1451 continue;
1452 }
1453 }
dea0fc0b 1454 *newlen = d - dstart;
a0ed51b3
LW
1455 return d;
1456}
1457
1458/* Note: this one is slightly destructive of the source. */
1459
1460U8*
dea0fc0b 1461Perl_utf16_to_utf8_reversed(pTHX_ U8* p, U8* d, I32 bytelen, I32 *newlen)
a0ed51b3
LW
1462{
1463 U8* s = (U8*)p;
d4c19fe8 1464 U8* const send = s + bytelen;
7918f24d
NC
1465
1466 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF16_TO_UTF8_REVERSED;
1467
e0ea5e2d
NC
1468 if (bytelen & 1)
1469 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: utf16_to_utf8_reversed: odd bytelen %"UVuf,
1470 (UV)bytelen);
1471
a0ed51b3 1472 while (s < send) {
d4c19fe8 1473 const U8 tmp = s[0];
a0ed51b3
LW
1474 s[0] = s[1];
1475 s[1] = tmp;
1476 s += 2;
1477 }
dea0fc0b 1478 return utf16_to_utf8(p, d, bytelen, newlen);
a0ed51b3
LW
1479}
1480
c3fd2246
KW
1481/* for now these are all defined (inefficiently) in terms of the utf8 versions.
1482 * Note that the macros in handy.h that call these short-circuit calling them
1483 * for Latin-1 range inputs */
a0ed51b3
LW
1484
1485bool
84afefe6 1486Perl_is_uni_alnum(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1487{
89ebb4a3 1488 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1489 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1490 return is_utf8_alnum(tmpbuf);
1491}
1492
1493bool
84afefe6 1494Perl_is_uni_idfirst(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1495{
89ebb4a3 1496 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1497 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1498 return is_utf8_idfirst(tmpbuf);
1499}
1500
1501bool
84afefe6 1502Perl_is_uni_alpha(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1503{
89ebb4a3 1504 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1505 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1506 return is_utf8_alpha(tmpbuf);
1507}
1508
1509bool
84afefe6 1510Perl_is_uni_ascii(pTHX_ UV c)
4d61ec05 1511{
bc39fe24 1512 return isASCII(c);
4d61ec05
GS
1513}
1514
1515bool
bdd8600f
KW
1516Perl_is_uni_blank(pTHX_ UV c)
1517{
1518 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
1519 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
1520 return is_utf8_blank(tmpbuf);
1521}
1522
1523bool
84afefe6 1524Perl_is_uni_space(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1525{
89ebb4a3 1526 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1527 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1528 return is_utf8_space(tmpbuf);
1529}
1530
1531bool
84afefe6 1532Perl_is_uni_digit(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1533{
89ebb4a3 1534 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1535 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1536 return is_utf8_digit(tmpbuf);
1537}
1538
1539bool
84afefe6 1540Perl_is_uni_upper(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1541{
89ebb4a3 1542 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1543 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1544 return is_utf8_upper(tmpbuf);
1545}
1546
1547bool
84afefe6 1548Perl_is_uni_lower(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1549{
89ebb4a3 1550 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1551 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1552 return is_utf8_lower(tmpbuf);
1553}
1554
1555bool
84afefe6 1556Perl_is_uni_cntrl(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f 1557{
7b952154 1558 return isCNTRL_L1(c);
b8c5462f
JH
1559}
1560
1561bool
84afefe6 1562Perl_is_uni_graph(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f 1563{
89ebb4a3 1564 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1565 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
b8c5462f
JH
1566 return is_utf8_graph(tmpbuf);
1567}
1568
1569bool
84afefe6 1570Perl_is_uni_print(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1571{
89ebb4a3 1572 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1573 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1574 return is_utf8_print(tmpbuf);
1575}
1576
b8c5462f 1577bool
84afefe6 1578Perl_is_uni_punct(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f 1579{
89ebb4a3 1580 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1581 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
b8c5462f
JH
1582 return is_utf8_punct(tmpbuf);
1583}
1584
4d61ec05 1585bool
84afefe6 1586Perl_is_uni_xdigit(pTHX_ UV c)
4d61ec05 1587{
89ebb4a3 1588 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1];
230880c1 1589 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
4d61ec05
GS
1590 return is_utf8_xdigit(tmpbuf);
1591}
1592
3a4c58c9
KW
1593UV
1594Perl__to_upper_title_latin1(pTHX_ const U8 c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp, const char S_or_s)
1595{
1596 /* We have the latin1-range values compiled into the core, so just use
1597 * those, converting the result to utf8. The only difference between upper
1598 * and title case in this range is that LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S is
1599 * either "SS" or "Ss". Which one to use is passed into the routine in
1600 * 'S_or_s' to avoid a test */
1601
1602 UV converted = toUPPER_LATIN1_MOD(c);
1603
1604 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UPPER_TITLE_LATIN1;
1605
1606 assert(S_or_s == 'S' || S_or_s == 's');
1607
1608 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(converted)) { /* No difference between the two for
1609 characters in this range */
1610 *p = (U8) converted;
1611 *lenp = 1;
1612 return converted;
1613 }
1614
1615 /* toUPPER_LATIN1_MOD gives the correct results except for three outliers,
1616 * which it maps to one of them, so as to only have to have one check for
1617 * it in the main case */
1618 if (UNLIKELY(converted == LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS)) {
1619 switch (c) {
1620 case LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS:
1621 converted = LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS;
1622 break;
1623 case MICRO_SIGN:
1624 converted = GREEK_CAPITAL_LETTER_MU;
1625 break;
1626 case LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S:
1627 *(p)++ = 'S';
1628 *p = S_or_s;
1629 *lenp = 2;
1630 return 'S';
1631 default:
1632 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: to_upper_title_latin1 did not expect '%c' to map to '%c'", c, LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS);
118e2215 1633 assert(0); /* NOTREACHED */
3a4c58c9
KW
1634 }
1635 }
1636
1637 *(p)++ = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI(converted);
1638 *p = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO(converted);
1639 *lenp = 2;
1640
1641 return converted;
1642}
1643
50bda2c3
KW
1644/* Call the function to convert a UTF-8 encoded character to the specified case.
1645 * Note that there may be more than one character in the result.
1646 * INP is a pointer to the first byte of the input character
1647 * OUTP will be set to the first byte of the string of changed characters. It
1648 * needs to have space for UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes
1649 * LENP will be set to the length in bytes of the string of changed characters
1650 *
1651 * The functions return the ordinal of the first character in the string of OUTP */
f90a9a02
KW
1652#define CALL_UPPER_CASE(INP, OUTP, LENP) Perl_to_utf8_case(aTHX_ INP, OUTP, LENP, &PL_utf8_toupper, "ToUc", "utf8::ToSpecUc")
1653#define CALL_TITLE_CASE(INP, OUTP, LENP) Perl_to_utf8_case(aTHX_ INP, OUTP, LENP, &PL_utf8_totitle, "ToTc", "utf8::ToSpecTc")
1654#define CALL_LOWER_CASE(INP, OUTP, LENP) Perl_to_utf8_case(aTHX_ INP, OUTP, LENP, &PL_utf8_tolower, "ToLc", "utf8::ToSpecLc")
50bda2c3
KW
1655
1656/* This additionally has the input parameter SPECIALS, which if non-zero will
1657 * cause this to use the SPECIALS hash for folding (meaning get full case
1658 * folding); otherwise, when zero, this implies a simple case fold */
f90a9a02 1659#define CALL_FOLD_CASE(INP, OUTP, LENP, SPECIALS) Perl_to_utf8_case(aTHX_ INP, OUTP, LENP, &PL_utf8_tofold, "ToCf", (SPECIALS) ? "utf8::ToSpecCf" : NULL)
c3fd2246 1660
84afefe6
JH
1661UV
1662Perl_to_uni_upper(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
a0ed51b3 1663{
3a4c58c9
KW
1664 dVAR;
1665
a1433954
KW
1666 /* Convert the Unicode character whose ordinal is <c> to its uppercase
1667 * version and store that in UTF-8 in <p> and its length in bytes in <lenp>.
1668 * Note that the <p> needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since
c3fd2246
KW
1669 * the changed version may be longer than the original character.
1670 *
1671 * The ordinal of the first character of the changed version is returned
1672 * (but note, as explained above, that there may be more.) */
1673
7918f24d
NC
1674 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UNI_UPPER;
1675
3a4c58c9
KW
1676 if (c < 256) {
1677 return _to_upper_title_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp, 'S');
1678 }
1679
0ebc6274 1680 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
3a4c58c9 1681 return CALL_UPPER_CASE(p, p, lenp);
a0ed51b3
LW
1682}
1683
84afefe6
JH
1684UV
1685Perl_to_uni_title(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
a0ed51b3 1686{
3a4c58c9
KW
1687 dVAR;
1688
7918f24d
NC
1689 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UNI_TITLE;
1690
3a4c58c9
KW
1691 if (c < 256) {
1692 return _to_upper_title_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp, 's');
1693 }
1694
0ebc6274 1695 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
3a4c58c9 1696 return CALL_TITLE_CASE(p, p, lenp);
a0ed51b3
LW
1697}
1698
afc16117
KW
1699STATIC U8
1700S_to_lower_latin1(pTHX_ const U8 c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
1701{
1702 /* We have the latin1-range values compiled into the core, so just use
1703 * those, converting the result to utf8. Since the result is always just
a1433954 1704 * one character, we allow <p> to be NULL */
afc16117
KW
1705
1706 U8 converted = toLOWER_LATIN1(c);
1707
1708 if (p != NULL) {
1709 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(converted)) {
1710 *p = converted;
1711 *lenp = 1;
1712 }
1713 else {
1714 *p = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI(converted);
1715 *(p+1) = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO(converted);
1716 *lenp = 2;
1717 }
1718 }
1719 return converted;
1720}
1721
84afefe6
JH
1722UV
1723Perl_to_uni_lower(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
a0ed51b3 1724{
968c5e6a
KW
1725 dVAR;
1726
7918f24d
NC
1727 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UNI_LOWER;
1728
afc16117
KW
1729 if (c < 256) {
1730 return to_lower_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp);
bca00c02
KW
1731 }
1732
afc16117 1733 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
968c5e6a 1734 return CALL_LOWER_CASE(p, p, lenp);
a0ed51b3
LW
1735}
1736
84afefe6 1737UV
f673fad4 1738Perl__to_fold_latin1(pTHX_ const U8 c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp, const bool flags)
a1dde8de 1739{
a1433954 1740 /* Corresponds to to_lower_latin1(), <flags> is TRUE if to use full case
f673fad4
KW
1741 * folding */
1742
a1dde8de
KW
1743 UV converted;
1744
1745 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_FOLD_LATIN1;
1746
1747 if (c == MICRO_SIGN) {
1748 converted = GREEK_SMALL_LETTER_MU;
1749 }
1750 else if (flags && c == LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S) {
1751 *(p)++ = 's';
1752 *p = 's';
1753 *lenp = 2;
1754 return 's';
1755 }
1756 else { /* In this range the fold of all other characters is their lower
1757 case */
1758 converted = toLOWER_LATIN1(c);
1759 }
1760
1761 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(converted)) {
1762 *p = (U8) converted;
1763 *lenp = 1;
1764 }
1765 else {
1766 *(p)++ = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI(converted);
1767 *p = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO(converted);
1768 *lenp = 2;
1769 }
1770
1771 return converted;
1772}
1773
1774UV
a0270393 1775Perl__to_uni_fold_flags(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp, const U8 flags)
84afefe6 1776{
4b593389 1777
a0270393
KW
1778 /* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change
1779 * <flags> bits meanings:
1780 * FOLD_FLAGS_FULL iff full folding is to be used;
1781 * FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE iff in locale
1782 * FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII iff non-ASCII to ASCII folds are prohibited
1783 */
4b593389 1784
36bb2ab6 1785 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UNI_FOLD_FLAGS;
7918f24d 1786
a1dde8de 1787 if (c < 256) {
a0270393
KW
1788 UV result = _to_fold_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp,
1789 cBOOL(((flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL)
1790 /* If ASCII-safe, don't allow full folding,
1791 * as that could include SHARP S => ss;
1792 * otherwise there is no crossing of
1793 * ascii/non-ascii in the latin1 range */
1794 && ! (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII))));
1795 /* It is illegal for the fold to cross the 255/256 boundary under
1796 * locale; in this case return the original */
1797 return (result > 256 && flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE)
1798 ? c
1799 : result;
a1dde8de
KW
1800 }
1801
a0270393
KW
1802 /* If no special needs, just use the macro */
1803 if ( ! (flags & (FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE|FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII))) {
1804 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
1805 return CALL_FOLD_CASE(p, p, lenp, flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL);
1806 }
1807 else { /* Otherwise, _to_utf8_fold_flags has the intelligence to deal with
1808 the special flags. */
1809 U8 utf8_c[UTF8_MAXBYTES + 1];
1810 uvchr_to_utf8(utf8_c, c);
1811 return _to_utf8_fold_flags(utf8_c, p, lenp, flags, NULL);
1812 }
84afefe6
JH
1813}
1814
ea317ccb
KW
1815/* for now these all assume no locale info available for Unicode > 255; and
1816 * the corresponding macros in handy.h (like isALNUM_LC_uvchr) should have been
1817 * called instead, so that these don't get called for < 255 */
a0ed51b3
LW
1818
1819bool
84afefe6 1820Perl_is_uni_alnum_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3
LW
1821{
1822 return is_uni_alnum(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1823}
1824
1825bool
84afefe6 1826Perl_is_uni_idfirst_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3
LW
1827{
1828 return is_uni_idfirst(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1829}
1830
1831bool
84afefe6 1832Perl_is_uni_alpha_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3
LW
1833{
1834 return is_uni_alpha(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1835}
1836
1837bool
84afefe6 1838Perl_is_uni_ascii_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
4d61ec05
GS
1839{
1840 return is_uni_ascii(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1841}
1842
1843bool
bdd8600f
KW
1844Perl_is_uni_blank_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
1845{
1846 return is_uni_blank(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1847}
1848
1849bool
84afefe6 1850Perl_is_uni_space_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3
LW
1851{
1852 return is_uni_space(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1853}
1854
1855bool
84afefe6 1856Perl_is_uni_digit_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3
LW
1857{
1858 return is_uni_digit(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1859}
1860
1861bool
84afefe6 1862Perl_is_uni_upper_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3
LW
1863{
1864 return is_uni_upper(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1865}
1866
1867bool
84afefe6 1868Perl_is_uni_lower_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3
LW
1869{
1870 return is_uni_lower(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1871}
1872
1873bool
84afefe6 1874Perl_is_uni_cntrl_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f
JH
1875{
1876 return is_uni_cntrl(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1877}
1878
1879bool
84afefe6 1880Perl_is_uni_graph_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f
JH
1881{
1882 return is_uni_graph(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1883}
1884
1885bool
84afefe6 1886Perl_is_uni_print_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3
LW
1887{
1888 return is_uni_print(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1889}
1890
b8c5462f 1891bool
84afefe6 1892Perl_is_uni_punct_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f
JH
1893{
1894 return is_uni_punct(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1895}
1896
4d61ec05 1897bool
84afefe6 1898Perl_is_uni_xdigit_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
4d61ec05
GS
1899{
1900 return is_uni_xdigit(c); /* XXX no locale support yet */
1901}
1902
b7ac61fa
JH
1903U32
1904Perl_to_uni_upper_lc(pTHX_ U32 c)
1905{
ee099d14
JH
1906 /* XXX returns only the first character -- do not use XXX */
1907 /* XXX no locale support yet */
1908 STRLEN len;
89ebb4a3 1909 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1];
ee099d14 1910 return (U32)to_uni_upper(c, tmpbuf, &len);
b7ac61fa
JH
1911}
1912
1913U32
1914Perl_to_uni_title_lc(pTHX_ U32 c)
1915{
ee099d14
JH
1916 /* XXX returns only the first character XXX -- do not use XXX */
1917 /* XXX no locale support yet */
1918 STRLEN len;
89ebb4a3 1919 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1];
ee099d14 1920 return (U32)to_uni_title(c, tmpbuf, &len);
b7ac61fa
JH
1921}
1922
1923U32
1924Perl_to_uni_lower_lc(pTHX_ U32 c)
1925{
ee099d14
JH
1926 /* XXX returns only the first character -- do not use XXX */
1927 /* XXX no locale support yet */
1928 STRLEN len;
89ebb4a3 1929 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1];
ee099d14 1930 return (U32)to_uni_lower(c, tmpbuf, &len);
b7ac61fa
JH
1931}
1932
7452cf6a 1933static bool
5141f98e 1934S_is_utf8_common(pTHX_ const U8 *const p, SV **swash,
bde6a22d
NC
1935 const char *const swashname)
1936{
ea317ccb
KW
1937 /* returns a boolean giving whether or not the UTF8-encoded character that
1938 * starts at <p> is in the swash indicated by <swashname>. <swash>
1939 * contains a pointer to where the swash indicated by <swashname>
1940 * is to be stored; which this routine will do, so that future calls will
1941 * look at <*swash> and only generate a swash if it is not null
1942 *
1943 * Note that it is assumed that the buffer length of <p> is enough to
1944 * contain all the bytes that comprise the character. Thus, <*p> should
1945 * have been checked before this call for mal-formedness enough to assure
1946 * that. */
1947
97aff369 1948 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1949
1950 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_COMMON;
1951
492a624f
KW
1952 /* The API should have included a length for the UTF-8 character in <p>,
1953 * but it doesn't. We therefor assume that p has been validated at least
1954 * as far as there being enough bytes available in it to accommodate the
1955 * character without reading beyond the end, and pass that number on to the
1956 * validating routine */
1957 if (!is_utf8_char_buf(p, p + UTF8SKIP(p)))
bde6a22d 1958 return FALSE;
87367d5f
KW
1959 if (!*swash) {
1960 U8 flags = _CORE_SWASH_INIT_ACCEPT_INVLIST;
1961 *swash = _core_swash_init("utf8", swashname, &PL_sv_undef, 1, 0, NULL, &flags);
1962 }
bde6a22d
NC
1963 return swash_fetch(*swash, p, TRUE) != 0;
1964}
1965
1966bool
7fc63493 1967Perl_is_utf8_alnum(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 1968{
97aff369 1969 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1970
1971 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_ALNUM;
1972
671c33bf
NC
1973 /* NOTE: "IsWord", not "IsAlnum", since Alnum is a true
1974 * descendant of isalnum(3), in other words, it doesn't
1975 * contain the '_'. --jhi */
d4c19fe8 1976 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_alnum, "IsWord");
a0ed51b3
LW
1977}
1978
1979bool
7fc63493 1980Perl_is_utf8_idfirst(pTHX_ const U8 *p) /* The naming is historical. */
a0ed51b3 1981{
97aff369 1982 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1983
1984 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_IDFIRST;
1985
82686b01
JH
1986 if (*p == '_')
1987 return TRUE;
bde6a22d 1988 /* is_utf8_idstart would be more logical. */
d4c19fe8 1989 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_idstart, "IdStart");
82686b01
JH
1990}
1991
1992bool
c11ff943
KW
1993Perl_is_utf8_xidfirst(pTHX_ const U8 *p) /* The naming is historical. */
1994{
1995 dVAR;
1996
1997 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_XIDFIRST;
1998
1999 if (*p == '_')
2000 return TRUE;
2001 /* is_utf8_idstart would be more logical. */
2002 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_xidstart, "XIdStart");
2003}
2004
2005bool
b6912c02
KW
2006Perl__is_utf8__perl_idstart(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2007{
2008 dVAR;
2009
2010 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8__PERL_IDSTART;
2011
2012 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_perl_idstart, "_Perl_IDStart");
2013}
2014
2015bool
7fc63493 2016Perl_is_utf8_idcont(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
82686b01 2017{
97aff369 2018 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2019
2020 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_IDCONT;
2021
d4c19fe8 2022 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_idcont, "IdContinue");
a0ed51b3
LW
2023}
2024
2025bool
c11ff943
KW
2026Perl_is_utf8_xidcont(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2027{
2028 dVAR;
2029
2030 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_XIDCONT;
2031
c11ff943
KW
2032 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_idcont, "XIdContinue");
2033}
2034
2035bool
7fc63493 2036Perl_is_utf8_alpha(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2037{
97aff369 2038 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2039
2040 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_ALPHA;
2041
d4c19fe8 2042 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_alpha, "IsAlpha");
a0ed51b3
LW
2043}
2044
2045bool
7fc63493 2046Perl_is_utf8_ascii(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
b8c5462f 2047{
97aff369 2048 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2049
2050 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_ASCII;
2051
bc39fe24
KW
2052 /* ASCII characters are the same whether in utf8 or not. So the macro
2053 * works on both utf8 and non-utf8 representations. */
2054 return isASCII(*p);
b8c5462f
JH
2055}
2056
2057bool
bdd8600f
KW
2058Perl_is_utf8_blank(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2059{
2060 dVAR;
2061
2062 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_BLANK;
2063
2064 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_blank, "XPosixBlank");
2065}
2066
2067bool
7fc63493 2068Perl_is_utf8_space(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2069{
97aff369 2070 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2071
2072 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_SPACE;
2073
a34094a9 2074 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_space, "IsXPerlSpace");
a0ed51b3
LW
2075}
2076
2077bool
d1eb3177
YO
2078Perl_is_utf8_perl_space(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2079{
2080 dVAR;
2081
2082 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_PERL_SPACE;
2083
c4428693
KW
2084 /* Only true if is an ASCII space-like character, and ASCII is invariant
2085 * under utf8, so can just use the macro */
2086 return isSPACE_A(*p);
d1eb3177
YO
2087}
2088
2089bool
2090Perl_is_utf8_perl_word(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2091{
2092 dVAR;
2093
2094 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_PERL_WORD;
2095
c4428693
KW
2096 /* Only true if is an ASCII word character, and ASCII is invariant
2097 * under utf8, so can just use the macro */
2098 return isWORDCHAR_A(*p);
d1eb3177
YO
2099}
2100
2101bool
7fc63493 2102Perl_is_utf8_digit(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2103{
97aff369 2104 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2105
2106 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_DIGIT;
2107
d4c19fe8 2108 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_digit, "IsDigit");
a0ed51b3
LW
2109}
2110
2111bool
d1eb3177
YO
2112Perl_is_utf8_posix_digit(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2113{
2114 dVAR;
2115
2116 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_POSIX_DIGIT;
2117
c4428693
KW
2118 /* Only true if is an ASCII digit character, and ASCII is invariant
2119 * under utf8, so can just use the macro */
2120 return isDIGIT_A(*p);
d1eb3177
YO
2121}
2122
2123bool
7fc63493 2124Perl_is_utf8_upper(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2125{
97aff369 2126 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2127
2128 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_UPPER;
2129
d4c19fe8 2130 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_upper, "IsUppercase");
a0ed51b3
LW
2131}
2132
2133bool
7fc63493 2134Perl_is_utf8_lower(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2135{
97aff369 2136 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2137
2138 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_LOWER;
2139
d4c19fe8 2140 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_lower, "IsLowercase");
a0ed51b3
LW
2141}
2142
2143bool
7fc63493 2144Perl_is_utf8_cntrl(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
b8c5462f 2145{
97aff369 2146 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2147
2148 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_CNTRL;
2149
7b952154
KW
2150 if (isASCII(*p)) {
2151 return isCNTRL_A(*p);
2152 }
2153
2154 /* All controls are in Latin1 */
2155 if (! UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p)) {
2156 return 0;
2157 }
2158 return isCNTRL_L1(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)));
b8c5462f
JH
2159}
2160
2161bool
7fc63493 2162Perl_is_utf8_graph(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
b8c5462f 2163{
97aff369 2164 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2165
2166 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_GRAPH;
2167
d4c19fe8 2168 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_graph, "IsGraph");
b8c5462f
JH
2169}
2170
2171bool
7fc63493 2172Perl_is_utf8_print(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2173{
97aff369 2174 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2175
2176 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_PRINT;
2177
d4c19fe8 2178 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_print, "IsPrint");
a0ed51b3
LW
2179}
2180
2181bool
7fc63493 2182Perl_is_utf8_punct(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
b8c5462f 2183{
97aff369 2184 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2185
2186 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_PUNCT;
2187
d4c19fe8 2188 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_punct, "IsPunct");
b8c5462f
JH
2189}
2190
2191bool
7fc63493 2192Perl_is_utf8_xdigit(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
b8c5462f 2193{
97aff369 2194 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2195
2196 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_XDIGIT;
2197
d1eb3177 2198 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_xdigit, "IsXDigit");
b8c5462f
JH
2199}
2200
2201bool
7fc63493 2202Perl_is_utf8_mark(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2203{
97aff369 2204 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2205
2206 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_MARK;
2207
d4c19fe8 2208 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_mark, "IsM");
a0ed51b3
LW
2209}
2210
37e2e78e 2211bool
27d4fc33 2212Perl_is_utf8_X_regular_begin(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
37e2e78e
KW
2213{
2214 dVAR;
2215
27d4fc33 2216 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_X_REGULAR_BEGIN;
37e2e78e 2217
27d4fc33 2218 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_X_regular_begin, "_X_Regular_Begin");
37e2e78e
KW
2219}
2220
2221bool
2222Perl_is_utf8_X_extend(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2223{
2224 dVAR;
2225
2226 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_X_EXTEND;
2227
2228 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_X_extend, "_X_Extend");
2229}
2230
6b5c0936 2231/*
87cea99e 2232=for apidoc to_utf8_case
6b5c0936 2233
a1433954
KW
2234The C<p> contains the pointer to the UTF-8 string encoding
2235the character that is being converted. This routine assumes that the character
2236at C<p> is well-formed.
6b5c0936 2237
a1433954
KW
2238The C<ustrp> is a pointer to the character buffer to put the
2239conversion result to. The C<lenp> is a pointer to the length
6b5c0936
JH
2240of the result.
2241
a1433954 2242The C<swashp> is a pointer to the swash to use.
6b5c0936 2243
a1433954
KW
2244Both the special and normal mappings are stored in F<lib/unicore/To/Foo.pl>,
2245and loaded by SWASHNEW, using F<lib/utf8_heavy.pl>. The C<special> (usually,
0134edef 2246but not always, a multicharacter mapping), is tried first.
6b5c0936 2247
a1433954 2248The C<special> is a string like "utf8::ToSpecLower", which means the
0134edef
JH
2249hash %utf8::ToSpecLower. The access to the hash is through
2250Perl_to_utf8_case().
6b5c0936 2251
a1433954 2252The C<normal> is a string like "ToLower" which means the swash
0134edef
JH
2253%utf8::ToLower.
2254
2255=cut */
6b5c0936 2256
2104c8d9 2257UV
9a957fbc
AL
2258Perl_to_utf8_case(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp,
2259 SV **swashp, const char *normal, const char *special)
a0ed51b3 2260{
97aff369 2261 dVAR;
89ebb4a3 2262 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1];
0134edef 2263 STRLEN len = 0;
4b88fb76 2264 const UV uv0 = valid_utf8_to_uvchr(p, NULL);
1feea2c7
JH
2265 /* The NATIVE_TO_UNI() and UNI_TO_NATIVE() mappings
2266 * are necessary in EBCDIC, they are redundant no-ops
2267 * in ASCII-ish platforms, and hopefully optimized away. */
f54cb97a 2268 const UV uv1 = NATIVE_TO_UNI(uv0);
7918f24d
NC
2269
2270 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UTF8_CASE;
2271
9ae3ac1a
KW
2272 /* Note that swash_fetch() doesn't output warnings for these because it
2273 * assumes we will */
8457b38f 2274 if (uv1 >= UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST) {
9ae3ac1a 2275 if (uv1 <= UNICODE_SURROGATE_LAST) {
8457b38f
KW
2276 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_SURROGATE)) {
2277 const char* desc = (PL_op) ? OP_DESC(PL_op) : normal;
2278 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_SURROGATE),
2279 "Operation \"%s\" returns its argument for UTF-16 surrogate U+%04"UVXf"", desc, uv1);
2280 }
9ae3ac1a
KW
2281 }
2282 else if (UNICODE_IS_SUPER(uv1)) {
8457b38f
KW
2283 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_NON_UNICODE)) {
2284 const char* desc = (PL_op) ? OP_DESC(PL_op) : normal;
2285 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NON_UNICODE),
2286 "Operation \"%s\" returns its argument for non-Unicode code point 0x%04"UVXf"", desc, uv1);
2287 }
9ae3ac1a
KW
2288 }
2289
2290 /* Note that non-characters are perfectly legal, so no warning should
2291 * be given */
2292 }
2293
1feea2c7 2294 uvuni_to_utf8(tmpbuf, uv1);
0134edef
JH
2295
2296 if (!*swashp) /* load on-demand */
5ab9d2ef 2297 *swashp = _core_swash_init("utf8", normal, &PL_sv_undef, 4, 0, NULL, NULL);
0134edef 2298
a6f87d8c 2299 if (special) {
0134edef 2300 /* It might be "special" (sometimes, but not always,
2a37f04d 2301 * a multicharacter mapping) */
6673a63c 2302 HV * const hv = get_hv(special, 0);
b08cf34e
JH
2303 SV **svp;
2304
35da51f7 2305 if (hv &&
b08cf34e
JH
2306 (svp = hv_fetch(hv, (const char*)tmpbuf, UNISKIP(uv1), FALSE)) &&
2307 (*svp)) {
cfd0369c 2308 const char *s;
47654450 2309
cfd0369c 2310 s = SvPV_const(*svp, len);
47654450
JH
2311 if (len == 1)
2312 len = uvuni_to_utf8(ustrp, NATIVE_TO_UNI(*(U8*)s)) - ustrp;
2a37f04d 2313 else {
2f9475ad
JH
2314#ifdef EBCDIC
2315 /* If we have EBCDIC we need to remap the characters
2316 * since any characters in the low 256 are Unicode
2317 * code points, not EBCDIC. */
7cda7a3d 2318 U8 *t = (U8*)s, *tend = t + len, *d;
2f9475ad
JH
2319
2320 d = tmpbuf;
b08cf34e 2321 if (SvUTF8(*svp)) {
2f9475ad
JH
2322 STRLEN tlen = 0;
2323
2324 while (t < tend) {
6bd1c396 2325 const UV c = utf8_to_uvchr_buf(t, tend, &tlen);
2f9475ad
JH
2326 if (tlen > 0) {
2327 d = uvchr_to_utf8(d, UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
2328 t += tlen;
2329 }
2330 else
2331 break;
2332 }
2333 }
2334 else {
36fec512
JH
2335 while (t < tend) {
2336 d = uvchr_to_utf8(d, UNI_TO_NATIVE(*t));
2337 t++;
2338 }
2f9475ad
JH
2339 }
2340 len = d - tmpbuf;
2341 Copy(tmpbuf, ustrp, len, U8);
2342#else
d2dcd0fb 2343 Copy(s, ustrp, len, U8);
2f9475ad 2344#endif
29e98929 2345 }
983ffd37 2346 }
0134edef
JH
2347 }
2348
2349 if (!len && *swashp) {
2114036c 2350 const UV uv2 = swash_fetch(*swashp, tmpbuf, TRUE /* => is utf8 */);
d4c19fe8 2351
0134edef
JH
2352 if (uv2) {
2353 /* It was "normal" (a single character mapping). */
d4c19fe8 2354 const UV uv3 = UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv2);
e9101d72 2355 len = uvchr_to_utf8(ustrp, uv3) - ustrp;
2a37f04d
JH
2356 }
2357 }
1feea2c7 2358
cbe07460
KW
2359 if (len) {
2360 if (lenp) {
2361 *lenp = len;
2362 }
2363 return valid_utf8_to_uvchr(ustrp, 0);
2364 }
2365
2366 /* Here, there was no mapping defined, which means that the code point maps
2367 * to itself. Return the inputs */
bfdf22ec 2368 len = UTF8SKIP(p);
ca9fab46
KW
2369 if (p != ustrp) { /* Don't copy onto itself */
2370 Copy(p, ustrp, len, U8);
2371 }
0134edef 2372
2a37f04d
JH
2373 if (lenp)
2374 *lenp = len;
2375
cbe07460
KW
2376 return uv0;
2377
a0ed51b3
LW
2378}
2379
051a06d4
KW
2380STATIC UV
2381S_check_locale_boundary_crossing(pTHX_ const U8* const p, const UV result, U8* const ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)
2382{
2383 /* This is called when changing the case of a utf8-encoded character above
2384 * the Latin1 range, and the operation is in locale. If the result
2385 * contains a character that crosses the 255/256 boundary, disallow the
2386 * change, and return the original code point. See L<perlfunc/lc> for why;
2387 *
a1433954
KW
2388 * p points to the original string whose case was changed; assumed
2389 * by this routine to be well-formed
051a06d4
KW
2390 * result the code point of the first character in the changed-case string
2391 * ustrp points to the changed-case string (<result> represents its first char)
2392 * lenp points to the length of <ustrp> */
2393
2394 UV original; /* To store the first code point of <p> */
2395
2396 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_CHECK_LOCALE_BOUNDARY_CROSSING;
2397
2398 assert(! UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p) && ! UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p));
2399
2400 /* We know immediately if the first character in the string crosses the
2401 * boundary, so can skip */
2402 if (result > 255) {
2403
2404 /* Look at every character in the result; if any cross the
2405 * boundary, the whole thing is disallowed */
2406 U8* s = ustrp + UTF8SKIP(ustrp);
2407 U8* e = ustrp + *lenp;
2408 while (s < e) {
2409 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*s) || UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*s))
2410 {
2411 goto bad_crossing;
2412 }
2413 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
2414 }
2415
2416 /* Here, no characters crossed, result is ok as-is */
2417 return result;
2418 }
2419
2420bad_crossing:
2421
2422 /* Failed, have to return the original */
4b88fb76 2423 original = valid_utf8_to_uvchr(p, lenp);
051a06d4
KW
2424 Copy(p, ustrp, *lenp, char);
2425 return original;
2426}
2427
d3e79532 2428/*
87cea99e 2429=for apidoc to_utf8_upper
d3e79532 2430
a1433954
KW
2431Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at C<p> to its uppercase version and
2432store that in UTF-8 in C<ustrp> and its length in bytes in C<lenp>. Note
89ebb4a3
JH
2433that the ustrp needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since
2434the uppercase version may be longer than the original character.
d3e79532
JH
2435
2436The first character of the uppercased version is returned
2437(but note, as explained above, that there may be more.)
2438
a1433954
KW
2439The character at C<p> is assumed by this routine to be well-formed.
2440
d3e79532
JH
2441=cut */
2442
051a06d4
KW
2443/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change:
2444 * <flags> is set iff locale semantics are to be used for code points < 256
2445 * <tainted_ptr> if non-null, *tainted_ptr will be set TRUE iff locale rules
2446 * were used in the calculation; otherwise unchanged. */
2447
2104c8d9 2448UV
051a06d4 2449Perl__to_utf8_upper_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, const bool flags, bool* tainted_ptr)
a0ed51b3 2450{
97aff369 2451 dVAR;
7918f24d 2452
051a06d4
KW
2453 UV result;
2454
2455 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_UPPER_FLAGS;
7918f24d 2456
3a4c58c9 2457 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p)) {
051a06d4
KW
2458 if (flags) {
2459 result = toUPPER_LC(*p);
2460 }
2461 else {
81c6c7ce 2462 return _to_upper_title_latin1(*p, ustrp, lenp, 'S');
051a06d4 2463 }
3a4c58c9
KW
2464 }
2465 else if UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p) {
051a06d4
KW
2466 if (flags) {
2467 result = toUPPER_LC(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)));
2468 }
2469 else {
81c6c7ce
KW
2470 return _to_upper_title_latin1(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)),
2471 ustrp, lenp, 'S');
051a06d4
KW
2472 }
2473 }
2474 else { /* utf8, ord above 255 */
2475 result = CALL_UPPER_CASE(p, ustrp, lenp);
2476
2477 if (flags) {
2478 result = check_locale_boundary_crossing(p, result, ustrp, lenp);
2479 }
2480 return result;
2481 }
2482
2483 /* Here, used locale rules. Convert back to utf8 */
2484 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(result)) {
2485 *ustrp = (U8) result;
2486 *lenp = 1;
2487 }
2488 else {
2489 *ustrp = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(result);
2490 *(ustrp + 1) = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(result);
2491 *lenp = 2;
3a4c58c9
KW
2492 }
2493
051a06d4
KW
2494 if (tainted_ptr) {
2495 *tainted_ptr = TRUE;
2496 }
2497 return result;
983ffd37 2498}
a0ed51b3 2499
d3e79532 2500/*
87cea99e 2501=for apidoc to_utf8_title
d3e79532 2502
a1433954
KW
2503Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at C<p> to its titlecase version and
2504store that in UTF-8 in C<ustrp> and its length in bytes in C<lenp>. Note
2505that the C<ustrp> needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the
89ebb4a3 2506titlecase version may be longer than the original character.
d3e79532
JH
2507
2508The first character of the titlecased version is returned
2509(but note, as explained above, that there may be more.)
2510
a1433954
KW
2511The character at C<p> is assumed by this routine to be well-formed.
2512
d3e79532
JH
2513=cut */
2514
051a06d4
KW
2515/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change:
2516 * <flags> is set iff locale semantics are to be used for code points < 256
2517 * Since titlecase is not defined in POSIX, uppercase is used instead
2518 * for these/
2519 * <tainted_ptr> if non-null, *tainted_ptr will be set TRUE iff locale rules
2520 * were used in the calculation; otherwise unchanged. */
2521
983ffd37 2522UV
051a06d4 2523Perl__to_utf8_title_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, const bool flags, bool* tainted_ptr)
983ffd37 2524{
97aff369 2525 dVAR;
7918f24d 2526
051a06d4
KW
2527 UV result;
2528
2529 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_TITLE_FLAGS;
7918f24d 2530
3a4c58c9 2531 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p)) {
051a06d4
KW
2532 if (flags) {
2533 result = toUPPER_LC(*p);
2534 }
2535 else {
81c6c7ce 2536 return _to_upper_title_latin1(*p, ustrp, lenp, 's');
051a06d4 2537 }
3a4c58c9
KW
2538 }
2539 else if UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p) {
051a06d4
KW
2540 if (flags) {
2541 result = toUPPER_LC(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)));
2542 }
2543 else {
81c6c7ce
KW
2544 return _to_upper_title_latin1(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)),
2545 ustrp, lenp, 's');
051a06d4
KW
2546 }
2547 }
2548 else { /* utf8, ord above 255 */
2549 result = CALL_TITLE_CASE(p, ustrp, lenp);
2550
2551 if (flags) {
2552 result = check_locale_boundary_crossing(p, result, ustrp, lenp);
2553 }
2554 return result;
2555 }
2556
2557 /* Here, used locale rules. Convert back to utf8 */
2558 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(result)) {
2559 *ustrp = (U8) result;
2560 *lenp = 1;
2561 }
2562 else {
2563 *ustrp = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(result);
2564 *(ustrp + 1) = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(result);
2565 *lenp = 2;
3a4c58c9
KW
2566 }
2567
051a06d4
KW
2568 if (tainted_ptr) {
2569 *tainted_ptr = TRUE;
2570 }
2571 return result;
a0ed51b3
LW
2572}
2573
d3e79532 2574/*
87cea99e 2575=for apidoc to_utf8_lower
d3e79532 2576
a1433954
KW
2577Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at C<p> to its lowercase version and
2578store that in UTF-8 in ustrp and its length in bytes in C<lenp>. Note
2579that the C<ustrp> needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the
89ebb4a3 2580lowercase version may be longer than the original character.
d3e79532
JH
2581
2582The first character of the lowercased version is returned
2583(but note, as explained above, that there may be more.)
2584
a1433954
KW
2585The character at C<p> is assumed by this routine to be well-formed.
2586
d3e79532
JH
2587=cut */
2588
051a06d4
KW
2589/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change:
2590 * <flags> is set iff locale semantics are to be used for code points < 256
2591 * <tainted_ptr> if non-null, *tainted_ptr will be set TRUE iff locale rules
2592 * were used in the calculation; otherwise unchanged. */
2593
2104c8d9 2594UV
051a06d4 2595Perl__to_utf8_lower_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, const bool flags, bool* tainted_ptr)
a0ed51b3 2596{
051a06d4
KW
2597 UV result;
2598
97aff369 2599 dVAR;
7918f24d 2600
051a06d4 2601 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_LOWER_FLAGS;
7918f24d 2602
968c5e6a 2603 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p)) {
051a06d4
KW
2604 if (flags) {
2605 result = toLOWER_LC(*p);
2606 }
2607 else {
81c6c7ce 2608 return to_lower_latin1(*p, ustrp, lenp);
051a06d4 2609 }
968c5e6a
KW
2610 }
2611 else if UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p) {
051a06d4
KW
2612 if (flags) {
2613 result = toLOWER_LC(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)));
2614 }
2615 else {
81c6c7ce
KW
2616 return to_lower_latin1(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)),
2617 ustrp, lenp);
051a06d4 2618 }
968c5e6a 2619 }
051a06d4
KW
2620 else { /* utf8, ord above 255 */
2621 result = CALL_LOWER_CASE(p, ustrp, lenp);
2622
2623 if (flags) {
2624 result = check_locale_boundary_crossing(p, result, ustrp, lenp);
2625 }
968c5e6a 2626
051a06d4
KW
2627 return result;
2628 }
2629
2630 /* Here, used locale rules. Convert back to utf8 */
2631 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(result)) {
2632 *ustrp = (U8) result;
2633 *lenp = 1;
2634 }
2635 else {
2636 *ustrp = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(result);
2637 *(ustrp + 1) = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(result);
2638 *lenp = 2;
2639 }
2640
2641 if (tainted_ptr) {
2642 *tainted_ptr = TRUE;
2643 }
2644 return result;
b4e400f9
JH
2645}
2646
d3e79532 2647/*
87cea99e 2648=for apidoc to_utf8_fold
d3e79532 2649
a1433954
KW
2650Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at C<p> to its foldcase version and
2651store that in UTF-8 in C<ustrp> and its length in bytes in C<lenp>. Note
2652that the C<ustrp> needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the
d3e79532
JH
2653foldcase version may be longer than the original character (up to
2654three characters).
2655
2656The first character of the foldcased version is returned
2657(but note, as explained above, that there may be more.)
2658
a1433954
KW
2659The character at C<p> is assumed by this routine to be well-formed.
2660
d3e79532
JH
2661=cut */
2662
051a06d4
KW
2663/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change,
2664 * in <flags>
2665 * bit FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE is set iff locale semantics are to be used for code
2666 * points < 256. Since foldcase is not defined in
2667 * POSIX, lowercase is used instead
2668 * bit FOLD_FLAGS_FULL is set iff full case folds are to be used;
2669 * otherwise simple folds
a0270393
KW
2670 * bit FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII is set iff folds of non-ASCII to ASCII are
2671 * prohibited
051a06d4
KW
2672 * <tainted_ptr> if non-null, *tainted_ptr will be set TRUE iff locale rules
2673 * were used in the calculation; otherwise unchanged. */
36bb2ab6 2674
b4e400f9 2675UV
051a06d4 2676Perl__to_utf8_fold_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, U8 flags, bool* tainted_ptr)
b4e400f9 2677{
97aff369 2678 dVAR;
7918f24d 2679
051a06d4
KW
2680 UV result;
2681
36bb2ab6 2682 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_FOLD_FLAGS;
7918f24d 2683
a0270393
KW
2684 /* These are mutually exclusive */
2685 assert (! ((flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE) && (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII)));
2686
50ba90ff
KW
2687 assert(p != ustrp); /* Otherwise overwrites */
2688
a1dde8de 2689 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p)) {
051a06d4
KW
2690 if (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE) {
2691 result = toLOWER_LC(*p);
2692 }
2693 else {
81c6c7ce
KW
2694 return _to_fold_latin1(*p, ustrp, lenp,
2695 cBOOL(flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL));
051a06d4 2696 }
a1dde8de
KW
2697 }
2698 else if UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p) {
051a06d4
KW
2699 if (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE) {
2700 result = toLOWER_LC(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)));
2701 }
2702 else {
81c6c7ce 2703 return _to_fold_latin1(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)),
a0270393
KW
2704 ustrp, lenp,
2705 cBOOL((flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL
2706 /* If ASCII safe, don't allow full
2707 * folding, as that could include SHARP
2708 * S => ss; otherwise there is no
2709 * crossing of ascii/non-ascii in the
2710 * latin1 range */
2711 && ! (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII))));
051a06d4 2712 }
a1dde8de 2713 }
051a06d4 2714 else { /* utf8, ord above 255 */
a0270393 2715 result = CALL_FOLD_CASE(p, ustrp, lenp, flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL);
a1dde8de 2716
051a06d4 2717 if ((flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE)) {
a0270393 2718 return check_locale_boundary_crossing(p, result, ustrp, lenp);
051a06d4 2719 }
a0270393
KW
2720 else if (! (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII)) {
2721 return result;
2722 }
2723 else {
2724 /* This is called when changing the case of a utf8-encoded
2725 * character above the Latin1 range, and the result should not
2726 * contain an ASCII character. */
2727
2728 UV original; /* To store the first code point of <p> */
2729
2730 /* Look at every character in the result; if any cross the
2731 * boundary, the whole thing is disallowed */
2732 U8* s = ustrp;
2733 U8* e = ustrp + *lenp;
2734 while (s < e) {
2735 if (isASCII(*s)) {
2736 /* Crossed, have to return the original */
2737 original = valid_utf8_to_uvchr(p, lenp);
2738 Copy(p, ustrp, *lenp, char);
2739 return original;
2740 }
2741 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
2742 }
051a06d4 2743
a0270393
KW
2744 /* Here, no characters crossed, result is ok as-is */
2745 return result;
2746 }
051a06d4
KW
2747 }
2748
2749 /* Here, used locale rules. Convert back to utf8 */
2750 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(result)) {
2751 *ustrp = (U8) result;
2752 *lenp = 1;
2753 }
2754 else {
2755 *ustrp = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(result);
2756 *(ustrp + 1) = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(result);
2757 *lenp = 2;
2758 }
2759
2760 if (tainted_ptr) {
2761 *tainted_ptr = TRUE;
2762 }
2763 return result;
a0ed51b3
LW
2764}
2765
711a919c 2766/* Note:
f90a9a02 2767 * Returns a "swash" which is a hash described in utf8.c:Perl_swash_fetch().
711a919c
ST
2768 * C<pkg> is a pointer to a package name for SWASHNEW, should be "utf8".
2769 * For other parameters, see utf8::SWASHNEW in lib/utf8_heavy.pl.
2770 */
c4a5db0c 2771
a0ed51b3 2772SV*
7fc63493 2773Perl_swash_init(pTHX_ const char* pkg, const char* name, SV *listsv, I32 minbits, I32 none)
a0ed51b3 2774{
c4a5db0c
KW
2775 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SWASH_INIT;
2776
2777 /* Returns a copy of a swash initiated by the called function. This is the
2778 * public interface, and returning a copy prevents others from doing
2779 * mischief on the original */
2780
5d3d13d1 2781 return newSVsv(_core_swash_init(pkg, name, listsv, minbits, none, NULL, NULL));
c4a5db0c
KW
2782}
2783
2784SV*
5d3d13d1 2785Perl__core_swash_init(pTHX_ const char* pkg, const char* name, SV *listsv, I32 minbits, I32 none, SV* invlist, U8* const flags_p)
c4a5db0c
KW
2786{
2787 /* Initialize and return a swash, creating it if necessary. It does this
87367d5f
KW
2788 * by calling utf8_heavy.pl in the general case. The returned value may be
2789 * the swash's inversion list instead if the input parameters allow it.
2790 * Which is returned should be immaterial to callers, as the only
2791 * operations permitted on a swash, swash_fetch() and
2792 * _get_swash_invlist(), handle both these transparently.
c4a5db0c
KW
2793 *
2794 * This interface should only be used by functions that won't destroy or
2795 * adversely change the swash, as doing so affects all other uses of the
2796 * swash in the program; the general public should use 'Perl_swash_init'
2797 * instead.
2798 *
2799 * pkg is the name of the package that <name> should be in.
2800 * name is the name of the swash to find. Typically it is a Unicode
2801 * property name, including user-defined ones
2802 * listsv is a string to initialize the swash with. It must be of the form
2803 * documented as the subroutine return value in
2804 * L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties>
2805 * minbits is the number of bits required to represent each data element.
2806 * It is '1' for binary properties.
2807 * none I (khw) do not understand this one, but it is used only in tr///.
9a53f6cf 2808 * invlist is an inversion list to initialize the swash with (or NULL)
83199d38
KW
2809 * flags_p if non-NULL is the address of various input and output flag bits
2810 * to the routine, as follows: ('I' means is input to the routine;
2811 * 'O' means output from the routine. Only flags marked O are
2812 * meaningful on return.)
2813 * _CORE_SWASH_INIT_USER_DEFINED_PROPERTY indicates if the swash
2814 * came from a user-defined property. (I O)
5d3d13d1
KW
2815 * _CORE_SWASH_INIT_RETURN_IF_UNDEF indicates that instead of croaking
2816 * when the swash cannot be located, to simply return NULL. (I)
87367d5f
KW
2817 * _CORE_SWASH_INIT_ACCEPT_INVLIST indicates that the caller will accept a
2818 * return of an inversion list instead of a swash hash if this routine
2819 * thinks that would result in faster execution of swash_fetch() later
2820 * on. (I)
9a53f6cf
KW
2821 *
2822 * Thus there are three possible inputs to find the swash: <name>,
2823 * <listsv>, and <invlist>. At least one must be specified. The result
2824 * will be the union of the specified ones, although <listsv>'s various
2825 * actions can intersect, etc. what <name> gives.
2826 *
2827 * <invlist> is only valid for binary properties */
c4a5db0c 2828
27da23d5 2829 dVAR;
c4a5db0c 2830 SV* retval = &PL_sv_undef;
83199d38 2831 HV* swash_hv = NULL;
87367d5f
KW
2832 const int invlist_swash_boundary =
2833 (flags_p && *flags_p & _CORE_SWASH_INIT_ACCEPT_INVLIST)
2834 ? 512 /* Based on some benchmarking, but not extensive, see commit
2835 message */
2836 : -1; /* Never return just an inversion list */
9a53f6cf
KW
2837
2838 assert(listsv != &PL_sv_undef || strNE(name, "") || invlist);
2839 assert(! invlist || minbits == 1);
2840
2841 /* If data was passed in to go out to utf8_heavy to find the swash of, do
2842 * so */
2843 if (listsv != &PL_sv_undef || strNE(name, "")) {
69794297
KW
2844 dSP;
2845 const size_t pkg_len = strlen(pkg);
2846 const size_t name_len = strlen(name);
2847 HV * const stash = gv_stashpvn(pkg, pkg_len, 0);
2848 SV* errsv_save;
2849 GV *method;
2850
2851 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__CORE_SWASH_INIT;
2852
2853 PUSHSTACKi(PERLSI_MAGIC);
ce3b816e 2854 ENTER;
69794297
KW
2855 SAVEHINTS();
2856 save_re_context();
650f067c
JL
2857 /* We might get here via a subroutine signature which uses a utf8
2858 * parameter name, at which point PL_subname will have been set
2859 * but not yet used. */
2860 save_item(PL_subname);
69794297
KW
2861 if (PL_parser && PL_parser->error_count)
2862 SAVEI8(PL_parser->error_count), PL_parser->error_count = 0;
2863 method = gv_fetchmeth(stash, "SWASHNEW", 8, -1);
2864 if (!method) { /* demand load utf8 */
2865 ENTER;
2866 errsv_save = newSVsv(ERRSV);
36048493 2867 SAVEFREESV(errsv_save);
69794297
KW
2868 /* It is assumed that callers of this routine are not passing in
2869 * any user derived data. */
2870 /* Need to do this after save_re_context() as it will set
2871 * PL_tainted to 1 while saving $1 etc (see the code after getrx:
2872 * in Perl_magic_get). Even line to create errsv_save can turn on
2873 * PL_tainted. */
284167a5
SM
2874#ifndef NO_TAINT_SUPPORT
2875 SAVEBOOL(TAINT_get);
2876 TAINT_NOT;
2877#endif
69794297
KW
2878 Perl_load_module(aTHX_ PERL_LOADMOD_NOIMPORT, newSVpvn(pkg,pkg_len),
2879 NULL);
2880 if (!SvTRUE(ERRSV))
2881 sv_setsv(ERRSV, errsv_save);
69794297
KW
2882 LEAVE;
2883 }
2884 SPAGAIN;
2885 PUSHMARK(SP);
2886 EXTEND(SP,5);
2887 mPUSHp(pkg, pkg_len);
2888 mPUSHp(name, name_len);
2889 PUSHs(listsv);
2890 mPUSHi(minbits);
2891 mPUSHi(none);
2892 PUTBACK;
f8be5cf0 2893 errsv_save = newSVsv(ERRSV);
36048493 2894 SAVEFREESV(errsv_save);
69794297
KW
2895 /* If we already have a pointer to the method, no need to use
2896 * call_method() to repeat the lookup. */
2897 if (method ? call_sv(MUTABLE_SV(method), G_SCALAR)
2898 : call_sv(newSVpvs_flags("SWASHNEW", SVs_TEMP), G_SCALAR | G_METHOD))
2899 {
2900 retval = *PL_stack_sp--;
2901 SvREFCNT_inc(retval);
2902 }
f8be5cf0
JH
2903 if (!SvTRUE(ERRSV))
2904 sv_setsv(ERRSV, errsv_save);
ce3b816e 2905 LEAVE;
69794297
KW
2906 POPSTACK;
2907 if (IN_PERL_COMPILETIME) {
2908 CopHINTS_set(PL_curcop, PL_hints);
2909 }
2910 if (!SvROK(retval) || SvTYPE(SvRV(retval)) != SVt_PVHV) {
2911 if (SvPOK(retval))
2912
2913 /* If caller wants to handle missing properties, let them */
5d3d13d1 2914 if (flags_p && *flags_p & _CORE_SWASH_INIT_RETURN_IF_UNDEF) {
69794297
KW
2915 return NULL;
2916 }
2917 Perl_croak(aTHX_
2918 "Can't find Unicode property definition \"%"SVf"\"",
2919 SVfARG(retval));
2920 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "SWASHNEW didn't return an HV ref");
2921 }
9a53f6cf 2922 } /* End of calling the module to find the swash */
36eb48b4 2923
83199d38
KW
2924 /* If this operation fetched a swash, and we will need it later, get it */
2925 if (retval != &PL_sv_undef
2926 && (minbits == 1 || (flags_p
2927 && ! (*flags_p
2928 & _CORE_SWASH_INIT_USER_DEFINED_PROPERTY))))
2929 {
2930 swash_hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(retval));
2931
2932 /* If we don't already know that there is a user-defined component to
2933 * this swash, and the user has indicated they wish to know if there is
2934 * one (by passing <flags_p>), find out */
2935 if (flags_p && ! (*flags_p & _CORE_SWASH_INIT_USER_DEFINED_PROPERTY)) {
2936 SV** user_defined = hv_fetchs(swash_hv, "USER_DEFINED", FALSE);
2937 if (user_defined && SvUV(*user_defined)) {
2938 *flags_p |= _CORE_SWASH_INIT_USER_DEFINED_PROPERTY;
2939 }
2940 }
2941 }
2942
36eb48b4
KW
2943 /* Make sure there is an inversion list for binary properties */
2944 if (minbits == 1) {
2945 SV** swash_invlistsvp = NULL;
2946 SV* swash_invlist = NULL;
9a53f6cf 2947 bool invlist_in_swash_is_valid = FALSE;
36eb48b4 2948
9a53f6cf 2949 /* If this operation fetched a swash, get its already existing
83199d38 2950 * inversion list, or create one for it */
36eb48b4 2951
83199d38 2952 if (swash_hv) {
5c9f4bd2 2953 swash_invlistsvp = hv_fetchs(swash_hv, "V", FALSE);
9a53f6cf
KW
2954 if (swash_invlistsvp) {
2955 swash_invlist = *swash_invlistsvp;
2956 invlist_in_swash_is_valid = TRUE;
2957 }
2958 else {
36eb48b4 2959 swash_invlist = _swash_to_invlist(retval);
9a53f6cf
KW
2960 }
2961 }
2962
2963 /* If an inversion list was passed in, have to include it */
2964 if (invlist) {
2965
2966 /* Any fetched swash will by now have an inversion list in it;
2967 * otherwise <swash_invlist> will be NULL, indicating that we
2968 * didn't fetch a swash */
2969 if (swash_invlist) {
2970
2971 /* Add the passed-in inversion list, which invalidates the one
2972 * already stored in the swash */
2973 invlist_in_swash_is_valid = FALSE;
2974 _invlist_union(invlist, swash_invlist, &swash_invlist);
2975 }
2976 else {
2977
87367d5f
KW
2978 /* Here, there is no swash already. Set up a minimal one, if
2979 * we are going to return a swash */
2980 if ((int) _invlist_len(invlist) > invlist_swash_boundary) {
971d486f
KW
2981 swash_hv = newHV();
2982 retval = newRV_inc(MUTABLE_SV(swash_hv));
87367d5f 2983 }
9a53f6cf
KW
2984 swash_invlist = invlist;
2985 }
9a53f6cf
KW
2986 }
2987
2988 /* Here, we have computed the union of all the passed-in data. It may
2989 * be that there was an inversion list in the swash which didn't get
2990 * touched; otherwise save the one computed one */
87367d5f
KW
2991 if (! invlist_in_swash_is_valid
2992 && (int) _invlist_len(swash_invlist) > invlist_swash_boundary)
2993 {
5c9f4bd2 2994 if (! hv_stores(MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(retval)), "V", swash_invlist))
69794297
KW
2995 {
2996 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: hv_store() unexpectedly failed");
2997 }
9a53f6cf 2998 }
87367d5f
KW
2999
3000 if ((int) _invlist_len(swash_invlist) <= invlist_swash_boundary) {
3001 SvREFCNT_dec(retval);
3002 retval = newRV_inc(swash_invlist);
3003 }
36eb48b4
KW
3004 }
3005
a0ed51b3
LW
3006 return retval;
3007}
3008
035d37be
JH
3009
3010/* This API is wrong for special case conversions since we may need to
3011 * return several Unicode characters for a single Unicode character
3012 * (see lib/unicore/SpecCase.txt) The SWASHGET in lib/utf8_heavy.pl is
3013 * the lower-level routine, and it is similarly broken for returning
38684baa
KW
3014 * multiple values. --jhi
3015 * For those, you should use to_utf8_case() instead */
b0e3252e 3016/* Now SWASHGET is recasted into S_swatch_get in this file. */
680c470c
ST
3017
3018/* Note:
3019 * Returns the value of property/mapping C<swash> for the first character
3020 * of the string C<ptr>. If C<do_utf8> is true, the string C<ptr> is
3021 * assumed to be in utf8. If C<do_utf8> is false, the string C<ptr> is
3022 * assumed to be in native 8-bit encoding. Caches the swatch in C<swash>.
af2af982
KW
3023 *
3024 * A "swash" is a hash which contains initially the keys/values set up by
3025 * SWASHNEW. The purpose is to be able to completely represent a Unicode
3026 * property for all possible code points. Things are stored in a compact form
3027 * (see utf8_heavy.pl) so that calculation is required to find the actual
3028 * property value for a given code point. As code points are looked up, new
3029 * key/value pairs are added to the hash, so that the calculation doesn't have
3030 * to ever be re-done. Further, each calculation is done, not just for the
3031 * desired one, but for a whole block of code points adjacent to that one.
3032 * For binary properties on ASCII machines, the block is usually for 64 code
3033 * points, starting with a code point evenly divisible by 64. Thus if the
3034 * property value for code point 257 is requested, the code goes out and
3035 * calculates the property values for all 64 code points between 256 and 319,
3036 * and stores these as a single 64-bit long bit vector, called a "swatch",
3037 * under the key for code point 256. The key is the UTF-8 encoding for code
3038 * point 256, minus the final byte. Thus, if the length of the UTF-8 encoding
3039 * for a code point is 13 bytes, the key will be 12 bytes long. If the value
3040 * for code point 258 is then requested, this code realizes that it would be
3041 * stored under the key for 256, and would find that value and extract the
3042 * relevant bit, offset from 256.
3043 *
3044 * Non-binary properties are stored in as many bits as necessary to represent
3045 * their values (32 currently, though the code is more general than that), not
3046 * as single bits, but the principal is the same: the value for each key is a
3047 * vector that encompasses the property values for all code points whose UTF-8
3048 * representations are represented by the key. That is, for all code points
3049 * whose UTF-8 representations are length N bytes, and the key is the first N-1
3050 * bytes of that.
680c470c 3051 */
a0ed51b3 3052UV
680c470c 3053Perl_swash_fetch(pTHX_ SV *swash, const U8 *ptr, bool do_utf8)
a0ed51b3 3054{
27da23d5 3055 dVAR;
ef8f7699 3056 HV *const hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(swash));
3568d838
JH
3057 U32 klen;
3058 U32 off;
a0ed51b3 3059 STRLEN slen;
7d85a32c 3060 STRLEN needents;
cfd0369c 3061 const U8 *tmps = NULL;
a0ed51b3 3062 U32 bit;
979f2922 3063 SV *swatch;
3568d838 3064 U8 tmputf8[2];
35da51f7 3065 const UV c = NATIVE_TO_ASCII(*ptr);
3568d838 3066
7918f24d
NC
3067 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SWASH_FETCH;
3068
87367d5f
KW
3069 /* If it really isn't a hash, it isn't really swash; must be an inversion
3070 * list */
3071 if (SvTYPE(hv) != SVt_PVHV) {
3072 return _invlist_contains_cp((SV*)hv,
3073 (do_utf8)
3074 ? valid_utf8_to_uvchr(ptr, NULL)
3075 : c);
3076 }
3077
dbe7a391 3078 /* Convert to utf8 if not already */
3568d838 3079 if (!do_utf8 && !UNI_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
979f2922
ST
3080 tmputf8[0] = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(c);
3081 tmputf8[1] = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(c);
3082 ptr = tmputf8;
3568d838
JH
3083 }
3084 /* Given a UTF-X encoded char 0xAA..0xYY,0xZZ
37e2e78e 3085 * then the "swatch" is a vec() for all the chars which start
3568d838
JH
3086 * with 0xAA..0xYY
3087 * So the key in the hash (klen) is length of encoded char -1
3088 */
3089 klen = UTF8SKIP(ptr) - 1;
3090 off = ptr[klen];
a0ed51b3 3091
979f2922 3092 if (klen == 0) {
37e2e78e 3093 /* If char is invariant then swatch is for all the invariant chars
1e54db1a 3094 * In both UTF-8 and UTF-8-MOD that happens to be UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK
7d85a32c 3095 */
979f2922
ST
3096 needents = UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK;
3097 off = NATIVE_TO_UTF(ptr[klen]);
3098 }
3099 else {
7d85a32c 3100 /* If char is encoded then swatch is for the prefix */
979f2922
ST
3101 needents = (1 << UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT);
3102 off = NATIVE_TO_UTF(ptr[klen]) & UTF_CONTINUATION_MASK;
3103 }
7d85a32c 3104
a0ed51b3
LW
3105 /*
3106 * This single-entry cache saves about 1/3 of the utf8 overhead in test
3107 * suite. (That is, only 7-8% overall over just a hash cache. Still,
3108 * it's nothing to sniff at.) Pity we usually come through at least
3109 * two function calls to get here...
3110 *
3111 * NB: this code assumes that swatches are never modified, once generated!
3112 */
3113
3568d838 3114 if (hv == PL_last_swash_hv &&
a0ed51b3 3115 klen == PL_last_swash_klen &&
27da23d5 3116 (!klen || memEQ((char *)ptr, (char *)PL_last_swash_key, klen)) )
a0ed51b3
LW
3117 {
3118 tmps = PL_last_swash_tmps;
3119 slen = PL_last_swash_slen;
3120 }
3121 else {
3122 /* Try our second-level swatch cache, kept in a hash. */
e1ec3a88 3123 SV** svp = hv_fetch(hv, (const char*)ptr, klen, FALSE);
a0ed51b3 3124
b0e3252e 3125 /* If not cached, generate it via swatch_get */
979f2922
ST
3126 if (!svp || !SvPOK(*svp)
3127 || !(tmps = (const U8*)SvPV_const(*svp, slen))) {
2b9d42f0
NIS
3128 /* We use utf8n_to_uvuni() as we want an index into
3129 Unicode tables, not a native character number.
3130 */
aec46f14 3131 const UV code_point = utf8n_to_uvuni(ptr, UTF8_MAXBYTES, 0,
872c91ae
JH
3132 ckWARN(WARN_UTF8) ?
3133 0 : UTF8_ALLOW_ANY);
b0e3252e 3134 swatch = swatch_get(swash,
979f2922 3135 /* On EBCDIC & ~(0xA0-1) isn't a useful thing to do */
361ee0fe 3136 (klen) ? (code_point & ~((UV)needents - 1)) : 0,
979f2922
ST
3137 needents);
3138
923e4eb5 3139 if (IN_PERL_COMPILETIME)
623e6609 3140 CopHINTS_set(PL_curcop, PL_hints);
a0ed51b3 3141
979f2922 3142 svp = hv_store(hv, (const char *)ptr, klen, swatch, 0);
a0ed51b3 3143
979f2922
ST
3144 if (!svp || !(tmps = (U8*)SvPV(*svp, slen))
3145 || (slen << 3) < needents)
5637ef5b
NC
3146 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swash_fetch got improper swatch, "
3147 "svp=%p, tmps=%p, slen=%"UVuf", needents=%"UVuf,
3148 svp, tmps, (UV)slen, (UV)needents);
a0ed51b3
LW
3149 }
3150
3151 PL_last_swash_hv = hv;
16d8f38a 3152 assert(klen <= sizeof(PL_last_swash_key));
eac04b2e 3153 PL_last_swash_klen = (U8)klen;
cfd0369c
NC
3154 /* FIXME change interpvar.h? */
3155 PL_last_swash_tmps = (U8 *) tmps;
a0ed51b3
LW
3156 PL_last_swash_slen = slen;
3157 if (klen)
3158 Copy(ptr, PL_last_swash_key, klen, U8);
3159 }
3160
9faf8d75 3161 switch ((int)((slen << 3) / needents)) {
a0ed51b3
LW
3162 case 1:
3163 bit = 1 << (off & 7);
3164 off >>= 3;
3165 return (tmps[off] & bit) != 0;
3166 case 8:
3167 return tmps[off];
3168 case 16:
3169 off <<= 1;
3170 return (tmps[off] << 8) + tmps[off + 1] ;
3171 case 32:
3172 off <<= 2;
3173 return (tmps[off] << 24) + (tmps[off+1] << 16) + (tmps[off+2] << 8) + tmps[off + 3] ;
3174 }
5637ef5b
NC
3175 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swash_fetch got swatch of unexpected bit width, "
3176 "slen=%"UVuf", needents=%"UVuf, (UV)slen, (UV)needents);
670f1322 3177 NORETURN_FUNCTION_END;
a0ed51b3 3178}
2b9d42f0 3179
319009ee
KW
3180/* Read a single line of the main body of the swash input text. These are of
3181 * the form:
3182 * 0053 0056 0073
3183 * where each number is hex. The first two numbers form the minimum and
3184 * maximum of a range, and the third is the value associated with the range.
3185 * Not all swashes should have a third number
3186 *
3187 * On input: l points to the beginning of the line to be examined; it points
3188 * to somewhere in the string of the whole input text, and is
3189 * terminated by a \n or the null string terminator.
3190 * lend points to the null terminator of that string
3191 * wants_value is non-zero if the swash expects a third number
3192 * typestr is the name of the swash's mapping, like 'ToLower'
3193 * On output: *min, *max, and *val are set to the values read from the line.
3194 * returns a pointer just beyond the line examined. If there was no
3195 * valid min number on the line, returns lend+1
3196 */
3197
3198STATIC U8*
3199S_swash_scan_list_line(pTHX_ U8* l, U8* const lend, UV* min, UV* max, UV* val,
3200 const bool wants_value, const U8* const typestr)
3201{
3202 const int typeto = typestr[0] == 'T' && typestr[1] == 'o';
3203 STRLEN numlen; /* Length of the number */
02470786
KW
3204 I32 flags = PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT
3205 | PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX
3206 | PERL_SCAN_SILENT_NON_PORTABLE;
319009ee
KW
3207
3208 /* nl points to the next \n in the scan */
3209 U8* const nl = (U8*)memchr(l, '\n', lend - l);
3210
3211 /* Get the first number on the line: the range minimum */
3212 numlen = lend - l;
3213 *min = grok_hex((char *)l, &numlen, &flags, NULL);
3214 if (numlen) /* If found a hex number, position past it */
3215 l += numlen;
3216 else if (nl) { /* Else, go handle next line, if any */
3217 return nl + 1; /* 1 is length of "\n" */
3218 }
3219 else { /* Else, no next line */
3220 return lend + 1; /* to LIST's end at which \n is not found */
3221 }
3222
3223 /* The max range value follows, separated by a BLANK */
3224 if (isBLANK(*l)) {
3225 ++l;
02470786
KW
3226 flags = PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT
3227 | PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX
3228 | PERL_SCAN_SILENT_NON_PORTABLE;
319009ee
KW
3229 numlen = lend - l;
3230 *max = grok_hex((char *)l, &numlen, &flags, NULL);
3231 if (numlen)
3232 l += numlen;
3233 else /* If no value here, it is a single element range */
3234 *max = *min;
3235
3236 /* Non-binary tables have a third entry: what the first element of the
3237 * range maps to */
3238 if (wants_value) {
3239 if (isBLANK(*l)) {
3240 ++l;
f90a9a02
KW
3241
3242 /* The ToLc, etc table mappings are not in hex, and must be
3243 * corrected by adding the code point to them */
3244 if (typeto) {
3245 char *after_strtol = (char *) lend;
3246 *val = Strtol((char *)l, &after_strtol, 10);
3247 l = (U8 *) after_strtol;
f90a9a02
KW
3248 }
3249 else { /* Other tables are in hex, and are the correct result
3250 without tweaking */
a9d188b3
KW
3251 flags = PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT
3252 | PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX
3253 | PERL_SCAN_SILENT_NON_PORTABLE;
3254 numlen = lend - l;
3255 *val = grok_hex((char *)l, &numlen, &flags, NULL);
3256 if (numlen)
3257 l += numlen;
3258 else
3259 *val = 0;
f90a9a02 3260 }
319009ee
KW
3261 }
3262 else {
3263 *val = 0;
3264 if (typeto) {
dcbac5bb 3265 /* diag_listed_as: To%s: illegal mapping '%s' */
319009ee
KW
3266 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "%s: illegal mapping '%s'",
3267 typestr, l);
3268 }
3269 }
3270 }
3271 else
3272 *val = 0; /* bits == 1, then any val should be ignored */
3273 }
3274 else { /* Nothing following range min, should be single element with no
3275 mapping expected */
3276 *max = *min;
3277 if (wants_value) {
3278 *val = 0;
3279 if (typeto) {
dcbac5bb 3280 /* diag_listed_as: To%s: illegal mapping '%s' */
319009ee
KW
3281 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "%s: illegal mapping '%s'", typestr, l);
3282 }
3283 }
3284 else
3285 *val = 0; /* bits == 1, then val should be ignored */
3286 }
3287
3288 /* Position to next line if any, or EOF */
3289 if (nl)
3290 l = nl + 1;
3291 else
3292 l = lend;
3293
3294 return l;
3295}
3296
979f2922
ST
3297/* Note:
3298 * Returns a swatch (a bit vector string) for a code point sequence
3299 * that starts from the value C<start> and comprises the number C<span>.
3300 * A C<swash> must be an object created by SWASHNEW (see lib/utf8_heavy.pl).
3301 * Should be used via swash_fetch, which will cache the swatch in C<swash>.
3302 */
3303STATIC SV*
b0e3252e 3304S_swatch_get(pTHX_ SV* swash, UV start, UV span)
979f2922
ST
3305{
3306 SV *swatch;
77f9f126 3307 U8 *l, *lend, *x, *xend, *s, *send;
979f2922 3308 STRLEN lcur, xcur, scur;
ef8f7699 3309 HV *const hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(swash));
5c9f4bd2 3310 SV** const invlistsvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "V", FALSE);
36eb48b4 3311
88d45d28
KW
3312 SV** listsvp = NULL; /* The string containing the main body of the table */
3313 SV** extssvp = NULL;
3314 SV** invert_it_svp = NULL;
3315 U8* typestr = NULL;
786861f5
KW
3316 STRLEN bits;
3317 STRLEN octets; /* if bits == 1, then octets == 0 */
3318 UV none;
3319 UV end = start + span;
972dd592 3320
36eb48b4 3321 if (invlistsvp == NULL) {
786861f5
KW
3322 SV** const bitssvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "BITS", FALSE);
3323 SV** const nonesvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "NONE", FALSE);
3324 SV** const typesvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "TYPE", FALSE);
3325 extssvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "EXTRAS", FALSE);
3326 listsvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "LIST", FALSE);
3327 invert_it_svp = hv_fetchs(hv, "INVERT_IT", FALSE);
3328
3329 bits = SvUV(*bitssvp);
3330 none = SvUV(*nonesvp);
3331 typestr = (U8*)SvPV_nolen(*typesvp);
3332 }
36eb48b4
KW
3333 else {
3334 bits = 1;
3335 none = 0;
3336 }
786861f5 3337 octets = bits >> 3; /* if bits == 1, then octets == 0 */
979f2922 3338
b0e3252e 3339 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SWATCH_GET;
7918f24d 3340
979f2922 3341 if (bits != 1 && bits != 8 && bits != 16 && bits != 32) {
b0e3252e 3342 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swatch_get doesn't expect bits %"UVuf,
660a4616 3343 (UV)bits);
979f2922
ST
3344 }
3345
84ea5ef6
KW
3346 /* If overflowed, use the max possible */
3347 if (end < start) {
3348 end = UV_MAX;
3349 span = end - start;
3350 }
3351
979f2922 3352 /* create and initialize $swatch */
979f2922 3353 scur = octets ? (span * octets) : (span + 7) / 8;
e524fe40
NC
3354 swatch = newSV(scur);
3355 SvPOK_on(swatch);
979f2922
ST
3356 s = (U8*)SvPVX(swatch);
3357 if (octets && none) {
0bd48802 3358 const U8* const e = s + scur;
979f2922
ST
3359 while (s < e) {
3360 if (bits == 8)
3361 *s++ = (U8)(none & 0xff);
3362 else if (bits == 16) {
3363 *s++ = (U8)((none >> 8) & 0xff);
3364 *s++ = (U8)( none & 0xff);
3365 }
3366 else if (bits == 32) {
3367 *s++ = (U8)((none >> 24) & 0xff);
3368 *s++ = (U8)((none >> 16) & 0xff);
3369 *s++ = (U8)((none >> 8) & 0xff);
3370 *s++ = (U8)( none & 0xff);
3371 }
3372 }
3373 *s = '\0';
3374 }
3375 else {
3376 (void)memzero((U8*)s, scur + 1);
3377 }
3378 SvCUR_set(swatch, scur);
3379 s = (U8*)SvPVX(swatch);
3380
36eb48b4
KW
3381 if (invlistsvp) { /* If has an inversion list set up use that */
3382 _invlist_populate_swatch(*invlistsvp, start, end, s);
3383 return swatch;
3384 }
3385
3386 /* read $swash->{LIST} */
979f2922
ST
3387 l = (U8*)SvPV(*listsvp, lcur);
3388 lend = l + lcur;
3389 while (l < lend) {
8ed25d53 3390 UV min, max, val, upper;
319009ee
KW
3391 l = S_swash_scan_list_line(aTHX_ l, lend, &min, &max, &val,
3392 cBOOL(octets), typestr);
3393 if (l > lend) {
979f2922
ST
3394 break;
3395 }
3396
972dd592 3397 /* If looking for something beyond this range, go try the next one */
979f2922
ST
3398 if (max < start)
3399 continue;
3400
8ed25d53
KW
3401 /* <end> is generally 1 beyond where we want to set things, but at the
3402 * platform's infinity, where we can't go any higher, we want to
3403 * include the code point at <end> */
3404 upper = (max < end)
3405 ? max
3406 : (max != UV_MAX || end != UV_MAX)
3407 ? end - 1
3408 : end;
3409
979f2922 3410 if (octets) {
35da51f7 3411 UV key;
979f2922
ST
3412 if (min < start) {
3413 if (!none || val < none) {
3414 val += start - min;
3415 }
3416 min = start;
3417 }
8ed25d53 3418 for (key = min; key <= upper; key++) {
979f2922 3419 STRLEN offset;
979f2922
ST
3420 /* offset must be non-negative (start <= min <= key < end) */
3421 offset = octets * (key - start);
3422 if (bits == 8)
3423 s[offset] = (U8)(val & 0xff);
3424 else if (bits == 16) {
3425 s[offset ] = (U8)((val >> 8) & 0xff);
3426 s[offset + 1] = (U8)( val & 0xff);
3427 }
3428 else if (bits == 32) {
3429 s[offset ] = (U8)((val >> 24) & 0xff);
3430 s[offset + 1] = (U8)((val >> 16) & 0xff);
3431 s[offset + 2] = (U8)((val >> 8) & 0xff);
3432 s[offset + 3] = (U8)( val & 0xff);
3433 }
3434
3435 if (!none || val < none)
3436 ++val;
3437 }
3438 }
711a919c 3439 else { /* bits == 1, then val should be ignored */
35da51f7 3440 UV key;
979f2922
ST
3441 if (min < start)
3442 min = start;
6cb05c12 3443
8ed25d53 3444 for (key = min; key <= upper; key++) {
0bd48802 3445 const STRLEN offset = (STRLEN)(key - start);
979f2922
ST
3446 s[offset >> 3] |= 1 << (offset & 7);
3447 }
3448 }
3449 } /* while */
979f2922 3450
9479a769 3451 /* Invert if the data says it should be. Assumes that bits == 1 */
77f9f126 3452 if (invert_it_svp && SvUV(*invert_it_svp)) {
0bda3001
KW
3453
3454 /* Unicode properties should come with all bits above PERL_UNICODE_MAX
3455 * be 0, and their inversion should also be 0, as we don't succeed any
3456 * Unicode property matches for non-Unicode code points */
3457 if (start <= PERL_UNICODE_MAX) {
3458
3459 /* The code below assumes that we never cross the
3460 * Unicode/above-Unicode boundary in a range, as otherwise we would
3461 * have to figure out where to stop flipping the bits. Since this
3462 * boundary is divisible by a large power of 2, and swatches comes
3463 * in small powers of 2, this should be a valid assumption */
3464 assert(start + span - 1 <= PERL_UNICODE_MAX);
3465
507a8485
KW
3466 send = s + scur;
3467 while (s < send) {
3468 *s = ~(*s);
3469 s++;
3470 }
0bda3001 3471 }
77f9f126
KW
3472 }
3473
d73c39c5
KW
3474 /* read $swash->{EXTRAS}
3475 * This code also copied to swash_to_invlist() below */
979f2922
ST
3476 x = (U8*)SvPV(*extssvp, xcur);
3477 xend = x + xcur;
3478 while (x < xend) {
3479 STRLEN namelen;
3480 U8 *namestr;
3481 SV** othersvp;
3482 HV* otherhv;
3483 STRLEN otherbits;
3484 SV **otherbitssvp, *other;
711a919c 3485 U8 *s, *o, *nl;
979f2922
ST
3486 STRLEN slen, olen;
3487
35da51f7 3488 const U8 opc = *x++;
979f2922
ST
3489 if (opc == '\n')
3490 continue;
3491
3492 nl = (U8*)memchr(x, '\n', xend - x);
3493
3494 if (opc != '-' && opc != '+' && opc != '!' && opc != '&') {
3495 if (nl) {
3496 x = nl + 1; /* 1 is length of "\n" */
3497 continue;
3498 }
3499 else {
3500 x = xend; /* to EXTRAS' end at which \n is not found */
3501 break;
3502 }
3503 }
3504
3505 namestr = x;
3506 if (nl) {
3507 namelen = nl - namestr;
3508 x = nl + 1;
3509 }
3510 else {
3511 namelen = xend - namestr;
3512 x = xend;
3513 }
3514
3515 othersvp = hv_fetch(hv, (char *)namestr, namelen, FALSE);
ef8f7699 3516 otherhv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(*othersvp));
017a3ce5 3517 otherbitssvp = hv_fetchs(otherhv, "BITS", FALSE);
979f2922
ST
3518 otherbits = (STRLEN)SvUV(*otherbitssvp);
3519 if (bits < otherbits)
5637ef5b
NC
3520 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swatch_get found swatch size mismatch, "
3521 "bits=%"UVuf", otherbits=%"UVuf, (UV)bits, (UV)otherbits);
979f2922
ST
3522
3523 /* The "other" swatch must be destroyed after. */
b0e3252e 3524 other = swatch_get(*othersvp, start, span);
979f2922
ST
3525 o = (U8*)SvPV(other, olen);
3526
3527 if (!olen)
b0e3252e 3528 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swatch_get got improper swatch");
979f2922
ST
3529
3530 s = (U8*)SvPV(swatch, slen);
3531 if (bits == 1 && otherbits == 1) {
3532 if (slen != olen)
5637ef5b
NC
3533 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swatch_get found swatch length "
3534 "mismatch, slen=%"UVuf", olen=%"UVuf,
3535 (UV)slen, (UV)olen);
979f2922
ST
3536
3537 switch (opc) {
3538 case '+':
3539 while (slen--)
3540 *s++ |= *o++;
3541 break;
3542 case '!':
3543 while (slen--)
3544 *s++ |= ~*o++;
3545 break;
3546 case '-':
3547 while (slen--)
3548 *s++ &= ~*o++;
3549 break;
3550 case '&':
3551 while (slen--)
3552 *s++ &= *o++;
3553 break;
3554 default:
3555 break;
3556 }
3557 }
711a919c 3558 else {
979f2922
ST
3559 STRLEN otheroctets = otherbits >> 3;
3560 STRLEN offset = 0;
35da51f7 3561 U8* const send = s + slen;
979f2922
ST
3562
3563 while (s < send) {
3564 UV otherval = 0;
3565
3566 if (otherbits == 1) {
3567 otherval = (o[offset >> 3] >> (offset & 7)) & 1;
3568 ++offset;
3569 }
3570 else {
3571 STRLEN vlen = otheroctets;
3572 otherval = *o++;
3573 while (--vlen) {
3574 otherval <<= 8;
3575 otherval |= *o++;
3576 }
3577 }
3578
711a919c 3579 if (opc == '+' && otherval)
6f207bd3 3580 NOOP; /* replace with otherval */
979f2922
ST
3581 else if (opc == '!' && !otherval)
3582 otherval = 1;
3583 else if (opc == '-' && otherval)
3584 otherval = 0;
3585 else if (opc == '&' && !otherval)
3586 otherval = 0;
3587 else {
711a919c 3588 s += octets; /* no replacement */
979f2922
ST
3589 continue;
3590 }
3591
3592 if (bits == 8)
3593 *s++ = (U8)( otherval & 0xff);
3594 else if (bits == 16) {
3595 *s++ = (U8)((otherval >> 8) & 0xff);
3596 *s++ = (U8)( otherval & 0xff);
3597 }
3598 else if (bits == 32) {
3599 *s++ = (U8)((otherval >> 24) & 0xff);
3600 *s++ = (U8)((otherval >> 16) & 0xff);
3601 *s++ = (U8)((otherval >> 8) & 0xff);
3602 *s++ = (U8)( otherval & 0xff);
3603 }
3604 }
3605 }
3606 sv_free(other); /* through with it! */
3607 } /* while */
3608 return swatch;
3609}
3610
064c021d 3611HV*
4c2e1131 3612Perl__swash_inversion_hash(pTHX_ SV* const swash)
064c021d
KW
3613{
3614
79a2a0e8 3615 /* Subject to change or removal. For use only in regcomp.c and regexec.c
5662e334
KW
3616 * Can't be used on a property that is subject to user override, as it
3617 * relies on the value of SPECIALS in the swash which would be set by
3618 * utf8_heavy.pl to the hash in the non-overriden file, and hence is not set
3619 * for overridden properties
064c021d
KW
3620 *
3621 * Returns a hash which is the inversion and closure of a swash mapping.
3622 * For example, consider the input lines:
3623 * 004B 006B
3624 * 004C 006C
3625 * 212A 006B
3626 *
3627 * The returned hash would have two keys, the utf8 for 006B and the utf8 for
3628 * 006C. The value for each key is an array. For 006C, the array would
3629 * have a two elements, the utf8 for itself, and for 004C. For 006B, there
3630 * would be three elements in its array, the utf8 for 006B, 004B and 212A.
3631 *
3632 * Essentially, for any code point, it gives all the code points that map to
3633 * it, or the list of 'froms' for that point.
3634 *
5662e334
KW
3635 * Currently it ignores any additions or deletions from other swashes,
3636 * looking at just the main body of the swash, and if there are SPECIALS
3637 * in the swash, at that hash
3638 *
3639 * The specials hash can be extra code points, and most likely consists of
3640 * maps from single code points to multiple ones (each expressed as a string
3641 * of utf8 characters). This function currently returns only 1-1 mappings.
3642 * However consider this possible input in the specials hash:
3643 * "\xEF\xAC\x85" => "\x{0073}\x{0074}", # U+FB05 => 0073 0074
3644 * "\xEF\xAC\x86" => "\x{0073}\x{0074}", # U+FB06 => 0073 0074
3645 *
3646 * Both FB05 and FB06 map to the same multi-char sequence, which we don't
3647 * currently handle. But it also means that FB05 and FB06 are equivalent in
3648 * a 1-1 mapping which we should handle, and this relationship may not be in
3649 * the main table. Therefore this function examines all the multi-char
3650 * sequences and adds the 1-1 mappings that come out of that. */
064c021d
KW
3651
3652 U8 *l, *lend;
3653 STRLEN lcur;
3654 HV *const hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(swash));
3655
3656 /* The string containing the main body of the table */
3657 SV** const listsvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "LIST", FALSE);
3658
3659 SV** const typesvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "TYPE", FALSE);
3660 SV** const bitssvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "BITS", FALSE);
3661 SV** const nonesvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "NONE", FALSE);
3662 /*SV** const extssvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "EXTRAS", FALSE);*/
3663 const U8* const typestr = (U8*)SvPV_nolen(*typesvp);
3664 const STRLEN bits = SvUV(*bitssvp);
3665 const STRLEN octets = bits >> 3; /* if bits == 1, then octets == 0 */
3666 const UV none = SvUV(*nonesvp);
5662e334 3667 SV **specials_p = hv_fetchs(hv, "SPECIALS", 0);
064c021d
KW
3668
3669 HV* ret = newHV();
3670
3671 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__SWASH_INVERSION_HASH;
3672
3673 /* Must have at least 8 bits to get the mappings */
3674 if (bits != 8 && bits != 16 && bits != 32) {
3675 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swash_inversion_hash doesn't expect bits %"UVuf,
3676 (UV)bits);
3677 }
3678
5662e334
KW
3679 if (specials_p) { /* It might be "special" (sometimes, but not always, a
3680 mapping to more than one character */
3681
3682 /* Construct an inverse mapping hash for the specials */
3683 HV * const specials_hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(*specials_p));
3684 HV * specials_inverse = newHV();
3685 char *char_from; /* the lhs of the map */
3686 I32 from_len; /* its byte length */
3687 char *char_to; /* the rhs of the map */
3688 I32 to_len; /* its byte length */
3689 SV *sv_to; /* and in a sv */
3690 AV* from_list; /* list of things that map to each 'to' */
3691
3692 hv_iterinit(specials_hv);
3693
3694 /* The keys are the characters (in utf8) that map to the corresponding
3695 * utf8 string value. Iterate through the list creating the inverse
3696 * list. */
3697 while ((sv_to = hv_iternextsv(specials_hv, &char_from, &from_len))) {
3698 SV** listp;
3699 if (! SvPOK(sv_to)) {
5637ef5b
NC
3700 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: value returned from hv_iternextsv() "
3701 "unexpectedly is not a string, flags=%lu",
3702 (unsigned long)SvFLAGS(sv_to));
5662e334 3703 }
4b88fb76 3704 /*DEBUG_U(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Found mapping from %"UVXf", First char of to is %"UVXf"\n", valid_utf8_to_uvchr((U8*) char_from, 0), valid_utf8_to_uvchr((U8*) SvPVX(sv_to), 0)));*/
5662e334
KW
3705
3706 /* Each key in the inverse list is a mapped-to value, and the key's
3707 * hash value is a list of the strings (each in utf8) that map to
3708 * it. Those strings are all one character long */
3709 if ((listp = hv_fetch(specials_inverse,
3710 SvPVX(sv_to),
3711 SvCUR(sv_to), 0)))
3712 {
3713 from_list = (AV*) *listp;
3714 }
3715 else { /* No entry yet for it: create one */
3716 from_list = newAV();
3717 if (! hv_store(specials_inverse,
3718 SvPVX(sv_to),
3719 SvCUR(sv_to),
3720 (SV*) from_list, 0))
3721 {
3722 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: hv_store() unexpectedly failed");
3723 }
3724 }
3725
3726 /* Here have the list associated with this 'to' (perhaps newly
3727 * created and empty). Just add to it. Note that we ASSUME that
3728 * the input is guaranteed to not have duplications, so we don't
3729 * check for that. Duplications just slow down execution time. */
3730 av_push(from_list, newSVpvn_utf8(char_from, from_len, TRUE));
3731 }
3732
3733 /* Here, 'specials_inverse' contains the inverse mapping. Go through