This is a live mirror of the Perl 5 development currently hosted at https://github.com/perl/perl5
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1=head1 NAME
2
3Install - Build and Installation guide for perl5.
4
5=head1 SYNOPSIS
6
7f678428 7The basic steps to build and install perl5 on a Unix system are:
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dc45a647 9 rm -f config.sh Policy.sh
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10 sh Configure
11 make
12 make test
13 make install
36477c24 14
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15 # You may also wish to add these:
16 (cd /usr/include && h2ph *.h sys/*.h)
3e3baf6d 17 (installhtml --help)
aa689395 18 (cd pod && make tex && <process the latex files>)
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19
20Each of these is explained in further detail below.
21
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22For information on non-Unix systems, see the section on
23L<"Porting information"> below.
7f678428 24
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25If you have problems, corrections, or questions, please see
26L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
27
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28For information on what's new in this release, see the
29pod/perldelta.pod file. For more detailed information about specific
30changes, see the Changes file.
c3edaffb 31
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32IMPORTANT NOTE: 5.005_53 and later releases do not export unadorned
33global symbols anymore. This means most CPAN modules probably won't
34build under this release without adding '-DPERL_POLLUTE' to ccflags
35in config.sh. This is not the default because we want the modules
36to get fixed *before* the 5.006 release. pod/perldelta.pod contains
37additional notes about this.
38
1ec51d55 39=head1 DESCRIPTION
edb1cbcb 40
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41This document is written in pod format as an easy way to indicate its
42structure. The pod format is described in pod/perlpod.pod, but you can
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43read it as is with any pager or editor. Headings and items are marked
44by lines beginning with '='. The other mark-up used is
45
46 B<text> embolden text, used for switches, programs or commands
47 C<code> literal code
48 L<name> A link (cross reference) to name
49
50You should probably at least skim through this entire document before
51proceeding.
c3edaffb 52
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53If you're building Perl on a non-Unix system, you should also read
54the README file specific to your operating system, since this may
55provide additional or different instructions for building Perl.
56
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57If there is a hint file for your system (in the hints/ directory) you
58should also read that hint file for specific information for your
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59system. (Unixware users should use the svr4.sh hint file.) If
60there is a README file for your platform, then you should read
61that too. Additional information is in the Porting/ directory.
203c3eec 62
bfb7748a 63=head1 WARNING: This version is not binary compatible with Perl 5.004.
693762b4 64
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65Starting with Perl 5.004_50 there were many deep and far-reaching changes
66to the language internals. If you have dynamically loaded extensions
67that you built under perl 5.003 or 5.004, you can continue to use them
68with 5.004, but you will need to rebuild and reinstall those extensions
69to use them 5.005. See the discussions below on
70L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> and
71L<"Upgrading from 5.004 to 5.005"> for more details.
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72
73The standard extensions supplied with Perl will be handled automatically.
74
75In a related issue, old extensions may possibly be affected by the
76changes in the Perl language in the current release. Please see
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77pod/perldelta.pod (and pod/perl500Xdelta.pod) for a description of
78what's changed.
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80=head1 WARNING: This version requires a compiler that supports ANSI C.
81
82If you find that your C compiler is not ANSI-capable, try obtaining
83GCC, available from GNU mirrors worldwide (e.g. ftp://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu).
84Another alternative may be to use a tool like C<ansi2knr> to convert the
85sources back to K&R style, but there is no guarantee this route will get
86you anywhere, since the prototypes are not the only ANSI features used
87in the Perl sources. C<ansi2knr> is usually found as part of the freely
88available C<Ghostscript> distribution. Another similar tool is
89C<unprotoize>, distributed with GCC. Since C<unprotoize> requires GCC to
90run, you may have to run it on a platform where GCC is available, and move
91the sources back to the platform without GCC.
92
93If you succeed in automatically converting the sources to a K&R compatible
94form, be sure to email perlbug@perl.com to let us know the steps you
95followed. This will enable us to officially support this option.
96
aa689395 97=head1 Space Requirements
eed2e782 98
8d74ce1c 99The complete perl5 source tree takes up about 15 MB of disk space. The
dc45a647 100complete tree after completing make takes roughly 20 MB, though the
1ec51d55 101actual total is likely to be quite system-dependent. The installation
8d74ce1c 102directories need something on the order of 15 MB, though again that
1ec51d55 103value is system-dependent.
8e07c86e 104
aa689395 105=head1 Start with a Fresh Distribution
8e07c86e 106
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107If you have built perl before, you should clean out the build directory
108with the command
109
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110 make distclean
111
112or
113
edb1cbcb 114 make realclean
c3edaffb 115
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116The only difference between the two is that make distclean also removes
117your old config.sh and Policy.sh files.
118
119The results of a Configure run are stored in the config.sh and Policy.sh
120files. If you are upgrading from a previous version of perl, or if you
121change systems or compilers or make other significant changes, or if
122you are experiencing difficulties building perl, you should probably
123not re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it or rename it, e.g.
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124
125 mv config.sh config.sh.old
4633a7c4 126
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127If you wish to use your old config.sh, be especially attentive to the
128version and architecture-specific questions and answers. For example,
129the default directory for architecture-dependent library modules
130includes the version name. By default, Configure will reuse your old
131name (e.g. /opt/perl/lib/i86pc-solaris/5.003) even if you're running
132Configure for a different version, e.g. 5.004. Yes, Configure should
133probably check and correct for this, but it doesn't, presently.
134Similarly, if you used a shared libperl.so (see below) with version
135numbers, you will probably want to adjust them as well.
136
137Also, be careful to check your architecture name. Some Linux systems
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138(such as Debian) use i386, while others may use i486, i586, or i686.
139If you pick up a precompiled binary, it might not use the same name.
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140
141In short, if you wish to use your old config.sh, I recommend running
142Configure interactively rather than blindly accepting the defaults.
8e07c86e 143
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144If your reason to reuse your old config.sh is to save your
145particular installation choices, then you can probably achieve the
146same effect by using the new Policy.sh file. See the section on
147L<"Site-wide Policy settings"> below.
148
aa689395 149=head1 Run Configure
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150
151Configure will figure out various things about your system. Some
152things Configure will figure out for itself, other things it will ask
1ec51d55 153you about. To accept the default, just press RETURN. The default
a3cb178b 154is almost always okay. At any Configure prompt, you can type &-d
203c3eec 155and Configure will use the defaults from then on.
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156
157After it runs, Configure will perform variable substitution on all the
1ec51d55 158*.SH files and offer to run make depend.
8e07c86e 159
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160Configure supports a number of useful options. Run B<Configure -h> to
161get a listing. See the Porting/Glossary file for a complete list of
162Configure variables you can set and their definitions.
163
164To compile with gcc, for example, you should run
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165
166 sh Configure -Dcc=gcc
167
168This is the preferred way to specify gcc (or another alternative
169compiler) so that the hints files can set appropriate defaults.
170
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171If you want to use your old config.sh but override some of the items
172with command line options, you need to use B<Configure -O>.
173
8e07c86e 174By default, for most systems, perl will be installed in
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175/usr/local/{bin, lib, man}. (See L<"Installation Directories">
176and L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> below for
177further details.)
178
179You can specify a different 'prefix' for the default installation
180directory, when Configure prompts you or by using the Configure command
181line option -Dprefix='/some/directory', e.g.
8e07c86e 182
25f94b33 183 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl
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184
185If your prefix contains the string "perl", then the directories
186are simplified. For example, if you use prefix=/opt/perl,
187then Configure will suggest /opt/perl/lib instead of
4fdae800 188/opt/perl/lib/perl5/.
8e07c86e 189
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190NOTE: You must not specify an installation directory that is the same
191as or below your perl source directory. If you do, installperl will
192attempt infinite recursion.
84902520 193
a3cb178b 194It may seem obvious to say, but Perl is useful only when users can
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195easily find it. It's often a good idea to have both /usr/bin/perl and
196/usr/local/bin/perl be symlinks to the actual binary. Be especially
197careful, however, of overwriting a version of perl supplied by your
198vendor. In any case, system administrators are strongly encouraged to
199put (symlinks to) perl and its accompanying utilities, such as perldoc,
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200into a directory typically found along a user's PATH, or in another
201obvious and convenient place.
202
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203You can use "Configure -Uinstallusrbinperl" which causes installperl
204to skip installing perl also as /usr/bin/perl.
205
aa689395 206By default, Configure will compile perl to use dynamic loading if
8e07c86e 207your system supports it. If you want to force perl to be compiled
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208statically, you can either choose this when Configure prompts you or
209you can use the Configure command line option -Uusedl.
8e07c86e 210
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211If you are willing to accept all the defaults, and you want terse
212output, you can run
213
214 sh Configure -des
215
216For my Solaris system, I usually use
217
218 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl -Doptimize='-xpentium -xO4' -des
219
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220=head2 GNU-style configure
221
1ec51d55 222If you prefer the GNU-style configure command line interface, you can
dc45a647 223use the supplied configure.gnu command, e.g.
46bb10fb 224
693762b4 225 CC=gcc ./configure.gnu
46bb10fb 226
dc45a647 227The configure.gnu script emulates a few of the more common configure
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228options. Try
229
693762b4 230 ./configure.gnu --help
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231
232for a listing.
233
aa689395 234Cross compiling is not supported.
46bb10fb 235
dc45a647 236(The file is called configure.gnu to avoid problems on systems
693762b4 237that would not distinguish the files "Configure" and "configure".)
46bb10fb 238
aa689395 239=head2 Installation Directories
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240
241The installation directories can all be changed by answering the
242appropriate questions in Configure. For convenience, all the
243installation questions are near the beginning of Configure.
244
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245I highly recommend running Configure interactively to be sure it puts
246everything where you want it. At any point during the Configure
247process, you can answer a question with &-d and Configure
248will use the defaults from then on.
1ec51d55 249
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250By default, Configure will use the following directories for library files
251for 5.005 (archname is a string like sun4-sunos, determined by Configure).
4633a7c4 252
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253 Configure variable Default value
254 $archlib /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.005/archname
255 $privlib /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.005
256 $sitearch /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/archname
257 $sitelib /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
4633a7c4 258
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259 $man1dir /usr/local/man/man1
260 $man3dir /usr/local/lib/perl5/man/man3
261
262The perl executable will search the libraries in the order given
263above.
264
265The directories under site_perl are empty, but are intended to be used
266for installing local or site-wide extensions. Perl will automatically
267look in these directories.
268
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269Some users prefer to append a "/share" to $privlib and $sitelib
270to emphasize that those directories can be shared among different
271architectures.
4633a7c4 272
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273Note that these are just the defaults. You can actually structure the
274directories any way you like. They don't even have to be on the same
275filesystem.
276
277Further details about the installation directories, maintenance and
278development subversions, and about supporting multiple versions are
279discussed in L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> below.
280
281If you specify a prefix that contains the string "perl", then the
282directory structure is simplified. For example, if you Configure with
283-Dprefix=/opt/perl, then the defaults for 5.005 are
284
285 Configure variable Default value
286 $archlib /opt/perl/lib/5.005/archname
287 $privlib /opt/perl/lib/5.005
288 $sitearch /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/5.005/archname
289 $sitelib /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/5.005
290
291 $man1dir /opt/perl/man/man1
292 $man3dir /opt/perl/man/man3
293
294=over 4
295
296=item Man Pages
297
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298By default, Configure will use the following directories for manual pages:
299
300 Configure variable Default value
301 $man1dir /usr/local/man/man1
302 $man3dir /usr/local/lib/perl5/man/man3
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303
304(Actually, Configure recognizes the SVR3-style
305/usr/local/man/l_man/man1 directories, if present, and uses those
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306instead.)
307
308The module man pages are stuck in that strange spot so that
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309they don't collide with other man pages stored in /usr/local/man/man3,
310and so that Perl's man pages don't hide system man pages. On some
311systems, B<man less> would end up calling up Perl's less.pm module man
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312page, rather than the less program. (This default location will likely
313change to /usr/local/man/man3 in a future release of perl.)
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314
315Note: Many users prefer to store the module man pages in
316/usr/local/man/man3. You can do this from the command line with
317
318 sh Configure -Dman3dir=/usr/local/man/man3
319
320Some users also prefer to use a .3pm suffix. You can do that with
321
322 sh Configure -Dman3ext=3pm
4633a7c4 323
8d74ce1c 324=back
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325
326Again, these are just the defaults, and can be changed as you run
327Configure.
328
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329=head2 Changing the installation directory
330
331Configure distinguishes between the directory in which perl (and its
332associated files) should be installed and the directory in which it
333will eventually reside. For most sites, these two are the same; for
334sites that use AFS, this distinction is handled automatically.
1ec51d55 335However, sites that use software such as depot to manage software
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336packages may also wish to install perl into a different directory and
337use that management software to move perl to its final destination.
338This section describes how to do this. Someday, Configure may support
339an option -Dinstallprefix=/foo to simplify this.
340
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341Suppose you want to install perl under the /tmp/perl5 directory. You
342can edit config.sh and change all the install* variables to point to
343/tmp/perl5 instead of /usr/local/wherever. Or, you can automate this
344process by placing the following lines in a file config.over before you
345run Configure (replace /tmp/perl5 by a directory of your choice):
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346
347 installprefix=/tmp/perl5
348 test -d $installprefix || mkdir $installprefix
349 test -d $installprefix/bin || mkdir $installprefix/bin
350 installarchlib=`echo $installarchlib | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
351 installbin=`echo $installbin | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
352 installman1dir=`echo $installman1dir | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
353 installman3dir=`echo $installman3dir | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
354 installprivlib=`echo $installprivlib | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
355 installscript=`echo $installscript | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
356 installsitelib=`echo $installsitelib | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
357 installsitearch=`echo $installsitearch | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
358
359Then, you can Configure and install in the usual way:
360
361 sh Configure -des
362 make
363 make test
364 make install
365
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366Beware, though, that if you go to try to install new add-on
367extensions, they too will get installed in under '/tmp/perl5' if you
368follow this example. The next section shows one way of dealing with
369that problem.
370
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371=head2 Creating an installable tar archive
372
373If you need to install perl on many identical systems, it is
374convenient to compile it once and create an archive that can be
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375installed on multiple systems. Suppose, for example, that you want to
376create an archive that can be installed in /opt/perl.
377Here's one way to do that:
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378
379 # Set up config.over to install perl into a different directory,
380 # e.g. /tmp/perl5 (see previous part).
d6c1b5d3 381 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl -des
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382 make
383 make test
d6c1b5d3 384 make install # This will install everything into /tmp/perl5.
aa689395 385 cd /tmp/perl5
d6c1b5d3 386 # Edit $archlib/Config.pm and $archlib/.packlist to change all the
fb73857a 387 # install* variables back to reflect where everything will
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388 # really be installed. (That is, change /tmp/perl5 to /opt/perl
389 # everywhere in those files.)
390 # Check the scripts in $scriptdir to make sure they have the correct
bfb7748a 391 # #!/wherever/perl line.
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392 tar cvf ../perl5-archive.tar .
393 # Then, on each machine where you want to install perl,
d6c1b5d3 394 cd /opt/perl # Or wherever you specified as $prefix
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395 tar xvf perl5-archive.tar
396
dc45a647 397=head2 Site-wide Policy settings
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398
399After Configure runs, it stores a number of common site-wide "policy"
400answers (such as installation directories and the local perl contact
401person) in the Policy.sh file. If you want to build perl on another
402system using the same policy defaults, simply copy the Policy.sh file
403to the new system and Configure will use it along with the appropriate
404hint file for your system.
405
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406Alternatively, if you wish to change some or all of those policy
407answers, you should
408
409 rm -f Policy.sh
410
411to ensure that Configure doesn't re-use them.
412
413Further information is in the Policy_sh.SH file itself.
414
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415If the generated Policy.sh file is unsuitable, you may freely edit it
416to contain any valid shell commands. It will be run just after the
417platform-specific hints files.
418
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419=head2 Configure-time Options
420
421There are several different ways to Configure and build perl for your
422system. For most users, the defaults are sensible and will work.
423Some users, however, may wish to further customize perl. Here are
424some of the main things you can change.
425
693762b4 426=head2 Threads
aa689395 427
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428On some platforms, perl5.005 can be compiled with experimental support
429for threads. To enable this, read the file README.threads, and then
430try:
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693762b4 432 sh Configure -Dusethreads
aa689395 433
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434Currently, you need to specify -Dusethreads on the Configure command
435line so that the hint files can make appropriate adjustments.
436
437The default is to compile without thread support.
3fe9a6f1 438
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439=head2 Selecting File IO mechanisms
440
441Previous versions of perl used the standard IO mechanisms as defined in
1ec51d55 442stdio.h. Versions 5.003_02 and later of perl allow alternate IO
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443mechanisms via a "PerlIO" abstraction, but the stdio mechanism is still
444the default and is the only supported mechanism.
445
446This PerlIO abstraction can be enabled either on the Configure command
447line with
448
449 sh Configure -Duseperlio
450
451or interactively at the appropriate Configure prompt.
452
453If you choose to use the PerlIO abstraction layer, there are two
454(experimental) possibilities for the underlying IO calls. These have been
455tested to some extent on some platforms, but are not guaranteed to work
456everywhere.
457
458=over 4
459
460=item 1.
461
1ec51d55 462AT&T's "sfio". This has superior performance to stdio.h in many
aa689395 463cases, and is extensible by the use of "discipline" modules. Sfio
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464currently only builds on a subset of the UNIX platforms perl supports.
465Because the data structures are completely different from stdio, perl
466extension modules or external libraries may not work. This
467configuration exists to allow these issues to be worked on.
468
469This option requires the 'sfio' package to have been built and installed.
bfb7748a 470A (fairly old) version of sfio is in CPAN.
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471
472You select this option by
473
474 sh Configure -Duseperlio -Dusesfio
475
476If you have already selected -Duseperlio, and if Configure detects
477that you have sfio, then sfio will be the default suggested by
478Configure.
479
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480Note: On some systems, sfio's iffe configuration script fails
481to detect that you have an atexit function (or equivalent).
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482Apparently, this is a problem at least for some versions of Linux
483and SunOS 4.
484
485You can test if you have this problem by trying the following shell
486script. (You may have to add some extra cflags and libraries. A
487portable version of this may eventually make its way into Configure.)
488
489 #!/bin/sh
490 cat > try.c <<'EOCP'
491 #include <stdio.h>
492 main() { printf("42\n"); }
493 EOCP
494 cc -o try try.c -lsfio
495 val=`./try`
496 if test X$val = X42; then
497 echo "Your sfio looks ok"
498 else
499 echo "Your sfio has the exit problem."
500 fi
501
502If you have this problem, the fix is to go back to your sfio sources
bfb7748a 503and correct iffe's guess about atexit.
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504
505There also might be a more recent release of Sfio that fixes your
506problem.
507
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508=item 2.
509
510Normal stdio IO, but with all IO going through calls to the PerlIO
511abstraction layer. This configuration can be used to check that perl and
512extension modules have been correctly converted to use the PerlIO
513abstraction.
514
515This configuration should work on all platforms (but might not).
516
aa689395 517You select this option via:
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518
519 sh Configure -Duseperlio -Uusesfio
520
521If you have already selected -Duseperlio, and if Configure does not
522detect sfio, then this will be the default suggested by Configure.
523
524=back
525
aa689395 526=head2 Building a shared libperl.so Perl library
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527
528Currently, for most systems, the main perl executable is built by
529linking the "perl library" libperl.a with perlmain.o, your static
530extensions (usually just DynaLoader.a) and various extra libraries,
531such as -lm.
532
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533On some systems that support dynamic loading, it may be possible to
534replace libperl.a with a shared libperl.so. If you anticipate building
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535several different perl binaries (e.g. by embedding libperl into
536different programs, or by using the optional compiler extension), then
9d67150a 537you might wish to build a shared libperl.so so that all your binaries
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538can share the same library.
539
540The disadvantages are that there may be a significant performance
9d67150a 541penalty associated with the shared libperl.so, and that the overall
aa689395 542mechanism is still rather fragile with respect to different versions
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543and upgrades.
544
545In terms of performance, on my test system (Solaris 2.5_x86) the perl
9d67150a 546test suite took roughly 15% longer to run with the shared libperl.so.
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547Your system and typical applications may well give quite different
548results.
549
550The default name for the shared library is typically something like
a6006777 551libperl.so.3.2 (for Perl 5.003_02) or libperl.so.302 or simply
9d67150a 552libperl.so. Configure tries to guess a sensible naming convention
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553based on your C library name. Since the library gets installed in a
554version-specific architecture-dependent directory, the exact name
555isn't very important anyway, as long as your linker is happy.
556
557For some systems (mostly SVR4), building a shared libperl is required
558for dynamic loading to work, and hence is already the default.
559
560You can elect to build a shared libperl by
561
562 sh Configure -Duseshrplib
563
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564To build a shared libperl, the environment variable controlling shared
565library search (LD_LIBRARY_PATH in most systems, DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH for
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566NeXTSTEP/OPENSTEP/Rhapsody, LIBRARY_PATH for BeOS, SHLIB_PATH for
567HP-UX, LIBPATH for AIX, PATH for cygwin32) must be set up to include
2bf2710f 568the Perl build directory because that's where the shared libperl will
c99d408a 569be created. Configure arranges Makefile to have the correct shared
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570library search settings.
571
572However, there are some special cases where manually setting the
573shared library path might be required. For example, if you want to run
574something like the following with the newly-built but not-yet-installed
575./perl:
576
577 cd t; ./perl misc/failing_test.t
578or
579 ./perl -Ilib ~/my_mission_critical_test
580
581then you need to set up the shared library path explicitly.
582You can do this with
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583
584 LD_LIBRARY_PATH=`pwd`:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH; export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
585
586for Bourne-style shells, or
587
588 setenv LD_LIBRARY_PATH `pwd`
589
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590for Csh-style shells. (This procedure may also be needed if for some
591unexpected reason Configure fails to set up Makefile correctly.)
592
593You can often recognize failures to build/use a shared libperl from error
594messages complaining about a missing libperl.so (or libperl.sl in HP-UX),
595for example:
59618126:./miniperl: /sbin/loader: Fatal Error: cannot map libperl.so
c3edaffb 597
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598There is also an potential problem with the shared perl library if you
599want to have more than one "flavor" of the same version of perl (e.g.
600with and without -DDEBUGGING). For example, suppose you build and
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601install a standard Perl 5.004 with a shared library. Then, suppose you
602try to build Perl 5.004 with -DDEBUGGING enabled, but everything else
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603the same, including all the installation directories. How can you
604ensure that your newly built perl will link with your newly built
7f678428 605libperl.so.4 rather with the installed libperl.so.4? The answer is
9d67150a 606that you might not be able to. The installation directory is encoded
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607in the perl binary with the LD_RUN_PATH environment variable (or
608equivalent ld command-line option). On Solaris, you can override that
7beaa944 609with LD_LIBRARY_PATH; on Linux you can't. On Digital Unix, you can
0dcb58f4 610override LD_LIBRARY_PATH by setting the _RLD_ROOT environment variable
7beaa944 611to point to the perl build directory.
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612
613The only reliable answer is that you should specify a different
614directory for the architecture-dependent library for your -DDEBUGGING
fb73857a 615version of perl. You can do this by changing all the *archlib*
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616variables in config.sh, namely archlib, archlib_exp, and
617installarchlib, to point to your new architecture-dependent library.
618
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619=head2 Malloc Issues
620
621Perl relies heavily on malloc(3) to grow data structures as needed, so
622perl's performance can be noticeably affected by the performance of
623the malloc function on your system.
624
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625The perl source is shipped with a version of malloc that is very fast but
626somewhat wasteful of space. On the other hand, your system's malloc
627function may be a bit slower but also a bit more frugal. However,
628as of 5.004_68, perl's malloc has been optimized for the typical
629requests from perl, so there's a chance that it may be both faster and
630use less memory.
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631
632For many uses, speed is probably the most important consideration, so
633the default behavior (for most systems) is to use the malloc supplied
634with perl. However, if you will be running very large applications
635(e.g. Tk or PDL) or if your system already has an excellent malloc, or
636if you are experiencing difficulties with extensions that use
637third-party libraries that call malloc, then you might wish to use
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638your system's malloc. (Or, you might wish to explore the malloc flags
639discussed below.)
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640
641To build without perl's malloc, you can use the Configure command
642
643 sh Configure -Uusemymalloc
644
645or you can answer 'n' at the appropriate interactive Configure prompt.
646
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647Note that Perl's malloc family of functions are called Perl_malloc(),
648Perl_realloc(), Perl_calloc() and Perl_mfree(). The names do not clash
649with the system versions of these functions. See -DPERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC
650below if you want to do that for some reason.
651
aa689395 652=head2 Malloc Performance Flags
c3edaffb 653
87c6202a 654If you are using Perl's malloc, you may add one or more of the following
808270a4 655items to your ccflags config.sh variable to change its behavior. You can
87c6202a 656find out more about these and other flags by reading the commentary near
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657the top of the malloc.c source. The defaults should be fine for
658nearly everyone.
c3edaffb 659
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660=over 4
661
87c6202a 662=item -DNO_FANCY_MALLOC
2ae324a7 663
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664Undefined by default. Defining it returns malloc to the version used
665in Perl 5.004.
aa689395 666
87c6202a 667=item -DPLAIN_MALLOC
aa689395 668
87c6202a 669Undefined by default. Defining it in addition to NO_FANCY_MALLOC returns
bfb7748a 670malloc to the version used in Perl version 5.000.
aa689395 671
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672=item -DPERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC
673
674Undefined by default. This is used to force Perl's malloc family of functions
675to have the same names as the system versions. This is normally only required
676when you have a need to replace the system versions of these functions.
677This may be sometimes required when you have libraries that like to free()
678data that may have been allocated by Perl_malloc() and vice versa.
679
680Note that enabling this option may sometimes lead to duplicate symbols from
681the linker for malloc et al. In such cases, the system probably does not
682allow its malloc functions to be fully replaced with custom versions.
683
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684=back
685
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686=head2 Building a debugging perl
687
688You can run perl scripts under the perl debugger at any time with
3fe9a6f1 689B<perl -d your_script>. If, however, you want to debug perl itself,
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690you probably want to do
691
692 sh Configure -Doptimize='-g'
693
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694This will do two independent things: First, it will force compilation
695to use cc -g so that you can use your system's debugger on the
696executable. (Note: Your system may actually require something like
a3cb178b 697cc -g2. Check your man pages for cc(1) and also any hint file for your
203c3eec 698system.) Second, it will add -DDEBUGGING to your ccflags variable in
1ec51d55 699config.sh so that you can use B<perl -D> to access perl's internal
203c3eec 700state. (Note: Configure will only add -DDEBUGGING by
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701default if you are not reusing your old config.sh. If you want to
702reuse your old config.sh, then you can just edit it and change the
3fe9a6f1 703optimize and ccflags variables by hand and then propagate your changes
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704as shown in L<"Propagating your changes to config.sh"> below.)
705
706You can actually specify -g and -DDEBUGGING independently, but usually
707it's convenient to have both.
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708
709If you are using a shared libperl, see the warnings about multiple
710versions of perl under L<Building a shared libperl.so Perl library>.
711
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712=head2 Other Compiler Flags
713
714For most users, all of the Configure defaults are fine. However,
715you can change a number of factors in the way perl is built
1ec51d55 716by adding appropriate -D directives to your ccflags variable in
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717config.sh.
718
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719Starting from Perl 5.005_53 you no more need to replace the rand() and
720srand() functions in the perl source by any other random number
721generator because Configure chooses the widest one available
722(drand48(), srandom(), or rand()).
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723
724You should also run Configure interactively to verify that a hint file
725doesn't inadvertently override your ccflags setting. (Hints files
726shouldn't do that, but some might.)
c3edaffb 727
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728=head2 Extensions
729
730By default, Configure will offer to build every extension which appears
731to be supported. For example, Configure will offer to build GDBM_File
732only if it is able to find the gdbm library. (See examples below.)
733B, DynaLoader, Fcntl, IO, and attrs are always built by default.
734Configure does not contain code to test for POSIX compliance, so POSIX
735is always built by default as well. If you wish to skip POSIX, you can
736set the Configure variable useposix=false either in a hint file or from
737the Configure command line. Similarly, the Opcode extension is always
738built by default, but you can skip it by setting the Configure variable
739useopcode=false either in a hint file for from the command line.
740
741You can learn more about each of these extensions by consulting the
742documentation in the individual .pm modules, located under the
743ext/ subdirectory.
744
745Even if you do not have dynamic loading, you must still build the
746DynaLoader extension; you should just build the stub dl_none.xs
747version. (Configure will suggest this as the default.)
748
749In summary, here are the Configure command-line variables you can set
750to turn off each extension:
751
752 B (Always included by default)
753 DB_File i_db
754 DynaLoader (Must always be included as a static extension)
755 Fcntl (Always included by default)
756 GDBM_File i_gdbm
757 IO (Always included by default)
758 NDBM_File i_ndbm
759 ODBM_File i_dbm
760 POSIX useposix
761 SDBM_File (Always included by default)
762 Opcode useopcode
763 Socket d_socket
764 Threads usethreads
765 attrs (Always included by default)
766
767Thus to skip the NDBM_File extension, you can use
768
769 sh Configure -Ui_ndbm
770
771Again, this is taken care of automatically if you don't have the ndbm
772library.
773
774Of course, you may always run Configure interactively and select only
775the extensions you want.
776
777Note: The DB_File module will only work with version 1.x of Berkeley
778DB or newer releases of version 2. Configure will automatically detect
779this for you and refuse to try to build DB_File with earlier
780releases of version 2.
781
782If you re-use your old config.sh but change your system (e.g. by
783adding libgdbm) Configure will still offer your old choices of extensions
784for the default answer, but it will also point out the discrepancy to
785you.
786
787Finally, if you have dynamic loading (most modern Unix systems do)
788remember that these extensions do not increase the size of your perl
789executable, nor do they impact start-up time, so you probably might as
790well build all the ones that will work on your system.
791
792=head2 Including locally-installed libraries
793
794Perl5 comes with interfaces to number of database extensions, including
795dbm, ndbm, gdbm, and Berkeley db. For each extension, if
796Configure can find the appropriate header files and libraries, it will
797automatically include that extension. The gdbm and db libraries
798are not included with perl. See the library documentation for
799how to obtain the libraries.
800
801Note: If your database header (.h) files are not in a
802directory normally searched by your C compiler, then you will need to
803include the appropriate -I/your/directory option when prompted by
804Configure. If your database library (.a) files are not in a directory
805normally searched by your C compiler and linker, then you will need to
806include the appropriate -L/your/directory option when prompted by
807Configure. See the examples below.
808
809=head2 Examples
810
811=over 4
812
813=item gdbm in /usr/local
814
815Suppose you have gdbm and want Configure to find it and build the
816GDBM_File extension. This examples assumes you have gdbm.h
817installed in /usr/local/include/gdbm.h and libgdbm.a installed in
818/usr/local/lib/libgdbm.a. Configure should figure all the
819necessary steps out automatically.
820
821Specifically, when Configure prompts you for flags for
822your C compiler, you should include -I/usr/local/include.
823
824When Configure prompts you for linker flags, you should include
825-L/usr/local/lib.
826
827If you are using dynamic loading, then when Configure prompts you for
828linker flags for dynamic loading, you should again include
829-L/usr/local/lib.
830
831Again, this should all happen automatically. If you want to accept the
832defaults for all the questions and have Configure print out only terse
833messages, then you can just run
834
835 sh Configure -des
836
837and Configure should include the GDBM_File extension automatically.
838
839This should actually work if you have gdbm installed in any of
840(/usr/local, /opt/local, /usr/gnu, /opt/gnu, /usr/GNU, or /opt/GNU).
841
842=item gdbm in /usr/you
843
844Suppose you have gdbm installed in some place other than /usr/local/,
845but you still want Configure to find it. To be specific, assume you
846have /usr/you/include/gdbm.h and /usr/you/lib/libgdbm.a. You
847still have to add -I/usr/you/include to cc flags, but you have to take
848an extra step to help Configure find libgdbm.a. Specifically, when
849Configure prompts you for library directories, you have to add
850/usr/you/lib to the list.
851
852It is possible to specify this from the command line too (all on one
853line):
854
855 sh Configure -des \
856 -Dlocincpth="/usr/you/include" \
857 -Dloclibpth="/usr/you/lib"
858
859locincpth is a space-separated list of include directories to search.
860Configure will automatically add the appropriate -I directives.
861
862loclibpth is a space-separated list of library directories to search.
863Configure will automatically add the appropriate -L directives. If
864you have some libraries under /usr/local/ and others under
865/usr/you, then you have to include both, namely
866
867 sh Configure -des \
868 -Dlocincpth="/usr/you/include /usr/local/include" \
869 -Dloclibpth="/usr/you/lib /usr/local/lib"
870
871=back
872
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873=head2 What if it doesn't work?
874
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875If you run into problems, try some of the following ideas.
876If none of them help, then see L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
877
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878=over 4
879
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880=item Running Configure Interactively
881
882If Configure runs into trouble, remember that you can always run
883Configure interactively so that you can check (and correct) its
884guesses.
885
886All the installation questions have been moved to the top, so you don't
aa689395 887have to wait for them. Once you've handled them (and your C compiler and
1ec51d55 888flags) you can type &-d at the next Configure prompt and Configure
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889will use the defaults from then on.
890
891If you find yourself trying obscure command line incantations and
892config.over tricks, I recommend you run Configure interactively
893instead. You'll probably save yourself time in the long run.
894
aa689395 895=item Hint files
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896
897The perl distribution includes a number of system-specific hints files
898in the hints/ directory. If one of them matches your system, Configure
899will offer to use that hint file.
900
901Several of the hint files contain additional important information.
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902If you have any problems, it is a good idea to read the relevant hint file
903for further information. See hints/solaris_2.sh for an extensive example.
904More information about writing good hints is in the hints/README.hints
905file.
8e07c86e 906
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907=item *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
908
909Occasionally, Configure makes a wrong guess. For example, on SunOS
9104.1.3, Configure incorrectly concludes that tzname[] is in the
911standard C library. The hint file is set up to correct for this. You
912will see a message:
913
914 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
915 The recommended value for $d_tzname on this machine was "undef"!
916 Keep the recommended value? [y]
917
918You should always keep the recommended value unless, after reading the
919relevant section of the hint file, you are sure you want to try
920overriding it.
921
922If you are re-using an old config.sh, the word "previous" will be
923used instead of "recommended". Again, you will almost always want
924to keep the previous value, unless you have changed something on your
925system.
926
927For example, suppose you have added libgdbm.a to your system
928and you decide to reconfigure perl to use GDBM_File. When you run
929Configure again, you will need to add -lgdbm to the list of libraries.
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930Now, Configure will find your gdbm include file and library and will
931issue a message:
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932
933 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
934 The previous value for $i_gdbm on this machine was "undef"!
935 Keep the previous value? [y]
936
1ec51d55 937In this case, you do not want to keep the previous value, so you
c3edaffb 938should answer 'n'. (You'll also have to manually add GDBM_File to
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939the list of dynamic extensions to build.)
940
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941=item Changing Compilers
942
943If you change compilers or make other significant changes, you should
1ec51d55 944probably not re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it or
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945rename it, e.g. mv config.sh config.sh.old. Then rerun Configure
946with the options you want to use.
947
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948This is a common source of problems. If you change from cc to
949gcc, you should almost always remove your old config.sh.
8e07c86e 950
c3edaffb 951=item Propagating your changes to config.sh
8e07c86e 952
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953If you make any changes to config.sh, you should propagate
954them to all the .SH files by running
955
956 sh Configure -S
957
958You will then have to rebuild by running
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959
960 make depend
961 make
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962
963=item config.over
964
965You can also supply a shell script config.over to over-ride Configure's
966guesses. It will get loaded up at the very end, just before config.sh
967is created. You have to be careful with this, however, as Configure
d52d4e46 968does no checking that your changes make sense. See the section on
7f678428 969L<"Changing the installation directory"> for an example.
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970
971=item config.h
972
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973Many of the system dependencies are contained in config.h.
974Configure builds config.h by running the config_h.SH script.
975The values for the variables are taken from config.sh.
8e07c86e 976
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977If there are any problems, you can edit config.h directly. Beware,
978though, that the next time you run Configure, your changes will be
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979lost.
980
981=item cflags
982
983If you have any additional changes to make to the C compiler command
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984line, they can be made in cflags.SH. For instance, to turn off the
985optimizer on toke.c, find the line in the switch structure for
986toke.c and put the command optimize='-g' before the ;; . You
987can also edit cflags directly, but beware that your changes will be
988lost the next time you run Configure.
8e07c86e 989
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990To explore various ways of changing ccflags from within a hint file,
991see the file hints/README.hints.
992
993To change the C flags for all the files, edit config.sh and change either
994$ccflags or $optimize, and then re-run
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995
996 sh Configure -S
997 make depend
8e07c86e 998
aa689395 999=item No sh
8e07c86e 1000
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1001If you don't have sh, you'll have to copy the sample file Porting/config_H
1002to config.h and edit the config.h to reflect your system's peculiarities.
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1003You'll probably also have to extensively modify the extension building
1004mechanism.
1005
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1006=item Porting information
1007
2ae324a7 1008Specific information for the OS/2, Plan9, VMS and Win32 ports is in the
1ec51d55
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1009corresponding README files and subdirectories. Additional information,
1010including a glossary of all those config.sh variables, is in the Porting
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1011subdirectory.
1012
7f678428 1013Ports for other systems may also be available. You should check out
1ec51d55 1014http://www.perl.com/CPAN/ports for current information on ports to
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1015various other operating systems.
1016
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1017=back
1018
1019=head1 make depend
1020
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1021This will look for all the includes. The output is stored in makefile.
1022The only difference between Makefile and makefile is the dependencies at
1023the bottom of makefile. If you have to make any changes, you should edit
1024makefile, not Makefile since the Unix make command reads makefile first.
1025(On non-Unix systems, the output may be stored in a different file.
1026Check the value of $firstmakefile in your config.sh if in doubt.)
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1027
1028Configure will offer to do this step for you, so it isn't listed
1029explicitly above.
1030
1031=head1 make
1032
1033This will attempt to make perl in the current directory.
1034
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1035=head2 What if it doesn't work?
1036
8e07c86e 1037If you can't compile successfully, try some of the following ideas.
7f678428 1038If none of them help, and careful reading of the error message and
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1039the relevant manual pages on your system doesn't help,
1040then see L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
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1041
1042=over 4
1043
1ec51d55 1044=item hints
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1045
1046If you used a hint file, try reading the comments in the hint file
1047for further tips and information.
1048
1ec51d55 1049=item extensions
8e07c86e 1050
1ec51d55 1051If you can successfully build miniperl, but the process crashes
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1052during the building of extensions, you should run
1053
3a6175e1 1054 make minitest
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1055
1056to test your version of miniperl.
1057
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1058=item locale
1059
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1060If you have any locale-related environment variables set, try unsetting
1061them. I have some reports that some versions of IRIX hang while
1062running B<./miniperl configpm> with locales other than the C locale.
1063See the discussion under L<"make test"> below about locales and the
1064whole L<"Locale problems"> section in the file pod/perllocale.pod.
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1065The latter is especially useful if you see something like this
1066
1067 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
1068 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
1069 LC_ALL = "En_US",
1070 LANG = (unset)
1071 are supported and installed on your system.
1072 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
1073
1074at Perl startup.
e57fd563 1075
7f678428 1076=item varargs
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1077
1078If you get varargs problems with gcc, be sure that gcc is installed
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1079correctly and that you are not passing -I/usr/include to gcc. When using
1080gcc, you should probably have i_stdarg='define' and i_varargs='undef'
1081in config.sh. The problem is usually solved by running fixincludes
1082correctly. If you do change config.sh, don't forget to propagate
1083your changes (see L<"Propagating your changes to config.sh"> below).
7f678428 1084See also the L<"vsprintf"> item below.
c3edaffb 1085
bfb7748a 1086=item util.c
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1087
1088If you get error messages such as the following (the exact line
bfb7748a 1089numbers and function name may vary in different versions of perl):
c3edaffb 1090
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1091 util.c: In function `Perl_form':
1092 util.c:1107: number of arguments doesn't match prototype
1093 proto.h:125: prototype declaration
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1094
1095it might well be a symptom of the gcc "varargs problem". See the
7f678428 1096previous L<"varargs"> item.
c3edaffb 1097
9d67150a 1098=item Solaris and SunOS dynamic loading
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1099
1100If you have problems with dynamic loading using gcc on SunOS or
1101Solaris, and you are using GNU as and GNU ld, you may need to add
1ec51d55 1102-B/bin/ (for SunOS) or -B/usr/ccs/bin/ (for Solaris) to your
c3edaffb 1103$ccflags, $ldflags, and $lddlflags so that the system's versions of as
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1104and ld are used. Note that the trailing '/' is required.
1105Alternatively, you can use the GCC_EXEC_PREFIX
c3edaffb 1106environment variable to ensure that Sun's as and ld are used. Consult
1ec51d55 1107your gcc documentation for further information on the -B option and
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1108the GCC_EXEC_PREFIX variable.
1109
7beaa944
AD
1110One convenient way to ensure you are not using GNU as and ld is to
1111invoke Configure with
1112
1113 sh Configure -Dcc='gcc -B/usr/ccs/bin/'
1114
1115for Solaris systems. For a SunOS system, you must use -B/bin/
1116instead.
1117
84902520
TB
1118Alternatively, recent versions of GNU ld reportedly work if you
1119include C<-Wl,-export-dynamic> in the ccdlflags variable in
1120config.sh.
1121
9d67150a
PP
1122=item ld.so.1: ./perl: fatal: relocation error:
1123
1124If you get this message on SunOS or Solaris, and you're using gcc,
7f678428
PP
1125it's probably the GNU as or GNU ld problem in the previous item
1126L<"Solaris and SunOS dynamic loading">.
9d67150a 1127
1ec51d55 1128=item LD_LIBRARY_PATH
c3edaffb
PP
1129
1130If you run into dynamic loading problems, check your setting of
aa689395
PP
1131the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable. If you're creating a static
1132Perl library (libperl.a rather than libperl.so) it should build
c3edaffb
PP
1133fine with LD_LIBRARY_PATH unset, though that may depend on details
1134of your local set-up.
1135
1136=item dlopen: stub interception failed
1137
1138The primary cause of the 'dlopen: stub interception failed' message is
1139that the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable includes a directory
1140which is a symlink to /usr/lib (such as /lib).
1141
aa689395 1142The reason this causes a problem is quite subtle. The file libdl.so.1.0
c3edaffb
PP
1143actually *only* contains functions which generate 'stub interception
1144failed' errors! The runtime linker intercepts links to
1145"/usr/lib/libdl.so.1.0" and links in internal implementation of those
1146functions instead. [Thanks to Tim Bunce for this explanation.]
1147
aa689395 1148=item nm extraction
c3edaffb
PP
1149
1150If Configure seems to be having trouble finding library functions,
1151try not using nm extraction. You can do this from the command line
1152with
1153
1154 sh Configure -Uusenm
1155
1156or by answering the nm extraction question interactively.
1ec51d55 1157If you have previously run Configure, you should not reuse your old
c3edaffb
PP
1158config.sh.
1159
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1160=item umask not found
1161
1162If the build processes encounters errors relating to umask(), the problem
1163is probably that Configure couldn't find your umask() system call.
1164Check your config.sh. You should have d_umask='define'. If you don't,
1165this is probably the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above. Also,
1166try reading the hints file for your system for further information.
1167
7f678428 1168=item vsprintf
c3edaffb
PP
1169
1170If you run into problems with vsprintf in compiling util.c, the
1171problem is probably that Configure failed to detect your system's
1172version of vsprintf(). Check whether your system has vprintf().
1173(Virtually all modern Unix systems do.) Then, check the variable
1174d_vprintf in config.sh. If your system has vprintf, it should be:
1175
1176 d_vprintf='define'
1177
1178If Configure guessed wrong, it is likely that Configure guessed wrong
bfb7748a
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1179on a number of other common functions too. This is probably
1180the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above.
c3edaffb 1181
3fe9a6f1
PP
1182=item do_aspawn
1183
1184If you run into problems relating to do_aspawn or do_spawn, the
1185problem is probably that Configure failed to detect your system's
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1186fork() function. Follow the procedure in the previous item
1187on L<"nm extraction">.
3fe9a6f1 1188
84902520
TB
1189=item __inet_* errors
1190
1191If you receive unresolved symbol errors during Perl build and/or test
1192referring to __inet_* symbols, check to see whether BIND 8.1 is
1193installed. It installs a /usr/local/include/arpa/inet.h that refers to
1194these symbols. Versions of BIND later than 8.1 do not install inet.h
1195in that location and avoid the errors. You should probably update to a
1196newer version of BIND. If you can't, you can either link with the
1197updated resolver library provided with BIND 8.1 or rename
1198/usr/local/bin/arpa/inet.h during the Perl build and test process to
1199avoid the problem.
1200
aa689395 1201=item Optimizer
c3edaffb 1202
9d67150a 1203If you can't compile successfully, try turning off your compiler's
aa689395 1204optimizer. Edit config.sh and change the line
9d67150a
PP
1205
1206 optimize='-O'
1207
bfb7748a 1208to
9d67150a
PP
1209
1210 optimize=' '
1211
1212then propagate your changes with B<sh Configure -S> and rebuild
1213with B<make depend; make>.
1214
1ec51d55 1215=item CRIPPLED_CC
9d67150a 1216
1ec51d55 1217If you still can't compile successfully, try adding a -DCRIPPLED_CC
56c6f531
JH
1218flag. (Just because you get no errors doesn't mean it compiled right!)
1219This simplifies some complicated expressions for compilers that get
1220indigestion easily.
9d67150a
PP
1221
1222=item Missing functions
1223
1224If you have missing routines, you probably need to add some library or
1225other, or you need to undefine some feature that Configure thought was
1226there but is defective or incomplete. Look through config.h for
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1227likely suspects. If Configure guessed wrong on a number of functions,
1228you might have the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above.
8e07c86e 1229
1ec51d55 1230=item toke.c
8e07c86e 1231
1ec51d55
CS
1232Some compilers will not compile or optimize the larger files (such as
1233toke.c) without some extra switches to use larger jump offsets or
1234allocate larger internal tables. You can customize the switches for
1235each file in cflags. It's okay to insert rules for specific files into
1236makefile since a default rule only takes effect in the absence of a
8e07c86e
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1237specific rule.
1238
7f678428 1239=item Missing dbmclose
8e07c86e 1240
c3edaffb
PP
1241SCO prior to 3.2.4 may be missing dbmclose(). An upgrade to 3.2.4
1242that includes libdbm.nfs (which includes dbmclose()) may be available.
8e07c86e 1243
f3d9a6ba 1244=item Note (probably harmless): No library found for -lsomething
7f678428
PP
1245
1246If you see such a message during the building of an extension, but
1247the extension passes its tests anyway (see L<"make test"> below),
1248then don't worry about the warning message. The extension
1249Makefile.PL goes looking for various libraries needed on various
aa689395 1250systems; few systems will need all the possible libraries listed.
7f678428
PP
1251For example, a system may have -lcposix or -lposix, but it's
1252unlikely to have both, so most users will see warnings for the one
f3d9a6ba
CS
1253they don't have. The phrase 'probably harmless' is intended to
1254reassure you that nothing unusual is happening, and the build
1255process is continuing.
7f678428
PP
1256
1257On the other hand, if you are building GDBM_File and you get the
1258message
1259
f3d9a6ba 1260 Note (probably harmless): No library found for -lgdbm
7f678428
PP
1261
1262then it's likely you're going to run into trouble somewhere along
1263the line, since it's hard to see how you can use the GDBM_File
1264extension without the -lgdbm library.
1265
1266It is true that, in principle, Configure could have figured all of
1267this out, but Configure and the extension building process are not
1268quite that tightly coordinated.
1269
aa689395
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1270=item sh: ar: not found
1271
1272This is a message from your shell telling you that the command 'ar'
1273was not found. You need to check your PATH environment variable to
1274make sure that it includes the directory with the 'ar' command. This
1ec51d55 1275is a common problem on Solaris, where 'ar' is in the /usr/ccs/bin
aa689395
PP
1276directory.
1277
1278=item db-recno failure on tests 51, 53 and 55
1279
1280Old versions of the DB library (including the DB library which comes
1281with FreeBSD 2.1) had broken handling of recno databases with modified
1282bval settings. Upgrade your DB library or OS.
1283
6087ac44
JH
1284=item Bad arg length for semctl, is XX, should be ZZZ
1285
1286If you get this error message from the lib/ipc_sysv test, your System
1287V IPC may be broken. The XX typically is 20, and that is what ZZZ
1288also should be. Consider upgrading your OS, or reconfiguring your OS
1289to include the System V semaphores.
1290
220f3621
GS
1291=item lib/ipc_sysv........semget: No space left on device
1292
1293Either your account or the whole system has run out of semaphores. Or
1294both. Either list the semaphores with "ipcs" and remove the unneeded
1295ones (which ones these are depends on your system and applications)
1296with "ipcrm -s SEMAPHORE_ID_HERE" or configure more semaphores to your
1297system.
1298
1ec51d55 1299=item Miscellaneous
8e07c86e
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1300
1301Some additional things that have been reported for either perl4 or perl5:
1302
1303Genix may need to use libc rather than libc_s, or #undef VARARGS.
1304
1305NCR Tower 32 (OS 2.01.01) may need -W2,-Sl,2000 and #undef MKDIR.
1306
1ec51d55 1307UTS may need one or more of -DCRIPPLED_CC, -K or -g, and undef LSTAT.
8e07c86e 1308
220f3621
GS
1309FreeBSD can fail the lib/ipc_sysv.t test if SysV IPC has not been
1310configured to the kernel. Perl tries to detect this, though, and
1311you will get a message telling what to do.
6087ac44 1312
8e07c86e
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1313If you get syntax errors on '(', try -DCRIPPLED_CC.
1314
1315Machines with half-implemented dbm routines will need to #undef I_ODBM
1316
8e07c86e
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1317=back
1318
1319=head1 make test
1320
84902520
TB
1321This will run the regression tests on the perl you just made (you
1322should run plain 'make' before 'make test' otherwise you won't have a
1323complete build). If 'make test' doesn't say "All tests successful"
1324then something went wrong. See the file t/README in the t subdirectory.
1325
84902520 1326Note that you can't run the tests in background if this disables
fb73857a
PP
1327opening of /dev/tty. You can use 'make test-notty' in that case but
1328a few tty tests will be skipped.
c3edaffb 1329
c4f23d77
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1330=head2 What if make test doesn't work?
1331
1ec51d55
CS
1332If make test bombs out, just cd to the t directory and run ./TEST
1333by hand to see if it makes any difference. If individual tests
c3edaffb 1334bomb, you can run them by hand, e.g.,
8e07c86e
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1335
1336 ./perl op/groups.t
1337
aa689395 1338Another way to get more detailed information about failed tests and
1ec51d55 1339individual subtests is to cd to the t directory and run
aa689395
PP
1340
1341 ./perl harness
1342
fb73857a 1343(this assumes that most basic tests succeed, since harness uses
aa689395
PP
1344complicated constructs).
1345
fb73857a 1346You should also read the individual tests to see if there are any helpful
c3edaffb
PP
1347comments that apply to your system.
1348
c4f23d77
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1349=over 4
1350
1351=item locale
1352
1ec51d55 1353Note: One possible reason for errors is that some external programs
c07a80fd 1354may be broken due to the combination of your environment and the way
3fe9a6f1 1355B<make test> exercises them. For example, this may happen if you have
1ec51d55
CS
1356one or more of these environment variables set: LC_ALL LC_CTYPE
1357LC_COLLATE LANG. In some versions of UNIX, the non-English locales
e57fd563
PP
1358are known to cause programs to exhibit mysterious errors.
1359
1360If you have any of the above environment variables set, please try
aa689395
PP
1361
1362 setenv LC_ALL C
1363
1364(for C shell) or
1365
1366 LC_ALL=C;export LC_ALL
1367
1ec51d55
CS
1368for Bourne or Korn shell) from the command line and then retry
1369make test. If the tests then succeed, you may have a broken program that
aa689395 1370is confusing the testing. Please run the troublesome test by hand as
e57fd563 1371shown above and see whether you can locate the program. Look for
1ec51d55
CS
1372things like: exec, `backquoted command`, system, open("|...") or
1373open("...|"). All these mean that Perl is trying to run some
e57fd563 1374external program.
eed2e782 1375
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AD
1376=item Out of memory
1377
1378On some systems, particularly those with smaller amounts of RAM, some
1379of the tests in t/op/pat.t may fail with an "Out of memory" message.
1380Specifically, in perl5.004_64, tests 74 and 78 have been reported to
1381fail on some systems. On my SparcStation IPC with 8 MB of RAM, test 78
1382will fail if the system is running any other significant tasks at the
1383same time.
1384
1385Try stopping other jobs on the system and then running the test by itself:
1386
1387 cd t; ./perl op/pat.t
1388
1389to see if you have any better luck. If your perl still fails this
1390test, it does not necessarily mean you have a broken perl. This test
1391tries to exercise the regular expression subsystem quite thoroughly,
1392and may well be far more demanding than your normal usage.
1393
c4f23d77
AD
1394=back
1395
8e07c86e
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1396=head1 make install
1397
1398This will put perl into the public directory you specified to
1ec51d55 1399Configure; by default this is /usr/local/bin. It will also try
8e07c86e 1400to put the man pages in a reasonable place. It will not nroff the man
aa689395 1401pages, however. You may need to be root to run B<make install>. If you
8e07c86e
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1402are not root, you must own the directories in question and you should
1403ignore any messages about chown not working.
1404
dd64f1c3
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1405=head2 Installing perl under different names
1406
1407If you want to install perl under a name other than "perl" (for example,
1408when installing perl with special features enabled, such as debugging),
1409indicate the alternate name on the "make install" line, such as:
1410
1411 make install PERLNAME=myperl
1412
beb13193
RS
1413You can separately change the base used for versioned names (like
1414"perl5.005") by setting PERLNAME_VERBASE, like
1415
1416 make install PERLNAME=perl5 PERLNAME_VERBASE=perl
1417
1418This can be useful if you have to install perl as "perl5" (due to an
1419ancient version in /usr/bin supplied by your vendor, eg). Without this
1420the versioned binary would be called "perl55.005".
1421
dd64f1c3
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1422=head2 Installed files
1423
8e07c86e
AD
1424If you want to see exactly what will happen without installing
1425anything, you can run
4633a7c4 1426
8e07c86e
AD
1427 ./perl installperl -n
1428 ./perl installman -n
1429
1ec51d55 1430make install will install the following:
8e07c86e
AD
1431
1432 perl,
1433 perl5.nnn where nnn is the current release number. This
1434 will be a link to perl.
1435 suidperl,
1436 sperl5.nnn If you requested setuid emulation.
1437 a2p awk-to-perl translator
1438 cppstdin This is used by perl -P, if your cc -E can't
1439 read from stdin.
1440 c2ph, pstruct Scripts for handling C structures in header files.
1441 s2p sed-to-perl translator
1442 find2perl find-to-perl translator
aa689395 1443 h2ph Extract constants and simple macros from C headers
8e07c86e 1444 h2xs Converts C .h header files to Perl extensions.
24b3df7f 1445 perlbug Tool to report bugs in Perl.
8e07c86e 1446 perldoc Tool to read perl's pod documentation.
aa689395 1447 pl2pm Convert Perl 4 .pl files to Perl 5 .pm modules
8e07c86e 1448 pod2html, Converters from perl's pod documentation format
aa689395
PP
1449 pod2latex, to other useful formats.
1450 pod2man, and
1451 pod2text
1452 splain Describe Perl warnings and errors
95667ae4 1453 dprofpp Perl code profile post-processor
8e07c86e
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1454
1455 library files in $privlib and $archlib specified to
1456 Configure, usually under /usr/local/lib/perl5/.
1457 man pages in the location specified to Configure, usually
1458 something like /usr/local/man/man1.
1459 module in the location specified to Configure, usually
1460 man pages under /usr/local/lib/perl5/man/man3.
1461 pod/*.pod in $privlib/pod/.
1462
4633a7c4
LW
1463Installperl will also create the library directories $siteperl and
1464$sitearch listed in config.sh. Usually, these are something like
bfb7748a 1465
3a6175e1 1466 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
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1467 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/archname
1468
1469where archname is something like sun4-sunos. These directories
4633a7c4
LW
1470will be used for installing extensions.
1471
56c6f531
JH
1472Perl's *.h header files and the libperl.a library are also installed
1473under $archlib so that any user may later build new extensions, run the
1474optional Perl compiler, or embed the perl interpreter into another
1475program even if the Perl source is no longer available.
8e07c86e 1476
aa689395 1477=head1 Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5
4633a7c4 1478
693762b4
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1479WARNING: The upgrade from 5.004_0x to 5.005 is going to be a bit
1480tricky. See L<"Upgrading from 5.004 to 5.005"> below.
1481
1482In general, you can usually safely upgrade from one version of Perl (e.g.
14835.004_04) to another similar version (e.g. 5.004_05) without re-compiling
1484all of your add-on extensions. You can also safely leave the old version
1485around in case the new version causes you problems for some reason.
1486For example, if you want to be sure that your script continues to run
dc45a647 1487with 5.004_04, simply replace the '#!/usr/local/bin/perl' line at the
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1488top of the script with the particular version you want to run, e.g.
1489#!/usr/local/bin/perl5.00404.
1490
693762b4
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1491Most extensions will probably not need to be recompiled to use
1492with a newer version of perl. Here is how it is supposed to work.
1493(These examples assume you accept all the Configure defaults.)
1494
bfb7748a
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1495The directories searched by version 5.005 will be
1496
1497 Configure variable Default value
1498 $archlib /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.005/archname
3a6175e1 1499 $privlib /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.005
bfb7748a 1500 $sitearch /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/archname
3a6175e1 1501 $sitelib /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
bfb7748a
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1502
1503while the directories searched by version 5.005_01 will be
1504
1505 $archlib /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.00501/archname
3a6175e1 1506 $privlib /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.00501
bfb7748a 1507 $sitearch /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/archname
3a6175e1 1508 $sitelib /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
bfb7748a
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1509
1510When you install an add-on extension, it gets installed into $sitelib (or
1511$sitearch if it is architecture-specific). This directory deliberately
1512does NOT include the sub-version number (01) so that both 5.005 and
15135.005_01 can use the extension. Only when a perl version changes to
1514break backwards compatibility will the default suggestions for the
1515$sitearch and $sitelib version numbers be increased.
1516
1517However, if you do run into problems, and you want to continue to use the
1518old version of perl along with your extension, move those extension files
1519to the appropriate version directory, such as $privlib (or $archlib).
1520(The extension's .packlist file lists the files installed with that
1521extension. For the Tk extension, for example, the list of files installed
1522is in $sitearch/auto/Tk/.packlist.) Then use your newer version of perl
1523to rebuild and re-install the extension into $sitelib. This way, Perl
15245.005 will find your files in the 5.005 directory, and newer versions
1525of perl will find your newer extension in the $sitelib directory.
1526(This is also why perl searches the site-specific libraries last.)
1527
1528Alternatively, if you are willing to reinstall all your extensions
1529every time you upgrade perl, then you can include the subversion
1530number in $sitearch and $sitelib when you run Configure.
693762b4
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1531
1532=head2 Maintaining completely separate versions
4633a7c4 1533
1ec51d55 1534Many users prefer to keep all versions of perl in completely
d52d4e46
PP
1535separate directories. One convenient way to do this is by
1536using a separate prefix for each version, such as
1537
46bb10fb 1538 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl5.004
d52d4e46 1539
46bb10fb 1540and adding /opt/perl5.004/bin to the shell PATH variable. Such users
d52d4e46
PP
1541may also wish to add a symbolic link /usr/local/bin/perl so that
1542scripts can still start with #!/usr/local/bin/perl.
1543
693762b4
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1544Others might share a common directory for maintenance sub-versions
1545(e.g. 5.004 for all 5.004_0x versions), but change directory with
1546each major version.
1547
6877a1cf
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1548If you are installing a development subversion, you probably ought to
1549seriously consider using a separate directory, since development
1550subversions may not have all the compatibility wrinkles ironed out
1551yet.
1552
693762b4
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1553=head2 Upgrading from 5.004 to 5.005
1554
bfb7748a
AD
1555Extensions built and installed with versions of perl prior to 5.004_50
1556will need to be recompiled to be used with 5.004_50 and later. You will,
1557however, be able to continue using 5.004 even after you install 5.005.
1558The 5.004 binary will still be able to find the extensions built under
15595.004; the 5.005 binary will look in the new $sitearch and $sitelib
1560directories, and will not find them.
693762b4 1561
8e07c86e
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1562=head1 Coexistence with perl4
1563
1564You can safely install perl5 even if you want to keep perl4 around.
1565
1ec51d55
CS
1566By default, the perl5 libraries go into /usr/local/lib/perl5/, so
1567they don't override the perl4 libraries in /usr/local/lib/perl/.
8e07c86e
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1568
1569In your /usr/local/bin directory, you should have a binary named
1ec51d55 1570perl4.036. That will not be touched by the perl5 installation
8e07c86e
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1571process. Most perl4 scripts should run just fine under perl5.
1572However, if you have any scripts that require perl4, you can replace
1ec51d55 1573the #! line at the top of them by #!/usr/local/bin/perl4.036
edb1cbcb
PP
1574(or whatever the appropriate pathname is). See pod/perltrap.pod
1575for possible problems running perl4 scripts under perl5.
8e07c86e 1576
aa689395
PP
1577=head1 cd /usr/include; h2ph *.h sys/*.h
1578
1579Some perl scripts need to be able to obtain information from
1580the system header files. This command will convert the most commonly used
1ec51d55 1581header files in /usr/include into files that can be easily interpreted
bfb7748a
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1582by perl. These files will be placed in the architecture-dependent library
1583($archlib) directory you specified to Configure.
aa689395 1584
1ec51d55 1585Note: Due to differences in the C and perl languages, the
aa689395
PP
1586conversion of the header files is not perfect. You will probably have
1587to hand-edit some of the converted files to get them to parse
1588correctly. For example, h2ph breaks spectacularly on type casting and
1589certain structures.
1590
fb73857a 1591=head1 installhtml --help
aa689395 1592
3e3baf6d
TB
1593Some sites may wish to make perl documentation available in HTML
1594format. The installhtml utility can be used to convert pod
fb73857a 1595documentation into linked HTML files and install them.
aa689395 1596
fb73857a 1597The following command-line is an example of one used to convert
3e3baf6d 1598perl documentation:
aa689395 1599
3e3baf6d
TB
1600 ./installhtml \
1601 --podroot=. \
1602 --podpath=lib:ext:pod:vms \
1603 --recurse \
1604 --htmldir=/perl/nmanual \
1605 --htmlroot=/perl/nmanual \
1606 --splithead=pod/perlipc \
1607 --splititem=pod/perlfunc \
1608 --libpods=perlfunc:perlguts:perlvar:perlrun:perlop \
1609 --verbose
1610
1611See the documentation in installhtml for more details. It can take
1612many minutes to execute a large installation and you should expect to
1613see warnings like "no title", "unexpected directive" and "cannot
1614resolve" as the files are processed. We are aware of these problems
1615(and would welcome patches for them).
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1617You may find it helpful to run installhtml twice. That should reduce
1618the number of "cannot resolve" warnings.
1619
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1620=head1 cd pod && make tex && (process the latex files)
1621
1622Some sites may also wish to make the documentation in the pod/ directory
1623available in TeX format. Type
1624
1625 (cd pod && make tex && <process the latex files>)
1626
1627=head1 Reporting Problems
1628
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1629If you have difficulty building perl, and none of the advice in this file
1630helps, and careful reading of the error message and the relevant manual
1631pages on your system doesn't help either, then you should send a message
1632to either the comp.lang.perl.misc newsgroup or to perlbug@perl.com with
1633an accurate description of your problem.
aa689395 1634
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1635Please include the output of the ./myconfig shell script that comes with
1636the distribution. Alternatively, you can use the perlbug program that
1637comes with the perl distribution, but you need to have perl compiled
1638before you can use it. (If you have not installed it yet, you need to
f5b3b617 1639run C<./perl -Ilib utils/perlbug> instead of a plain C<perlbug>.)
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1641Please try to make your message brief but clear. Trim out unnecessary
1642information. Do not include large files (such as config.sh or a complete
1643Configure or make log) unless absolutely necessary. Do not include a
1644complete transcript of your build session. Just include the failing
1645commands, the relevant error messages, and whatever preceeding commands
1646are necessary to give the appropriate context. Plain text should
1647usually be sufficient--fancy attachments or encodings may actually
1648reduce the number of people who read your message. Your message
1649will get relayed to over 400 subscribers around the world so please
1650try to keep it brief but clear.
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1652=head1 DOCUMENTATION
1653
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1654Read the manual entries before running perl. The main documentation
1655is in the pod/ subdirectory and should have been installed during the
8e07c86e 1656build process. Type B<man perl> to get started. Alternatively, you
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1657can type B<perldoc perl> to use the supplied perldoc script. This is
1658sometimes useful for finding things in the library modules.
8e07c86e 1659
1ec51d55 1660Under UNIX, you can produce a documentation book in postscript form,
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1661along with its table of contents, by going to the pod/ subdirectory and
1662running (either):
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RM
1663
1664 ./roffitall -groff # If you have GNU groff installed
aa689395 1665 ./roffitall -psroff # If you have psroff
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RM
1666
1667This will leave you with two postscript files ready to be printed.
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1668(You may need to fix the roffitall command to use your local troff
1669set-up.)
34a2a22e 1670
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1671Note that you must have performed the installation already before running
1672the above, since the script collects the installed files to generate
1673the documentation.
34a2a22e 1674
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1675=head1 AUTHOR
1676
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1677Original author: Andy Dougherty doughera@lafayette.edu , borrowing very
1678heavily from the original README by Larry Wall, with lots of helpful
1679feedback and additions from the perl5-porters@perl.org folks.
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1681If you have problems, corrections, or questions, please see
1682L<"Reporting Problems"> above.
1683
1684=head1 REDISTRIBUTION
1685
1686This document is part of the Perl package and may be distributed under
1687the same terms as perl itself.
1688
1689If you are distributing a modified version of perl (perhaps as part of
1690a larger package) please do modify these installation instructions and
1691the contact information to match your distribution.
8e07c86e 1692
a5f75d66 1693=head1 LAST MODIFIED
24b3df7f 1694
694a7e45 1695$Id: INSTALL,v 1.49 1999/05/12 15:36:02 doughera Released $